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Children, Volume 9, Issue 11 (November 2022) – 188 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): This cover image shows a newborn infant with Tetralogy of Fallot, a common form of cyanotic congenital heart disease. Since the beginning of congenital cardiac surgery, the focus of clinical care has shifted from improving survival to preserving neurodevelopment and quality of life by as much as possible. Infants with congenital heart disease may develop neurologic sequelae, possibly affecting their later development. In this population, neurologic injury often occurs partly due to cerebral hypoxia or ischemia as a result of an underlying birth defect, in addition to the immaturity of cerebral vascularization. Monitoring cerebrovascular autoregulation could be a key to understanding and subsequently improving the neurological outcomes of this patient population. This picture was provided with parental permission. View this paper
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7 pages, 510 KiB  
Review
Management of Juvenile Otosclerosis: A Systematic Review
by Virginia Fancello, Luca Sacchetto, Chiara Bianchini, Andrea Ciorba, Daniele Monzani and Silvia Palma
Children 2022, 9(11), 1787; https://doi.org/10.3390/children9111787 - 21 Nov 2022
Viewed by 1854
Abstract
Background. Otosclerosis can occur during childhood, resulting in the early onset of conductive hearing loss. The approach to a child with otosclerosis can present some difficulties in terms of diagnosis and treatment, and the literature on juvenile otosclerosis (JO) is still relatively limited. [...] Read more.
Background. Otosclerosis can occur during childhood, resulting in the early onset of conductive hearing loss. The approach to a child with otosclerosis can present some difficulties in terms of diagnosis and treatment, and the literature on juvenile otosclerosis (JO) is still relatively limited. Aim. To explore the current approaches to JO, in order to clear the management of this condition and evaluate the outcomes and the possible complications of surgical treatment. Methods. A systematic review was performed according to PRISMA guidelines, searching Medline and Embase from January 2002 through to 30 September 2022. A total of 759 papers were identified but based on specified criteria, nine were included in this study. Results. There were 94 children affected by JO and treated by stapes surgery. According to the available data, Male: Female ratio was 1:3–4, whilst the mean ages ranged from 10 to 16.3 years at the time of stapes surgery. After stapes surgery, the target of ABG < 10 dB was achieved in most of the patients. Overall, the 4 complications were reported (4/94= 4%): stenosis of the external ear canal, deterioration of hearing, anacusis with vertigo, tinnitus. Conclusions. The heterogeneity of the available studies does not allow us to draw straight conclusions on this topic, currently. More data about the natural history of the disease in children could help in approaching the treatment correctly, and possibly in drawing guidelines. Studies with a prolonged follow-up could be helpful for assisting clinicians and families in taking the most favorable decision about treatment. Full article
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12 pages, 1171 KiB  
Article
Physical Fitness Variations between Those Playing More and Those Playing Less Time in the Matches: A Case-Control Study in Youth Soccer Players
by Ana Filipa Silva, Filipe Manuel Clemente, César Leão, Rafael Oliveira, Georgian Badicu, Hadi Nobari, Luca Poli, Roberto Carvutto, Gianpiero Greco, Francesco Fischetti and Stefania Cataldi
Children 2022, 9(11), 1786; https://doi.org/10.3390/children9111786 - 21 Nov 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1714
Abstract
The purpose of this study was (i) to compare two groups (players with more vs. less match play time) regarding body composition, vertical and horizontal jumping performance, and aerobic capacity; and (ii) to test the relationships between physical fitness and play time. This [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study was (i) to compare two groups (players with more vs. less match play time) regarding body composition, vertical and horizontal jumping performance, and aerobic capacity; and (ii) to test the relationships between physical fitness and play time. This study followed a case-control design in which the outcome was playtime, and the causal attribute was physical fitness. Sixty-six youth male soccer players from under-16 (n = 21), under-17 (n = 19), under-18 (n = 12), and under-19 (n = 14) age groups were monitored for match play time during five months of observation. Inclusion criteria consisted of (1) no absence of more than a week due to injury or other conditions during the five months of observation and (2) physical assessments having been done simultaneously with those of the other players (at the beginning of the season). The exclusion criteria were (1) not participating in one week or more of training sessions, and (2) not participating in the physical fitness assessments. At the beginning of the season, players were assessed for anthropometry (height, body mass, skinfolds), countermovement jump, triple hop bilateral and unilateral jump, and aerobic capacity using the Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test, level 2 (YYIRT). The group that played more time had significantly greater YYIRT results (+28.2%; p = 0.009; Cohen’s d = 0.664). No other significant differences were found between those who played more and fewer minutes. Moderate and significant linear positive correlations were found between YYIRT and play time in the under-19 group (r = 0.423; p = 0.031) and overall (r = 0.401; p < 0.001). In the case of the under-17 group, moderate and significant linear positive correlations were found between TSA and play time (r = 0.473; p = 0.041). This suggests that aerobic and anaerobic capacity is related to play time while jumping performance and fat mass seem not to play an essential role in play time. Full article
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11 pages, 244 KiB  
Article
Knowledge of Chinese Pediatric Professionals Regarding Pediatric Pain Management
by Zhen-Zhen Li, Yue-Cune Chang, Lin Gu, Jian-Fu Zhou, Bi-Rong Wei and Niang-Huei Peng
Children 2022, 9(11), 1785; https://doi.org/10.3390/children9111785 - 21 Nov 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1217
Abstract
Many healthcare professionals base their perceptions of pediatric pain on their knowledge of the subject. Therefore, knowledge deficits in this area may yield negative attitudes toward pain management and add to the complexity of pain management in hospitalized children. This study evaluated the [...] Read more.
Many healthcare professionals base their perceptions of pediatric pain on their knowledge of the subject. Therefore, knowledge deficits in this area may yield negative attitudes toward pain management and add to the complexity of pain management in hospitalized children. This study evaluated the knowledge of pediatric clinicians in China regarding pediatric pain management. Adopting a cross-sectional descriptive comparative design, we surveyed pediatric clinicians using a structured questionnaire. Inclusive criteria were pediatric clinicians, both pediatricians and nurses, with professional pediatric experience of over one year. A total of 507 pediatric clinicians participated. Most were aware of the importance of pain management in sick children but misunderstood pediatric pain, lacked knowledge for performing pediatric pain assessments and lacked knowledge for providing pain relief interventions. Background factors including differing professions (pediatricians and nurses; p = 0.012), age (p < 0.05) and hospital setting of employment (p = 0.003) were significantly related to clinicians’ knowledge regarding pain management. Participating pediatricians had higher levels of knowledge of pediatric pain management than nurses. Research revealed four barriers affecting clinicians’ knowledge, including misconception of pain in children, lack of professional knowledge and confidence in the practice of pediatric pain assessment, lack of professional knowledge to provide pain relief interventions, and a significant knowledge gap between pediatricians and nurses. The results point out a crucial need for multidisciplinary education to remedy these deficiencies. Further study is needed to explore strategies to strengthen clinicians’ knowledge of this vital area of practice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pain and Therapeutic Interventions in Children)
8 pages, 205 KiB  
Article
Perceptions of Caregivers Regarding Malnutrition in Children under Five in Rural Areas, South Africa
by Takalani. E Thabathi, Mary Maluleke, Ndidzulafhi. S Raliphaswa and Thingahangwi. C Masutha
Children 2022, 9(11), 1784; https://doi.org/10.3390/children9111784 - 21 Nov 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1420
Abstract
Children under five depend on the caregivers to provide them with nutritious food to combat malnutrition. Several studies have been conducted about malnutrition in children, yet limited attention has been paid to the caregivers. Thus, the study investigated the perceptions of caregivers with [...] Read more.
Children under five depend on the caregivers to provide them with nutritious food to combat malnutrition. Several studies have been conducted about malnutrition in children, yet limited attention has been paid to the caregivers. Thus, the study investigated the perceptions of caregivers with regard to non-nutritious foods in rural areas in South Africa. This study explored caregiver’s perception regarding non-nutritious food in children below five. This was done in primary health care clinics of Tshilwavhusiku local areas of Makhado Municipality in Vhembe District, South Africa. A qualitative approach was adopted. Nine caregivers were sampled randomly. In-depth individual interviews were conducted, and Tesch’s analytical approach was adopted to analyze the data measures to ensure trustworthiness and ethical considerations were adhered to throughout the study. The study revealed that caregivers were lacking knowledge regarding nutritious food to be given to their children and signs of malnutrition were also not known. It is imperative to ensure the improvement of caregivers’ knowledge regarding nutritious food and children’s nutritional status in order to reduce the malnutrition rate. Full article
10 pages, 270 KiB  
Article
Adverse Drug Reactions (ADRs) of Montelukast in Children
by Abdullah Al-Shamrani, Saleh Alharbi, Sumayyah Kobeisy, Suzan A. AlKhater, Haleimah Alalkami, Turki Alahmadi, Aisha Almutairi, Adel S. Alharbi and Abdullah A. Yousef
Children 2022, 9(11), 1783; https://doi.org/10.3390/children9111783 - 21 Nov 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3694
Abstract
Montelukast is a leukotriene receptor antagonist (LTRA) commonly prescribed for asthma, allergic rhinitis and sleep-related breathing disorders. Recently, some studies have reported several adverse events, such as neuropsychiatric disorders and sleep disturbances, among children. Objective: To obtain more insight into the safety profile [...] Read more.
Montelukast is a leukotriene receptor antagonist (LTRA) commonly prescribed for asthma, allergic rhinitis and sleep-related breathing disorders. Recently, some studies have reported several adverse events, such as neuropsychiatric disorders and sleep disturbances, among children. Objective: To obtain more insight into the safety profile of montelukast for children with asthma, allergic rhinitis and sleep-related breathing disorders. Method and results: We retrospectively studied all adverse drug reactions to montelukast among 385 children 6 months or older in six tertiary centers over a two-year period. A total of 89.6% were asthmatic, 50% had allergic rhinitis and 13.6% had sleep-related breathing disorders; Singulair was the most common type of montelukast used (67.9%). This study reported a high prevalence of adverse drug reactions among 123 patients (31.9%), predominantly in those aged 4–9 years (52.8%), followed by adolescents (24.4%) and toddlers (22.8%). Two (ADRs) were reported in 9.8% of the children, while three or more were reported in 5.5%. Sleep disturbance was the most common (ADRs), affecting 15.1% of participants (overlap was common; 5.5% of children experienced sleep difficulties, 4.4% experienced sleep interruption and decreased sleep, and 1.82% experienced nightmares), followed by agitation (10.4%), pain (9.4%) and hyperactivity (6.8%). No serious (ADRs) were reported. Eleven percent of families faced difficulties in purchasing montelukast, and only 57% of families had insurance. Misconceptions were common (9.8% reported it to be a steroid, while 30.6% believed it to be a bronchodilator). Although 81% of the families believed it was an effective and preventive medication, 5.3% stopped the drug due to concern about side effects, especially agitation (3%) and nightmares (0.6%). Conclusion: These data demonstrate that montelukast is effective, but the associated adverse neuropsychiatric drug reactions are more prevalent than those reported in the literature. In particular, sleep disturbance, agitation, pain and hyperactivity were observed. Pediatricians should be aware of such (ADRs). Misconceptions about montelukast are still common, and parental counseling and urgent epidemiological studies are needed to quantify the risk for management plans. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Pediatric Allergy and Immunology)
14 pages, 1710 KiB  
Article
Statistical Study on the Motivation of Patients in the Pediatric Dentistry
by Lucian Josan, Sorana Maria Bucur, Mariana Păcurar, Elina Teodorescu, Andreea Sălcudean, Cristina Stanca Molnar Varlam and Alina Ormenișan
Children 2022, 9(11), 1782; https://doi.org/10.3390/children9111782 - 20 Nov 2022
Viewed by 1924
Abstract
Our statistical study included 344 participants selected from the patients of the Pedodontics–Orthodontics Discipline of the Tîrgu-Mureş University of Medicine and Pharmacy. The patients’ age was between 6 and 18 years, with an average of 13.70 and a standard deviation of 4.62. The [...] Read more.
Our statistical study included 344 participants selected from the patients of the Pedodontics–Orthodontics Discipline of the Tîrgu-Mureş University of Medicine and Pharmacy. The patients’ age was between 6 and 18 years, with an average of 13.70 and a standard deviation of 4.62. The study participants were informed and agreed to complete two questionnaires of our conception regarding their health status, oral hygiene, and motivation for pedodontics or orthodontic treatment. The results of the two questionnaires were interpreted according to the gender and age of the patients. Data processing was performed with NCSS/PASS Dawson Edition statistical software, using the CHI2 test, considering a p of less than 0.05 as significant for comparative results. Results showed that girls were more motivated than boys in addressing pedodontic services due to dental, periodontal, and articular problems. Children, aged between 11 and 14 years, were less intrinsically motivated to solve oral health problems due to their low frequency. The intrinsic motivation for a more beautiful dentition was very strong, regardless of age and sex. Girls were more intrinsically motivated for orthodontic treatment than boys. There was a linear increase together in the age of those who wanted to improve their smile and facial appearance. Children between 11 and 14 years had the best self-perception of the appearance of their teeth, mouth, smile, and facial harmony. The strongest extrinsic motivation for orthodontic treatment came from parents or another doctor. The most important reason for orthodontics was dental malpositions, the last one was the improvement of masticatory efficiency. The extrinsic motivation from parents for orthodontics decreases linearly with age, along with the increase in motivation from the person with whom the participants relate emotionally and from the group of friends. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current Advances in Pediatric Dental Diseases and Their Treatment)
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7 pages, 553 KiB  
Article
Prevalence of Delayed Eruption of Permanent Upper Central Incisors at a Tertiary Hospital in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
by Mannaa Aldowsari, Faisal S. Alsaif, Mohammed S. Alhussain, Bander N. AlMeshary, Naif S. Alosaimi, Saleh M. Aldhubayb and Sakher AlQahtani
Children 2022, 9(11), 1781; https://doi.org/10.3390/children9111781 - 19 Nov 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1660
Abstract
Tooth eruption is defined as the axial movement of the tooth from its site of development in the alveolar bone to its functional position in the oral cavity. A delay in eruption can directly affect the accurate diagnosis, overall treatment planning, and timing [...] Read more.
Tooth eruption is defined as the axial movement of the tooth from its site of development in the alveolar bone to its functional position in the oral cavity. A delay in eruption can directly affect the accurate diagnosis, overall treatment planning, and timing of treatment. Thus, Delayed Tooth Eruption can have a significant impact on a patient’s proper health care. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of delayed eruptions of permanent upper central incisors in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. A retrospective study assessed panoramic radiographs of children between the ages of 6–10 years old who attended the Dental University Hospital clinics at King Saud University in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia between 2014 and 2020. The radiographs were collected and examined to detect any delayed eruption of the permanent upper central incisors. Panoramic radiographs with delayed erupted permanent upper central incisors were identified by tooth developmental stages and eruption sequence. Of the 745 radiographs, 23 (3.09%) presented at least one delayed erupted permanent upper central incisor of which boys and girls comprised 16 (69.5%) and 7 (30.4%), respectively. Retained primary teeth was the most causative factor of delayed eruption (43.4%), followed by the early loss of primary teeth (21.7%) and insufficient arch space. The present study is the first to assess the prevalence of delayed eruption of the permanent upper central incisors on a Saudi population. Boys were found to have more prevalence of delayed eruption of the permanent upper central incisors compared to girls. Clinicians should be aware of such a condition as early diagnosis of delayed eruption is essential for providing optimal dental care. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Pediatric Dentistry)
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11 pages, 579 KiB  
Article
Predictors of Reactive Agility in Early Puberty: A Multiple Regression Gender-Stratified Study
by Vladimir Pavlinovic, Nikola Foretic, Sime Versic, Damir Sekulic and Silvester Liposek
Children 2022, 9(11), 1780; https://doi.org/10.3390/children9111780 - 19 Nov 2022
Viewed by 1610
Abstract
Reactive agility (RAG) is a crucial factor of success in sports, but there are practically no studies dealing with RAG among children. The main aim of this study was to identify predictors of RAG among early pubescent boys and girls. The participants were [...] Read more.
Reactive agility (RAG) is a crucial factor of success in sports, but there are practically no studies dealing with RAG among children. The main aim of this study was to identify predictors of RAG among early pubescent boys and girls. The participants were primary school boys (n = 73) and girls (n = 59) aged 11–12. The criterion variable was the originally developed “Triangle” test of reactive agility (Triangle-RAG). Predictors included anthropometric/body composition indices (body height, seated height, body mass, and body fat percentage) and motor abilities (10 and 20 m sprint, broad jump, squat jump, countermovement jump, drop jump, and two tests of change of direction speed—CODS (Triangle-CODS, and 20 yards)). The results of the univariate analysis showed that anthropometric/body composition indices were not significantly correlated to TRAG (0–4% of the common variance), while all motor abilities were significantly associated with TRAG (7–43% of the common variance) in both genders. Among boys, 64% of the TRAG variance was explained by multiple regression, with TCODS as the only significant predictor. Among girls, multiple regression explained 59% of the TRAG-variance with TCODS, countermovement jump, and drop jump as significant predictors. Differences in multivariate results between genders can be explained by (i) greater involvement in agility-saturated sports (i.e., basketball, tennis, soccer) in boys, and (ii) advanced maturity status in girls. The lack of association between anthropometric/body built and TRAG was influenced by the short duration of the TRAG (3.54 ± 0.4 s). Our findings suggest that pre-pubescent and early pubescent children should be systematically trained on basic motor abilities to achieve fundamentals for further developing RAG. Since in this study we observed predictors including only athletic abilities and anthropometric/body composition, in future studies, other motor abilities, as well as cognitive, perceptual, and decision-making parameters as potential predictors of RAG in children should be investigated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sports Science in Children)
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9 pages, 248 KiB  
Review
Neurotoxic Impact of Individual Anesthetic Agents on the Developing Brain
by Dabin Ji and Joelle Karlik
Children 2022, 9(11), 1779; https://doi.org/10.3390/children9111779 - 19 Nov 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2217
Abstract
Concerns about the safety of anesthetic agents in children arose after animal studies revealed disruptions in neurodevelopment after exposure to commonly used anesthetic drugs. These animal studies revealed that volatile inhalational agents, propofol, ketamine, and thiopental may have detrimental effects on neurodevelopment and [...] Read more.
Concerns about the safety of anesthetic agents in children arose after animal studies revealed disruptions in neurodevelopment after exposure to commonly used anesthetic drugs. These animal studies revealed that volatile inhalational agents, propofol, ketamine, and thiopental may have detrimental effects on neurodevelopment and cognitive function, but dexmedetomidine and xenon have been shown to have neuroprotective properties. The neurocognitive effects of benzodiazepines have not been extensively studied, so their effects on neurodevelopment are undetermined. However, experimental animal models may not truly represent the pathophysiological processes in children. Multiple landmark studies, including the MASK, PANDA, and GAS studies have provided reassurance that brief exposure to anesthesia is not associated with adverse neurocognitive outcomes in infants and children, regardless of the type of anesthetic agent used. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current Advances in Neonatal Care)
15 pages, 1020 KiB  
Article
Consensus on the Best Practice Guidelines for Psychomotor Intervention in Preschool Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder
by Adriana Frazão, Sofia Santos, Ana Rodrigues, Teresa Brandão, Celeste Simões and Paula Lebre
Children 2022, 9(11), 1778; https://doi.org/10.3390/children9111778 - 19 Nov 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2299
Abstract
Psychomotor intervention has been used to promote development by the enhancement of psychomotor and socio-emotional competence. However, studies with high-quality evidence, describing psychomotor-intervention processes and outcomes are scarce. Therefore, we aimed to generate expert consensus regarding psychomotor-intervention guidelines to support psychomotor therapists through [...] Read more.
Psychomotor intervention has been used to promote development by the enhancement of psychomotor and socio-emotional competence. However, studies with high-quality evidence, describing psychomotor-intervention processes and outcomes are scarce. Therefore, we aimed to generate expert consensus regarding psychomotor-intervention guidelines to support psychomotor therapists through the design and implementation of interventions for preschool (3–6 years old) children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). A formal consensus process was carried out, using modified nominal group (phase I) and Delphi survey (phase II) techniques. We recruited 39 Portuguese experts in psychomotor intervention with preschool children with ASD in phase I. Experts participated in at least one of the five online meetings, discussing themes (e.g., objectives, methods, strategies) concerning psychomotor intervention with preschool children with ASD. A deductive thematic analysis from phase I resulted in 111 statements composing round 1 of the Delphi survey. Thirty-five experts completed round 1, and 23 round 2. The experts reached a consensus (agreement > 75%) on 88 statements, grouped under 16 sections, (e.g., intervention source, general setting, intended facilitation-style), reflecting generic psychomotor-intervention guidelines. Consensus guidelines may be used to support transparent and standard psychomotor interventions, although further studies should be undertaken to determine their efficacy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Child Psychomotricity: Development, Assessment, and Intervention)
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10 pages, 656 KiB  
Article
Mobilization of Children with External Ventricular Drains: A Retrospective Cohort Study
by Ben Reader, Emily Stegeman, Nanhua Zhang and Kelly Greve
Children 2022, 9(11), 1777; https://doi.org/10.3390/children9111777 - 19 Nov 2022
Viewed by 1629
Abstract
The implementation of early mobility programs for children with critical illnesses has been growing. Children with acute neurologic conditions that result in the requirement of an external ventricular drain (EVD) may be excluded from attaining the benefits of early mobility programs due to [...] Read more.
The implementation of early mobility programs for children with critical illnesses has been growing. Children with acute neurologic conditions that result in the requirement of an external ventricular drain (EVD) may be excluded from attaining the benefits of early mobility programs due to the fear of adverse events. The purpose of this study was to examine the implementation, safety, and outcomes of children with EVDs mobilized by physical therapists. A single-site retrospective cohort study of children with EVDs mobilized by physical therapy (PT) was conducted. Patients aged 3–21 years who were hospitalized from September 2016 to December 2020 were included in this study. Results: Out of a total of 192 electronic health records with EVDs, 168 patients (87.5%) participated in 1601 early mobilization encounters led by physical therapists. No adverse events occurred due to mobilization. Patients mobilized more frequently by PT had a higher level of activity at discharge (p = 0.014), a shorter length of stay (p = 0.001), and a more favorable discharge (p = 0.03). The early mobilization of children with EVDs can be implemented safely without adverse events. Patients mobilized with an EVD are more functional at discharge, spend fewer days in the hospital, and have a more favorable discharge compared to those who do not receive PT. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pediatric Neurocritical Care and Neurotrauma Recovery)
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23 pages, 572 KiB  
Systematic Review
Recreational Soccer Training Effects on Pediatric Populations Physical Fitness and Health: A Systematic Review
by Filipe Manuel Clemente, Jason Moran, Rodrigo Ramirez-Campillo, Rafael Oliveira, João Brito, Ana Filipa Silva, Georgian Badicu, Gibson Praça and Hugo Sarmento
Children 2022, 9(11), 1776; https://doi.org/10.3390/children9111776 - 18 Nov 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2483
Abstract
This systematic review analyzed the effects of recreational soccer programs on physical fitness and health-related outcomes in youth populations. Studies were sought in the following databases: (i) PubMed, (ii) Scopus, (iii) SPORTDiscus, and (iv) Web of Science. The eligibility criteria included (1) population: [...] Read more.
This systematic review analyzed the effects of recreational soccer programs on physical fitness and health-related outcomes in youth populations. Studies were sought in the following databases: (i) PubMed, (ii) Scopus, (iii) SPORTDiscus, and (iv) Web of Science. The eligibility criteria included (1) population: youth (<18 years old) populations with no restrictions on sex or health condition; (2) intervention: exposure to a recreational soccer training program of at least four weeks duration; (3) comparator: a passive or active control group not exposed to a recreational soccer training program; (4) outcomes: physical fitness (e.g., aerobic, strength, speed, and change-of-direction) or health-related measures (e.g., body composition, blood pressure, heart rate variability, and biomarkers); (5) study design: a randomized parallel group design. The search was conducted on 6 September 2022 with no restrictions as to date or language. The risk of bias was assessed using the PEDro scale for randomized controlled studies. From a pool of 37,235 potentially relevant articles, 17 were eligible for inclusion in this review. Most of the experimental studies revealed the beneficial effects of recreational soccer for improving aerobic fitness and its benefits in terms of blood pressure and heart-rate markers. However, body composition was not significantly improved by recreational soccer. The main results revealed that recreational soccer training programs that are implemented twice a week could improve the generality of physical fitness parameters and beneficially impact cardiovascular health and biomarkers. Thus, recreational soccer meets the conditions for being included in the physical education curriculum as a good strategy for the benefit of the general health of children and young people. Full article
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12 pages, 765 KiB  
Article
Do Parents of Children with ADHD Know the Disease? Results from a Cross-Sectional Survey in Zhejiang, China
by Xiaoli Fan, Ye Ma, Jingjing Cai, Guochun Zhu, Weijia Gao, Yanyi Zhang, Nannan Lin, Yanxiao Rao, Shujiong Mao, Rong Li and Rongwang Yang
Children 2022, 9(11), 1775; https://doi.org/10.3390/children9111775 - 18 Nov 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1974
Abstract
Parents’ knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs about attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are crucial in the selection of the treatment strategy and how to care for children with ADHD. However, little is known about parents’ conception in mainland China. A semi-structured questionnaire was used to assess [...] Read more.
Parents’ knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs about attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are crucial in the selection of the treatment strategy and how to care for children with ADHD. However, little is known about parents’ conception in mainland China. A semi-structured questionnaire was used to assess this information with 25 true/false questions regarding ADHD, and other questions investigating the methods of acquiring ADHD-related information, treatment preference, and concerns about ADHD treatment strategy. We found that the average score of all the participants was 17.42 ± 2.69 (total of 25 points) for the questionnaire on knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs about ADHD. This indicated that the parents had insufficient knowledge of this disease profile. They always accessed specialized information through mobile internet. For the treatment options, the investigated parents chose psychotherapy treatment rather than medications, in that they worried about the side effects of medication and expected to find alternative treatment strategies. The present investigation demonstrated that most parents lack knowledge about ADHD in treatment decision making in China. Medical professionals should provide parents with evidence-based ADHD-related information to help them understand this disease. Full article
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10 pages, 1289 KiB  
Article
A Comparison of the bébé VieScope™ and Direct Laryngoscope for Use While Wearing PPE-AGP: A Randomized Crossover Simulation Trial
by Pawel Wieczorek, Lukasz Szarpak, Agata Dabrowska, Michal Pruc, Alla Navolokina, Andrzej Raczynski and Jacek Smereka
Children 2022, 9(11), 1774; https://doi.org/10.3390/children9111774 - 18 Nov 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1342
Abstract
This study aimed to compare the intubation effectiveness of the bébé Vie Scope™ (VieScope) and direct laryngoscopy for emergency intubation in a pediatric manikin model performed by paramedics with and without personal protective equipment for aerosol generating procedures (PPE-AGP). Participants performed endotracheal intubation [...] Read more.
This study aimed to compare the intubation effectiveness of the bébé Vie Scope™ (VieScope) and direct laryngoscopy for emergency intubation in a pediatric manikin model performed by paramedics with and without personal protective equipment for aerosol generating procedures (PPE-AGP). Participants performed endotracheal intubation using VieScope and standard Macintosh laryngoscope (MAC) in two research scenarios: (1) without PPE-AGP, and (2) with PPE-AGP. Fifty-one paramedics without any previous experience with the VieScope participated in this study. In the PPE-AGP scenario, in the VieScope group, the percentage of successful tracheal intubation on the first attempt was higher compared to the MAC group (94.1 vs. 78.4%, p = 0.031), intubation time was shorter (29.8 vs. 33.9 s, p < 0.001), and percentage of glottic opening (POGO) score was higher 91.0 vs 77.8 (p < 0.001). On the Cormack–Lehane scale, intubation with VieScope intubation was associated with higher scores rated at 1 (64.7 vs. 29.4%) than in the MAC group (p = 0.001). For intubation in the non-PPE scenario, there were no statistically significant differences between VieScope and MAC in relation to above parameters. Summarize, the bébé VieScope™ under PPE-AGP wearing conditions has proven to be a useful device for airway management in children providing better visualization of the larynx, better intubation conditions, and a higher success rate of tracheal intubation on the first attempt and reduced intubation time compared to the standard Macintosh laryngoscope. Full article
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11 pages, 281 KiB  
Article
Factors Associated with Breastfeeding Initiation and Duration in Greece: Data from the Hellenic National Nutrition and Health Survey
by Efthimia Spyrakou, Emmanuella Magriplis, Vassiliki Benetou and Antonis Zampelas
Children 2022, 9(11), 1773; https://doi.org/10.3390/children9111773 - 18 Nov 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1584
Abstract
Despite its well-documented benefits, breastfeeding rates and duration worldwide do not meet the recommended goals set by the World Health Organization. Data on infant feeding, socio-demographic, lifestyle and perinatal factors were used from 490 mothers (and 958 children), participants at the Hellenic National [...] Read more.
Despite its well-documented benefits, breastfeeding rates and duration worldwide do not meet the recommended goals set by the World Health Organization. Data on infant feeding, socio-demographic, lifestyle and perinatal factors were used from 490 mothers (and 958 children), participants at the Hellenic National Nutrition and Health Survey between 2013–2015. Clustered multiple logistic regression and multilevel mixed-model regression analyses were performed to identify factors associated with breastfeeding initiation and duration, respectively. Maternal lower education [Odds Ratio (OR): 2.29, 95% Confidence intervals (95% CI): 1.30–4.04; p = 0.004], smoking during pregnancy (OR: 3.08, 95% CI: 1.64–5.77; p < 0.001), caesarean section (OR = 3.26, 95% CI: 1.83–5.83; p < 0.001), prematurity (OR = 2.74, 95% CI: 1.40–5.37; p = 0.003) and higher birth order (OR = 1.30, 95% CI: 1.04–1.62; p = 0.020) were associated with increased odds of not initiating breastfeeding. Living in rural areas [beta coefficient b = −27.93, p = 0.043], smoking during pregnancy (b = −64.47, p < 0.001), caesarean section (b = −28.76, p = 0.046) and prematurity (b = −46.67, p = 0.048) were significantly associated with shorter breastfeeding duration. Children born chronologically closer to the survey were more likely to breastfeed and for longer periods. Educational promotion and enhancement of breastfeeding awareness that account for maternal exposures are required. Prevention of prematurity and avoidance of unnecessary caesarean section is crucial, while additional breastfeeding support is needed when preterm birth occurs, or caesarean section cannot be avoided. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metabolic and Nutritional Diseases in Children)
9 pages, 1523 KiB  
Article
Condylar Asymmetry in Children with Unilateral Posterior Crossbite Malocclusion: A Comparative Cross-Sectional Study
by Alessandro Tortarolo, Rossana Rotolo, Ludovica Nucci, Michele Tepedino, Vito Crincoli and Maria Grazia Piancino
Children 2022, 9(11), 1772; https://doi.org/10.3390/children9111772 - 18 Nov 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1883
Abstract
Unilateral posterior crossbite (UXB) is a common, severely asymmetric malocclusion, characterized by maxillary hypoplasia and masticatory dysfunction. The aim of this research is to evaluate the asymmetry of mandibular condyles and rami in children with UXB. This comparative cross-sectional study included 33 children [...] Read more.
Unilateral posterior crossbite (UXB) is a common, severely asymmetric malocclusion, characterized by maxillary hypoplasia and masticatory dysfunction. The aim of this research is to evaluate the asymmetry of mandibular condyles and rami in children with UXB. This comparative cross-sectional study included 33 children with UXB (girls = 15, boys = 18; mean age ± SD = 8.0 ± 1.3 years.months]) and 33 age- and gender-matched controls (girls = 15, boys = 18; mean age ± SD = 8.4 ± 1.3 years.months]). Pre-treatment OPGs were analyzed by comparing the height of condyles and rami between the sides using the method by Habets et al. (1988); the result was considered significant if the degree of asymmetry was >6%. Children with UXB showed a significantly increased asymmetry of mandibular condyles (mean ± SD = 10.7% ± 9, p < 0.001), but not of rami (mean ± SD = 1.9% ± 2.3), compared to controls. The rami did not show significant asymmetry in either group. The presence of an increased condylar asymmetry index in a developing patient with unilateral posterior crossbite is a sign of altered skeletal growth and should be considered in the diagnostic process and treatment plan. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Advance in Pediatric Dentistry)
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16 pages, 846 KiB  
Review
QTc Interval Reference Values and Their (Non)-Maturational Factors in Neonates and Infants: A Systematic Review
by Lisa De Smet, Nathalie Devolder, Thomas Salaets, Anne Smits and Karel Allegaert
Children 2022, 9(11), 1771; https://doi.org/10.3390/children9111771 - 18 Nov 2022
Viewed by 1842
Abstract
QTc interval measurement is a widely used screening tool to assess the risk of cardiac diseases, arrhythmias, and is a useful biomarker for pharmacovigilance. However, the interpretation of QTc is difficult in neonates due to hemodynamic maturational changes and uncertainties on reference values. [...] Read more.
QTc interval measurement is a widely used screening tool to assess the risk of cardiac diseases, arrhythmias, and is a useful biomarker for pharmacovigilance. However, the interpretation of QTc is difficult in neonates due to hemodynamic maturational changes and uncertainties on reference values. To describe trends in QTc values throughout infancy (1 year of life), and to explore the impact of (non)-maturational changes and medicines exposure, a structured systematic review (PROSPERO CRD42022302296) was performed. In term neonates, a decrease was observed over the first week of life, whereafter values increased until two months of age, followed by a progressive decrease until six months. A similar pattern with longer QTc values was observed in preterms. QTc is influenced by cord clamping, hemodynamic changes, therapeutic hypothermia, illnesses and sleep, not by sex. Cisapride, domperidone and doxapram result in QTc prolongation in neonates. Further research in this age category is needed to improve primary screening practices and QTcthresholds, earlier detection of risk factors and precision pharmacovigilance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diagnosing and Treating Arrhythmias in Children)
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11 pages, 1143 KiB  
Article
Emotional Intelligence, Physical Activity Practice and Mediterranean Diet Adherence-An Explanatory Model in Elementary Education School Students
by Eduardo Melguizo-Ibáñez, Gabriel González-Valero, Pilar Puertas-Molero and José Manuel Alonso-Vargas
Children 2022, 9(11), 1770; https://doi.org/10.3390/children9111770 - 18 Nov 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1459
Abstract
Currently, there is a global concern with regard to the lifestyles of young people. This study aims to study the association between Mediterranean diet adherence, emotional intelligence and physical activity practice in teenagers in the last cycle of elementary education. In turn, this [...] Read more.
Currently, there is a global concern with regard to the lifestyles of young people. This study aims to study the association between Mediterranean diet adherence, emotional intelligence and physical activity practice in teenagers in the last cycle of elementary education. In turn, this objective is divided into (a) developing an explanatory model of the practice of physical activity, Mediterranean diet adherence and emotional intelligence; and (b) developing a multi-group model according to the gender of the participants. A descriptive, cross-sectional, comparative study was conducted in a sample of 293 elementary school students (M = 11.45; S.D = 0.31). The instruments used were an ad hoc socio-demographic questionnaire, the Trait Meta Mood Scale-24, the KIDMED questionnaire and the Physical Activity Questionnaire for Older Children. The results show that males show a positive relationship between adherence to the Mediterranean diet and emotional intelligence and between emotional intelligence and physical activity. In contrast, in the case of females, a negative relationship was observed between emotional intelligence and physical activity. In conclusion, it can be seen that gender plays a fundamental role in adolescence, being a key factor influencing an active and healthy lifestyle. Full article
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9 pages, 796 KiB  
Article
Motor Competence Assessment (MCA) Scoring Method
by Luis Paulo Rodrigues, Carlos Luz, Rita Cordovil, André Pombo and Vitor P. Lopes
Children 2022, 9(11), 1769; https://doi.org/10.3390/children9111769 - 17 Nov 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2211
Abstract
The Motor Competence Assessment (MCA) is a quantitative test battery that assesses motor competence across the whole lifespan. It is composed of three sub-scales: locomotor, stability, and manipulative, each of them assessed by two different objectively measured tests. The MCA construct validity for [...] Read more.
The Motor Competence Assessment (MCA) is a quantitative test battery that assesses motor competence across the whole lifespan. It is composed of three sub-scales: locomotor, stability, and manipulative, each of them assessed by two different objectively measured tests. The MCA construct validity for children and adolescents, having normative values from 3 to 23 years of age, and the configural invariance between age groups, were recently established. The aim of this study is to expand the MCA’s development and validation by defining the best and leanest method to score and classify MCA sub-scales and total score. One thousand participants from 3 to 22 years of age, randomly selected from the Portuguese database on MC, participated in the study. Three different procedures to calculate the sub-scales and total MCA values were tested according to alternative models. Results were compared to the reference method, and Intraclass Correlation Coefficient, Cronbach’s Alpha, and Bland–Altman statistics were used to describe agreement between the three methods. The analysis showed no substantial differences between the three methods. Reliability values were perfect (0.999 to 1.000) for all models, implying that all the methods were able to classify everyone in the same way. We recommend implementing the most economic and efficient algorithm, i.e., the configural model algorithm, averaging the percentile scores of the two tests to assess each MCA sub-scale and total scores. Full article
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8 pages, 262 KiB  
Article
Callous–Unemotional Traits and Intelligence in Children with Externalizing Behavioral Problems
by Pamela Fantozzi, Pietro Muratori, Valentina Levantini, Irene Mammarella, Gabriele Masi, Annarita Milone, Alessia Petrucci, Federica Ricci, Annalisa Tacchi, Chiara Cristofani and Elena Valente
Children 2022, 9(11), 1768; https://doi.org/10.3390/children9111768 - 17 Nov 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1148
Abstract
Research on the association between callous–unemotional (CU) traits and intelligence yielded contradictory results. Moreover, several previous studies focused on global intelligence scores or verbal vs. nonverbal/performance abilities usually evaluated with short/abbreviated instruments. The current study builds on these previous works and explores the [...] Read more.
Research on the association between callous–unemotional (CU) traits and intelligence yielded contradictory results. Moreover, several previous studies focused on global intelligence scores or verbal vs. nonverbal/performance abilities usually evaluated with short/abbreviated instruments. The current study builds on these previous works and explores the link between CU traits and intelligence using the full version of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children—4th Edition (WISC-IV), which provides four different verbal and nonverbal abilities scores. This guarantees a more detailed evaluation of children’s intelligence and its relation to CU traits. The sample included children (N = 149; age 6–14 years old) with severe behavioral problems. Clinicians administered the WISC-IV, and parents completed questionnaires evaluating the child’s externalizing problems and CU traits. Findings showed that CU traits were associated with lower verbal comprehension scores after also controlling for gender, age, externalizing problems, and the other WISC-IV indexes. In addition, CU traits and externalizing problems did not interact in predicting the WISC-IV indexes, and there were no significant differences in the WISC-IV indexes between children with CU traits and high vs. low externalizing problems. The current study suggests the relevance of assessing and addressing verbal abilities in children with behavioral problems and CU traits. Full article
7 pages, 566 KiB  
Case Report
Impressive Nasal Septum Regeneration after Cord Blood Platelet Gel (CBPG) in Extreme Premature Neonate with Non-Invasive Ventilation: A Case Report
by Raffaele Falsaperla, Giulia Marialidia Biondi, Milena Motta, Pasquale Gallerano, Giusi Tancredi, Piero Pavone and Martino Ruggieri
Children 2022, 9(11), 1767; https://doi.org/10.3390/children9111767 - 17 Nov 2022
Viewed by 1320
Abstract
Background: We evaluated the efficacy of Cord Blood Platelet Gel (CBPG) in the regenerative reconstruction of the nasal septal tissue of a preterm infant undergoing non-invasive ventilation. Methods: A CBPC treatment was used to enhance the regeneration of the nasal septum of a [...] Read more.
Background: We evaluated the efficacy of Cord Blood Platelet Gel (CBPG) in the regenerative reconstruction of the nasal septal tissue of a preterm infant undergoing non-invasive ventilation. Methods: A CBPC treatment was used to enhance the regeneration of the nasal septum of a premature patient in an experimental way, evaluating the efficacy described in the literature (selective bibliographic search in PubMed) of the use of blood products for non-transfusion purposes. Results: A partial but satisfactory regeneration of the patient’s nasal septum was observed. Using the free NIH Image J online software, we were able to calculate the regenerated surface (about 83% of the destroyed cartilage). Conclusions: The use of platelet gel has been a promising alternative to surgical treatment in patients with severe damage to the nasal septum. Full article
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12 pages, 946 KiB  
Article
Neonatal Hemodynamic Characteristics of the Recipient Twin of Twin-To-Twin Transfusion Syndrome Not Treated with Fetoscopic Laser Surgery
by Edouard Chambon, Taymme Hachem, Elodie Salvador, Virginie Rigourd, Claire Bellanger, Julien Stirnemann, Elsa Kermorvant-Duchemin, Pierre Tissieres, Yves Ville and Alexandre Lapillonne
Children 2022, 9(11), 1766; https://doi.org/10.3390/children9111766 - 17 Nov 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1268
Abstract
Background: This paper’s intent is to describe the neonatal hemodynamic characteristics of recipient twins of monochorionic pregnancies complicated with twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS), born without prenatal fetoscopic selective laser coagulation (FSLC). Methods: Retrospective analysis of hemodynamic characteristics was performed during the first five [...] Read more.
Background: This paper’s intent is to describe the neonatal hemodynamic characteristics of recipient twins of monochorionic pregnancies complicated with twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS), born without prenatal fetoscopic selective laser coagulation (FSLC). Methods: Retrospective analysis of hemodynamic characteristics was performed during the first five days of life of recipient twins from untreated TTTS. Results: Forty-two recipient twins were included and divided into three groups: no hemodynamic impairment (NoHI) (n = 15, 36%), isolated high blood pressure (HighBP) (n = 12, 28%), and cardiac failure group (CF) (n = 15, 36%). Patients of both CF and HighBP groups had high systolic blood pressure during the first 12 h of life and ventricular hypertrophy at early echocardiography. Cardiac failure occurred at a median age of 14 h (IQR = 6–24) and was followed by a drop in systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Acute kidney injury was more frequent (93% vs. 25%, p < 0.001) and severe (p <0.001) in the CF group than in the HighBP group. The mortality rate in the CF group was 40%. Factors associated with CF were twin anemia-polycythemia sequence (p = 0.012), very preterm birth (p = 0.040), and polycythemia (p = 0.002). Conclusion: One-third of recipient twins born without prenatal FSLC developed life-threatening cardiac failure during the first 24 h of life. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Pediatric Neonatology)
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10 pages, 1181 KiB  
Brief Report
Investigating the Discriminant Utility of Task-Based and Self-Based Goals in 3 × 2 Achievement Goal Model for Kindergarteners
by Chung-Chin Wu
Children 2022, 9(11), 1765; https://doi.org/10.3390/children9111765 - 17 Nov 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1314
Abstract
A decade ago, achievement goal theorists argued that mastery-based goals in the traditional theoretical framework can be theoretically differentiated into task-based goals and self-based goals; and they proposed the 3 × 2 achievement goal model to understand students’ achievement motivation. This new theoretical [...] Read more.
A decade ago, achievement goal theorists argued that mastery-based goals in the traditional theoretical framework can be theoretically differentiated into task-based goals and self-based goals; and they proposed the 3 × 2 achievement goal model to understand students’ achievement motivation. This new theoretical model has received increasing attention, and it has been demonstrated by several empirical studies on school-aged student samples through analyzing concurrently derived data. Recently, researcher has preliminary demonstrated the new theoretical model on kindergarten sample. It is unclear whether there was a discriminant utility of these goals for kindergartener sample through analyzing their concurrent and predictive effects on learning outcomes. The main purposes of this study were to investigate discriminant utility of task-based goals and self-based goals through examining their concurrent and predictive effects on mathematics performances. A total of 59 kindergarteners aged 5 years consented to participating in this study. Results showed: (1) The discriminant utility of task-approach goal and self-approach goal was only demonstrated on predictive arithmetic performance. (2) The discriminant utility of task-avoidance goal and self-avoidance goal was demonstrated on both concurrent and predictive counting performances. Implications for advancing achievement goal theory, future research, and practice are discussed at the end of the article. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Early Childhood Education Development)
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10 pages, 2484 KiB  
Article
Pro-Inflammatory Oral Microbiota in Juvenile Spondyloarthritis: A Pilot Study
by Matthew L Stoll, Jue Wang, Chung How Kau, Margaret Kathy Pierce, Casey D Morrow and Nicolaas C Geurs
Children 2022, 9(11), 1764; https://doi.org/10.3390/children9111764 - 17 Nov 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1211
Abstract
The role of the microbiota in the pathogenesis of arthritis is gaining increasing attention. While multiple studies have queried the intestinal microbiota, very few have analyzed the contents of the oral microbiota. In this pilot study, we obtained salivary and sub-gingival specimens from [...] Read more.
The role of the microbiota in the pathogenesis of arthritis is gaining increasing attention. While multiple studies have queried the intestinal microbiota, very few have analyzed the contents of the oral microbiota. In this pilot study, we obtained salivary and sub-gingival specimens from a cohort of six healthy controls and five children with well-controlled spondyloarthritis (SpA) and performed 16S sequencing on bacteria obtained from both habitats. The Quantitative Insight into Microbial Ecology tool suite was used to generate operational taxonomic units, Phyloseq was used for diversity analyses, and DeSeq2 was used to compare abundances while adjusting for multiple comparisons. A repeat specimen was obtained from one subject during a flare. Clustering based upon diagnosis was observed from both habitats, with decreased alpha diversity seen within the plaque obtained from the patients vs. controls. Among the differentially abundant taxa were statistically significantly increased plaque Fusobacterium and salivary Rothia mucilaginosa among the patients compared to the controls. Additionally, the abundance of plaque Fusobacterium increased in one patient at the time of a flare. Our data suggest that the oral cavity may harbor bacteria involved in the pathogenesis of spondyloarthritis; additional studies are warranted. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Pediatric Allergy and Immunology)
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9 pages, 2163 KiB  
Article
Multiplier Method for Predicting the Sitting Height Growth at Maturity: A Database Analysis
by Julio J. Jauregui, Larysa P. Hlukha, Philip K. McClure, Dror Paley, Mordchai B. Shualy, Maya B. Goldberg and John E. Herzenberg
Children 2022, 9(11), 1763; https://doi.org/10.3390/children9111763 - 17 Nov 2022
Viewed by 2878
Abstract
This study aims to develop multipliers for the spine and sitting height to predict sitting height at maturity. With the aid of longitudinal and cross-sectional clinical databases, we divided the total sitting height, cervical, thoracic, and lumbar lengths at skeletal maturity by these [...] Read more.
This study aims to develop multipliers for the spine and sitting height to predict sitting height at maturity. With the aid of longitudinal and cross-sectional clinical databases, we divided the total sitting height, cervical, thoracic, and lumbar lengths at skeletal maturity by these same four factors at each age for each percentile given. A series of comparisons were then carried out between the multipliers as well as the percentiles and the varied racial and ethnic groups within them. Regarding sitting height, there was little variability and correlated with the multipliers calculated for the thoracic and lumbar spine. The multiplier method has demonstrated accuracy that is not influenced by generation, percentile, race, and ethnicity. This multiplier can be used to anticipate mature sitting height, the heights of the thoracic, cervical, and lumbar spine, as well as the lack of spinal growth after spinal fusion surgery in skeletally immature individuals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Orthopedics and Trauma in Children)
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22 pages, 667 KiB  
Article
The Effect of Robot-Led Distraction during Needle Procedures on Pain-Related Memory Bias in Children with Chronic Diseases: A Pilot and Feasibility Study
by Emma Rheel, Tine Vervoort, Anneleen Malfliet, Jutte van der Werff ten Bosch, Sara Debulpaep, Wiert Robberechts, Evelyn Maes, Kenza Mostaqim, Melanie Noel and Kelly Ickmans
Children 2022, 9(11), 1762; https://doi.org/10.3390/children9111762 - 17 Nov 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1566
Abstract
The current study evaluated the feasibility and preliminary clinical impact of robot-led distraction during needle procedures in children with chronic diseases on pain-related memories. Participants were 22 children (8–12 years old) diagnosed with a chronic disease (e.g., chronic immune deficiency) and undergoing a [...] Read more.
The current study evaluated the feasibility and preliminary clinical impact of robot-led distraction during needle procedures in children with chronic diseases on pain-related memories. Participants were 22 children (8–12 years old) diagnosed with a chronic disease (e.g., chronic immune deficiency) and undergoing a needle procedure as part of their routine treatment. Children were randomized to the experimental group (i.e., robot-led distraction) or control group (i.e., usual care). For feasibility, we evaluated study- and needle-procedure-related characteristics, intervention fidelity and acceptability, and nurse perceptions of the intervention. Primary clinical outcomes included children’s memory bias for pain intensity and pain-related fear (1 week later). Results indicated that intervention components were >90% successful. Overall, the robot-led distraction intervention was perceived highly acceptable by the children, while nurse perceptions were mixed, indicating several challenges regarding the intervention. Preliminary between-group analyses indicated a medium effect size on memory bias for pain intensity (Hedges’ g = 0.70), but only a very small effect size on memory bias for pain-related fear (Hedges’ g = 0.09), in favor of the robot-led distraction intervention. To summarize, while feasible, certain challenges remain to clinically implement robot-led distraction during needle procedures. Further development of the intervention while accounting for individual child preferences is recommended. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Psychological Interventions for Pediatric Pain)
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9 pages, 859 KiB  
Article
Large-Scale Survey of Missing Deciduous Anterior Teeth on Medical Examination at the Age of 3.5 Years
by Tsutomu Otsuchi, Yuko Ogaya, Yuto Suehiro, Rena Okawa and Kazuhiko Nakano
Children 2022, 9(11), 1761; https://doi.org/10.3390/children9111761 - 16 Nov 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1042
Abstract
Tooth anomalies in childhood may negatively affect the healthy development of the dentition and occlusion; hence, it is important to examine the actual oral condition at an early stage. The present study was performed to understand the state of missing deciduous anterior teeth [...] Read more.
Tooth anomalies in childhood may negatively affect the healthy development of the dentition and occlusion; hence, it is important to examine the actual oral condition at an early stage. The present study was performed to understand the state of missing deciduous anterior teeth in children aged 3.5 years who underwent dental checkups in Matsubara City. In total, 3508 children received oral examinations, and items such as erupted deciduous teeth and teeth anomalies were recorded. Among these children, those with missing anterior deciduous teeth were selected, and their details were analyzed. In the 216 children, there were 266 missing anterior deciduous teeth. Congenitally missing anterior deciduous teeth were observed in 80 children, and fused teeth were observed in 128 children. The missing teeth were predominantly located in the mandible and occurred more frequently on the right side. The most common reason for acquired missing teeth was trauma, and no cases of spontaneous loss due to systemic disease were found in this study. Screening for various tooth anomalies is expected to play an important role in cultivating a better understanding of the oral cavity of children, developing healthy dentitions, and contributing to the early detection of some systemic diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 10th Anniversary of Children: Pediatric Dentistry Progress)
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12 pages, 10892 KiB  
Article
Visual Feedback and Virtual Reality in Gait Rehabilitation of Hemiparetic Children and Teenagers after Acquired Brain Injury: A Pilot Study
by Daniele Panzeri, Chiara Genova, Geraldina Poggi, Sandra Strazzer and Emilia Biffi
Children 2022, 9(11), 1760; https://doi.org/10.3390/children9111760 - 16 Nov 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1539
Abstract
Hemiparesis as a term refers to a neurological disorder that can be extremely variable, especially with regard to walking abilities. Few works have assessed the use of virtual reality and biofeedback in children and adolescents with hemiparesis. The aim of this study is [...] Read more.
Hemiparesis as a term refers to a neurological disorder that can be extremely variable, especially with regard to walking abilities. Few works have assessed the use of virtual reality and biofeedback in children and adolescents with hemiparesis. The aim of this study is to provide insights about the rehabilitation of hemiparetic children and teenagers with visual biofeedback in a virtual reality environment. Six hemiparetic subjects (mean age 13.13 years, age range (7–18), 4 males) received 20 personalized rehabilitation GRAIL (Gait Real-time Analysis Interactive Lab) sessions plus 20 sessions of traditional physiotherapy. After an initial evaluation of rehabilitation needs, training focused on gait pattern correction (GP), walking endurance (WE), or gross motor functions (GMFs). All subjects were assessed for their gait analysis by GRAIL, the Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM), and the 6–Minute Walking Test (6MWT) before and after rehabilitation. All subjects reached their rehabilitation goals, save for one who showed reduced collaboration. In addition, 4 subjects reached a better GP, 3 subjects reported improvements in WE, and 2 subjects improved in GMF. This personalized training with visual biofeedback delivered in a VR setting appears to be effective in modifying motor control and improving gait pattern, in addition to resistance and functional activities, in subjects with hemiparesis. Full article
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11 pages, 588 KiB  
Article
Dental and Dental Hygiene Students’ Knowledge and Capacity to Discriminate the Developmental Defects of Enamel: A Self-Submitted Questionnaire Survey
by Maria Grazia Cagetti, Claudia Salerno, Giuliana Bontà, Anna Bisanti, Cinzia Maspero, Gianluca Martino Tartaglia and Guglielmo Campus
Children 2022, 9(11), 1759; https://doi.org/10.3390/children9111759 - 16 Nov 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1646
Abstract
Background: A prompt and accurate diagnosis of developmental defects of enamel (DDE) is mandatory for proper treatment management. This cross-sectional survey, designed and carried out using anonymous self-administered questionnaires, aimed to assess dental and dental hygiene students’ knowledge and their capability to [...] Read more.
Background: A prompt and accurate diagnosis of developmental defects of enamel (DDE) is mandatory for proper treatment management. This cross-sectional survey, designed and carried out using anonymous self-administered questionnaires, aimed to assess dental and dental hygiene students’ knowledge and their capability to identify different enamel development defects. Methods: The questionnaire consisted of twenty-eight closed-ended questions. Two different samples of undergraduate students were selected and enrolled: a group of dental hygiene (GDH) students and a group of dental (GD) students. A multivariate logistic regression was performed by adopting the correct answers as explanatory variables to assess the difference between the two groups. Results: Overall, 301 completed questionnaires were analyzed: 157 from the GDH and 144 from the GD. The dental student group showed better knowledge than the GDH of enamel hypomineralization and hypoplasia (p = 0.03 for both). A quarter (25.25%) of the total sample correctly identified the period of development of dental fluorosis with a statistically significant difference between the groups (p < 0.01). Amelogenesis imperfecta (AI) was identified as a genetic disease by 64.45% of the sample, with a better performance from the GD (p = 0.01), while no statistical differences were found between the groups regarding molar incisor hypomineralization. Multivariate analysis showed that AI (OR = 0.40, [0.23;0.69], p < 0.01) and caries lesion (OR = 0.58, [0.34;0.94], p = 0.03) were better recognized by the GD. Conclusions: Disparities exist in the knowledge and management of DDE among dental and dental hygiene students in Italy; however, significant knowledge gaps were found in both groups. Education on the diagnosis and treatment of DDE during the training for dental and dental hygiene students needs to be strongly implemented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advance Research in Pediatric Dental Disease)
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11 pages, 558 KiB  
Article
Measuring the Uptake of Growth Monitoring and Nutrition Promotion among under-5 Children: Findings from the Rwanda Population-Based Study
by Michael Ekholuenetale, Amadou Barrow, Anthony Ike Wegbom and Amit Arora
Children 2022, 9(11), 1758; https://doi.org/10.3390/children9111758 - 16 Nov 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2450
Abstract
Regular growth monitoring can be used to evaluate the nutritional and physical health of children. Ample evaluation of the reach and quality of nutrition interventions is necessary to increase their effectiveness, but there is little research on improving coverage measurement. The aim of [...] Read more.
Regular growth monitoring can be used to evaluate the nutritional and physical health of children. Ample evaluation of the reach and quality of nutrition interventions is necessary to increase their effectiveness, but there is little research on improving coverage measurement. The aim of this study was to explore the coverage of growth monitoring, nutrition promotion, and associated factors by Rwandan caregivers of children under the age of five. Data from 2019–2020 Rwanda Demographic and Health Survey with a total of 8092 children under the age of five were used for this study. Prevalence of growth monitoring and nutrition promotion were reported and the factors influencing this were evaluated using multivariable logistic regression model. The prevalence of growth monitoring and nutrition promotion among under-5 children was 33.0% (95%CI: 30.6–35.6%). Older children, caregivers who were native residents, those with a health insurance, in a marital relationship, employed, and residing in rural areas had higher odds to participate in growth monitoring and nutrition promotion compared to their counterparts. Rwanda has a low rate of coverage for growth monitoring and nutrition promotion among children <5 and public health nutrition interventions should prioritize nutritional counseling as well as the availability of growth monitoring and promotion services. Full article
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