Infant Care Practices among Resettled Refugee Mothers from East and Central Africa
1.1. Developmental Niche Framework
1.2. Customs of Childcare
1.2.2. Infant Carrying and Skin-to-Skin Contact
1.2.3. Daily Practices
1.2.4. Impact of Migration on Customs of Childcare
1.2.5. Parenting Values and Beliefs
1.2.6. Impact of Migration on Parenting Values and Beliefs
1.2.7. Physical and Social Settings of Childcare
1.2.8. Impact of Migration on the Physical and Social Settings of Childcare
2.1. Data Collection
2.3. Interview Guide
2.4. Data Analysis
3.1. Cultural Norms
3.2. Daily Practices
3.3. Daily Life Demands
3.3.2. Day-to-Day Tasks
3.4. Social Resources
3.4.2. Friends and Neighbors
3.5. Institutional Resources
3.5.2. WIC Program
3.6. Cultural Disconnects
3.7. Connections Between Themes
4.1. Implications for Policy and Programs
Conflicts of Interest
Appendix A. Sample Questions Included in Semi-Structured Interview Guide
- Please tell me a little bit about your migration history.
- Where in Africa have you lived after leaving your home country? For how long?
- Did you stay in a camp in Africa? If yes, what was the name of the camp you stayed in in Africa? How long were you in the camp?
- When did you arrive in the U.S.?
- What language do you and your spouse speak with your family?
- Are you and your spouse employed in a job?
- Please tell us all the jobs you and your spouse do.
- How many hours do you and your spouse work in one week?
- How many children have you given birth to?
- How many of these children were born in Africa?
- How many of these children were born in the U.S.?
- What city did you give birth to the children born in the U.S.?
- Why did you decide to give birth in that hospital/birth center/other location?
- How was your experience giving birth there?
- Were you able to communicate your wishes with the nurses/doctors/midwives?
- Can you give me an example?
- Do you have friends or family members that help you with childcare?
- Do you have friends that help you with childcare?
- In the way you talked about your friends helping, are there any community organizations that help you in any way?
- How did you feed your baby at birth?
- Have you been breastfeeding? For how long? How has your feeding changed over time?
- How do you currently feed your baby? (breast, bottle or solid food, or combination?)
- Did you have any difficulties with breastfeeding?
- Did anyone give you formula for free?
- Do you use a particular brand of formula? Why or why not?
- Do you use the same brand of formula every time?
- Would you feed your baby differently in your home country?
- Is carrying babies on the body a typical parenting practice in your home country?
- Why do mothers carry babies on their body?
- Do you think that all mothers should carry their babies on their body?
- What material do you use to carry your baby (wrap/sling/back or front/etc.)?
- Do other family members or friends wrap your baby on their body when taking care of the baby?
- In what situations do you usually carry your baby? (ex: at home, while traveling, etc.)
- How often do you carry your baby on your body? Every day?
- Has the way you carry your baby changed since you have been in the U.S.?
- Tell me about a good experience with carrying the baby on your body? (ex: someone complimented their wrap or sling in the grocery store).
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|Characteristic||Categories||N (%)||Mean (SD)||Range|
|Age of mother (years)||31.13 (2.45)||23–44|
|Age of infant (months)||13.60 (2.76)||2–27|
|Focal child gender||Male||6 (60.00)|
|Country of birth of focal child||Home country||1 (10.00)|
|Country of refuge||3 (30.00)|
|United States||6 (60.00)|
|Current mode of feeding||Exclusive breast||2 (20.00)|
|Breast and table food||3 (30.00)|
|Formula and table food||1 (10.00)|
|Mode of feeding until 6 mos.||Exclusive breast||5 (50.00)|
|Breast and formula||5 (50.00)|
|Mode of carrying||Arms||1 (11.11)|
|Country of origin||DRC||5 (40.00)|
|Spouse Employment||Employed||6 (66.67)|
|Length of time in US (years)||3.36 (1.21)||0–9|
|Length of time in study region (years)||1.56 (0.54)||0–5|
|Number of camps lived in||1.20 (0.34)||0–4|
|Length of time in camp (years)||14.75 (3.37)||3–30|
|Number of children delivered||3.70 (0.82)||1–8|
|Number of children living||3.00 (0.65)||1–7|
|Number of children in household||3.00 (0.73)||1–7|
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Bader, L.R.; Ward, J.; Fouts, H.N.; Jaekel, J. Infant Care Practices among Resettled Refugee Mothers from East and Central Africa. Children 2020, 7, 63. https://doi.org/10.3390/children7060063
Bader LR, Ward J, Fouts HN, Jaekel J. Infant Care Practices among Resettled Refugee Mothers from East and Central Africa. Children. 2020; 7(6):63. https://doi.org/10.3390/children7060063Chicago/Turabian Style
Bader, Lauren R., Jennifer Ward, Hillary N. Fouts, and Julia Jaekel. 2020. "Infant Care Practices among Resettled Refugee Mothers from East and Central Africa" Children 7, no. 6: 63. https://doi.org/10.3390/children7060063