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Children, Volume 4, Issue 10 (October 2017) – 9 articles

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390 KiB  
Review
Pediatric Perioperative Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension: A Case-Based Primer
by Shilpa Shah and Jacqueline R. Szmuszkovicz
Children 2017, 4(10), 92; https://doi.org/10.3390/children4100092 - 24 Oct 2017
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 6337
Abstract
The perioperative period is an extremely tenuous time for the pediatric patient with pulmonary arterial hypertension. This article will discuss a multidisciplinary approach to preoperative planning, the importance of early identification of pulmonary hypertensive crises, and practical strategies for postoperative management for this [...] Read more.
The perioperative period is an extremely tenuous time for the pediatric patient with pulmonary arterial hypertension. This article will discuss a multidisciplinary approach to preoperative planning, the importance of early identification of pulmonary hypertensive crises, and practical strategies for postoperative management for this unique group of children. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Trend in Pediatric Cardiology: Pulmonary Hypertension)
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22009 KiB  
Case Report
Solitary Intra-Osseous Myofibroma of the Jaw: A Case Report and Review of Literature
by Anita Dhupar, Karla Carvalho, Poonam Sawant, Anita Spadigam and Shaheen Syed
Children 2017, 4(10), 91; https://doi.org/10.3390/children4100091 - 24 Oct 2017
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 5603
Abstract
Myofibroma is a rare benign spindle cell neoplasm in children that usually affects both soft tissue and bone in the head and neck region. Approximately one third of these cases are seen within jaw bones as solitary lesions. Solitary intra-osseous myofibroma of the [...] Read more.
Myofibroma is a rare benign spindle cell neoplasm in children that usually affects both soft tissue and bone in the head and neck region. Approximately one third of these cases are seen within jaw bones as solitary lesions. Solitary intra-osseous myofibroma of the jaw bone shares its clinical, radiographic and histological features with other spindle cell tumors. The rarity of this lesion can make diagnosis difficult for clinicians and pathologists. We report a case of a solitary intra-osseous myofibroma in the mandible of a nine-year-old child. Full article
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1802 KiB  
Review
Sleep Disturbances in Newborns
by Daphna Yasova Barbeau and Michael D. Weiss
Children 2017, 4(10), 90; https://doi.org/10.3390/children4100090 - 20 Oct 2017
Cited by 51 | Viewed by 10551
Abstract
The purpose of this review is to serve as an introduction to understanding sleep in the fetus, the preterm neonate and the term neonate. Sleep appears to have numerous important roles, particularly in the consolidation of new information. The sleep cycle changes over [...] Read more.
The purpose of this review is to serve as an introduction to understanding sleep in the fetus, the preterm neonate and the term neonate. Sleep appears to have numerous important roles, particularly in the consolidation of new information. The sleep cycle changes over time, neonates spend the most time in active sleep and have a progressive shortening of active sleep and lengthening of quiet sleep. Additionally, the sleep cycle is disrupted by many things including disease state and environment, and the amplitude integrated EEG can be a useful tool in evaluating sleep, and sleep disturbances, in neonates. Finally, there are protective factors for infant sleep that are still being studied. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sleep Medicine in Children and Adolescents)
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626 KiB  
Article
Is There a Causal Relationship between Intussusception and Food Allergy?
by Emrah Aydin, Omer F. Beşer, Esra Ozek, Soner Sazak and Ensar Duras
Children 2017, 4(10), 89; https://doi.org/10.3390/children4100089 - 19 Oct 2017
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 5096
Abstract
Although intussusception and food allergy are common health problems in childhood, the relation between these two diseases remain obscure. The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between food allergy and intussusception, and the factors associated with both. Patients diagnosed with [...] Read more.
Although intussusception and food allergy are common health problems in childhood, the relation between these two diseases remain obscure. The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between food allergy and intussusception, and the factors associated with both. Patients diagnosed with intussusception by the Brighton Collaboration Intussusception Working Group criteria were prospectively investigated for food allergy per the European Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition (ESPGHAN) Guideline. They were analyzed per demographic features, clinical, physical and laboratory findings. There were eight (38.1%) patients diagnosed with food allergy, while 13 (61.9%) patients were non-allergic. The mean number of days of presenting symptoms was 1.13 days in the allergy group and 7.85 days in the non-allergy group. The mean number of intussusception attacks was 1.63 in the allergy group while 1 in the non-allergy group (p < 0.05, relative risk (RR) = 2.6). In the allergy group, one (13%) patient was followed up, six (75%) patients were reduced with pneumatic and one (13%) patient reduced manually. In the non-allergy group, four (31%) patients were followed up, six (46%) patients were reduced with pneumotic, one (7%) patient was reduced manually, and resection anastomosis was performed in two (15%) patients. Food allergy is an unrecognized associated factor for intussusception patients, which increases the risk for recurrence. Due to the small patient population, these results should be interpreted with caution. Full article
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234 KiB  
Article
Factors Associated with Malnutrition among Under-Five Children: Illustration using Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey, 2014 Data
by Ashis Talukder
Children 2017, 4(10), 88; https://doi.org/10.3390/children4100088 - 19 Oct 2017
Cited by 62 | Viewed by 9736
Abstract
Child malnutrition remains one of the major public health problems in many parts of the world, especially in a developing country like Bangladesh. Several socioeconomic and demographic factors are responsible for this condition. The present study was conducted to uncover the risk factors [...] Read more.
Child malnutrition remains one of the major public health problems in many parts of the world, especially in a developing country like Bangladesh. Several socioeconomic and demographic factors are responsible for this condition. The present study was conducted to uncover the risk factors associated with malnutrition among under-five children in Bangladesh by analyzing the data from a nationally representative Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey (BDHS) in 2014. The ordinal dependent variable—child nutrition status (severely malnourished, moderately malnourished, and nourished)—was developed by calculating weight-for-age Z score (WAZ). Bivariate analysis was conducted by performing gamma measure and chi-square test of independence to explore the association between child nutrition status and selected independent variables. To know the adjusted effects of covariates, a popular ordinal model—namely, the proportional odds (PO) model—was considered. All the selected covariates were found highly significant (p < 0.01) in the bivariate setup. However, in the multivariate setup, father’s and mother’s education, wealth index, mother’s body mass index (BMI), and antenatal care service during pregnancy were found highly significant (p < 0.01) factors for child malnutrition. Among the divisions, only Dhaka had more control on child malnutrition, compared to the Sylhet division. Birth interval of children was also reported as a significant factor at a 5% level of significance. Finally, the results of this paper strongly highlighted the necessity of increasing parent’s education level, improving the mother’s nutritional status, and increasing facilities providing antenatal care service in order to achieve better nutrition status among under-five children in Bangladesh. Full article
1285 KiB  
Case Report
Oligoarticular Hemarthroses and Osteomyelitis Complicating Pasteurella Meningitis in an Infant
by Charles Nathan Nessle, Allison K. Black, Justin Farge and Victoria A. Statler
Children 2017, 4(10), 87; https://doi.org/10.3390/children4100087 - 16 Oct 2017
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 5189
Abstract
A 5-month-old previously healthy female presented with a one-week history of fever and increased fussiness. Her presentation revealed an ill-appearing infant with an exam and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) studies concerning bacterial meningitis; CSF cultures grew Pasteurella multocida. Additionally, brain magnetic resonance imaging [...] Read more.
A 5-month-old previously healthy female presented with a one-week history of fever and increased fussiness. Her presentation revealed an ill-appearing infant with an exam and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) studies concerning bacterial meningitis; CSF cultures grew Pasteurella multocida. Additionally, brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrated cervical osteomyelitis. Despite multiple days of antibiotic therapy, she remained febrile with continued pain; MRI showed oligoarticular effusions, and aspiration of these joints yielded bloody aspirates. Evaluations for coagulopathy and immune complex-mediated arthropathy were negative. The patient improved following appropriate antibiotic therapy and spontaneous resolution of hemarthroses, and was discharged to a short-term rehabilitation hospital. P. multocida is a small, encapsulated coccobacillus that is part of the commensal oral flora of animals. It most commonly causes skin infections in humans, yet is a rare cause of meningitis in the pediatric population, especially in children <1 year of age. Transmission due to P. multocida is most commonly due to direct contact with animals. To our knowledge, this is the first case of oligoarticular hemarthroses and cervical osteomyelitis complicating P multocida meningitis. This case highlights the physician’s potential for cognitive bias and premature anchoring, and the resulting implications in delivering excellent patient care. Full article
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Case Report
A Potential Novel Mechanism for Vagus Nerve Stimulator-Related Central Sleep Apnea
by Inga C. Forde, Meghna P. Mansukhani, Bhanu Prakash Kolla and Suresh Kotagal
Children 2017, 4(10), 86; https://doi.org/10.3390/children4100086 - 29 Sep 2017
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 6000
Abstract
The treatment of epilepsy with vagus nerve stimulation can inadvertently cause obstructive and central sleep apnea (CSA). The mechanism for CSA seen in patients with a vagus nerve stimulator (VNS) is not fully known. We describe the case of a 13-year-old girl in [...] Read more.
The treatment of epilepsy with vagus nerve stimulation can inadvertently cause obstructive and central sleep apnea (CSA). The mechanism for CSA seen in patients with a vagus nerve stimulator (VNS) is not fully known. We describe the case of a 13-year-old girl in whom VNS activation induced tachypnea and post-hyperventilation central apnea. Following adjustment of VNS settings, the post-hyperventilation CSA resolved. Polysomnography may assist with management when patients with epilepsy develop sleep disruption after VNS placement. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sleep Medicine in Children and Adolescents)
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150 KiB  
Case Report
Coconut Allergy Revisited
by Katherine Anagnostou
Children 2017, 4(10), 85; https://doi.org/10.3390/children4100085 - 29 Sep 2017
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 10913
Abstract
Despite concerns voiced often by food-allergic patients, allergy to coconut is rare, not directly associated with nut allergy and few cases are reported so far in the literature. We present an interesting case of coconut allergy in a child that was previously tolerant [...] Read more.
Despite concerns voiced often by food-allergic patients, allergy to coconut is rare, not directly associated with nut allergy and few cases are reported so far in the literature. We present an interesting case of coconut allergy in a child that was previously tolerant to coconut and regularly exposed via both the skin and gastrointestinal route. Full article
475 KiB  
Review
Sleep Disorders in Childhood Neurological Diseases
by Abdullah Tolaymat and Zhao Liu
Children 2017, 4(10), 84; https://doi.org/10.3390/children4100084 - 22 Sep 2017
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 6857
Abstract
Sleep problems are frequently addressed as a primary or secondary concern during the visit to the pediatric neurology clinic. Sleep disorders can mimic other neurologic diseases (e.g., epilepsy and movement disorders), and this adds challenges to the diagnostic process. Sleep disorders can significantly [...] Read more.
Sleep problems are frequently addressed as a primary or secondary concern during the visit to the pediatric neurology clinic. Sleep disorders can mimic other neurologic diseases (e.g., epilepsy and movement disorders), and this adds challenges to the diagnostic process. Sleep disorders can significantly affect the quality of life and functionality of children in general and those with comorbid neurological diseases in particular. Understanding the pathophysiology of sleep disorders, recognizing the implications of sleep disorder in children with neurologic diseases and behavioral difficulties, and early intervention continue to evolve resulting in better neurocognitive outcomes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sleep Medicine in Children and Adolescents)
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