Teacher Preparedness for Medical Emergencies in Belgian Classrooms: Studying Objective and Subjective First-Aid Knowledge
2. Materials and Methods
2.1. Study Design
2.2. Statistical Analysis
Institutional Review Board Statement
Informed Consent Statement
Data Availability Statement
Conflicts of Interest
- A boy of 8 years old is not feeling well during a heat wave. It is very hot inside and there is no available shade on the playground. After an outside gym class he starts to complain of headache, feels nauseous and dizzy and he is visibly flushed.
- What do you do first?
- Call 112
- Bring him to a cool environment and give him some water.
- Bring him to a cool environment and give him a painkiller.
- Bring him to a cool environment and give him some water and a painkiller.
- A girl of 11 years old is stung by a bee on her arm during lunch break. A painful red swelling can be seen at the site of the bee sting.
- What is the right action?
- Before removing the stinger, call 112.
- Use the blunt side of a clean knife to scrape the stinger out of the skin instead of using tweezers.
- Disinfect the tweezers before using them to remove the stinger out of the skin.
- You leave the stinger stuck inside the skin and contact a doctor as quickly as possible.
- A 10-year-old boy is hit by a football on his nose during physical education class. His nose starts to bleed.
- Which of the following responses is NOT CORRECT?
- Put cottons wool in his nose to stop the bleeding.
- Make him sit with his head leaning forwards.
- Firmly pinch the nostrils to close them.
- Contact a physician or go to the ER.
- A 9-year-old girl falls off her bike in front of the school.
- One of her front incisors became detached from its socket and fell out.
- What do you do?
- Call 112.
- Clean the tooth with a toothbrush and keep it in a bag of ice cubes until you arrive at the dentist.
- Rinse the tooth with water and place it under the girl’s tongue until you arrive at the dentist.
- Focus on the bleeding. A tooth that became completely detached from its socket cannot be saved.
- During a cooking class (making pancakes), a 7-year-old girl touches a hot frying pan with one of her hands. The palm of her hand is red and blisters start to form.
- How do you react?
- Cool the burn with cool/lukewarm running water. Apply an ointment to the blisters.
- Cool the burn with cool/lukewarm running water. This should suffice.
- Cool the burn with cool/lukewarm running water. Do not apply an ointment to the blisters and contact a doctor.
- Cool the burn with cool/lukewarm running water. Apply an ointment to the blisters and call the emergency services.
- What does not belong in a school’s first aid kit?
- Water-based disinfectant.
- Mouth-to-mouth barrier for CPR.
- Paracetamol syrup.
- During art class, a 7-year-old boy got a splinter in his finger.
- What should you NOT do when removing the splinter?
- Use disposable gloves.
- Clean the area around the splinter thoroughly with ethanol-based disinfectant.
- Disinfect the tweezers with ethanol-based disinfectant.
- Cover the skin wound with a band aid.
- During gym class, an 11-year-old boy, falls from a height. He lands on his left wrist, which immediately start to hurt a lot.
- What do you do first?
- It is broken, call 112.
- This is possibly a broken wrist. Ask him if he is able to move his wrist, in order to know if it is broken or not.
- This is possibly a broken wrist. Put on a sling and apply ice to cool his wrist.
- This is probably a sprain. Resting his wrist will suffice.
- During playtime, a 7 year old boy, trips and falls on a sharp edge of the sandpit. He has a large, bleeding cut on his left knee.
- What do you do first?
- Do nothing before you consult a doctor.
- Cover the wound with a sterile dressing or a compressive bandage.
- Dry the area around the wound with a clean cloth.
- Cleanse the wound with lukewarm running water.
- Apply pressure to the wound to stop the bleeding.
- A 6-year-old girl with a known heart condition, suddenly collapses. The other children in the class shout that she is not breathing.
- Which of the following answers represents the RIGHT way to resuscitate a child?
- During resuscitation the correct ratio is 30 chest compressions to 3 insufflations.
- Resuscitation can only be done by two people.
- When resuscitating a child, start with the first two ventilations before calling emergency services.
- When resuscitating a child, call emergency services before starting the first insufflations.
- During the school party, a 10-year-old girl suddenly becomes unwell. She drops to the floor her arms and legs start convulsing and she starts to vomit.
- What should you do?
- Put the girl on her back, raise her legs and call the emergency services.
- Help the girl stand up, put her on the couch and let her drink a few glasses of water.
- Place the girl in the stable side position and notify the emergency services.
- Stimulate the girl’s vomiting reflex by placing a finger in her throat to empty the stomach.
- During the annual school party, an older man suddenly collapses. He is unconscious and does not seem to be breathing.
- Which of the following images is NOT part of the steps of correct CPR.
- While eating a birthday treat, a 9-year-old girl tells the teacher that her mouth itches. A bit later she has difficulty speaking, her voice sounds hoarse and she starts wheezing. She also has to vomit and feels very weak.
- What is wrong with this girl?
- This is food poisoning.
- This is an allergic reaction.
- This is a viral respiratory infection.
- This is an asthmatic reaction.
- During a party at school the kids are singing loudly. During the singing, one boy chokes on a nut. According to his classmates, he did not start to cough, but he clutched his throat, tried to say something. But hardly any sound came out of his mouth.
- What do you do?
- As long as he does not cough, there is nothing in the airways: this will resolve itself.
- The nut is probably in the esophagus: he must quickly drink water to flush the nut.
- The piece of nut can be in the esophagus as well as in his trachea: quickly put him in the stable side position until he feels better.
- The nut is probably in the trachea: perform the Heimlich maneuver.
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|Years of experience|
|5 to 10 years||20.1|
|11 to 15 years||17.2|
|16 to 20 years||9.4|
|First-aid training (yes)||80.3|
|Refresher course (yes)||38.3|
|First-aid manager at school (yes)||84.8|
|Practiced first aid in the past 3 years (yes)||65.7|
|Mean score (SD)|
|Subjective first-aid knowledge (1–5)||3.39 (0.75)|
|Objective first-aid knowledge (0–1)|
|Life-threatening cases||0.82 (0.13)|
|Basic cases||0.53 (0.19)|
|Theme||Share of Correct Answers||Number of Correct Answers|
|Basic first-aid cases|
|Life-Threatening||Basic First Aid||Subjective|
|Training||0.78 (0.50)||0.16 * (0.08)||0.31 *** (0.05)|
|Applied in last 3 years||0.10 (0.12)||0.03 (0.08)||0.26 *** (0.05)|
|First-aid manager at school||0.19 (0.43)||0.08 (0.08)||−0.04 (0.05)|
|Subjective knowledge||−0.40 (2.01)||0.31 *** (0.08)||-|
|Gender (ref.: male)|
|Female||0.03 (0.05)||0.07 (0.07)||−0.01 (0.05)|
|Years of experience||−0.66 (0.65)||0.21 ** (0.07)||0.00 (0.05)|
|Training||−0.13 (0.62)||0.10 *** (0.03)||-|
|Applied in last 3 years||−0.10 (0.50)||0.08 ** (0.03)||-|
|First-aid manager at school||0.02 (0.08)||−0.01 (0.02)||-|
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Vermonden, M.; Dehaerne, L.; Toelen, J.; De Coninck, D. Teacher Preparedness for Medical Emergencies in Belgian Classrooms: Studying Objective and Subjective First-Aid Knowledge. Children 2023, 10, 669. https://doi.org/10.3390/children10040669
Vermonden M, Dehaerne L, Toelen J, De Coninck D. Teacher Preparedness for Medical Emergencies in Belgian Classrooms: Studying Objective and Subjective First-Aid Knowledge. Children. 2023; 10(4):669. https://doi.org/10.3390/children10040669Chicago/Turabian Style
Vermonden, Maya, Liesse Dehaerne, Jaan Toelen, and David De Coninck. 2023. "Teacher Preparedness for Medical Emergencies in Belgian Classrooms: Studying Objective and Subjective First-Aid Knowledge" Children 10, no. 4: 669. https://doi.org/10.3390/children10040669