Next Issue
Volume 11, September
Previous Issue
Volume 11, July
 
 

Biomedicines, Volume 11, Issue 8 (August 2023) – 241 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): The delivery of drugs to the central nervous system after Intranasal administration can often be accompanied by difficulties due to the specific physicochemical properties of biomolecules (e.g., molecular weight, solubility, stability), or by a physiological barrier (mucociliary clearance). Strategies adopted include combining micro- and nanotechnologies and using excipients that extend the nasal residence time. Additionally, nasal delivery requires a device to adequately deliver the formulation to the required area of the nasal cavity. The experimental models allow for extensive preclinical investigation of the administered drug, which will be further used to correlate the brain-targeting potential of intranasal administration in humans. View this paper
  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Reader to open them.
Order results
Result details
Section
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:
25 pages, 5446 KiB  
Review
Does β-Hydroxy-β-Methylbutyrate Have Any Potential to Support the Treatment of Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy in Humans and Animals?
by Abdolvahab Ebrahimpour Gorji, Piotr Ostaszewski, Kaja Urbańska and Tomasz Sadkowski
Biomedicines 2023, 11(8), 2329; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines11082329 - 21 Aug 2023
Viewed by 2318
Abstract
Skeletal muscle is the protein reservoir of our body and an important regulator of glucose and lipid homeostasis. The dystrophin gene is the largest gene and has a key role in skeletal muscle construction and function. Mutations in the dystrophin gene cause Duchenne [...] Read more.
Skeletal muscle is the protein reservoir of our body and an important regulator of glucose and lipid homeostasis. The dystrophin gene is the largest gene and has a key role in skeletal muscle construction and function. Mutations in the dystrophin gene cause Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophy in humans, mice, dogs, and cats. Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is an X-linked neuromuscular condition causing progressive muscle weakness and premature death. β-hydroxy β-methylbutyrate (HMB) prevents deleterious muscle responses under pathological conditions, including tumor and chronic steroid therapy-related muscle losses. The use of HMB as a dietary supplement allows for increasing lean weight gain; has a positive immunostimulatory effect; is associated with decreased mortality; and attenuates sarcopenia in elderly animals and individuals. This study aimed to identify some genes, metabolic pathways, and biological processes which are common for DMD and HMB based on existing literature and then discuss the consequences of that interaction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mechanisms and Novel Therapeutic Approaches for Muscle Disease)
Show Figures

Figure 1

19 pages, 5866 KiB  
Article
Single-Cell RNA Sequencing and Microarray Analysis Reveal the Role of Lipid-Metabolism-Related Genes and Cellular Immune Infiltration in Pre-Eclampsia and Identify Novel Biomarkers for Pre-Eclampsia
by Yujie Liu, Borui Xu and Cuifang Fan
Biomedicines 2023, 11(8), 2328; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines11082328 - 21 Aug 2023
Viewed by 1443
Abstract
Pre-eclampsia (PE) is a gestational hypertensive disorder that is characterized by hypertension and proteinuria, typically occurring after 20 weeks of gestation. Despite its global impact on pregnant women, the precise pathogenic mechanisms of PE remain unclear. Dysregulated lipid metabolism and immune cell infiltration [...] Read more.
Pre-eclampsia (PE) is a gestational hypertensive disorder that is characterized by hypertension and proteinuria, typically occurring after 20 weeks of gestation. Despite its global impact on pregnant women, the precise pathogenic mechanisms of PE remain unclear. Dysregulated lipid metabolism and immune cell infiltration contribute to PE development. Our study aimed to identify lipid-metabolism-related genes (LMRG-PEs) and investigate their association with immune infiltration. We utilized the “Seurat” R package for data quality control, cell clustering, and marker gene identification. The “SingleR” package enabled the matching of marker genes to specific cell types. Pseudotemporal ordering analysis was conducted using the “Monocle” package. Weighted correlation network analysis (WGCNA), gene set variation analysis (GSVA), and gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) approaches were employed to explore lipid-metabolism-related genes, while potential targeted drugs were predicted using the drug–gene interaction database (DGIdb). Hub gene expression was validated through RT–qPCR. By analyzing single-cell RNA sequencing data, we identified and classified 20 cell clusters into 5 distinct types. Differential gene expression analysis revealed 186 DEGs. WGCNA identified 9 critical modules and 265 genes significantly associated with PE diagnosis, emphasizing the importance of the core genes PLA2G7 and PTGS2. RT–qPCR confirmed the significantly decreased expression of PLA2G7 and PTGS2 in PE patient tissues. These findings offer valuable insights into the molecular mechanisms of PE, particularly those involving lipid metabolism and immune infiltration. The identified hub genes have potential as therapeutic targets and biomarkers for future research and clinical applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Drug Discovery, Development and Delivery)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

10 pages, 1340 KiB  
Article
MALDI-TOF MS Analysis of Serum Peptidome Patterns in Cervical Cancer
by Phetploy Rungkamoltip, Sittiruk Roytrakul and Raphatphorn Navakanitworakul
Biomedicines 2023, 11(8), 2327; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines11082327 - 21 Aug 2023
Viewed by 1021
Abstract
Background: Cervical cancer is the fourth most common cancer among females worldwide. Identifying peptide patterns discriminating healthy individuals from those with diseases has gained interest in the early detection of cancers. Our study aimed to determine signature peptide patterns for cervical cancer screening. [...] Read more.
Background: Cervical cancer is the fourth most common cancer among females worldwide. Identifying peptide patterns discriminating healthy individuals from those with diseases has gained interest in the early detection of cancers. Our study aimed to determine signature peptide patterns for cervical cancer screening. Methods: Our study focused on the serum peptidome analysis of 83 healthy women and 139 patients with cervical cancer. All spectra derived from matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry were analyzed using FlexAnalysis 3.0 and ClinProTools 2.2 software. Results: In the mass range of 1000–10,000 Da, the total average spectra were represented as the signature pattern. Principal component analysis showed that all the groups were separately distributed. Furthermore, the peaks at m/z 1466.91, 1898.01, 3159.09, and 4299.40 significantly differed among the investigated groups (Wilcoxon/Kruskal–Wallis test and ANOVA, p < 0.001). Conclusions: Laboratory-based rapid mass spectrometry showed that serum peptidome patterns could serve as diagnostic tools for diagnosing cervical cancer; however, verification through larger cohorts and association with clinical data are required, and the use of externally validated samples, such as patients with other types of cancers, should be investigated to validate the specific peptide patterns. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Cancer Biology and Oncology)
Show Figures

Figure 1

10 pages, 20056 KiB  
Case Report
Nab-Paclitaxel and Gemcitabine as First-Line Treatment of Metastatic Ampullary Adenocarcinoma with a Novel R-Spondin2 RNA Fusion and NTRK3 Mutation
by Maryknoll P. Linscott, Havell Markus, Mackenzie Sennett, Catherine Abendroth and Nelson S. Yee
Biomedicines 2023, 11(8), 2326; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines11082326 - 21 Aug 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1250
Abstract
Ampullary adenocarcinoma is a rare malignancy that lacks standard systemic treatment. We describe a case of recurrent metastatic ampullary adenocarcinoma of the pancreaticobiliary subtype treated with nanoparticle albumin-bound (nab)-paclitaxel and gemcitabine as first-line treatment. This report also highlights the molecular profile of the [...] Read more.
Ampullary adenocarcinoma is a rare malignancy that lacks standard systemic treatment. We describe a case of recurrent metastatic ampullary adenocarcinoma of the pancreaticobiliary subtype treated with nanoparticle albumin-bound (nab)-paclitaxel and gemcitabine as first-line treatment. This report also highlights the molecular profile of the ampullary adenocarcinoma and circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA). This is a case of pancreaticobiliary ampullary adenocarcinoma in a 67-year-old woman who initially presented with painless jaundice. Endoscopic and imaging evaluation revealed biliary ductal dilation secondary to an ampullary mass. Pathology confirmed the diagnosis of ampullary adenocarcinoma of the pancreaticobiliary subtype. She underwent surgical resection of the tumor, followed by adjuvant chemotherapy with gemcitabine and capecitabine. The tumor subsequently recurred in the liver. She received palliative chemotherapy with nab-paclitaxel and gemcitabine, resulting in an objective tumor response for 14 months. Molecular profiling of the tumor and ctDNA revealed a novel MATN2-RSPO RNA fusion and a novel NTRK3 mutation, respectively. Our report suggests that long-term durable response can be achieved in metastatic pancreaticobiliary ampullary adenocarcinoma using nab-paclitaxel and gemcitabine. Molecular profiling of the tumor identified a novel R-Spondin2 RNA fusion and NTRK3 mutation that can be potentially targeted for treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Diagnosis and Treatment of Cancer in Digestive Organs)
Show Figures

Figure 1

14 pages, 1931 KiB  
Article
The Role of Mesenchymal Stem Cell Secretome in the Inflammatory Mediators and the Survival Rate of Rat Model of Sepsis
by Mutiara Indah Sari, Nelva Karmila Jusuf, Delfitri Munir, Agung Putra, Tatang Bisri, Syafruddin Ilyas, Farhat Farhat, Adi Muradi Muhar, Muhammad Rusda and Mustafa Mahmud Amin
Biomedicines 2023, 11(8), 2325; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines11082325 - 21 Aug 2023
Viewed by 1325
Abstract
In sepsis, simultaneously elevated levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and interleukin (IL)-10 indicate immune response dysregulation, increasing the mortality of the host. As mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) secretome is known to have immunomodulatory effects, we aim to assess the role of MSC secretome in [...] Read more.
In sepsis, simultaneously elevated levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and interleukin (IL)-10 indicate immune response dysregulation, increasing the mortality of the host. As mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) secretome is known to have immunomodulatory effects, we aim to assess the role of MSC secretome in the inflammatory mediators (NF-κB p65 and p50, TNF-α, IL-10) and the survival rate of a rat model of sepsis. In this study, forty-eight male Rattus norvegicus rats were divided into one sham group and three groups with sepsis induction: the control group and the sepsis-induced rat groups treated with 150 μL (T1) and 300 μL (T2) of secretome. The survival rate was observed per 6 h for 48 h and plotted using the Kaplan–Meier method. Compared to the control group, T2 showed a significant decrease in the relative expression of NF-κB and the serum TNF-α level, and a significant increase in the serum IL-10 level. Meanwhile, T1 showed a significant decrease in the serum TNF-α level compared to the control group. The Kaplan–Meier Log Rank test did not show significance in the distribution of survival between T1, T2, and the control group. However, from the 18th to the 36th hour, the survival rate of T2 was lower than the survival rate of the control group and T1, with a noticeable difference between T2 and the control group, as well as T1 at the 36th hour. At the 42nd hour, the survival rate of T2 was the same as the control group and remained lower than T1. In conclusion, MSC secretome regulated the inflammatory mediators in rat model of sepsis, with a dose of 150 μL being more effective. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

15 pages, 496 KiB  
Review
Refining Liver Biopsy in Hepatocellular Carcinoma: An In-Depth Exploration of Shifting Diagnostic and Therapeutic Applications
by Zeno Spârchez, Rareș Crăciun, Iuliana Nenu, Lavinia Patricia Mocan, Mihaela Spârchez and Tudor Mocan
Biomedicines 2023, 11(8), 2324; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines11082324 - 21 Aug 2023
Viewed by 1134
Abstract
The field of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has faced significant change on multiple levels in the past few years. The increasing emphasis on the various HCC phenotypes and the emergence of novel, specific therapies have slowly paved the way for a personalized approach to [...] Read more.
The field of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has faced significant change on multiple levels in the past few years. The increasing emphasis on the various HCC phenotypes and the emergence of novel, specific therapies have slowly paved the way for a personalized approach to primary liver cancer. In this light, the role of percutaneous liver biopsy of focal lesions has shifted from a purely confirmatory method to a technique capable of providing an in-depth characterization of any nodule. Cancer subtype, gene expression, the mutational profile, and tissue biomarkers might soon become widely available through biopsy. However, indications, expectations, and techniques might suffer changes as the aim of the biopsy evolves from providing minimal proof of the disease to high-quality specimens for extensive analysis. Consequently, a revamped position of tissue biopsy is expected in HCC, following the reign of non-invasive imaging-only diagnosis. Moreover, given the advances in techniques that have recently reached the spotlight, such as liquid biopsy, concomitant use of all the available methods might gather just enough data to improve therapy selection and, ultimately, outcomes. The current review aims to discuss the changing role of liver biopsy and provide an evidence-based rationale for its use in the era of precision medicine in HCC. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Liver Cancer: From Molecular Mechanism to Therapeutic Perspectives)
25 pages, 476 KiB  
Review
Decoding the Postulated Entourage Effect of Medicinal Cannabis: What It Is and What It Isn’t
by Catalina Christensen, Martin Rose, Claus Cornett and Morten Allesø
Biomedicines 2023, 11(8), 2323; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines11082323 - 21 Aug 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3062
Abstract
The ‘entourage effect’ term was originally coined in a pre-clinical study observing endogenous bio-inactive metabolites potentiating the activity of a bioactive endocannabinoid. As a hypothetical afterthought, this was proposed to hold general relevance to the usage of products based on Cannabis sativa L. [...] Read more.
The ‘entourage effect’ term was originally coined in a pre-clinical study observing endogenous bio-inactive metabolites potentiating the activity of a bioactive endocannabinoid. As a hypothetical afterthought, this was proposed to hold general relevance to the usage of products based on Cannabis sativa L. The term was later juxtaposed to polypharmacy pertaining to full-spectrum medicinal Cannabis products exerting an overall higher effect than the single compounds. Since the emergence of the term, a discussion of its pharmacological foundation and relevance has been ongoing. Advocates suggest that the ‘entourage effect’ is the reason many patients experience an overall better effect from full-spectrum products. Critics state that the term is unfounded and used primarily for marketing purposes in the Cannabis industry. This scoping review aims to segregate the primary research claiming as well as disputing the existence of the ‘entourage effect’ from a pharmacological perspective. The literature on this topic is in its infancy. Existing pre-clinical and clinical studies are in general based on simplistic methodologies and show contradictory findings, with the clinical data mostly relying on anecdotal and real-world evidence. We propose that the ‘entourage effect’ is explained by traditional pharmacological terms pertaining to other plant-based medicinal products and polypharmacy in general (e.g., synergistic interactions and bioenhancement). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Therapeutic Potential for Cannabis and Cannabinoids 2.0)
16 pages, 3782 KiB  
Article
Apocynin, an NADPH Oxidase Enzyme Inhibitor, Prevents Amebic Liver Abscess in Hamster
by Germán Higuera-Martínez, Ivonne Maciel Arciniega-Martínez, Rosa Adriana Jarillo-Luna, Luz María Cárdenas-Jaramillo, David Levaro-Loquio, Maritza Velásquez-Torres, Edgar Abarca-Rojano, Aldo Arturo Reséndiz-Albor and Judith Pacheco-Yépez
Biomedicines 2023, 11(8), 2322; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines11082322 - 21 Aug 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 918
Abstract
Amebiasis is an intestinal infection caused by Entamoeba histolytica. Amebic liver abscess (ALA) is the most common extraintestinal complication of amebiasis. In animal models of ALA, neutrophils have been shown to be the first cells to come into contact with Entamoeba histolytica [...] Read more.
Amebiasis is an intestinal infection caused by Entamoeba histolytica. Amebic liver abscess (ALA) is the most common extraintestinal complication of amebiasis. In animal models of ALA, neutrophils have been shown to be the first cells to come into contact with Entamoeba histolytica during the initial phase of ALA. One of the multiple mechanisms by which neutrophils exhibit amebicidal activity is through reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the enzyme NADPH oxidase (NOX2), which generates and transports electrons to subsequently reduce molecular oxygen into superoxide anion. Previous reports have shown that ROS release in the susceptible animal species (hamster) is mainly stimulated by the pathogen, in turn provoking such an exacerbated inflammatory reaction that it is unable to be controlled and results in the death of the animal model. Apocynin is a natural inhibitor of NADPH oxidase. No information is available on the role of NOX in the evolution of ALA in the hamster, a susceptible model. Our study showed that administration of a selective NADPH oxidase 2 (NOX2) enzyme inhibitor significantly decreases the percentage of ALA, the size of inflammatory foci, the number of neutrophils, and NOX activity indicated by the reduction in superoxide anion (O2) production. Moreover, in vitro, the apocynin damages amoebae. Our results showed that apocynin administration induces a decrease in the activity of NOX that could favor a decrease in ALA progression. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cell Death and Inflammation in Liver Diseases)
Show Figures

Figure 1

11 pages, 2581 KiB  
Article
Induction of Skin Cancer by Long-Term Blue Light Irradiation
by Keiichi Hiramoto, Sayaka Kubo, Keiko Tsuji, Daijiro Sugiyama and Hideo Hamano
Biomedicines 2023, 11(8), 2321; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines11082321 - 21 Aug 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2835
Abstract
Presently, people are not only exposed to sunlight but also to a large amount of blue light from personal computers and smartphones. This blue light has various effects on the living body. However, its effect on the induction of skin cancer is unknown. [...] Read more.
Presently, people are not only exposed to sunlight but also to a large amount of blue light from personal computers and smartphones. This blue light has various effects on the living body. However, its effect on the induction of skin cancer is unknown. In this study, we investigated the induction of skin cancer by long-term blue light irradiation. Hairless mice were irradiated with blue light (LED; peak emission 479 nm) every day for one year, and a control was irradiated with white light (LED), green light (LED; peak emission 538 nm), and red light (LED; peak emission 629 nm) for one year, respectively. Skin cancer was induced only in the mice exposed to blue light. Long-term blue light irradiation also increased the migration of neutrophils and macrophages involved in carcinogenesis in the skin. In neutrophils, an increased expression of citH3 and PAD4 was observed, suggesting the possibility of NETosis. Conversely, in macrophages, inflammatory macrophages (type 1 macrophages) increased and anti-inflammatory macrophages (type 2 macrophages) decreased due to continuous blue light irradiation. These findings suggest that long-term continuous irradiation with blue light induces neutrophil NETosis and an increase in type 1 macrophages, resulting in skin cancer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Photodynamic Therapy in Cancer)
Show Figures

Figure 1

15 pages, 9794 KiB  
Article
Optimizing TMS Coil Placement Approaches for Targeting the Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex in Depressed Adolescents: An Electric Field Modeling Study
by Zhi-De Deng, Pei L. Robins, Moritz Dannhauer, Laura M. Haugen, John D. Port and Paul E. Croarkin
Biomedicines 2023, 11(8), 2320; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines11082320 - 21 Aug 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1922
Abstract
High-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) to the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (L-DLPFC) shows promise as a treatment for treatment-resistant depression in adolescents. Conventional rTMS coil placement strategies include the 5 cm, the Beam F3, and the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) neuronavigation [...] Read more.
High-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) to the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (L-DLPFC) shows promise as a treatment for treatment-resistant depression in adolescents. Conventional rTMS coil placement strategies include the 5 cm, the Beam F3, and the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) neuronavigation methods. The purpose of this study was to use electric field (E-field) models to compare the three targeting approaches to a computational E-field optimization coil placement method in depressed adolescents. Ten depressed adolescents (4 females, age: 15.9±1.1) participated in an open-label rTMS treatment study and were offered MRI-guided rTMS five times per week over 6–8 weeks. Head models were generated based on individual MRI images, and E-fields were simulated for the four targeting approaches. Results showed a significant difference in the induced E-fields at the L-DLPFC between the four targeting methods (χ2=24.7, p<0.001). Post hoc pairwise comparisons showed that there was a significant difference between any two of the targeting methods (Holm adjusted p<0.05), with the 5 cm rule producing the weakest E-field (46.0±17.4V/m), followed by the F3 method (87.4±35.4V/m), followed by MRI-guided (112.1±14.6V/m), and followed by the computational approach (130.1±18.1V/m). Variance analysis showed that there was a significant difference in sample variance between the groups (K2=8.0, p<0.05), with F3 having the largest variance. Participants who completed the full course of treatment had median E-fields correlated with depression symptom improvement (r=0.77, p<0.05). E-field models revealed limitations of scalp-based methods compared to MRI guidance, suggesting computational optimization could enhance dose delivery to the target. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Trends in Brain Stimulation)
Show Figures

Figure 1

12 pages, 1104 KiB  
Article
Sensory Modulation Abilities in Healthy Preterm-Born Children: An Observational Study Using the Sensory Processing and Self-Regulation Checklist (SPSRC)
by Giulia Previtali, Cynthia Y. Y. Lai, Maria Valvassori Bolgè, Anna Cavallini, Renata Nacinovich, Daniele Piscitelli and Giulia Purpura
Biomedicines 2023, 11(8), 2319; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines11082319 - 21 Aug 2023
Viewed by 1184
Abstract
This study aimed to investigate prematurity as a risk factor for sensory processing disorders, using the Italian Version of Sensory Processing and Self-Regulation Checklist (SPSRC-IT), based on a sample of healthy Italian children born preterm in comparison with a sample of typical full-term [...] Read more.
This study aimed to investigate prematurity as a risk factor for sensory processing disorders, using the Italian Version of Sensory Processing and Self-Regulation Checklist (SPSRC-IT), based on a sample of healthy Italian children born preterm in comparison with a sample of typical full-term children. Two groups of caregivers of Italian healthy preschooler children were recruited. The first group comprised 37 caregivers of full-term children (FT), while the second group consisted of 37 caregivers of preterm children (PT) (gestational age < 37 weeks). Significant differences between the groups in several subsections and factors of the SPSRC-IT were found, specifically in the Physiological Conditions section, in the Gustatory and Olfactory Sense section, in the Vestibular Sense section, and in the Proprioceptive Sense section, with lower scores in the PT group. Moreover, children born at a lower gestational age or with lower weights had a higher risk of dysfunctions in processing gustatory and olfactory, vestibular, and proprioceptive stimuli. In conclusion, the SPSRC-IT suggested a potential link between prematurity and challenges in the development of sensory processing and self-regulation skills, especially in children with a very low birth weight and very low gestational age. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neurodevelopmental Disabilities)
Show Figures

Figure 1

18 pages, 4592 KiB  
Article
The Expression Characteristics and Function of the RECQ Family in Pan-Cancer
by Yuanyuan Zhou, Xucheng Huang, Liya Wang and Yujia Luo
Biomedicines 2023, 11(8), 2318; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines11082318 - 21 Aug 2023
Viewed by 1163
Abstract
Background: The genes of the RECQ DNA helicase family play a part in preserving the stability of the genome and controlling different disease mechanisms. However, the expression features of RECQs in relation to pan-cancer, their correlation with the immune microenvironment of tumors, and [...] Read more.
Background: The genes of the RECQ DNA helicase family play a part in preserving the stability of the genome and controlling different disease mechanisms. However, the expression features of RECQs in relation to pan-cancer, their correlation with the immune microenvironment of tumors, and the landscape of prognostic power are still undisclosed. Methods: Various sequence and clinical data extracted from 33 cancers were utilized to generate a comprehensive overview of RECQs in the landscape. Afterward, we discovered variations in gene expression, potential enrichment of functions, genetic alterations, and analysis related to the immune response in tumors. Additionally, we explored the clinical characteristics and diagnostic significance of RECQs. And the important association of RECQL4 with liver hepatocellular carcinoma (LIHC) was investigated. Results: RECQs exhibited extensive mutations in different types of cancers. The expression of RECQ may be influenced by an oncogenic mutation in certain types of cancer, resulting in the observed genomic and epigenetic changes in diverse tumor formations. Furthermore, RECQs originating from tumors exhibited a significant association with the immune microenvironment of the tumor, indicating their potential as promising targets for therapy. Patient prognosis was significantly associated with the majority of genes in the RECQ family. In LIHC, RECQL4 eventually emerged as a separate prognostic determinant. Conclusions: To summarize, RECQs are essential for the regulation of the immune system in tumors, and RECQL4 serves as a prognostic indicator in LIHC. The results of our study offer fresh perspectives on RECQs from a bioinformatics perspective and emphasize the importance of RECQs in the diagnosis and treatment of cancer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Cancer Biology and Oncology)
Show Figures

Figure 1

12 pages, 2187 KiB  
Article
Catfish Egg Lectin Enhances the Cytotoxicity of Sunitinib on Gb3-Expressing Renal Cancer Cells
by Jun Ito, Shigeki Sugawara, Takeo Tatsuta, Masahiro Hosono and Makoto Sato
Biomedicines 2023, 11(8), 2317; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines11082317 - 21 Aug 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 785
Abstract
Metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is not sufficiently responsive to anticancer drugs, and thus, developing new drugs for advanced RCC remains vital. We previously reported that the treatment of globotriaosylceramide (Gb3)-expressing cells with catfish (Silurus asotus) egg lectin (SAL) increased the [...] Read more.
Metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is not sufficiently responsive to anticancer drugs, and thus, developing new drugs for advanced RCC remains vital. We previously reported that the treatment of globotriaosylceramide (Gb3)-expressing cells with catfish (Silurus asotus) egg lectin (SAL) increased the intracellular uptake of propidium iodide (PI) and sunitinib (SU). Herein, we investigated whether SAL pretreatment affects the intracellular uptake and cytotoxic effects of molecular-targeted drugs in RCC cells. We analyzed Gb3 expression in TOS1, TOS3, TOS3LN, and ACHN human RCC cells. Surface Gb3 expression was higher in TOS1 and TOS3 cells than in TOS3LN and ACHN cells. In the PI uptake assay, 41.5% of TOS1 cells and 21.1% of TOS3 cells treated with SAL were positive for PI. TOS1 cell viability decreased to 70% after treatment with 25 µM SU alone and to 48% after pretreatment with SAL (50 µg/mL). Time-series measurements of the intracellular fluorescence of SU revealed significantly enhanced SU uptake in SAL-treated TOS1 cells compared to control cells. SAL treatment did not increase PI uptake in normal renal cells. Our findings suggest that adequate cytotoxic activity may be achieved even when SU is administered at a sufficiently low dose not to cause side effects in combination with SAL. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in the Treatment of Kidney and Upper Urinary Tract Cancers)
Show Figures

Figure 1

15 pages, 4795 KiB  
Article
Pharmacodynamic Model of the Dynamic Response of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Biofilms to Antibacterial Treatments
by Swarnima Roychowdhury and Charles M. Roth
Biomedicines 2023, 11(8), 2316; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines11082316 - 21 Aug 2023
Viewed by 861
Abstract
Accurate pharmacokinetic–pharmacodynamic (PK-PD) models of biofilm treatment could be used to guide formulation and administration strategies to better control bacterial lung infections. To this end, we developed a detailed pharmacodynamic model of P. aeruginosa treatment with the front-line antibiotics, tobramycin and colistin, and [...] Read more.
Accurate pharmacokinetic–pharmacodynamic (PK-PD) models of biofilm treatment could be used to guide formulation and administration strategies to better control bacterial lung infections. To this end, we developed a detailed pharmacodynamic model of P. aeruginosa treatment with the front-line antibiotics, tobramycin and colistin, and validated it on a detailed dataset of killing dynamics. A compartmental model structure was developed in which the key features are the diffusion of the drug through a boundary layer to the bacteria, concentration-dependent interactions with bacteria, and the passage of the bacteria through successive transit states before death. The number of transit states employed was greater for tobramycin, which is a ribosomal inhibitor, than for colistin, which disrupts bacterial membranes. For both drugs, the experimentally observed delay in the killing of bacteria following drug exposure was consistent with the sum of the diffusion time and the time for passage through the transit states. For each drug, the PD model with a single set of parameters described data across a ten-fold range of concentrations and for both continuous and transient exposure protocols, as well as for combined drug treatments. The ability to predict drug response over a range of administration protocols allows this PD model to be integrated with PK descriptions to describe in vivo antibiotic response dynamics and to predict drug delivery strategies for the improved control of bacterial lung infections. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biofilms at Interfaces)
Show Figures

Figure 1

14 pages, 1316 KiB  
Review
Non-Surgical Treatments of Trigeminal Neuralgia from the Perspective of a Pain Physician: A Narrative Review
by Jin Young Lee, Gil Ho Lee, Seung Hyun Yi, Woo Seog Sim, Bae Wook Kim and Hue Jung Park
Biomedicines 2023, 11(8), 2315; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines11082315 - 21 Aug 2023
Viewed by 2194
Abstract
Trigeminal neuralgia (TN) is a unilateral disorder characterized by electric shock-like pain, abrupt onset and termination, and limited to one or more branches of the trigeminal nerve. Various therapeutic modalities for TN have been introduced. We searched for literature indexed in PubMed, Medline, [...] Read more.
Trigeminal neuralgia (TN) is a unilateral disorder characterized by electric shock-like pain, abrupt onset and termination, and limited to one or more branches of the trigeminal nerve. Various therapeutic modalities for TN have been introduced. We searched for literature indexed in PubMed, Medline, and the National Library of Medicine and reviewed all relevant articles on non-surgical treatments for TN. Published studies were reviewed with no restrictions on date; reviews, clinical trials, animal studies, retrospective studies, and cases were included. Carbamazepine and oxcarbazepine are the recommended first-line pharmacotherapies. Interventional treatments should be considered when pharmacotherapy is insufficient or withdrawn because of adverse effects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pathogenesis and Therapy of Neurovascular Compression Syndromes)
Show Figures

Figure 1

15 pages, 46497 KiB  
Article
Zyxin Inhibits the Proliferation, Migration, and Invasion of Osteosarcoma via Rap1-Mediated Inhibition of the MEK/ERK Signaling Pathway
by Zhun Wei, Kezhou Xia, Bin Zhou, Di Zheng and Weichun Guo
Biomedicines 2023, 11(8), 2314; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines11082314 - 21 Aug 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 947
Abstract
Zyxin (ZYX) is an actin-interacting protein with unknown biological functions in patients with osteosarcoma. This research sought to understand how ZYX affects the biological behavior of osteosarcoma cells and to identify the associated mechanism. Firstly, ZYX expression was decreased in osteosarcoma, and its [...] Read more.
Zyxin (ZYX) is an actin-interacting protein with unknown biological functions in patients with osteosarcoma. This research sought to understand how ZYX affects the biological behavior of osteosarcoma cells and to identify the associated mechanism. Firstly, ZYX expression was decreased in osteosarcoma, and its higher expression indicated better outcomes in patients with osteosarcoma. ZYX overexpression significantly inhibited the proliferation, migration, and invasion of osteosarcoma cells, whereas ZYX silencing resulted in the opposite trend. Subsequently, we found that the Rap1 signaling pathway was significantly correlated with ZYX expression as reported in The Cancer Genome Atlas’s database using bioinformatic analysis. Moreover, we found that ZYX overexpression regulated the Rap1/MEK/ERK axis, and osteosarcoma cell growth, migration, and invasion were consequently restrained. Additionally, by administering tumor cells subcutaneously to nude mice, a mouse model of transplanted tumors was created. Compared to the control group, the ZYX overexpression group’s tumors were lighter and smaller, and the ZYX/Rap1 axis was activated in the ZYX overexpression group. Taken together, our results suggest that ZYX inhibits osteosarcoma cell proliferation, migration, and invasion by regulating the Rap1/MEK/ERK signaling pathway. ZYX might be crucial in the clinical management of osteosarcoma and is a promising novel therapeutic target in patients with this disease. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Cancer Biology and Oncology)
Show Figures

Figure 1

22 pages, 1905 KiB  
Review
Recent Advances in Microbiota-Associated Metabolites in Heart Failure
by Sepiso K. Masenga, Joreen P. Povia, Propheria C. Lwiindi and Annet Kirabo
Biomedicines 2023, 11(8), 2313; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines11082313 - 21 Aug 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2414
Abstract
Heart failure is a risk factor for adverse events such as sudden cardiac arrest, liver and kidney failure and death. The gut microbiota and its metabolites are directly linked to the pathogenesis of heart failure. As emerging studies have increased in the literature [...] Read more.
Heart failure is a risk factor for adverse events such as sudden cardiac arrest, liver and kidney failure and death. The gut microbiota and its metabolites are directly linked to the pathogenesis of heart failure. As emerging studies have increased in the literature on the role of specific gut microbiota metabolites in heart failure development, this review highlights and summarizes the current evidence and underlying mechanisms associated with the pathogenesis of heart failure. We found that gut microbiota-derived metabolites such as short chain fatty acids, bile acids, branched-chain amino acids, tryptophan and indole derivatives as well as trimethylamine-derived metabolite, trimethylamine N-oxide, play critical roles in promoting heart failure through various mechanisms. Mainly, they modulate complex signaling pathways such as nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells, Bcl-2 interacting protein 3, NLR Family Pyrin Domain Containing inflammasome, and Protein kinase RNA-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase. We have also highlighted the beneficial role of other gut metabolites in heart failure and other cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Gut Microbiome and Heart Failure)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

16 pages, 1419 KiB  
Review
The Role of Novel Imaging and Biofluid Biomarkers in Traumatic Axonal Injury: An Updated Review
by Marios Lampros, Nikolaos Vlachos, Parmenion P. Tsitsopoulos, Anastasia K. Zikou, Maria I. Argyropoulou, Spyridon Voulgaris and George A. Alexiou
Biomedicines 2023, 11(8), 2312; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines11082312 - 20 Aug 2023
Viewed by 968
Abstract
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a leading cause of disability worldwide. Traumatic axonal injury (TAI) is a subtype of TBI resulting from high-impact forces that cause shearing and/or stretching of the axonal fibers in white matter tracts. It is present in almost half [...] Read more.
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a leading cause of disability worldwide. Traumatic axonal injury (TAI) is a subtype of TBI resulting from high-impact forces that cause shearing and/or stretching of the axonal fibers in white matter tracts. It is present in almost half of cases of severe TBI and frequently associated with poor functional outcomes. Axonal injury results from axonotomy due to mechanical forces and the activation of a biochemical cascade that induces the activation of proteases. It occurs at a cellular level; hence, conventional imaging modalities often fail to display TAI lesions. However, the advent of novel imaging modalities, such as functional magnetic resonance imaging and fiber tractography, has significantly improved the detection and characteristics of TAI. Furthermore, the significance of several fluid and structural biomarkers has also been researched, while the contribution of omics in the detection of novel biomarkers is currently under investigation. In the present review, we discuss the role of imaging modalities and potential biomarkers in diagnosing, classifying, and predicting the outcome in patients with TAI. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Neurobiology and Clinical Neuroscience)
Show Figures

Figure 1

13 pages, 1294 KiB  
Article
Renal Disorders with Oral Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors in Metastatic Colorectal Cancer: An Analysis from the FDA Adverse Event Reporting System Database
by Giulia Russo, Maria Antonietta Barbieri, Emanuela Elisa Sorbara, Giuseppe Cicala, Tindara Franchina, Mariacarmela Santarpia, Nicola Silvestris and Edoardo Spina
Biomedicines 2023, 11(8), 2311; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines11082311 - 20 Aug 2023
Viewed by 1345
Abstract
Background: this study assessed the nephrotoxicity of regorafenib (REG) and encorafenib (ENC) in metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) through an analysis of reports from the US Food and Drug Administration’s Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS) database. Methods: descriptive and disproportional analyses were performed for [...] Read more.
Background: this study assessed the nephrotoxicity of regorafenib (REG) and encorafenib (ENC) in metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) through an analysis of reports from the US Food and Drug Administration’s Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS) database. Methods: descriptive and disproportional analyses were performed for all reports using ENC and REG as the primary suspect. Results: A total of 379 reports had at least one renal adverse drug reaction (ADR), and these ADRs were mainly related to REG (93.1%). Potential safety signals for REG included chromaturia (n = 44; ROR = 12.00, CI 95% = 8.92–16.16; IC = 2.36, IC025–IC075 = 2.06–2.66), hydronephrosis (10; 8.70, 4.67–16.19; 1.85, 1.23–2.47), nephrotic syndrome (7; 5.73, 2.73–12.03; 1.47, 0.73–2.21), renal impairment (53; 4.16, 3.17–5.45; 1.39, 1.12–1.66), dysuria (19; 3.06, 1.95–4.81; 1.06, 0.61–1.52), renal failure (38; 1.66, 1.20–2.28; 0.49, 0.17–0.81), and acute kidney injury (AKI) (43; 1.46, 1.08–1.97; 0.37, 0.07–0.67). For ENC, consistent disproportionalities were observed for AKI (n = 11; ROR = 3.79, CI 95% = 2.09–6.90; IC = 1.32, IC025–IC075 = 0.72–1.91) and dysuria (4; 6.50, 2.43–17.39; 1.86, 0.88–2.85). Conclusions: these findings highlight some not extensively reported renal ADRs that require further investigations to better characterize the safety profiles of REG and ENC in patients with mCRC. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Cancer Biology and Oncology)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

21 pages, 2202 KiB  
Article
Isolation of Fucoxanthin from Sargassum oligocystum Montagne, 1845 Seaweed in Vietnam and Its Neuroprotective Activity
by Dang Diem Hong, Le Thi Thom, Nguyen Cam Ha, Ngo Thi Hoai Thu, Hoang Thi Minh Hien, Luu Thi Tam, Nguyen Manh Dat, Tran Mai Duc, Nguyen Van Tru, Nguyen Thi Minh Hang and Ranga Rao Ambati
Biomedicines 2023, 11(8), 2310; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines11082310 - 19 Aug 2023
Viewed by 1562
Abstract
Fucoxanthin extracted and purified from Vietnamese Sargassum oligocystum Montagne, 1845 exhibits various biological activities. In this study, the ability of fucoxanthin to inhibit acetylcholinesterase (AChE), the antioxidant activities, and the expression of antioxidant enzymes were investigated. Fucoxanthin isolated from Vietnamese S. oligocystum showed [...] Read more.
Fucoxanthin extracted and purified from Vietnamese Sargassum oligocystum Montagne, 1845 exhibits various biological activities. In this study, the ability of fucoxanthin to inhibit acetylcholinesterase (AChE), the antioxidant activities, and the expression of antioxidant enzymes were investigated. Fucoxanthin isolated from Vietnamese S. oligocystum showed no cytotoxic effects; moreover, it exhibited AChE inhibitory activity (with an IC50 value of 130.12 ± 6.65 μg mL−1) and antioxidant activity (with an IC50 value of 3.42 ± 0.15 mg mL−1). At concentrations of 50 and 100 µg mL−1, fucoxanthin provided protection against amyloid β-protein fragment 25–35-induced neurotoxicity in a C6 neuronal cell line, and the survival of C6 cells was higher than 81.01% and 80.98%, respectively, compared to the control group (59%). Moreover, antioxidant enzyme activity and quantitative PCR analysis suggested that the neuroprotective effect of fucoxanthin resulted from regulation of the gene expression of antioxidant enzymes (CAT and GPx) and ER pathways (caspase-3 and Bax), as well as the promotion of expression of genes involved in PI3K/Akt signaling (GSK-3β), autophagy (p62 and ATG5), and the biosynthesis of ACh (VAChT and ChAT). Therefore, fucoxanthin extracted from the seaweed S. oligocystum in Vietnam is a potential feedstock source for the production of health foods that exert neuroprotective effects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Drug Discovery, Development and Delivery)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

13 pages, 694 KiB  
Review
Adipocyte-Derived Adipokines and Other Obesity-Associated Molecules in Feline Mammary Cancer
by Taylor Marshall, Jing Chen and Alicia M. Viloria-Petit
Biomedicines 2023, 11(8), 2309; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines11082309 - 19 Aug 2023
Viewed by 1028
Abstract
Obesity has been identified as a serious health concern in domestic cats. Feline mammary cancer (FMC) is also a concern, as it is highly prevalent and aggressive. Considering the identified connection between obesity and breast cancer, it is worthwhile to investigate the potential [...] Read more.
Obesity has been identified as a serious health concern in domestic cats. Feline mammary cancer (FMC) is also a concern, as it is highly prevalent and aggressive. Considering the identified connection between obesity and breast cancer, it is worthwhile to investigate the potential obesity–cancer relationship in FMC. This review investigated the association between adipokines and other obesity-associated molecules and FMC, with the aim of identifying gaps in the current literature for future research. Based on the reports to date, it was found that tissue concentrations of leptin, serum concentrations of leptin receptor, serum amyloid A, and estrogen correlate positively with FMC, and serum concentrations of leptin correlate negatively with FMC. The roles of adiponectin and prolactin in FMC development were also investigated, but the reports are either lacking or insufficient to suggest an association. Numerous research gaps were identified and could be used as opportunities for future research. These include the need for studies on additional cohorts to confirm the association of leptin/leptin receptor and serum amyloid A with FMC, and to address the role of adiponectin and prolactin in FMC. It is also important to investigate the genetic determinants of FMC, evaluate the use of molecular-targeted therapies in FMC, and exploit the enrichment of the triple-negative immunophenotype in FMC to address current clinical needs for both human triple-negative breast cancer and FMC. Finally, mechanistic studies with any of the molecules reviewed are scarce and are important to generate hypotheses and ultimately advance our knowledge and the outcome of FMC. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Reviews in Adipokines)
Show Figures

Figure 1

12 pages, 1419 KiB  
Article
Novel Gene Polymorphisms for Stable Warfarin Dose in a Korean Population: Genome-Wide Association Study
by Jung Sun Kim, Sak Lee, Jeong Yee, Kyemyung Park, Eun Jeong Jang, Byung Chul Chang and Hye Sun Gwak
Biomedicines 2023, 11(8), 2308; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines11082308 - 19 Aug 2023
Viewed by 735
Abstract
Warfarin has a narrow therapeutic window and high intra- and inter-individual variability. Considering that many published papers on genotype-guided dosing are derived from European populations, the aim of this study was to investigate novel genetic variants associated with the variability of stable warfarin [...] Read more.
Warfarin has a narrow therapeutic window and high intra- and inter-individual variability. Considering that many published papers on genotype-guided dosing are derived from European populations, the aim of this study was to investigate novel genetic variants associated with the variability of stable warfarin dose in the Korean population with cardiac valve replacement, using the GWAS approach. This retrospective cohort study was performed from January 1982 to December 2020 at the Severance Cardiovascular Hospital of Yonsei University College of Medicine. GWAS was performed to identify associations between genotypes and the warfarin maintenance dose, by comparing the allele frequency of genetic variants between individuals. Then, the extent of genetic and non-genetic factors on the dose variability was determined by multivariable regression analysis. The study enrolled 214 participants, and the most robust signal cluster was detected on chromosome 16 around VKORC1. Followed by VKORC1, three novel variants (NKX2-6 rs310279, FRAS1 rs4386623, and FAM201A rs1890109) showed an association with stable warfarin dose requirement in univariate analysis. The algorithm was constructed by using multivariable analysis that includes genetic and non-genetic factors, and it could explain 58.5% of the variations in stable warfarin doses. In this variability, VKORC1 rs9934438 and FRAS1 rs4386623 accounted for 33.0% and 9.9%, respectively. This GWAS analysis identified the fact that three novel variants (NKX2-6 rs310279, FRAS1 rs4386623, and FAM201A rs1890109) were associated with stable warfarin doses. Additional research is necessary to validate the results and establish personalized treatment strategies for the Korean population. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Molecular Genetics and Genetic Diseases)
Show Figures

Figure 1

24 pages, 10159 KiB  
Article
Trigeminal Stimulation and Visuospatial Performance: The Struggle between Chewing and Trigeminal Asymmetries
by Maria Paola Tramonti Fantozzi, Vincenzo De Cicco, Paola d’Ascanio, Enrico Cataldo, Davide De Cicco, Luca Bruschini, Massimo Barresi, Ugo Faraguna and Diego Manzoni
Biomedicines 2023, 11(8), 2307; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines11082307 - 19 Aug 2023
Viewed by 663
Abstract
Chewing improves visuospatial performance through locus coeruleus (LC) activation. The effects of bilateral and unilateral mastication were investigated in subjects showing different degrees of asymmetry in masseter electromyographic (EMG) activity during clenching and in pupil size at rest (anisocoria), which is a proxy [...] Read more.
Chewing improves visuospatial performance through locus coeruleus (LC) activation. The effects of bilateral and unilateral mastication were investigated in subjects showing different degrees of asymmetry in masseter electromyographic (EMG) activity during clenching and in pupil size at rest (anisocoria), which is a proxy of LC imbalance. Correlations between performance changes and asymmetry values were found in males, but not in females. Among males, subjects with low asymmetry values (balanced-BAL) were more sensitive than those with high asymmetry values (imbalanced-IMB) to bilateral and unilateral chewing on the side with higher EMG activity (hypertonic). The opposite was true for hypotonic side chewing. BAL subjects were sensitive to unilateral chewing on both sides, while in IMB subjects, hypertonic side chewing did not influence performance in either males or females. Bilateral chewing elicited larger effects in BAL subjects than in IMB subjects, exceeding the values predicted from unilateral chewing in both groups. Finally, pupil size and anisocoria changes elicited by chewing were correlated with asymmetry values, independent of sex. Data confirmed the facilitation of visuospatial performance exerted by chewing. Trigeminal asymmetries modulate the chewing effects, making occlusal rebalancing an appropriate strategy to improve performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Research in Trigeminal Nerve Stimulation)
Show Figures

Figure 1

13 pages, 1015 KiB  
Article
Comprehensive Assessment of Mid-Regional Proadrenomedullin, Procalcitonin, Neuron-Specific Enolase and Protein S100 for Predicting Pediatric Severe Trauma Outcomes
by Rustam Zakirov, Svetlana Petrichuk, Olga Yanyushkina, Elena Semikina, Marina Vershinina and Olga Karaseva
Biomedicines 2023, 11(8), 2306; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines11082306 - 19 Aug 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 689
Abstract
The development of multiple organ failure and septic complications increases the cumulative risk of mortality in children with severe injury. Clinically available biochemical markers have shown promise in assessing the severity and predicting the development of complications and outcomes in such cases. This [...] Read more.
The development of multiple organ failure and septic complications increases the cumulative risk of mortality in children with severe injury. Clinically available biochemical markers have shown promise in assessing the severity and predicting the development of complications and outcomes in such cases. This study aimed to determine informative criteria for assessing the severity and outcome prediction of severe injury in children based on levels of mid-regional proadrenomedullin (MR-proADM) procalcitonin (PCT), neuron-specific enolase (NSE), and protein S100. Biomarker levels were measured in 52 children with severe injury (ISS ≥ 16) on the 1st, 3rd, 7th, and 14th days after admission to the ICU. The children were divided into groups based on their favorable (n = 44) or unfavorable (n = 8) outcomes according to the Severe Injury Outcome Scale, as well as their favorable (n = 35) or unfavorable (n = 15) outcomes according to the Glasgow Coma Outcome Scale (GOS). The study also evaluated the significance of biomarker levels in predicting septic complications (with SC (n = 16) and without SC (n = 36)) and diagnosing and stratifying multiple organ failure (with MOF (n = 8) and without MOF (n = 44)). A comprehensive assessment of MR-proADM and PCT provided the highest diagnostic and prognostic efficacy for early diagnosis, risk stratification of multiple organ failure, and outcome prediction in severe injury cases involving children. Additionally, the inclusion of the S100 protein in the study allowed for further assessment of brain damage in cases of traumatic brain injury (TBI), contributing to the overall prognostic model. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Molecular Genetics and Genetic Diseases)
Show Figures

Figure 1

12 pages, 1049 KiB  
Article
Comparison of the Fecal Bacteriome of HIV-Positive and HIV-Negative Older Adults
by Matilde Sánchez-Conde, Claudio Alba, Irma Castro, Fernando Dronda, Margarita Ramírez, Rebeca Arroyo, Santiago Moreno, Juan Miguel Rodríguez and Fátima Brañas
Biomedicines 2023, 11(8), 2305; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines11082305 - 19 Aug 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1408
Abstract
HIV infection is considered a scenario of accelerated aging. Previous studies have suggested a link between aging, frailty, and gut dysbiosis, but there is a knowledge gap regarding the HIV population. Our objective was to compare the fecal bacteriome of older people with [...] Read more.
HIV infection is considered a scenario of accelerated aging. Previous studies have suggested a link between aging, frailty, and gut dysbiosis, but there is a knowledge gap regarding the HIV population. Our objective was to compare the fecal bacteriome of older people with HIV (PWH) and non-HIV controls, and to assess potential links between gut dysbiosis and frailty. A total of 36 fecal samples (24 from PWH and 12 from non-HIV controls) were submitted to a metataxonomic analysis targeting the V3–V4 hypervariable region of the 16S rRNA gene. High-quality reads were assembled and classified into operational taxonomic units. Alpha diversity, assessed using the Shannon index, was higher in the control group than in the HIV group (p < 0.05). The relative abundance of the genus Blautia was higher in the HIV group (p < 0.001). The presence of Blautia was also higher in PWH with depression (p = 0.004), whereas the opposite was observed for the genus Bifidobacterium (p = 0.004). Our study shows shifts in the composition of the PWH bacteriome when compared to that of healthy controls. To our knowledge, this is the first study suggesting a potential link between depression and gut dysbiosis in the HIV population. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Feature Papers in Microbiology in Human Health and Disease)
Show Figures

Figure 1

19 pages, 938 KiB  
Article
Initial Weight Loss, Anthropometric Parameters, and Proinflammatory Transcript Levels in Patients with Class I Obesity
by Beata Jabłonowska-Lietz, Grażyna Nowicka, Marta Włodarczyk, Sławomir Rejowski, Maria Stasiowska and Małgorzata Wrzosek
Biomedicines 2023, 11(8), 2304; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines11082304 - 18 Aug 2023
Viewed by 1053
Abstract
Research into early predictors of effective weight loss could help determine more effective therapeutic interventions. In this study, 106 subjects with class I obesity, genotyped with the fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO) rs9930506 gene variant, were enrolled into a 12-week weight [...] Read more.
Research into early predictors of effective weight loss could help determine more effective therapeutic interventions. In this study, 106 subjects with class I obesity, genotyped with the fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO) rs9930506 gene variant, were enrolled into a 12-week weight loss program (WLP). Anthropometric and body composition measurements were controlled with bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) at baseline and after 4 and 12 weeks. Biopsies of abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue (AT) and venous blood samples were collected to monitor changes in interleukin 6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) mRNA levels in white blood cells (WBCs) and to assess if changes in WBC gene expression reflected changes in adipose tissue. The FTO rs9930506 variant had no effect on weight loss and no reduction in proinflammatory transcripts in WBCs or AT. Changes in anthropometric parameters were associated with changes in carbohydrate metabolism. A linear regression model showed that initial weight loss (after 4 weeks of the WLP) was the most predictive factor of weight loss success after 12 weeks of the WLP. Changes in plasma lipids or proinflammatory transcript levels in WBCs or AT were not associated with weight loss effectiveness. However, the gene expression in WBCs did reflect changes occurring in subcutaneous AT. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Molecular and Translational Medicine in Poland)
Show Figures

Figure 1

10 pages, 988 KiB  
Article
SLC22A3 rs2048327 Polymorphism Is Associated with Diabetic Retinopathy in Caucasians with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
by Emin Grbić, Mojca Globočnik Petrovič, Ines Cilenšek and Danijel Petrovič
Biomedicines 2023, 11(8), 2303; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines11082303 - 18 Aug 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1046
Abstract
The Solute Carrier Family 22 Member 3 (SLC22A3) is a high-capacity, low-affinity transporter for the neurotransmitters norepinephrine, epinephrine, dopamine, serotonin, and histamine. SLC22A3 plays important roles in interorgan and interorganism small-molecule communication, and also regulates local and overall homeostasis in the body. Our [...] Read more.
The Solute Carrier Family 22 Member 3 (SLC22A3) is a high-capacity, low-affinity transporter for the neurotransmitters norepinephrine, epinephrine, dopamine, serotonin, and histamine. SLC22A3 plays important roles in interorgan and interorganism small-molecule communication, and also regulates local and overall homeostasis in the body. Our aim was to investigate the association between the rs2048327 gene polymorphism and diabetic retinopathy (DR) in Slovenian patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). We also investigated SLC22A3 expression in the fibrovascular membranes (FVMs) of patients with proliferative DR (PDR). Our study involved 1555 unrelated Caucasians with T2DM with a defined ophthalmologic status: 577 of them with DR as the study group, and 978 without DR as the control group. The investigated polymorphisms were genotyped using the KASPar genotyping assay. The expression of SLC22A3 (organic cation transporter 3—OCT3) was examined via immunohistochemistry in human FVM from 16 patients with PDR. The C allele and CC genotype frequencies of the rs2048327 polymorphism were significantly higher in the study group compared to the controls. The logistic regression analysis showed that the carriers of the CC genotype in the recessive genetic models of this polymorphism have a 1.531-fold increase (95% CI 1.083–2.161) in the risk of developing DR. Patients with the C allele of rs2048327 compared to the homozygotes for the wild type T allele exhibited a higher density of SLC22A3 (OCT3)-positive cells (10.5 ± 4.5/mm2 vs. 6.1 ± 2.7/mm2, respectively; p < 0.001). We showed the association of the rs2048327 SLC22A3 gene polymorphism with DR in a Slovenian cohort with type 2 diabetes mellitus, indicating its possible role as a genetic risk factor for the development of this diabetic complication. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Research and Recent Advances in Diabetic Retinopathy)
Show Figures

Figure 1

11 pages, 1267 KiB  
Article
Survival Benefit after Shifting from Upfront Surgery to Neoadjuvant Treatment in Borderline Resectable Pancreatic Cancer
by Hyun Jeong Jeon, Soo Yeun Lim, HyeJeong Jeong, So Jeong Yoon, Hongbeom Kim, Sang Hyun Shin, Jin Seok Heo and In Woong Han
Biomedicines 2023, 11(8), 2302; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines11082302 - 18 Aug 2023
Viewed by 884
Abstract
According to the 2016 National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) guidelines, patients with borderline resectable pancreatic cancer (BRPC) should receive chemotherapy as the first-line treatment. This study examined the real-world survival benefits of modifying BRPC treatment guidelines. Patients treated for BRPC at a single [...] Read more.
According to the 2016 National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) guidelines, patients with borderline resectable pancreatic cancer (BRPC) should receive chemotherapy as the first-line treatment. This study examined the real-world survival benefits of modifying BRPC treatment guidelines. Patients treated for BRPC at a single institution from 2013 to 2015 (pre-guideline group) and 2017 to 2019 (post-guideline group) were retrospectively reviewed. According to the treatment method used, patients were classified into upfront surgery (US), surgery after neoadjuvant treatment (NAT), and chemotherapy only (CO) groups. Overall survival (OS) was compared according to period and treatment type. Factors associated with OS were analyzed using a Cox regression model. Among the 165 patients, 63 were in the pre-guideline group and 102 patients were in the post-guideline group. The median OS was significantly improved in the post-guideline group compared to the pre-guideline group (29 vs. 13 months, p < 0.001). According to the treatment method, the median OS of the NAT group was significantly longer than that of the US and CO groups (40 vs. 16 vs. 15 months, respectively, p < 0.001). In multivariate analysis, tumor size, differentiation, NAT, and perineural invasion were significant prognostic factors. NAT is an important treatment option for BRPC and increased patient survival in the real world. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

16 pages, 2525 KiB  
Article
Thrombosis and Hyperinflammation in COVID-19 Acute Phase Are Related to Anti-Phosphatidylserine and Anti-Phosphatidylinositol Antibody Positivity
by Jaume Alijotas-Reig, Ariadna Anunciación-Llunell, Stephanie Morales-Pérez, Jaume Trapé, Enrique Esteve-Valverde and Francesc Miro-Mur
Biomedicines 2023, 11(8), 2301; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines11082301 - 18 Aug 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1020
Abstract
Antiphospholipid antibodies (APLA) are strongly associated with thrombosis seen in patients with antiphospholipid syndrome. In COVID-19, thrombosis has been observed as one of the main comorbidities. In patients hospitalised for COVID-19, we want to check whether APLA positivity is associated with COVID-19-related thrombosis, [...] Read more.
Antiphospholipid antibodies (APLA) are strongly associated with thrombosis seen in patients with antiphospholipid syndrome. In COVID-19, thrombosis has been observed as one of the main comorbidities. In patients hospitalised for COVID-19, we want to check whether APLA positivity is associated with COVID-19-related thrombosis, inflammation, severity of disease, or long COVID-19. We enrolled 92 hospitalised patients with COVID-19 between March and April 2020 who were tested for 18 different APLAs (IgG and IgM) with a single line-immunoassay test. A total of 30 healthy blood donors were used to set the cut-off for each APLA positivity. Of the 92 COVID-19 inpatients, 30 (32.61%; 95% CI [23.41–43.29]) tested positive for APLA, of whom 10 (33.3%; 95% CI [17.94–52.86]) had more than one APLA positivity. Anti-phosphatidylserine IgM positivity was described in 5.4% of inpatients (n = 5) and was associated with the occurrence of COVID-19-related thrombosis (p = 0.046). Anti-cardiolipin IgM positivity was the most prevalent among the inpatients (n = 12, 13.0%) and was associated with a recorded thrombosis in their clinical history (p = 0.044); however, its positivity was not associated with the occurrence of thrombosis during their hospitalisation for COVID-19. Anti-phosphatidylinositol IgM positivity, with a prevalence of 5.4% (n = 5), was associated with higher levels of interleukin (IL)-6 (p = 0.007) and ferritin (p = 0.034). Neither of these APLA positivities was a risk factor for COVID-19 severity or a predictive marker for long COVID-19. In conclusion, almost a third of COVID-19 inpatients tested positive for at least one APLA. Anti-phosphatidylserine positivity in IgM class was associated with thrombosis, and anti-phosphatidylinositol positivity in IgM class was associated with inflammation, as noticed by elevated levels of IL-6. Thus, testing for non-criteria APLA to assess the risk of clinical complications in hospitalised COVID-19 patients might be beneficial. However, they were not related to disease severity or long COVID-19. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Basic and Clinical Researches of Antiphospholipid Syndrome)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

30 pages, 1724 KiB  
Review
ER Negative Breast Cancer and miRNA: There Is More to Decipher Than What the Pathologist Can See!
by Ghada Chamandi, Layal El-Hajjar, Abdallah El Kurdi, Morgane Le Bras, Rihab Nasr and Jacqueline Lehmann-Che
Biomedicines 2023, 11(8), 2300; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines11082300 - 18 Aug 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1444
Abstract
Breast cancer (BC), the most prevalent cancer in women, is a heterogenous disease. Despite advancements in BC diagnosis, prognosis, and therapeutics, survival rates have drastically decreased in the metastatic setting. Therefore, BC still remains a medical challenge. The evolution of high-throughput technology has [...] Read more.
Breast cancer (BC), the most prevalent cancer in women, is a heterogenous disease. Despite advancements in BC diagnosis, prognosis, and therapeutics, survival rates have drastically decreased in the metastatic setting. Therefore, BC still remains a medical challenge. The evolution of high-throughput technology has highlighted gaps in the classification system of BCs. Of particular interest is the notorious triple negative BC, which was recounted as being heterogenous itself and it overlaps with distinct subtypes, namely molecular apocrine (MA) and luminal androgen (LAR) BCs. These subtypes are, even today, still misdiagnosed and poorly treated. As such, researchers and clinicians have been looking for ways through which to refine BC classification in order to properly understand the initiation, development, progression, and the responses to the treatment of BCs. One tool is biomarkers and, specifically, microRNA (miRNA), which are highly reported as associated with BC carcinogenesis. In this review, the diverse roles of miRNA in estrogen receptor negative (ER−) and androgen receptor positive (AR+) BC are depicted. While highlighting their oncogenic and tumor suppressor functions in tumor progression, we will discuss their diagnostic, prognostic, and predictive biomarker potentials, as well as their drug sensitivity/resistance activity. The association of several miRNAs in the KEGG-reported pathways that are related to ER-BC carcinogenesis is presented. The identification and verification of accurate miRNA panels is a cornerstone for tackling BC classification setbacks, as is also the deciphering of the carcinogenesis regulators of ER − AR + BC. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Cancer Biology and Oncology)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Previous Issue
Back to TopTop