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Chemosensors, Volume 11, Issue 11 (November 2023) – 21 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Drawing inspiration from the beautiful Pysanky egg art of Ukraine, we have developed a novel material that can be used to build next-generation biosensors for longitudinal health mapping. The image depicts a Pysanky egg made by creating wax patterns and coloring layer-by-layer to create an intricate hydrophobic design on the surface. In our synthesized material, the outer ZIF-8 MOF layer acts as this extremely hydrophobic shell/cage that holds the contents, preventing leakage (like an eggshell containing the yolk and the albumin). Analogous to the egg yolk, the encapsulated gold nanoparticle acts as the core and is bound to the highly specific anti-creatinine aptamer (like the egg albumin) using strong thiol bonds. The SEM image of the developed material is shown in the background. The image was partially created using Midjourney. View this paper
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15 pages, 3151 KiB  
Article
Detection of Xylene Using Ni(OH)2-Enhanced Co3O4 Nanoplate via p–n Junctions
Chemosensors 2023, 11(11), 568; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors11110568 - 20 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1355
Abstract
This study reports a novel Ni(OH)2/Co3O4 heterostructured nanomaterial synthesized through a simple two-step hydrothermal method combined with subsequent heat treatment. The Ni(OH)2/Co3O4 heterostructured nanomaterial showed excellent performance in the detection of xylene gas. [...] Read more.
This study reports a novel Ni(OH)2/Co3O4 heterostructured nanomaterial synthesized through a simple two-step hydrothermal method combined with subsequent heat treatment. The Ni(OH)2/Co3O4 heterostructured nanomaterial showed excellent performance in the detection of xylene gas. XRD, SEM, and EDS characterized the crystal structure, microstructure, and composition elements of Co3O4 and Ni(OH)2/Co3O4, and the gas sensing properties of the Co3O4 sensor and Ni(OH)2/Co3O4 sensor were systematically tested. The test results indicate the Ni(OH)2/Co3O4 sensor has an optimal operating temperature of 175 °C, which is 10 °C lower than that of the Co3O4 sensor; has a response of 14.1 to 100 ppm xylene, which is 7-fold higher than that of the Co3O4 sensor; reduces the detection limit of xylene from 2 ppm to 100 ppb; and has at least a 4-fold higher response to xylene than other gases. The Ni(OH)2/Co3O4 nanocomposite exerts the excellent catalytic performance of two-dimensional nanomaterial Ni(OH)2, solves the deficiency in the electrical conductivity of Ni(OH)2 materials, and realizes the outstanding sensing performance of xylene, while the construction of the p–n heterojunction between Ni(OH)2 and Co3O4 also improves the sensing performance of the material. This study provides a strategy for designing high-performance xylene gas sensors using two-dimensional Ni(OH)2 materials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chemical Sensors for Volatile Organic Compound Detection, 2nd Edition)
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16 pages, 7881 KiB  
Article
Quantitative Analysis of Meteorite Elements Based on the Multidimensional Scaling–Back Propagation Neural Network Algorithm Combined with Raman Mapping-Assisted Micro-Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy
Chemosensors 2023, 11(11), 567; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors11110567 - 20 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1722
Abstract
Meteorites are an essential reference for human exploration of the universe and its cosmic evolution and an essential research object for searching for extraterrestrial life. Ways to quickly identify and screen suspected meteorite samples have become the foundation and prerequisite for research on [...] Read more.
Meteorites are an essential reference for human exploration of the universe and its cosmic evolution and an essential research object for searching for extraterrestrial life. Ways to quickly identify and screen suspected meteorite samples have become the foundation and prerequisite for research on high-value meteorite samples. Therefore, this paper proposes a Raman mapping-assisted micro-laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (micro-LIBS) technology for field detection of suspected meteorite material composition without sample pre-processing, with a high detection speed and cost-effectiveness, to realize the detection of element composition and molecular structure. Raman mapping carries out multispectral imaging with high spectral resolution of the region of interest. The fusion of Raman mapping and optical microscopy images can provide mineral categories and spatial distribution characteristics in regions of interest. A quantitative analysis model for Fe, Mg, and Na elements was constructed based on the multidimensional scaling–back propagation neural network (MDS-BPNN) algorithm. The determination coefficient of the model test set was better than 0.997, and the root mean square error was better than 0.65. The content of Fe, Mg, and Na elements in the meteorite was preliminarily evaluated, providing a reference for further analysis of element information in spectral image fusion data. The Raman–LIBS combined technology has significant application potential in rapidly evaluating suspected meteorite samples. Without high-end precision instruments or field research, this technology can provide scientists with significant reference value atomic and molecular spectral information. At the same time, this technology can be extended to other petrology research. We offer a fast, efficient, cost-effective, and reliable analysis scheme for reference. Full article
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13 pages, 5508 KiB  
Article
High-Sensitivity H2 and CH4 SAW Sensors with Carbon Nanowalls and Improvement in Their Performance after Plasma Treatment
Chemosensors 2023, 11(11), 566; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors11110566 - 16 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1061
Abstract
We have developed surface acoustic wave (SAW) sensors with high sensitivity and a reversible response at room temperature (RT). The sensitive area of the sensor was prepared from vertically aligned graphene sheets, like carbon nanowalls (CNWs), which were deposited onto the quartz SAW [...] Read more.
We have developed surface acoustic wave (SAW) sensors with high sensitivity and a reversible response at room temperature (RT). The sensitive area of the sensor was prepared from vertically aligned graphene sheets, like carbon nanowalls (CNWs), which were deposited onto the quartz SAW sensor substrate. The CNWs were obtained by RF plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) at 600 °C, and their sensitivity was subsequently enhanced through hydrogen plasma treatment. The SAW sensors were tested at H2 and CH4 at RT, and they exhibited a reversible response for both gases at concentrations between 0.02% and 0.1%, with a detection limit of a few ppm. The additional hydrogen plasma treatment preserved the lamellar structure, with slight modifications to the morphology of CNW edges, as observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) investigations revealed the presence of new functional groups, a significant number of defects and electron transitions after the treatment. Changes in the chemical state on the CNW surface are most probably responsible for the improved gas adsorption after plasma treatment. These results identify CNWs as a promising material for designing new SAW sensors, with the possibility of using plasma treatments to enhance the detection limit below the ppm level. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hydrogen Sensors: Current Status and Future Perspectives)
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13 pages, 580 KiB  
Article
Diabetes Monitoring through Urine Analysis Using ATR-FTIR Spectroscopy and Machine Learning
Chemosensors 2023, 11(11), 565; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors11110565 - 15 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1333
Abstract
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a widespread and rapidly growing disease, and it is estimated that it will impact up to 693 million adults by 2045. To cope this challenge, the innovative advances in non-destructive progressive urine glucose-monitoring platforms are important for improving diabetes [...] Read more.
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a widespread and rapidly growing disease, and it is estimated that it will impact up to 693 million adults by 2045. To cope this challenge, the innovative advances in non-destructive progressive urine glucose-monitoring platforms are important for improving diabetes surveillance technologies. In this study, we aim to better evaluate DM by analyzing 149 urine spectral samples (86 diabetes and 63 healthy control male Wistar rats) utilizing attenuated total reflection–Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy combined with machine learning (ML) methods, including a 3D discriminant analysis approach—3D–Principal Component Analysis–Linear Discriminant Analysis (3D-PCA-LDA)—in the ‘bio-fingerprint’ region of 1800–900 cm1. The 3D discriminant analysis technique demonstrated superior performance compared to the conventional PCA-LDA approach with the 3D-PCA-LDA method achieving 100% accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity. Our results show that this study contributes to the existing methodologies on non-destructive diagnostic methods for DM and also highlights the promising potential of ATR-FTIR spectroscopy with an ML-driven 3D-discriminant analysis approach in disease classification and monitoring. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chemosensors in Biological Challenges, Volume II)
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14 pages, 3865 KiB  
Article
Water Vapor Condensation in Nanoparticle Films: Physicochemical Analysis and Application to Rapid Vapor Sensing
Chemosensors 2023, 11(11), 564; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors11110564 - 14 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1307
Abstract
Nanomaterial-based humidity sensors hold great promise for water vapor detection because of their high sensitivity and fast response/recovery. However, the condensation of water in nanomaterial films remains unclear from a physicochemical perspective. Herein, the condensation of water vapor in silica nanoparticle films was [...] Read more.
Nanomaterial-based humidity sensors hold great promise for water vapor detection because of their high sensitivity and fast response/recovery. However, the condensation of water in nanomaterial films remains unclear from a physicochemical perspective. Herein, the condensation of water vapor in silica nanoparticle films was physicochemically analyzed to bridge the abovementioned gap. The morphology of surface-adsorbed water molecules was characterized using infrared absorption spectroscopy and soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy, and the effect of RH on the amount of adsorbed water was observed using a quartz crystal microbalance. The adsorbed water was found to exist in liquid- and ice-like states, which contributed to high and low conductivity, respectively. The large change in film impedance above 80% RH was ascribed to the condensation of water between the nanoparticles. Moreover, RH alteration resulted in a colorimetric change in the film’s interference fringe. The obtained insights were used to construct a portable device with response and recovery times suitable for the real-time monitoring of water vapor. Thus, this study clarifies the structure of water adsorbed on nanomaterial surfaces and, hence, the action mechanism of the corresponding nanoparticle-based sensors, inspiring further research on the application of various nanomaterials to vapor sensing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Low-Cost Chemo/Bio-Sensors Based on Nanomaterials)
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15 pages, 17524 KiB  
Article
Rapid Determination of Meteorolite Composition Based on X-ray Phase Contrast Imaging-Assisted Raman Spectroscopy
Chemosensors 2023, 11(11), 563; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors11110563 - 12 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1636
Abstract
Returning extraterrestrial samples to Earth has become essential for future deep space exploration. Achieving a comprehensive evaluation of the physical and chemical properties of samples with minimal damage is key to analyzing extraterrestrial samples in the future, as well as to the future [...] Read more.
Returning extraterrestrial samples to Earth has become essential for future deep space exploration. Achieving a comprehensive evaluation of the physical and chemical properties of samples with minimal damage is key to analyzing extraterrestrial samples in the future, as well as to the future sampling and returning of heterogeneous solid samples. This article aims to reconstruct the three-dimensional internal structure of high-contrast objects, select sections of interest through internal structure and detail features, and then analyze the physical and chemical properties of the samples based on laser spectroscopy technology. This paper proposes a strategy based on Raman mapping and X-ray phase-contrast imaging technology to reconstruct the three-dimensional internal structure of a heterogeneous solid sample and detect the substance composition of the region of interest. This study takes meteorite samples as an example and uses X-ray phase-contrast imaging technology to distinguish and reconstruct the spatial distribution of different components in the meteorite, providing a three-dimensional visualization reference with a high spatial resolution for the spatial positioning of the region of interest. Raman spectroscopy, in combination with LIBS, was used to further identify the meteorite as pallasite and to achieve the spectral image fusion of high spatial and high spectral resolutions. The experimental results show that the unknown meteorite’s three-dimensional structure and its components’ spatial distribution can be evaluated based on Raman mapping combined with X-ray phase-contrast imaging technology. This article provides a highly valuable analytical strategy by which to analyze samples returned from deep space exploration. Full article
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13 pages, 2267 KiB  
Article
Electrochemical Sensor Based on Spent Coffee Grounds Hydrochar and Metal Nanoparticles for Simultaneous Detection of Emerging Contaminants in Natural Water
Chemosensors 2023, 11(11), 562; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors11110562 - 11 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1306
Abstract
This research describes the modification of a glassy carbon electrode with spent coffee grounds hydrochar (HDC) and copper nanoparticles (CuNPs) for the simultaneous determination of hydroxychloroquine sulfate (HCS) and bisphenol A (BPA). Scanning electron microscopy, EDS and cyclic voltammetry were used to characterize [...] Read more.
This research describes the modification of a glassy carbon electrode with spent coffee grounds hydrochar (HDC) and copper nanoparticles (CuNPs) for the simultaneous determination of hydroxychloroquine sulfate (HCS) and bisphenol A (BPA). Scanning electron microscopy, EDS and cyclic voltammetry were used to characterize the nanocomposite. The analytical parameters were optimized and the sensing platform was applied for the determination of HCS and BPA using square-wave voltammetry (SWV). For HCS, the linear range was from 1.0 μmol L−1 to 50 μmol L−1, with an LOD and LOQ of 0.46 and 1.53 μmol L−1, respectively. For BPA, the linear range was from 0.5 μmol L−1 to 10 μmol L−1, with an LOD and LOQ of 0.31 μmol L−1 and 1.06 μmol L−1, respectively. Finally, the developed electrochemical sensor was applied for the quantification of the emerging contaminants in natural water, with recoveries between 94.8% and 106.8% for HCS and 99.6% and 105.2% for BPA. Therefore, HDC-CuNPs demonstrated themselves to be a good alternative as a sustainable and cheaper material for application in electroanalyses. Full article
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12 pages, 5402 KiB  
Communication
The Detection of 27 Fentanyl Compounds in Solid and Liquid Drugs Based on Differential Raman Spectroscopy
Chemosensors 2023, 11(11), 561; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors11110561 - 11 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1323
Abstract
Fentanyl and its derivatives have been mainstays for the treatment of pain for many years. To accurately detect them in medical applications and customs, a rapid, sensitive, and selective method is urgently needed. In this study, we established a point-of-care-testing (POCT) differential Raman [...] Read more.
Fentanyl and its derivatives have been mainstays for the treatment of pain for many years. To accurately detect them in medical applications and customs, a rapid, sensitive, and selective method is urgently needed. In this study, we established a point-of-care-testing (POCT) differential Raman approach for the detection of fentanyl substances in liquid and solid conditions. The silver nanoparticle was prepared and characterized as SERS substrate, which can adsorb fentanyl-related molecules on the rough surface to enhance the Raman signal. Subsequently, 27 kinds of fentanyl-related substances were detected to determine that the POCT spectral resolution is better than 6 cm−1, Raman detection range is 100–3200 cm−1, and the detection limit of the fentanyl-related substances at 1002 cm−1 is 0.1–25 ppb. Furthermore, the Raman characteristic peaks of fentanyl were checked through comparison between theoretical calculations and experiments to obtain a database for rapid on-site inspection. Thus, the fast, accurate, stable POCT approach can be widely applied to monitor drugs and toxins due to its sensitivity, specificity, and abundance database. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section (Bio)chemical Sensing)
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17 pages, 4276 KiB  
Article
Ultrafast Electrochemical Self-Doping of Anodic Titanium Dioxide Nanotubes for Enhanced Electroanalytical and Photocatalytic Performance
Chemosensors 2023, 11(11), 560; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors11110560 - 10 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1288
Abstract
This study explores an ultrarapid electrochemical self-doping procedure applied to anodic titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanotube arrays in an alkaline solution to boost their performance for electroanalytical and photocatalytic applications. The electrochemical self-doping process (i.e., the creation of surface Ti3+ states [...] Read more.
This study explores an ultrarapid electrochemical self-doping procedure applied to anodic titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanotube arrays in an alkaline solution to boost their performance for electroanalytical and photocatalytic applications. The electrochemical self-doping process (i.e., the creation of surface Ti3+ states by applying a negative potential) is recently emerging as a simpler and cleaner way to improve the electronic properties of TiO2 compared to traditional chemical and high-temperature doping strategies. Here, self-doping was carried out through varying voltages and treatment times to identify the most performing materials without compromising their structural stability. Interestingly, cyclic voltammetry characterization revealed that undoped TiO2 shows negligible activity, whereas all self-doped materials demonstrate their suitability as electrode materials: an outstandingly short 10 s self-doping treatment leads to the highest electrochemical activity. The electrochemical detection of hydrogen peroxide was assessed as well, demonstrating a good sensitivity and a linear detection range of 3–200 µM. Additionally, the self-doped TiO2 nanotubes exhibited an enhanced photocatalytic activity compared to the untreated substrate: the degradation potential of methylene blue under UV light exposure increased by 25% in comparison to undoped materials. Overall, this study highlights the potential of ultrafast electrochemical self-doping to unleash and improve TiO2 nanotubes performances for electroanalytical and photocatalytic applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Electrochemical Sensors or Biosensors Based on Nanomaterial)
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18 pages, 3341 KiB  
Article
Olfactory Evaluation of Geisha Coffee from Panama Using Electronic Nose
Chemosensors 2023, 11(11), 559; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors11110559 - 07 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1740
Abstract
Geisha arabica coffee from Panama is featured in the world specialty coffee market. Its quality is assessed by sensory analysis with a panel of experts over several days. However, there is a risk of commercial fraud where cheaper coffees are mixed with pure [...] Read more.
Geisha arabica coffee from Panama is featured in the world specialty coffee market. Its quality is assessed by sensory analysis with a panel of experts over several days. However, there is a risk of commercial fraud where cheaper coffees are mixed with pure specialty coffees. For these reasons, having an electronic nose (EN) device proves advantageous in supporting the cupping panel. It allows a greater number of fragrance and aroma analyses to be conducted per day, providing more objective results. In this study, an experimental EN equipped with a metal oxide semiconductor (MOS) gas sensor array was used. Olfactory evaluation of ground and infused Geisha coffee of different roast levels, brewing process, and purity was studied by EN, sensory analysis and chromatography. The sensory analysis perceived significant differences in fragrance and aromas in the light and dark roast levels of the samples. A total of 57 volatile organic compounds (VOC) were studied by gas chromatography. The EN data were analyzed chemometrically with principal component analysis (PCA) and predictive partial least squares (PLS). The data variances for two components were explained with values greater than 82%. The EN demonstrated its ability to differentiate the three levels of roasting, two production processes, and adulteration in the analyzed samples. Full article
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17 pages, 5089 KiB  
Article
Assessing the Effects of Cadmium Stress on the Growth, Physiological Characteristics, and Metabolic Profiling of Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Using HPLC-QTOF/MS
Chemosensors 2023, 11(11), 558; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors11110558 - 07 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1354
Abstract
Cadmium (Cd) pollution is an important environmental problem, as it is easily absorbed by plants and gradually accumulates in the human body through the food chain. This study aimed to elucidate the changes in the metabolic response of the rice cultivar “TanLiangYou215” under [...] Read more.
Cadmium (Cd) pollution is an important environmental problem, as it is easily absorbed by plants and gradually accumulates in the human body through the food chain. This study aimed to elucidate the changes in the metabolic response of the rice cultivar “TanLiangYou215” under Cd stress. Rice was grown in soil culture at 0 (Control), 2 (Low group), and 10 (High group) mg/kg CdCl2 for 90 days. The ultrastructural, Cd content, antioxidant activity, and metabolic changes to the rice in different tissues were analyzed. Phenotypic characterization and ultrastructure showed that the rice roots and leaves were significantly damaged and plant growth was inhibited in the High group, while plant growth was promoted in the Low group. Overall, Cd showed a regularity of “low promotion and high inhibition”. Physiological indices revealed that rice was significantly affected by Cd stress. Compared to the Control, Cd stress resulted in higher antioxidant enzyme activities, and the Low group suffered less oxidative damage than the High group. Metabolomic studies revealed that Cd stress significantly altered the metabolic profiles of rice plants. Rice responded to Cd stress by upregulating amino acids and regulating related pathways, including alanine, aspartate and glutamate metabolism, and arginine and proline metabolism. The significant expression of flavonoids with antioxidant properties helped rice resist the oxidative damage caused by Cd accumulation in the root tissue; Cd stress significantly downregulated glycerophospholipid metabolism in the stem and leaf tissues, which affected the cellular activities in rice stem and leaf tissues. We investigated the effects of Cd stress on ultrastructure, antioxidant activity, and metabolic changes in different tissues of the rice variety TLY215. Moreover, the different tissues of TLY215 can regulate these metabolic pathways to resist Cd stress, which provides valuable insights into the response of TLY215 to different concentrations of Cd. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chemometrics for Analytical Chemistry)
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17 pages, 11569 KiB  
Article
Pysanka-Inspired Electrode Modification with Aptamer Encapsulation in ZIF-8 for Urine Creatinine Electrochemical Biosensing
Chemosensors 2023, 11(11), 557; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors11110557 - 06 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1564
Abstract
Drawing inspiration from the several thousand beautiful Pysanky egg art of Ukraine, we have developed a novel material, Aptamer–Gold Nanoparticles (AuNPs)@ZIF-8, that can be used for building sensitive and highly stable POC biosensors for longitudinal health mapping. Here, we demonstrate a sensitive and [...] Read more.
Drawing inspiration from the several thousand beautiful Pysanky egg art of Ukraine, we have developed a novel material, Aptamer–Gold Nanoparticles (AuNPs)@ZIF-8, that can be used for building sensitive and highly stable POC biosensors for longitudinal health mapping. Here, we demonstrate a sensitive and specific novel electrochemical biosensor, made of a novel synthesized in situ encapsulated aptamer-AuNPs@ZIF-8 composite, for monitoring levels of creatinine (0.1–1000 μg/mL). In this work, we have reported the synthetic protocol for the first-of-a-kind in situ encapsulation of aptamer and AuNPs together in a ZIF-8 matrix, and explored the characteristic properties of this novel material composite using standard analytical techniques and its application for biosensor application. The as-synthesized material, duly characterized using various physicochemical analytical methods, portrays the characteristics of the unique encapsulation strategy to develop the first-of-a-kind aptamer and AuNP encapsulation. Non-faradaic Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) and Chronoamperometry were used to characterize the interfacial electrochemical properties. The biosensor performance was first validated using artificial urine in a controlled buffer medium. The stability and robustness were tested using a real human urine medium without filtration or sample treatment. Being versatile, this Ukrainian-art-inspired biosensor can potentially move the needle towards developing the next generation of sample-in-result-out robust POC diagnostics. Full article
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14 pages, 8485 KiB  
Article
Preparation and Application of a Fast, Naked-Eye, Highly Selective, and Highly Sensitive Fluorescent Probe of Schiff Base for Detection of Cu2+
Chemosensors 2023, 11(11), 556; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors11110556 - 06 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1365
Abstract
A fluorescent probe, N′-((3-methyl-5-oxo-1-phenyl-4, 5-dihydro-1H-pyrazol-4-yl) methylene)-2-oxo-2H-chromene-3-carbohydrazide (MPMC), was synthesized and characterized. Characterizations of the synthetic MPMC were conducted via proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1HNMR) spectroscopy and carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (13C NMR). The fluorescence emission [...] Read more.
A fluorescent probe, N′-((3-methyl-5-oxo-1-phenyl-4, 5-dihydro-1H-pyrazol-4-yl) methylene)-2-oxo-2H-chromene-3-carbohydrazide (MPMC), was synthesized and characterized. Characterizations of the synthetic MPMC were conducted via proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1HNMR) spectroscopy and carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (13C NMR). The fluorescence emission behaviors of the MPMC probe towards diverse metal ions were detected, and the probe exhibited high sensitivity and selectivity towards Cu2+ over other metal ions via the quenching of its fluorescence. Furthermore, the existence of other metal actions made no apparent difference to the fluorescence intensity of the MPMC-Cu2+ system; that is, MPMC displayed a good anti-interference ability. Job’s plot of the MPMC and copper ions indicated that the detection limit was 10.23 nM (R2 = 0.9612) for the assayed actions, with a stoichiometric ratio of 1:1 for MPMC and Cu2+. Additionally, the color of the MPMC probe solution changed from nearly colorless to yellow in the presence of Cu2+ in visible light, and the color change could be observed by the naked eye. Similarly, the color resolved from bright yellow into blue in ultraviolet light. Moreover, reusability studies indicated that the MPMC probe was reusable. The pH effect of the MPMC probe on Cu2+ had a broad range of pH detection, i.e., from 4.0 to 11.0. The response time of the MPMC probe for determining Cu2+ was within 1 min. The recognition of Cu2+ via MPMC performed on pre-treated paper under sunlight and UV light both had a distinct colour change. Thus, the solid-state method for detecting Cu2+ with the naked eye was both economical and convenient. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Applied Chemical Sensors)
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11 pages, 7222 KiB  
Article
A Red-Emitting Fluorescence Probe for Rapid Detecting Exogenous and Endogenous Peroxynitrite in Living Cells with High Sensitivity and Selectivity
Chemosensors 2023, 11(11), 555; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors11110555 - 06 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1230
Abstract
Peroxynitrite (ONOO) has been revealed to play crucial roles in many physiological and pathological processes, and many diseases were proven to be associated with its misregulated production. The development of fluorescent probes meets the need for tracking ONOO and gives [...] Read more.
Peroxynitrite (ONOO) has been revealed to play crucial roles in many physiological and pathological processes, and many diseases were proven to be associated with its misregulated production. The development of fluorescent probes meets the need for tracking ONOO and gives a better understanding of its diverse mechanisms. In this work, a red-emitting fluorescent probe BP-ONOO was synthesized via functionalization of the rhodol-like fluorophore with a reactive site of hydrazide. The probe BP-ONOO exhibited high sensitivity, excellent selectivity, and short response time (less than 4 s) towards ONOO under neutral or weak alkaline conditions. These attractive properties favor its application in real-time imaging of ONOO in living cells, and the probe has been successfully applied for imaging the concentration levels of ONOO in RAW 264.7 macrophage cells under drug stimulation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fluorescent Probe for Sensing and Bioimaging)
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14 pages, 3827 KiB  
Article
Au-Coated ZnO Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) Substrates: Synthesis, Characterization, and Applications in Exosome Detection
Chemosensors 2023, 11(11), 554; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors11110554 - 05 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1552
Abstract
Developing a biomolecular detection method that minimizes photodamage while preserving an environment suitable for biological constituents to maintain their physiological state is expected to drive new diagnostic and mechanistic breakthroughs. In addition, ultra-sensitive diagnostic platforms are needed for rapid and point-of-care technologies for [...] Read more.
Developing a biomolecular detection method that minimizes photodamage while preserving an environment suitable for biological constituents to maintain their physiological state is expected to drive new diagnostic and mechanistic breakthroughs. In addition, ultra-sensitive diagnostic platforms are needed for rapid and point-of-care technologies for various diseases. Considering this, surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) is proposed as a non-destructive and sensitive approach to address the limitations of fluorescence, electrochemical, and other optical detection techniques. However, to advance the applications of SERS, novel approaches that can enhance the signal of substrate materials are needed to improve reproducibility and costs associated with manufacture and scale-up. Due to their physical properties and synthesis, semiconductor-based nanostructures have gained increasing recognition as SERS substrates; however, low signal enhancements have offset their widespread adoption. To address this limitation and assess the potential for use in biological applications, zinc oxide (ZnO) was coated with different concentrations (0.01–0.1 M) of gold (Au) precursor. When crystal violet (CV) was used as a model target with the synthesized substrates, the highest enhancement was obtained with ZnO coated with 0.05 M Au precursor. This substrate was subsequently applied to differentiate exosomes derived from three cell types to provide insight into their molecular diversity. We anticipate this work will serve as a platform for colloidal hybrid SERS substrates in future bio-sensing applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section (Bio)chemical Sensing)
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3 pages, 194 KiB  
Editorial
Chemical Sensors for Volatile Organic Compound Detection
Chemosensors 2023, 11(11), 553; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors11110553 - 03 Nov 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1012
Abstract
The detection of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) is in high demand in various fields, such as environmental pollution monitoring, early disease screening, and food freshness assessment [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chemical Sensors for Volatile Organic Compound Detection)
14 pages, 2777 KiB  
Article
Investigation of WO3 and BiVO4 Photoanodes for Photoelectrochemical Sensing of Xylene, Toluene and Methanol
Chemosensors 2023, 11(11), 552; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors11110552 - 01 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1399
Abstract
Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are a notable group of indoor air pollutants released by household products. These substances are commonly employed as solvents in industrial operations, and some of them are recognized or suspected to be cancer-causing or mutagenic agents. Due to their [...] Read more.
Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are a notable group of indoor air pollutants released by household products. These substances are commonly employed as solvents in industrial operations, and some of them are recognized or suspected to be cancer-causing or mutagenic agents. Due to their high volatility, VOCs are typically present in surface waters at concentrations below a few micrograms per liter. However, in groundwater, their concentrations can reach levels up to thousands of times higher. This study analyses the applicability of the photoelectrochemical (PEC) sensing of VOCs in aqueous medium. Tungsten oxide and bismuth vanadate photoanodes were tested for PEC sensing of xylene, toluene, and methanol in sodium chloride and sodium sulfate electrolytes. The crystalline structure and morphology of coatings were analyzed using XRD and SEM analyses. Photoelectrochemical properties were evaluated using cyclic voltammetry, chronoamperometry, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The results of the study show that aromatic compounds tend to block the surface of the photoelectrode and interfere with the PEC sensing of other substances. WO3 photoanode is found to be suitable for the PEC sensing of methanol under the mild conditions in aqueous electrolytes; however, electrode engineering and assay optimization are required to achieve better detection limits. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chemical Sensors and Analytical Methods for Environmental Monitoring)
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23 pages, 2653 KiB  
Article
Modifying Headspace Sampling Environment Improves Detection of Boar Taint Compounds in Pork Fat Samples
Chemosensors 2023, 11(11), 551; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors11110551 - 28 Oct 2023
Viewed by 983
Abstract
The extraction of boar taint compounds from pork fat samples was performed under various temperature (150, 300 and 450 °C) and atmosphere (air, nitrogen and reduced pressure) conditions. This aimed at understanding which conditions allow the greatest extractions of indole, skatole and androstenone [...] Read more.
The extraction of boar taint compounds from pork fat samples was performed under various temperature (150, 300 and 450 °C) and atmosphere (air, nitrogen and reduced pressure) conditions. This aimed at understanding which conditions allow the greatest extractions of indole, skatole and androstenone (present in backfat in low concentrations) while limiting the presence of other VOCs in the headspace of heated fat (interfering with correct VOC-based detection of boar taint compounds). Indole and skatole were extracted in the greatest concentrations when heating backfat at 450 °C under reduced pressure, while androstenone was highest when heating at 300 °C under reduced pressure. Oxidation products were most abundant under air conditions, nitrogenated products appeared in the presence of a nitrogen-enriched atmosphere, and lastly, molecules intrinsic to boar fat saw their headspace concentration increase with reduced pressure. The combination of 450 °C and reduced pressure atmosphere was suggested for the heating of backfat prior to detection with analytical methods and to complement the current sensory analysis. Full article
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16 pages, 5106 KiB  
Article
Pd-Nanoparticle-Decorated Multilayered MoS2 Sheets for Highly Sensitive Hydrogen Sensing
Chemosensors 2023, 11(11), 550; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors11110550 - 26 Oct 2023
Viewed by 1433
Abstract
In this work, efficient hydrogen gas sensors based on multilayered p-type bare MoS2 and Pd-decorated MoS2 were fabricated. MoS2 was deposited onto alumina transducers using an airbrushing technique to be used as a sensing material. Aerosol-assisted chemical vapor deposition (AACVD) [...] Read more.
In this work, efficient hydrogen gas sensors based on multilayered p-type bare MoS2 and Pd-decorated MoS2 were fabricated. MoS2 was deposited onto alumina transducers using an airbrushing technique to be used as a sensing material. Aerosol-assisted chemical vapor deposition (AACVD) was used to decorate layered MoS2 with Pd nanoparticles at 250 °C. The bare and Pd-decorated MoS2 was characterized using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Raman spectroscopy. The characterization results reveal the multilayered crystalline structure of MoS2 with successful Pd decoration. The size of the Pd nanoparticles ranges from 15 nm to 23 nm. Gas sensing studies reveal that a maximum response of 55% is achieved for Pd-decorated MoS2 operated at 150 °C to 100 ppm of H2, which is clearly below the explosive limit (4%) in air. The higher sensitivity due to Pd nanoparticle decoration was owed to a spillover effect. This study reveals that the sensitivity of the sensors is highly dependent on the amount of Pd decoration. Moreover, sensor responses increase slightly when exposed to 50% relative humidity (RH at 25 °C). Full article
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13 pages, 8820 KiB  
Article
Towards Molecularly Imprinted Polypyrrole-Based Sensor for the Detection of Methylene Blue
Chemosensors 2023, 11(11), 549; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors11110549 - 26 Oct 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1447
Abstract
This study is dedicated to molecularly imprinted polymer-based sensor development for methylene blue detection. The sensor was designed by molecular imprinting of polypyrrole with phenothiazine derivative methylene blue (MB) as a template molecule. The molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) was deposited directly on the [...] Read more.
This study is dedicated to molecularly imprinted polymer-based sensor development for methylene blue detection. The sensor was designed by molecular imprinting of polypyrrole with phenothiazine derivative methylene blue (MB) as a template molecule. The molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) was deposited directly on the surface of the indium tin oxide-coated glass electrode by potential cycling. Different deposition conditions, the layer’s durability, and thickness impact were analysed. The working electrodes were coated with molecularly imprinted and non-imprinted polymer layers. Potential pulse chronoamperometry and cyclic voltammetry were used to study these layers. Scanning electron microscopy was used to determine the surface morphology of the polymer layers. The change in optical absorption was used as an analytical tool to evaluate the capability of the MIP layer to adsorb MB. Selectivity was monitored by tracking the optical absorption changes in the presence of Azure A. In the case of MB adsorption, linearity was observed at all evaluated calibration plots in the concentration range from 0.1 μM to 10 mM. The novelty of this article is based on the methodology in the fabrication process of the sensors for MB, where MB retains its native (non-polymerised) form during the deposition of the MIP composite. Full article
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22 pages, 1537 KiB  
Review
Carbon Electrode Modified with Molecularly Imprinted Polymers for the Development of Electrochemical Sensor: Application to Pharmacy, Food Safety, Environmental Monitoring, and Biomedical Analysis
Chemosensors 2023, 11(11), 548; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors11110548 - 24 Oct 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1609
Abstract
This review aims to elucidate recent developments in electrochemical sensors that use functionalized carbon electrodes with molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) for the selective detection of organic compounds in diverse fields including pharmacy, food safety, environmental monitoring of pollutants, and biomedical analysis. The main [...] Read more.
This review aims to elucidate recent developments in electrochemical sensors that use functionalized carbon electrodes with molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) for the selective detection of organic compounds in diverse fields including pharmacy, food safety, environmental monitoring of pollutants, and biomedical analysis. The main targets include explosive compounds, dyes, antioxidants, disease biomarkers, pharmaceuticals, antibiotics, allergens, pesticides, and viruses. Following a brief overview of the molecular imprinting principle, the most significant applications are explored. The selection of the functional monomer is subsequently discussed. Notably, various types of carbon electrodes are presented, with a particular emphasis on screen-printed carbon electrodes. The most commonly employed techniques for MIP deposition such as electropolymerization, drop casting, and chemical grafting are introduced and discussed. Electrochemical transduction techniques like cyclic voltammetry, differential pulse voltammetry, square wave voltammetry, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy are presented. Lastly, the review concludes by examining potential future directions and primary limitations concerning carbon electrodes modified with MIPs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecularly Imprinted Plasmonic Sensor)
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