Content Analysis of the Free COVID-19 Telephone Consultations Available during the First Wave of the Pandemic in Japan
2. Materials and Methods
2.1. Design and Setting
2.2. Ethical Considerations
2.3. Data Analysis
3.1. Characteristics of Consultation Cases
3.2. Category of “Other” Consultations
3.2.1. Assumed COVID-19 Infection and Consulting about Infection Control
“What should we do if we have a positive case of COVID-19 in our office in the future? I would like to know what to do for the positive case’s family members and the necessity of closing our company. At this time, there are no employees who are suspected of being infected” (ID = 2).
3.2.2. Extreme Anxiety and Fear of COVID-19
“(I do not have any COVID-19 symptoms now.) However, I want to know the concrete symptom of breathlessness because I am concerned about it.” (ID = 154).
3.2.3. Opinions/Inquiries Regarding Healthcare and Medical Systems for Responding to COVID-19
“I want to know about the medical system of City A regarding COVID-19.” (ID = 105).
“Is it free of charge regarding the COVID-19-related medical fee? Who would pay for the patient’s transport to the hospital?” (ID = 27).
3.2.4. Discrimination and Misunderstandings Due to Lack of Proper Knowledge about COVID-19
“A returnee from overseas who should stay at home was out. I want you to crack down on them.” (ID = 159).
“I think the person would be positive COVID-19 based on the symptoms that I heard on the phone. However, if I saw the patient like that, I would get infected with COVID-19.” (ID = 165).
3.2.5. Consultations Regarding COVID-19 Outbreaks within an Organization
“I heard that an employee of another company whom I had a meeting with the other day was COVID-19 positive. I want to know what we should do first as a company.” (ID = 73).
3.2.6. Consultations Regarding Infection Prevention Measures for COVID-19
“Is it okay to let my child play in the park? If yes, what should we be careful about?” (ID = 175).
“A person returning from overseas is staying at my hotel. How can we disinfect the hotel after they check out?” (ID = 160).
3.2.7. Inquiries about the Infection Status of City A
“I would like to know the number and content of telephone consultations received by City A.” (ID = 188).
3.3. Categorization of Consultations According to Whether PHNs Needed to Respond to It or Not
Institutional Review Board Statement
Informed Consent Statement
Data Availability Statement
Conflicts of Interest
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n (%) or Mean (SD)
|Classification of consultor|
|Age (n = 80)|
|Under 20 years old||4 (5.0)|
|80 years old and over||6 (7.5)|
|Duration of consultation: minutes (n = 135)||7.0 (4.6)|
|1. Assumed COVID-19 infection and consulting about infection control (62)||The initial response measure in case of a COVID-19 outbreak (including suspected cases).||46|
|How to communicate to organizational members if a COVID-19 outbreak appears in the organization.||7|
|Criteria for restrictions and self-isolation for COVID-19 cases (including suspected cases).||6|
|Continuity of care when a caregiver is infected with COVID-19 or is otherwise unable to provide care.||3|
|2. Extreme anxiety and fear of COVID-19 (50)||Concern about contact with the person with COVID-19.||20|
|Fear of COVID-19 infection with apparent reason.||17|
|Fear of COVID-19 infection without apparent reason.||5|
|Complaints regarding the administrative system or unreasonable reprimands.||6|
|Vague anxiety associated with the expansion of the COVID-19 pandemic.||2|
|3. Opinions/inquiries regarding healthcare and medical systems for responding to COVID-19 (30)||The rationale and structure of conducting PCR testing.||17|
|COVID-19 measures introduced by the national or local government and PHCs.||16|
|Medical systems used for responding to COVID-19 in City A.||7|
|4. Discrimination and misunderstandings due to lack of proper knowledge about COVID-19 (24)||Trying to crack down on people who do not follow the infection control rules.||12|
|Harassment regarding COVID-19 in the workplace.||4|
|Refusing a consultation at the hospital or clinic.||5|
|Refusal of medical treatment by physicians.||3|
|5. Consultations regarding COVID-19 outbreak within an organization (18)||Business continuity when a COVID-19 case occurs (including suspected infections) in healthcare or medical facilities.||12|
|The initial response of the organization when the COVID-19 case occurred (including suspected infections).||6|
|6. Consultations regarding infection prevention measures for COVID-19 (15)||Infection prevention measures for community groups (e.g., companies, schools, social welfare facilities).||6|
|Infection prevention measures for daily life.||4|
|Infection prevention measures for overseas returnees.||3|
|Infection prevention measures when someone has been in contact with COVID-19 patients or someone suspected to have COVID-19.||2|
|7. Inquiries about the infection status of City A (8)||Number of new COVID-19 cases in City A.||6|
|Number of free telephone consultations in City A.||2|
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Yoshioka-Maeda, K.; Sumikawa, Y.; Tanaka, N.; Honda, C.; Iwasaki-Motegi, R.; Yamamoto-Mitani, N. Content Analysis of the Free COVID-19 Telephone Consultations Available during the First Wave of the Pandemic in Japan. Healthcare 2021, 9, 1593. https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare9111593
Yoshioka-Maeda K, Sumikawa Y, Tanaka N, Honda C, Iwasaki-Motegi R, Yamamoto-Mitani N. Content Analysis of the Free COVID-19 Telephone Consultations Available during the First Wave of the Pandemic in Japan. Healthcare. 2021; 9(11):1593. https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare9111593Chicago/Turabian Style
Yoshioka-Maeda, Kyoko, Yuka Sumikawa, Noriha Tanaka, Chikako Honda, Riho Iwasaki-Motegi, and Noriko Yamamoto-Mitani. 2021. "Content Analysis of the Free COVID-19 Telephone Consultations Available during the First Wave of the Pandemic in Japan" Healthcare 9, no. 11: 1593. https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare9111593