# Data-Driven pH Model in Raceway Reactors for Freshwater and Wastewater Cultures

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## Abstract

**:**

## 1. Introduction

## 2. Materials and Methods

#### 2.1. Modelled Photobioreactors

#### 2.2. Artificial Neural Networks

#### 2.3. Deep Learning Toolbox

#### 2.4. Performance Metrics

## 3. Results

#### 3.1. Model Development

#### 3.1.1. Data Processing

- Modification of the data sample time to 1 min.
- Selection of valid spans for training.
- Outlier filtering.

#### 3.1.2. Model Structure

#### 3.1.3. Model Training

#### 3.2. Model Performance Evaluation

## 4. Discussion

## 5. Conclusions

## Author Contributions

## Funding

## Data Availability Statement

## Acknowledgments

## Conflicts of Interest

## Abbreviations

DO | Dissolved Oxygen |

ANN | Artificial Neural Network |

MPC | Model Predictive Control |

LSTM | Long Short-Term Memory |

NARX | Nonlinear AutoRegressive with eXogenous inputs |

TDL | Tapped Delay Line |

MSE | Mean Squared Error |

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**Figure 4.**Validation results for each of the models using two days of the test set. (

**a**) Freshwater model validation results, (

**b**) Wastewater model validation results.

Measurement | Model | Range | Precision |
---|---|---|---|

pH | Crison 5342T | [0–14] | 0.01 |

Medium temperature | Crison 5342T | [0–80] °C | 0.1 °C |

Dissolved oxygen | Mettler Toledo InPro 6050 | [30–Sat.] ppb | 30 ppb |

Medium level | Wenglor UMD402U035 | [0–30] cm | 0.1 mm |

${\mathrm{CO}}_{2}$ injection | SMC PFM725S-C8-F | [0.5–25] L/min | 0.1 L/min |

Air injection | SMC PFMB7501-F04-F | [5–500] L/min | 1 L/min |

Ambient temperature | ONSET S-THB-M008 | [−40–75] ${}^{\mathrm{o}}\mathrm{C}$ | 0.21 °C |

Humidity | ONSET S-THB-M008 | [10–90] % | 0.1% |

Solar radiation | ONSET S-LIB-M003 | [0–1280] $\mathrm{W}/{\mathrm{m}}^{2}$ | 10 $\mathrm{W}/{\mathrm{m}}^{2}$ |

Variable | Maximum (Freshwater) | Minimum (Freshwater) | Maximum (Wastewater) | Minimum (Wastewater) |
---|---|---|---|---|

pH | 11.33 | 7.13 | 8.07 | 7.11 |

Medium level | 19.20 cm | 13.16 cm | 15.23 cm | 13.29 cm |

${\mathrm{CO}}_{2}$ injection | 13.49 L/min | 0 L/min | 12.00 L/min | 0 L/min |

Solar radiation | 1080.94 W/${\mathrm{m}}^{2}$ | 0 W/${\mathrm{m}}^{2}$ | 1060.39 W/${\mathrm{m}}^{2}$ | 0 W/${\mathrm{m}}^{2}$ |

Variable | TDL |
---|---|

pH | (k−1):(k−2) |

Medium level | (k−1):(k−2) |

${\mathrm{CO}}_{2}$ injection | (k−5):(k−6) |

Solar radiation | (k−1):(k−2) |

Hidden Layer Size | Freshwater Model | Wastewater Model | Number of Parameters |
---|---|---|---|

5 | 0.0208 | 0.0130 | 51 |

6 | 0.0341 | 0.0409 | 61 |

7 | 0.0195 | 0.0500 | 71 |

8 | 0.0429 | 0.0106 | 81 |

9 | 0.0367 | 0.0836 | 91 |

10 | 0.0291 | 0.0449 | 101 |

11 | 0.0404 | 0.0532 | 111 |

12 | 0.0417 | 0.0325 | 121 |

13 | 0.0384 | 0.0225 | 131 |

14 | 0.0383 | 0.0517 | 141 |

15 | 0.0192 | 0.0601 | 151 |

Freshwater Model | Wastewater Model | |
---|---|---|

Test Model Fit (%) | 71.34 | 73.75 |

General Model Fit (%) | 63.91 | 62.76 |

Test MSE | 0.0192 | 0.0106 |

[4-4-1] ARX Model Fit (%) | −19.43 | 10.64 |

[4-4-1] ARX MSE | 0.1531 | 0.0301 |

[8-8-1] ARX Model Fit (%) | −2.32 | −198.00 |

[8-8-1] ARX MSE | 0.1102 | 0.3406 |

Best-fit ARX Model Fit (%) | 41.76 | −60.26 |

Best-fit ARX MSE | 0.0357 | 0.0971 |

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**MDPI and ACS Style**

Otálora, P.; Guzmán, J.L.; Berenguel, M.; Acién, F.G. Data-Driven pH Model in Raceway Reactors for Freshwater and Wastewater Cultures. *Mathematics* **2023**, *11*, 1614.
https://doi.org/10.3390/math11071614

**AMA Style**

Otálora P, Guzmán JL, Berenguel M, Acién FG. Data-Driven pH Model in Raceway Reactors for Freshwater and Wastewater Cultures. *Mathematics*. 2023; 11(7):1614.
https://doi.org/10.3390/math11071614

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

Otálora, Pablo, José Luis Guzmán, Manuel Berenguel, and Francisco Gabriel Acién. 2023. "Data-Driven pH Model in Raceway Reactors for Freshwater and Wastewater Cultures" *Mathematics* 11, no. 7: 1614.
https://doi.org/10.3390/math11071614