Modeling Awareness as the Crux in Solar Energy Adoption Intention through Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology
2. Materials and Methods
2.2. Performance Expectancy (PE)
2.3. Effort Expectancy (EE)
2.4. Social Influence (SI)
2.5. Facilitating Condition (FC)
3. Data Analysis and Results
3.1. Measurement Model
3.2. Structural Model
Institutional Review Board Statement
Informed Consent Statement
Data Availability Statement
Conflicts of Interest
Appendix A. Questionnaire
|Awareness||1. I am sufficiently knowledgeable about solar energy source.|
2. I am familiar with technology elated to solar energy.
3. I know the necessities of using solar technology at my residential.
4. I can easily identify solar energy source and related technology.
|Performance Expectancy||1. Solar technology will be useful in my daily routine.|
2. Using solar technology will allow me to complete tasks faster.
3. Using solar technology will improve my productivity.
4. Using solar technology will improve y electricity consumption.
|Effort Expectancy||1. I understand how to use solar technology.|
2. Being skilled in using solar technology will be easy for me.
3. I would find solar technology easy to use.
4. I think that learning to operate solar technology would be easy for me.
5. Maintaining a solar panel will be easy for me
|Social Influence||1. The person who influence my behaviour thinks that I should use solar technology.|
2. People who are important to me think that I should use solar technology.
3. My peers and family encourage me to use solar technology.
4. The government supports the use of solar technology in our daily life.
5. I consistently ask a friend about his/her experience with a new product/technology before I buy.
|Facilitating Condition||1. I have the resources needed to use solar technology.|
2. I have the necessary knowledge to use solar technology.
3. A special person could help me if I have trouble using solar technology.
4. Using solar technology will fit into my lifestyle.
5. I intend to receive necessary training to use solar technology.
|Intention to adopt||1. I will attempt to use solar technology at my home in the future.|
2. I strongly recommend others to use solar technology.
3. I intend to use solar technology in my home to supply a part of my required energy.
4. I intend to purchase a solar technology storage system for my household in three to five years.
Appendix B. Literature Survey
|1||Factors driving Indian consumer’s purchase intention of rooftop solar.||India||Environmental concern, social beliefs, hedonic motivation, performance expectancy, price value, self-efficacy, and effort expectancy|
|2||Solar energy adoption in rural China: A sequential decision approach.||China||Awareness on subsidy policy, awareness on solar technology|
|3||Factors influencing Malaysian consumers’ intention to purchase green energy: The case of solar panel.||Malaysia||Perceived cost and maintenance, product knowledge and experience, social influence, and product benefits|
|4||How we did it. The founder of UBI group on leading a transition to renewable energy in Africa.||Africa||Climate, experts, awareness, expensive in short run but more sensible, cheaper in the long run|
|5||Analysis on the current situation of solar energy in Shannan area of Tibet and suggestion for popularization.||Tibet||Solar power generation to play leading role in the energy sector by the end 21st century. Lack of broad social recognition, lack of professionals, and analytics.|
|6||Energy audit on solar energy switching.||India||Solar energy can save monthly electricity bills up to 33%|
|7||Solar dried traditional African vegetables in rural Tanzania: Awareness, perceptions and factors affecting purchase decision.||Tanzania||Most households resort to open sun-dried food due to lack of awareness on solar dried traditional African vegetables.|
|8||Public willingness assessment in utilising solar energy in Malaysia: A household perspective.||Malaysia||Awareness of solar energy, self- effectiveness, environment, neighbours, and energy benefits.|
|9||Public acceptance of solar energy: A perspective of households in Malaysia.||Malaysia||Aware about solar but did not practice it hence initiatives and awareness need to realign.|
|10||Optimal utilization of electrical energy of solar photovoltaic system using internet of things.||India||Solar power utilization reduces usage of fossil fuel- based power|
|11||Solar charger for electric vehicle.||India||Solar power as the power source to charge electric vehicle’s battery.|
|12||Willingness to utilise solar energy in Malaysia: A case of Gen Z||Malaysia||Policy makers to strengthen the initiatives to increase awareness.|
|13||A novel solar-powered milk cooling refrigeration unit with cold thermal energy storage for rural application.||India||Solar energy with thermal energy storage is effective for operating the milk chilling unit for two seasons: winter and summer. For monsoon season, the system requires additional source of power. Solar milk chiller resulted in 91.15% lesser CO2 emission.|
|14||Prioritization of renewable solar energy to prevent energy insecurity: An Integrated role.||Pakistan||Mass, money supply and ratio are important. Two districts are more suitable (Barkhan & Baluchistan). Solar energy provides cheaper electricity.|
|15||Effect of climate change to solar energy potential: a case study in the Eastern Anatolia region of Turkey||Turkey||New fossil-fired power plant should not be built. The number of existing ones should be reduced. Renewable energy projects should be budgeted and encouraged.|
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|Awareness||Effort Expectancy||Facilitating Condition||Intention||Performance Expectancy||Social Influence|
|Effort Expectancy (EE)||EE1||0.809||0.894||0.898||0.923||0.708|
|Facilitating Condition (FC)||FC1||0.663||0.819||0.839||0.873||0.580|
|Intention to Adopt||ITA1||0.895||0.905||0.905||0.933||0.778|
|Performance Expectancy (PE)||PE1||0.894||0.866||0.881||0.910||0.717|
|Social Influence (SI)||SI1||0.824||0.805||0.810||0.867||0.570|
|Hypothesis||Relationship||Std Beta||Std Error||t-Value||p-Value||BCI LL||BCI UL||f2|
|H1||Awareness → PE||0.401||0.061||6.529||0.000||0.300||0.492||0.192|
|H2||Awareness → EE||0.575||0.045||12.829||0.000||0.495||0.645||0.494|
|H3||Awareness → FC||0.606||0.040||15.274||0.000||0.532||0.659||0.582|
|H4||PE → Intention||0.238||0.083||2.869||0.002||0.102||0.364||0.050|
|H5||EE → Intention||0.116||0.082||1.426||0.077||−0.041||0.232||0.011|
|H6||SI → Intention||0.088||0.070||1.256||0.105||−0.009||0.213||0.007|
|H7||FC → Intention||0.281||0.081||3.479||0.000||0.130||0.402||0.053|
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Aravindan, K.L.; Thurasamy, R.; Raman, M.; Ilhavenil, N.; Annamalah, S.; Rathidevi, A.S. Modeling Awareness as the Crux in Solar Energy Adoption Intention through Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology. Mathematics 2022, 10, 2045. https://doi.org/10.3390/math10122045
Aravindan KL, Thurasamy R, Raman M, Ilhavenil N, Annamalah S, Rathidevi AS. Modeling Awareness as the Crux in Solar Energy Adoption Intention through Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology. Mathematics. 2022; 10(12):2045. https://doi.org/10.3390/math10122045Chicago/Turabian Style
Aravindan, Kalisri Logeswaran, Ramayah Thurasamy, Murali Raman, Narinasamy Ilhavenil, Sanmugam Annamalah, and Arul Selvam Rathidevi. 2022. "Modeling Awareness as the Crux in Solar Energy Adoption Intention through Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology" Mathematics 10, no. 12: 2045. https://doi.org/10.3390/math10122045