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Educ. Sci., Volume 13, Issue 5 (May 2023) – 104 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): The study reports on students’ opportunities to acquire generic competencies when they work with knowledge-related assignments at upper secondary school. The data of the 30 investigated assignments included lesson observations and teacher interviews. The analysis of the teaching practices focused on students’ joint activities, process-like emphasis, epistemic challenge, and information practices. Cluster analysis produced the following three groups of assignments: Open and challenging assignments with guidance and support (8 cases), which support students’ knowledge-related competencies the best, Demanding assignments without support (7 cases) in which students work independently with limited support for challenging assignments, and Well-defined, teacher-directed assignments (15 cases), which were well-structured and teacher-centered assignments. View this papaer
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11 pages, 807 KiB  
Article
Digital Literacy and Digital Self-Efficacy of Australian Technology Teachers
by Amy Cosby, Eloise S. Fogarty and Jaime Manning
Educ. Sci. 2023, 13(5), 530; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci13050530 - 22 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2600
Abstract
Agriculture is being increasingly transformed into a technological industry and calls for a greater need for digitally literate employees. To ensure school students are best placed for this requirement, the development of teacher digital literacy, self-efficacy, and the awareness of agricultural technology is [...] Read more.
Agriculture is being increasingly transformed into a technological industry and calls for a greater need for digitally literate employees. To ensure school students are best placed for this requirement, the development of teacher digital literacy, self-efficacy, and the awareness of agricultural technology is essential. The current study explores the digital literacy and self-efficacy of Australian Technology Mandatory teachers who were participants in a one-day workshop (n = 185). The workshop introduced participants to the GPS Cows module, a complete teaching resource specifically designed to cover agricultural aspects of the Technology Mandatory syllabus. Data were collected by way of classroom ‘clickers’ during the workshop and by a post-workshop survey. Teachers were found to have reasonable basic digital literacy but lacked the confidence to conduct more detailed analytics. There was also some evidence that a teacher’s own digital literacy may also impact their perception of their students’ skills. Professional development workshops, such as the GPS Cows workshop, can improve teacher digital literacy and self-efficacy through hands-on learning in a collaborative, team environment. Full article
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24 pages, 903 KiB  
Article
Preservice Elementary Teachers Conceptions and Self-Efficacy for Integrated STEM
by Deepika Menon, Deef A. A. Shorman, Derek Cox and Amanda Thomas
Educ. Sci. 2023, 13(5), 529; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci13050529 - 22 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2024
Abstract
Educational reform efforts have emphasized preparing highly competent and confident preservice teachers to deliver effective K-12 Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) instruction. Self-efficacy is a key variable that influences motivation and performance, and therefore it is necessary to support the development of [...] Read more.
Educational reform efforts have emphasized preparing highly competent and confident preservice teachers to deliver effective K-12 Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) instruction. Self-efficacy is a key variable that influences motivation and performance, and therefore it is necessary to support the development of preservice teachers’ integrated STEM teaching self-efficacy. This mixed-methods study investigates how preservice elementary teachers’ integrated STEM teaching self-efficacy is shaped during their participation in a newly redesigned STEM semester consisting of three concurrent methods courses (science and engineering, mathematics, and technology methods courses). The quantitative data sources included the Self-efficacy for Teaching Integrated STEM instrument administered as a pre- and post-test, demographic, and open-ended questionnaire. The qualitative data sources included STEM identity letters, integrated STEM models, and STEM growth reflections. Quantitative results showed statistically significant positive gains in integrated STEM-teaching self-efficacy from the beginning to the end of the semester. The results from the content analysis also revealed positive shifts in PSTs’ conceptions and attitudes about STEM. Notably, having a similar discourse across the three parallel-running methods courses provided a suitable context for preservice teachers to develop a shared understanding of integrated STEM. Implications for preservice STEM teacher preparation and research are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research and Innovation in STEM Education)
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16 pages, 4415 KiB  
Article
A Virtual Reality Laboratory for Blended Learning Education: Design, Implementation and Evaluation
by Dario Antonelli, Athanasios Christopoulos, Mikko-Jussi Laakso, Valentina Dagienė, Agnė Juškevičienė, Vaida Masiulionytė-Dagienė, Maksymilian Mądziel, Dorota Stadnicka and Chrysostomos Stylios
Educ. Sci. 2023, 13(5), 528; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci13050528 - 22 May 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1877
Abstract
Launched during the pandemic, the EU-funded JANUS project aimed to ensure the continuity of student workshops at universities using a virtual reality (VR) robotics laboratory. With the return to normality, the project has been redesigned to capitalise on the positive outcomes of the [...] Read more.
Launched during the pandemic, the EU-funded JANUS project aimed to ensure the continuity of student workshops at universities using a virtual reality (VR) robotics laboratory. With the return to normality, the project has been redesigned to capitalise on the positive outcomes of the experience. The VR lab provides safe and unrestricted access to the labs and experiments with the machines, reducing the consequences of student mistakes and improving the user experience by allowing the experiment to be repeated from different angles, some of which are impossible to access in the real lab. In addition, integration with an interactive learning platform called “ViLLE” allows for continuous assessment of the learning experience. Self-evaluation of the material taught and learned can be integrated with the execution of the exercises that pave the way for Kaizen. Two VR workshops for the blended learning of robotics were developed during the JANUS project. Their evaluation reported favourable responses from the students whose learning performance was indirectly measured. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances and Novel Methods for Education in the Era of Industry 4.0)
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15 pages, 491 KiB  
Article
Coaching-Based Pedagogy and Its Impact on Students’ Self-Regulation among Marginalized and Segregated Communities: Palestinian Arab Middle School Students as a Case Study
by Talat Shatroubi and Antonia Ramirez-Garcia
Educ. Sci. 2023, 13(5), 527; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci13050527 - 21 May 2023
Viewed by 1119
Abstract
(1) Background: This study aimed to examine the effect of assimilating coaching tools among educational staff on the cultivation of (emotional, behavioral, and cognitive) self-regulation skills among Palestinian Arab middle school students in Israel. Little attention has been paid to the relationship between [...] Read more.
(1) Background: This study aimed to examine the effect of assimilating coaching tools among educational staff on the cultivation of (emotional, behavioral, and cognitive) self-regulation skills among Palestinian Arab middle school students in Israel. Little attention has been paid to the relationship between coaching-based teaching and students’ self-regulation among middle school students, let alone students from segregated and disadvantaged communities worldwide. (2) Methods: A quasi-experimental study was designed to test the hypothesis that there are differences in self-regulation between students who participate in coaching-based teaching and those who do not. Six hundred Palestinian Arab middle school students participated in this study and were randomly assigned to two groups: an experimental group (n = 300) and a control group (n = 300). All participants completed a pre- and post-test instrument that included the Adolescent Self-Regulatory Inventory (ASRI), and repeated-measures ANOVAs were used to analyze the data. Repeated-measures analysis of variance was employed to examine the effect of coaching on the students’ level of self-regulation. To examine the sources of the differences, Tukey’s post hoc tests were used. (3) Results: A statistically significant correlation between coaching-based education and students’ ability to take responsibility and ownership for their own learning was revealed. The results showed that the mean of the self-regulation variable before the intervention in the experimental group was significantly lower than that after the intervention (t = −13.70, p < 0.001) and that the mean of the experimental group after the intervention was significantly higher than that of the control group after the intervention (t = 29.62, p < 0.001). Furthermore, there were significant effects on self-regulation at the time of measurement (before and after the intervention) (F (1, 299) = 49.87, p < 0.001) and for the participant group (F (1, 299) = 497.13, p < 0.001). In addition, no significant difference was found in the self-regulation mean score for the control group before and after the intervention (t = 0.55, p > 0.05). These results demonstrate that coaching had a positive effect on the participants’ level of self-regulation. Recommendations: We recommend that coaching-based pedagogy be incorporated into the education system, in general, and in education systems that serve the needs of marginalized and disadvantaged communities, in particular. Full article
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13 pages, 296 KiB  
Article
Perceived Connection to Instructor and Instructor Passion as Predictors of Transformative Experiences in Science
by Kevin J. Pugh, Cassendra M. Bergstrom, Michael M. Phillips, Julie M. Sexton, Colton Olson and Eric M. Riggs
Educ. Sci. 2023, 13(5), 526; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci13050526 - 21 May 2023
Viewed by 1488
Abstract
Transformative experience represents a deep-engagement construct and refers to experiences in which students use science content to see and experience the world in meaningful new ways outside the classroom. Such experiences are associated with deep learning (e.g., transfer) and engagement (e.g., academic and [...] Read more.
Transformative experience represents a deep-engagement construct and refers to experiences in which students use science content to see and experience the world in meaningful new ways outside the classroom. Such experiences are associated with deep learning (e.g., transfer) and engagement (e.g., academic and career choice) outcomes. However, research on individual factors predictive of transformative experience is limited. The current study investigated university geoscience students’ perceptions of a connection to their instructor(s) and perceptions of their instructors’ passion for the content as predictors of transformative experience. Controlling for students’ initial interest and self-efficacy in the domain, we found both these factors to be predictive of transformative experience. These results suggest science teachers may be able to support engagement in transformative experiences by connecting with students and expressing a passion for the content. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue STEM Practices and Student Engagement)
20 pages, 797 KiB  
Review
Reality and Future of Interculturality in Today’s Schools
by David Pérez-Jorge, Ana Isabel González-Herrera, Miriam González-Afonso and Anthea Gara Santos-Álvarez
Educ. Sci. 2023, 13(5), 525; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci13050525 - 20 May 2023
Viewed by 2148
Abstract
In today’s society, high-quality educational contexts must include intercultural education and educational inclusion as main elements of school culture. Equity, social justice, and equal opportunities for everybody require the construction of flexible processes, relationships, and organizational structures open to diversity. This paper presents [...] Read more.
In today’s society, high-quality educational contexts must include intercultural education and educational inclusion as main elements of school culture. Equity, social justice, and equal opportunities for everybody require the construction of flexible processes, relationships, and organizational structures open to diversity. This paper presents an updated review of studies focusing on models of educational responses adapted to cultural diversity. It analyzes the response of schools as collaborative communities in intercultural education and their reality as inclusive and intercultural communities. An exhaustive search of documents was carried out, consulting the Web of Science (WoS), Scopus, and Dialnet databases. After analyzing and applying inclusion and exclusion criteria, 21 documents were identified that showed the structural, cultural, and relational transformation of educational centers and the improvement of their organizational and public response and adaptation to current needs. The challenge of building intercultural educational contexts is a concern for schools and the educational agents who coexist in them. Full article
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28 pages, 1756 KiB  
Article
Rising to the Challenge of Creating Equitable, Inclusive, and Compassionate School Communities in the Recovery Phase of the Pandemic: The Role of Aspiring Headteachers
by Joan G. Mowat and Anna Beck
Educ. Sci. 2023, 13(5), 524; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci13050524 - 20 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1778
Abstract
Concerns have been raised globally about the impact of the pandemic on the mental health and wellbeing of children and young people (CYP). How prospective headteachers rose to the challenge posed by the pandemic in supporting the wellbeing of their school communities and [...] Read more.
Concerns have been raised globally about the impact of the pandemic on the mental health and wellbeing of children and young people (CYP). How prospective headteachers rose to the challenge posed by the pandemic in supporting the wellbeing of their school communities and reaching out to the most vulnerable CYP and families during the recovery phase is the focus of this paper. It is a longitudinal, principally qualitative study conducted in two phases with 60 former students of the Into Headship programme in Scotland. Phase 2 of the study drew on the accounts of eight students drawn from the primary, secondary, and special education sectors using individual interviews and focus group discussions. This paper draws on the accounts of three secondary sector participants in interview. Data were analysed via thematic analysis using a modified framework of King and Horrocks. The respondents had encountered a wide range of challenges and had been highly proactive in their approach through adopting both targeted and universal approaches to meeting need and addressing inequalities. The findings of this paper should inform the development of headship preparation programmes globally and the responses of schools in the recovery phase, furthering our understanding as to what constitutes inclusion in education. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue International Perspectives on Inclusion in Education)
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18 pages, 1299 KiB  
Article
Why Inclusive Resources Matter—The Importance of Inclusive Internal Resources for Strain and Intended Inclusive Practices of Pre-Service Teachers
by Birte Oetjen
Educ. Sci. 2023, 13(5), 523; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci13050523 - 20 May 2023
Viewed by 1161
Abstract
Inclusive internal resources moderate teachers’ mental health and predict teachers’ inclusive practices. Therefore, it is important to enhance inclusive internal resources during the beginning of initial teaching experiences. Applying the job demands–resources (JD-R) theory to explain strain and the theory of planned behavior [...] Read more.
Inclusive internal resources moderate teachers’ mental health and predict teachers’ inclusive practices. Therefore, it is important to enhance inclusive internal resources during the beginning of initial teaching experiences. Applying the job demands–resources (JD-R) theory to explain strain and the theory of planned behavior to elucidate behavior, it can be assumed that teachers’ inclusive resources lead to a reduction in negative strain, an increase in positive strain and efficient (intended) inclusive practices as occupational outcomes. However, there is a lack of scientific evidence to support this assumption among pre-service teachers. To ensure that student teachers had teaching experiences in inclusive settings, the present study was conducted after pre-service teachers’ final teaching practicum in the university phase of teacher education. A total of 294 pre-service elementary school teachers from one university in Germany participated. Structural equation models suggested that inclusive self-efficacy expectations and attitudes towards inclusion predicted students intended inclusive practices, but so did professional engagement as a positive strain. While professional engagement only correlated with inclusive self-efficacy expectations, the self-perceived stress intensity of a challenging student as negative strain negatively correlated with inclusive self-efficacy expectations and personal resistance. Full article
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13 pages, 615 KiB  
Systematic Review
Digital Assessment in Technology-Enriched Education: Thematic Review
by Anžela Jurāne-Brēmane
Educ. Sci. 2023, 13(5), 522; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci13050522 - 20 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2607
Abstract
Digital assessment has become relevant as part of the digital learning process, as technology provides not only teaching and learning but also assessment, including productive feedback. With the rapid development of educational technology and the expansion of related research, there is a lack [...] Read more.
Digital assessment has become relevant as part of the digital learning process, as technology provides not only teaching and learning but also assessment, including productive feedback. With the rapid development of educational technology and the expansion of related research, there is a lack of research-based clarification of aspects of digital assessment without considering the impact of temporary pandemic solutions. The purpose of this thematic review is to summarize key features in studies over a specified period of time (2018–2021); consequently, it does not offer completely new knowledge, but captures essential knowledge of the last few years before the pandemic to avoid losing a significant aspect of digital assessment due to temporary pandemic solutions. The review results in a description of digital assessment that includes its conditions, opportunities and challenges, as well as other characteristics. The findings confirm the importance of digital assessment in the modern educational process and will increase the understanding of digital assessment among those involved in education (administrators, educators and researchers), inviting them to consider possible pedagogical principles. Furthermore, these findings are now comparable to and should be supplemented with post-pandemic insights and knowledge. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Technology Enhanced Education)
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14 pages, 1092 KiB  
Article
Navigating University: The Design and Evaluation of a Holistic Support Programme for Autistic Students in Higher Education
by Charlotte Brownlow, Neil Martin, Donna-Marie Thompson, Amelia Dowe, Ding Abawi, Jessica Harrison and Sonja March
Educ. Sci. 2023, 13(5), 521; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci13050521 - 20 May 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1544
Abstract
Successfully engaging with university study can be challenging for autistic students and has been highlighted in the research literature as an area of concern. This study sought to address support for autistic students at one Australian university through the development of a bespoke [...] Read more.
Successfully engaging with university study can be challenging for autistic students and has been highlighted in the research literature as an area of concern. This study sought to address support for autistic students at one Australian university through the development of a bespoke programme called A-Skills. The programme was co-designed with autistic students drawing on principles of self-determination theory and it aimed to develop study and student life skills. This paper presents a longitudinal evaluation of the programme using semi-structured interviews and user engagement metrics from the online platform. Our findings indicated that engagement with the programme varied between individuals but adopting a principle of co-design ensured that the topics of focus were important to the needs of the students it sought to support. Further, interview data suggested both positive sentiment and value towards the initiative amongst participants. Although online delivery enabled choice, there were potential challenges in fostering relatedness, which was addressed to some degree through synchronous online weekly sessions facilitated by an autistic student. Core to the success of A-Skills is the co-design approach as a central principle in the design, development and evaluation of the programme. With continued research and iterative design, the programme could be adopted more widely. Full article
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32 pages, 4788 KiB  
Article
The Language Diamond: An Intercultural Model to Teach and Learn (through) Languages
by Nathalie Auger
Educ. Sci. 2023, 13(5), 520; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci13050520 - 20 May 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1828
Abstract
The starting point (1) of our proposal is the observation of the lack of intercultural practices in schools in France, even in the crucial context of teaching French to migrant children (2). Thanks to previous studies, we, therefore, develop theoretical anchors (3) about [...] Read more.
The starting point (1) of our proposal is the observation of the lack of intercultural practices in schools in France, even in the crucial context of teaching French to migrant children (2). Thanks to previous studies, we, therefore, develop theoretical anchors (3) about learning territories, the ways to recycle language, and cultural experiences that can encompass all the context parameters (a pan-language approach) to elaborate an intercultural model for learning and teaching. The aim is to propose, methodological reflections to offer a model which could help change the representations and practices of the educational community regarding multilingualism so that students’ language and cultural experiences could become an asset to achieve academic success (4). It leads to a discussion about leads to the creation of the intercultural language diamond model to teach and learn (through) languages (5). Projects based on the language model give the opportunity to discuss this proposal (5): interests and possible limitations (6). The conclusion (7) pledges the use of the language diamond to counterbalance the ideology which considers diversity as an issue, and therefore adopt a holistic, maximalist point of view: a pan-language and pan-cultural approach to encompass the complexity of education challenges today. Full article
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17 pages, 331 KiB  
Article
Secondary Education Teacher Training and Emotional Intelligence: Ingredients for Attention to Diversity in an Inclusive School for All
by Mercedes Arias-Pastor, Steven Van Vaerenbergh, Jessica Fernández-Solana and Jerónimo J. González-Bernal
Educ. Sci. 2023, 13(5), 519; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci13050519 - 20 May 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2992
Abstract
This study, which is part of a broader research project, aims to investigate the impact of the initial training received by students in the Master’s Degree in Secondary Education and Baccalaureate, Vocational Training, and Language Teaching (MDSE) on their future teaching development in [...] Read more.
This study, which is part of a broader research project, aims to investigate the impact of the initial training received by students in the Master’s Degree in Secondary Education and Baccalaureate, Vocational Training, and Language Teaching (MDSE) on their future teaching development in the current educational and social framework. The main goal is to understand their concerns, attitudes, and level of acquired competencies and knowledge for their professional development as inclusive teachers. Additionally, the study aims to explore the relationship between their assessments and experiences with the perceived level of Emotional Intelligence (EI), given its importance as a facilitating element, which is teachable from formal education, in socio-educational inclusion processes and quality attention to diversity in classrooms. A total of 218 MDSE students (Mage = 31.5; SD = 6; males = 33%; females = 67%) participated in the study, coming from various Spanish universities, and having either completed their studies or being in the final stages after having completed the generic module and practices in secondary education centers. The information was collected through the “Teacher Training in Secondary Education: Key Elements for Teaching in an Inclusive School for All” (TTSE-IN) questionnaire, which included five validated and relevant instruments, of which three were used for the study’s purpose (Questionnaire for Future Secondary Education Teachers about Perceptions of Diversity Attention, Scale of Feelings, Attitudes, and Concerns about Inclusive Education, Revised SACIE-R and Wong and Law Emotional Intelligence Scale WLEIS-S). The main results indicate that future teachers show a positive attitude towards diversity but have significant training gaps. Additionally, the EI variable, along with regular contact with people in situations of special vulnerability and experience in teaching people in situations of special vulnerability in non-formal contexts, has a positive effect on both teacher well-being and the facilitation of inclusive education processes and diversity attention. Full article
23 pages, 3384 KiB  
Article
Supporting Preservice Teachers in Analyzing Curriculum Materials
by Markus Obczovsky, Thomas Schubatzky and Claudia Haagen-Schützenhöfer
Educ. Sci. 2023, 13(5), 518; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci13050518 - 19 May 2023
Viewed by 1147
Abstract
Developing evidence-based curricula is a common approach in science education research to improve the quality of teaching. Curriculum developers recurrently provide curriculum materials (CMs) to support teachers who design instruction in the classroom. However, these CMs are often designed for students, and the [...] Read more.
Developing evidence-based curricula is a common approach in science education research to improve the quality of teaching. Curriculum developers recurrently provide curriculum materials (CMs) to support teachers who design instruction in the classroom. However, these CMs are often designed for students, and the features of CMs that are supportive of student learning are not sufficiently explained. Extant studies indicate that teachers struggle to identify these features in CMs or reject certain features of CMs. Therefore, we developed a teaching and learning sequence (TLS) for teacher education programs to support preservice physics teachers in analyzing CMs. We designed a tool that provides a scheme for systematically analyzing CMs and investigated if this tool is suitable for supporting preservice physics teachers in analyzing CMs. We implemented the TLS in a bachelor seminar (N = 8) of our teacher education program, conducted short, guided interviews as well as problem-centered interviews, and collected several learning products. The tool helps preservice teachers to discover a broader range of features of CMs; however, they struggle to argue the role of these features in facilitating student learning. Further, we discuss the refinement of the tool and provide design conjectures for the development of a similar TLS. Full article
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19 pages, 2750 KiB  
Article
Teachers’ Professional Training through Augmented Reality: A Literature Review
by Juanjo Mena, Odiel Estrada-Molina and Esperanza Pérez-Calvo
Educ. Sci. 2023, 13(5), 517; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci13050517 - 19 May 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2252
Abstract
Practicum is regarded as a fundamental aspect of the training of prospective teachers. In addition, digital tools are increasingly used to enrich a traditional face-to-face experience. However, the technological exploitation of Augmented Reality (AR) by undergraduate students studying early childhood and primary education [...] Read more.
Practicum is regarded as a fundamental aspect of the training of prospective teachers. In addition, digital tools are increasingly used to enrich a traditional face-to-face experience. However, the technological exploitation of Augmented Reality (AR) by undergraduate students studying early childhood and primary education is low. A Systematic Literature Review (SLR) on the use of Augmented Reality (AR) in teacher training was conducted. Based on the overarching objectives of the ERASMUS+ project, entitled Digital Practicum 3.0 Exploring Augmented Reality, Remote Classrooms, and Virtual Learning to Enrich and Expand Pre-service Teacher Education Preparation (2020-1-ES01-KA226-HE-096120), the ultimate purpose of this study was to assess whether the use of this resource favors learning and expertise. Two main results are prominent. First, it is noteworthy how the use of this digital technology is limited, given the scarcity of studies. Second, the research studies available focus largely on the benefits of the use of AR in teacher education at a theoretical level. Thus, future research needs to further explore the use of AR in teacher training specially focused on student teachers’ learning processes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Online Practicum and Teacher Education in the Digital Society)
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14 pages, 272 KiB  
Article
Fighting Discrimination through Sport? Evaluating Sport-Based Workshops in Irish Schools
by Louis Moustakas and Lisa Kalina
Educ. Sci. 2023, 13(5), 516; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci13050516 - 19 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1269
Abstract
Discrimination based on ethnicity, gender, or sexual orientation remains a pressing challenge throughout Europe, including within Ireland. Despite this, anti-discrimination education is lacking and uneven within school settings. Responding to this gap and seeking to capitalise on the perceived social potential of sport, [...] Read more.
Discrimination based on ethnicity, gender, or sexual orientation remains a pressing challenge throughout Europe, including within Ireland. Despite this, anti-discrimination education is lacking and uneven within school settings. Responding to this gap and seeking to capitalise on the perceived social potential of sport, one Irish NGO has begun delivering sport-based anti-discrimination workshops to students in primary and secondary schools nationwide. This paper presents an evaluation of these workshops, putting a specific focus on the learning outcomes generated. Data were obtained from standardised, open-ended student feedback forms and qualitatively analysed using a Framework Analysis. The results illustrate fairly consistent learning outcomes, but these outcomes generally focus on individual behaviours and attitudes. This contrasts strongly with literature on anti-discrimination education, which recognises a need to reflect on privilege and social structures while also developing clear strategies to address discrimination. To conclude, we propose recommendations and ways forward to help address both individual and structural realities within such sport-based workshops. Full article
24 pages, 556 KiB  
Article
Early Years Staff Experiences in a “Culture of Learning” Regarding Inclusion in a Nursery Class in a British School: An Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis
by Anabel Corral-Granados, Ana María Martínez-Martínez, Carlos Sánchez-Muñoz and Noelia Navarro-Gómez
Educ. Sci. 2023, 13(5), 515; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci13050515 - 19 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2041
Abstract
Less than 20% of the early childhood education and care (ECEC) staff members working in British early childhood centres agree that the inclusion of all children is an essential part of their working agenda, as they feel unqualified to take care of children [...] Read more.
Less than 20% of the early childhood education and care (ECEC) staff members working in British early childhood centres agree that the inclusion of all children is an essential part of their working agenda, as they feel unqualified to take care of children with complex SEN or disabilities. This study makes a novel contribution by drawing on data compiled from a one-year ethnographic study which addressed the in-service learning experiences of seven teaching staff members that work inclusively. The participants included 2 classroom teachers, 1 SENCo (Special Educational Needs Coordinator), and 4 teaching assistants from a preschool class that teaches 92 children between the ages of 3 and 4, located in a primary school in England. We explore what professional learning means for the participants’ role, which professional learning opportunities are meaningful to them, and under which circumstances had been offered. This study not only does consider their opportunities for professional development on the job but also outside of work. The data were collected through semi-structured interviews, artifact analysis, and ongoing participant observation over one academic year. Data were analysed using interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA). The results demonstrate that this case study offers a unique perspective of a microsystem that could be at risk due to a lack of awareness by leaders and administration. The study is divided into four themes that directly impact inclusive professional service-development practices: (1) challenges posed to continuous professional development by differing professional roles, (2) motives for in-service training: combining career, school, and authorities’ interests, (3) promotion of meaningful professional development experiences by school, and (4) self-determined classroom motivated by respect and recognition. Full article
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14 pages, 289 KiB  
Article
Blended Learning in a Higher Education Context: Exploring University Students’ Learning Behavior
by Kleopatra Nikolopoulou and Georgios Zacharis
Educ. Sci. 2023, 13(5), 514; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci13050514 - 19 May 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3407
Abstract
Blended learning is a growing phenomenon in higher education after the COVID-19 pandemic (the educational process moved entirely online), and the way is prepared for blended education mode in universities. Although blended learning research is on the rise, fewer studies regard university students’ [...] Read more.
Blended learning is a growing phenomenon in higher education after the COVID-19 pandemic (the educational process moved entirely online), and the way is prepared for blended education mode in universities. Although blended learning research is on the rise, fewer studies regard university students’ learning behavior in blended learning environments. This study aims to investigate university students’ blended learning behavior perceptions shortly after the pandemic. A 19-item questionnaire was administered to 176 university students in Greece. Students, in general, expressed positive blended learning behavior perceptions. Higher percentages of agreement were associated with the role of audio-visual online resources in facilitating and supporting independent learning and with student motivation in blended education. Students expressed lower percentages of agreement, and some uncertainty, with regard to involvement in small group work with their peers. Implications for students, educators, as well as university policy and practice are discussed. Full article
18 pages, 1542 KiB  
Article
The Analysis of Bursary Satisfaction and Learning Performance for Disadvantaged Students: A Case Study from Taiwan
by Kuei-Chien Chiu and Rung-Ching Chen
Educ. Sci. 2023, 13(5), 513; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci13050513 - 19 May 2023
Viewed by 2964
Abstract
For the majority of people, bursaries are a significant concern during their academic careers. This research focuses on how satisfied subsidized students are with the program and how it affects their ability to learn after receiving disadvantaged students’ bursaries. The study analyzes the [...] Read more.
For the majority of people, bursaries are a significant concern during their academic careers. This research focuses on how satisfied subsidized students are with the program and how it affects their ability to learn after receiving disadvantaged students’ bursaries. The study analyzes the 1788 questionnaires returned by students who received the “Dream. Set Sail. Turn Life” Underprivileged Learning Scholarship for three academic years from 2019 to 2021. The data were collected from a university in Taiwan. The primary purpose is to explore the students’ satisfaction with implementing the plan and provide a further analysis of satisfaction and learning effects. The research shows that the rest of the questions are significant, except that applicants can learn more professional skills. The following are the priorities: positive impact on the life and future of subsidized students, expanding personal horizons, improving employability, learning more professional knowledge, reducing the economic pressure of studying, and eliminating the need for work-study. In addition, the overall satisfaction of the recipients with the program will also affect their learning outcomes (academic performance). While using the overall satisfaction of the program to perform regression on the learning effect, it was found that the subsidized recipients significantly impact the overall satisfaction of the program and their learning effects. The higher the subsidized recipients’ overall satisfaction with the program, the more significant the learning effect. Full article
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17 pages, 789 KiB  
Article
Feelings about School in Gifted and Non-Gifted Children: What Are the Effects of a Fine Art Program in Primary School?
by Christine Sanchez and Nathalie Blanc
Educ. Sci. 2023, 13(5), 512; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci13050512 - 18 May 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1860
Abstract
There is a consensus about the benefits of an artistic activity on health and well-being. In France, a gifted child is considered a special needs student for whom enrichment is advocated. Therefore, this study examines the extent to which a whole-class art enrichment [...] Read more.
There is a consensus about the benefits of an artistic activity on health and well-being. In France, a gifted child is considered a special needs student for whom enrichment is advocated. Therefore, this study examines the extent to which a whole-class art enrichment program delivered to both gifted and non-gifted children benefits both student populations with respect to their school well-being. The art program was implemented in classrooms over the course of an entire school year (during the COVID-19 pandemic). The self-report French version of the Feelings About School scale (i.e., FAS) was completed in three steps (i.e., before, mid-program, and after) by a sample of gifted and non-gifted children benefiting from the program. The FAS scores of those students were also compared at the end of the school year with those of students who did not participate in the art program. Despite the pandemic context that requires caution in drawing definite conclusions, this study supports that (i) the fine arts practice is a lever of development, (ii) the sanitary situation was detrimental for elementary school students, and (iii) better adaptive capacities were exhibited by gifted children in this context. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Identifying and Supporting Giftedness and Talent in Schools)
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9 pages, 204 KiB  
Article
Picture Books, Imagination and Play: Pathways to Positive Reading Identities for Young Children
by Amanda Niland
Educ. Sci. 2023, 13(5), 511; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci13050511 - 18 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 5826
Abstract
Picture books are part of many young children’s lives, whether at home or in early childhood or school settings. Their unique creative combinations of words and visual images can engage children’s attention, stimulate their imagination, and support their development as meaning-makers. Nurturing a [...] Read more.
Picture books are part of many young children’s lives, whether at home or in early childhood or school settings. Their unique creative combinations of words and visual images can engage children’s attention, stimulate their imagination, and support their development as meaning-makers. Nurturing a love of books in young children can foster the development not only of early literacy skills, but also positive reading identities. Early childhood educators therefore have key roles to play as selectors, analysts and mediators of picture books. This article aims to build educators’ awareness of these roles through the analytical discussion of a small group of picture books selected for their focus on children’s imaginative worlds. Children need to see themselves in books, and given that play and imagination are central to young children’s ways of being and learning, picture books about children engaged in imagination and play can be important resources for nurturing a love of reading and fostering positive reading identities in young children. This pedagogical position paper explores a small sample of such books and discusses their value as part of early literacy curriculum. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Role of the Arts in Early Language and Literacy Development)
13 pages, 262 KiB  
Article
Educators’ Construction of a Sense of Belonging in ECEC: An Australian Case Study
by Anne Keary, Haoran Zheng and Susanne Garvis
Educ. Sci. 2023, 13(5), 510; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci13050510 - 18 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1621
Abstract
The involvement of refugee families in early childhood education and care (ECEC) is a complex issue in many countries. In this paper, we explore how early childhood (EC) educators construct refugee families’ sense of belonging in two metropolitan and one regional EC setting [...] Read more.
The involvement of refugee families in early childhood education and care (ECEC) is a complex issue in many countries. In this paper, we explore how early childhood (EC) educators construct refugee families’ sense of belonging in two metropolitan and one regional EC setting in Victoria, Australia. We undertook a multiple case study, analyzing interview data. We implemented Bourdieu’s notion of cultural capital and identity capital, drawing on the Provision Articles from the Convention on the Rights of the Child (1989) and the Australian Early Years Learning Framework 2.0. Our study revealed the tensions between creating a sense of belonging and recognizing the identity and cultural capital of refugee children and their families as they access ECEC programs. We conclude with suggestions for ways forward to navigate this space, including the need for greater awareness of research on the importance of a sense of belonging for refugee families in ECEC settings. Full article
18 pages, 775 KiB  
Article
From Resistance to Resilience: Teachers’ Adaptation Process to Mediating Digital Devices in Pre-COVID-19, during COVID-19, and Post-COVID-19 Classrooms in Nepal
by Dirgha Raj Joshi, Jeevan Khanal and Ram Hari Dhakal
Educ. Sci. 2023, 13(5), 509; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci13050509 - 17 May 2023
Viewed by 2097
Abstract
This qualitative study explores the implementation and adoption process of the use of digital devices and tools in teaching and learning before, during, and after the COVID-19 pandemic in Nepal. Using Rogers’ diffusion of innovation theory as a framework, the study examines the [...] Read more.
This qualitative study explores the implementation and adoption process of the use of digital devices and tools in teaching and learning before, during, and after the COVID-19 pandemic in Nepal. Using Rogers’ diffusion of innovation theory as a framework, the study examines the adoption and adaptation of digital devices by in-service secondary mathematics teachers (n = 62) and the teachers’ perceptions of and preferences for instructional modalities. The findings suggest that, despite the increased reliance on digital devices during the pandemic, there is a lower likelihood of them being used in face-to-face classrooms in developing countries, such as Nepal. The adoption of online learning had not yet reached the adoption stage, even after the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic. Prior to the pandemic, online learning was not widely adopted by teachers in developing countries societies. The study also provides important insights into the challenges of and opportunities provided by using digital devices in post-COVID-19 classrooms, and its implications for policymakers and educators in Nepal. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Technology Enhanced Education)
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16 pages, 1707 KiB  
Review
Digital Competence in University Lecturers: A Meta-Analysis of Teaching Challenges
by Marta Liesa-Orus, Raquel Lozano Blasco and Lorena Arce-Romeral
Educ. Sci. 2023, 13(5), 508; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci13050508 - 17 May 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1537
Abstract
This meta-analysis (random effects) studies the self-perceived digital competence of university lecturers in university teaching, using 7470 lecturers from Europe and Latin America collected in K = 31 samples, with teaching experience of between 6 and 15 years. The effect size obtained from [...] Read more.
This meta-analysis (random effects) studies the self-perceived digital competence of university lecturers in university teaching, using 7470 lecturers from Europe and Latin America collected in K = 31 samples, with teaching experience of between 6 and 15 years. The effect size obtained from a moderate random effects model of r = −0.21 with a 99% confidence interval is significant, negative, and moderate, confirming the low competence level. The meta-regression results show that the area of knowledge plays an important role. The systematic review of the literature shows that the perception of ICTs is positive, while the level of competence is low, and there are institutional and training challenges to be solved. Full article
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19 pages, 328 KiB  
Article
Enhancing Cultural Empathy in International Social Work Education through Virtual Reality
by Komalsingh Rambaree, Nessica Nässén, Jörgen Holmberg and Göran Fransson
Educ. Sci. 2023, 13(5), 507; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci13050507 - 16 May 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2130
Abstract
School-based bullying is a major global social problem affecting societies around the world. It is argued that Virtual Reality (VR) offers benefits and possibilities in social work education. Within this context, a study was carried out with the aim of analysing students’ experiences [...] Read more.
School-based bullying is a major global social problem affecting societies around the world. It is argued that Virtual Reality (VR) offers benefits and possibilities in social work education. Within this context, a study was carried out with the aim of analysing students’ experiences with a school-based bullying scenario through Head-Mounted Display Virtual Reality (HMD VR), and exploring the pedagogical potential of this technology to support the enhancement of cultural empathy in international social work education. Using cultural competence and social constructivist perspectives focused on empathy theory, this article addresses the following research questions: How do the research participants describe experiencing the bullying scene with HMD VR? How do the research participants account for their HMD VR experiences in connection with empathy? How can the pedagogical use of HMD VR enhance international social work students’ cultural empathic skills? Data for the study were gathered through four Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) with 38 volunteer research participants based on their postexposure to a scenario on school-based bullying through HMD VR. ATLAS.ti v.23 software (Atlas.ti, Berlin, Germany) was used to undertake a deductive thematic analysis. The findings reveal that HMD VR plays an important role in enhancing different dimensions of empathy, which is an essential element in transformative learning in social work education. The overall implications of using HMD VR in international social work education for enhancing cultural empathy are discussed. The article concludes that HMD VR has a promising role; however, several ethical, practical, and pedagogical aspects need to be considered for this technology tool to provide the sought-after pedagogical value in social work education. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Virtual and Augmented Reality in Education)
13 pages, 644 KiB  
Article
Cost Analysis in Online Teaching Using an Activity Map
by Nuria Segovia-García and Ester Martín-Caro
Educ. Sci. 2023, 13(5), 506; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci13050506 - 16 May 2023
Viewed by 1244
Abstract
Virtual education has been associated, on some occasions, with economic models of scale that strengthen the mercantilist vision of teaching, thereby raising questions on the quality of the service. Some studies on educational costs associated with this modality simplify the analysis based on [...] Read more.
Virtual education has been associated, on some occasions, with economic models of scale that strengthen the mercantilist vision of teaching, thereby raising questions on the quality of the service. Some studies on educational costs associated with this modality simplify the analysis based on individual elements, such as the production of courses or the technological infrastructure, offering an incomplete and biased perspective. This study proposes to carry out a complete analysis of the costs of a virtual university using an Activity-Based Costing (ABC) model to determine the percentage of the budget consumed by each of the activities involved in the training process. The results show the significant influence that instructional design and teaching activities have on virtual modalities (62.5% of the set of activities), thus highlighting the importance of human resources in maintaining educational modalities mediated by technology. Understanding the importance of human capital and its contribution to offering a quality and innovative educational service is fundamental to consolidate a model that can improve access to education for populations with major difficulties. Full article
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17 pages, 269 KiB  
Article
The Work-Related Stress and Well-Being of Teachers—An Exploratory Study within Primary Schools in Italy
by Giulia Arbia, Agostino Carbone, Irene Stanzione and Giordana Szpunar
Educ. Sci. 2023, 13(5), 505; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci13050505 - 16 May 2023
Viewed by 3133
Abstract
This study analyzes the critical aspects of the professional life of primary school teachers in a southern European context. The social changes of the last two decades have profoundly impacted teachers’ well-being, putting a strain on their ability to adapt to sometimes unfair [...] Read more.
This study analyzes the critical aspects of the professional life of primary school teachers in a southern European context. The social changes of the last two decades have profoundly impacted teachers’ well-being, putting a strain on their ability to adapt to sometimes unfair working conditions. For this purpose, we interviewed twenty teachers (M = 38.85; DS = 9.17) from different areas of Italy and analyzed data using the grounded theory method. Through a data analysis, we summarized and emphasized eight core themes. The results show the effects of the gradual impoverishment of the recognition for the role of the teacher, highlighting the difficulty for teachers in renegotiating more flexible workload assessments and reinforcing psycho-emotional skills for developing a teaching methodology that is attentive to the psycho-emotional needs of their pupils. Schools emerge as a rigid working context where a competent organizational function is often absent. The practical psychological implications of this are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Education and Psychology)
15 pages, 27885 KiB  
Article
Effectiveness of Digital Storytelling in Teaching Economics
by Jana Nunvarova, Petra Poulova, Pavel Prazak and Blanka Klimova
Educ. Sci. 2023, 13(5), 504; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci13050504 - 16 May 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1257
Abstract
Digital storytelling is one of the teaching methods that aims to improve motivation of students, critical thinking and learning outcomes. The results of previous research show the successful use of this method in education, but its use in some subjects is still questionable. [...] Read more.
Digital storytelling is one of the teaching methods that aims to improve motivation of students, critical thinking and learning outcomes. The results of previous research show the successful use of this method in education, but its use in some subjects is still questionable. The aim of the pedagogical experiment, which was conducted in 2021 at six business academies in the Czech Republic, was to discover whether or not digital storytelling contributes to better study results in business subjects taught at high school. A total number of 856 students were randomly divided into two independent groups. In the experimental group, the digital storytelling method was used in the process of teaching. The students in the control group were taught with the standard teaching method—the teacher’s explanation with the support of the presentation. By comparing the results from the pre-tests and post-tests of the experimental and control groups, the findings reveal that the students from the experimental group reached higher mean values in the post-test than the students from the control group did. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Digital Innovation in Education)
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19 pages, 4302 KiB  
Article
Teaching and Learning Optics in High School: From Fermat to Feynman
by Maria Rita Otero and Marcelo Fabian Arlego
Educ. Sci. 2023, 13(5), 503; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci13050503 - 16 May 2023
Viewed by 1597
Abstract
In this article, we analyze the basis of a proposal that allows teaching the notions of reflection, refraction, interference and diffraction from a unified perspective, using Fermat’s variational principle, recovered by Richard Feynman in his formulation of the paths sum for quantum mechanics. [...] Read more.
In this article, we analyze the basis of a proposal that allows teaching the notions of reflection, refraction, interference and diffraction from a unified perspective, using Fermat’s variational principle, recovered by Richard Feynman in his formulation of the paths sum for quantum mechanics. This allows reconsidering the notions of geometrical and physical optics, using the probabilistic and unified model of quantum mechanics by means of mathematical notions that are accessible to high school students. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Learning and Teaching Optics)
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3 pages, 177 KiB  
Editorial
Editorial for the Special Edition on Social and Emotional Education
by Colleen McLaughlin
Educ. Sci. 2023, 13(5), 502; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci13050502 - 16 May 2023
Viewed by 869
Abstract
This collection of eight articles in this special edition clearly exemplifies the variety of thoughts and definitions relating to the territory of social and emotional education [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Social and Emotional Education in Schools)
13 pages, 265 KiB  
Article
The Understanding of Effective Professional Development of Mathematics Teachers According to South Sudan School Context
by Oduho George Ben Soforon, Svein Arne Sikko and Solomon Abedom Tesfamicael
Educ. Sci. 2023, 13(5), 501; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci13050501 - 16 May 2023
Viewed by 1064
Abstract
This paper aims to provide an understanding of effective professional development (PD) for mathematics teachers according to the context of South Sudan schools. Hunsicker’s (2011) checklist of effective PD was taken as a framework. The framework has five characteristics—supportive, job-embedded, instructional focused, collaborative, [...] Read more.
This paper aims to provide an understanding of effective professional development (PD) for mathematics teachers according to the context of South Sudan schools. Hunsicker’s (2011) checklist of effective PD was taken as a framework. The framework has five characteristics—supportive, job-embedded, instructional focused, collaborative, and ongoing—and these five characteristics have been used for shaping the study. Interviews were designed and administered to educational officials, principals of two schools, and six sampled mathematics teachers, patterning their understanding about effective PD of mathematics teachers in the South Sudan school context. The analysis showed that the types of PD that exist in the South Sudan school context include the preparation of a lesson plan and the scheme of work for novice teachers, a weekly professional participation of teachers within their working hours, and informal dialog and guidance among peers. In addition, some unqualified teachers are sent to teacher training institutions during holiday times, which can be regarded as a kind of in-service and continuous PD. Our findings are that most of the participants do not have a clear view of what effective PD means. The participants mentioned aspects that can be seen as parts of effective PD according to the literature, but none of them had a holistic or explicit understanding. There is a need to engage those stakeholders to work deeply on aspects of effective PD if a meaningful improvement in student learning is to happen in classrooms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Teacher Professional Development and Sustainability)
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