Teaching and Learning during a Global Pandemic: Perspectives from Elementary School Teachers and Parents
1.1. Theoretical Framework
1.2. Distance Learning
1.3. Current Study
2. General Method
3. Study 1 Method
4. Study 1 Results
4.1. What Does the Virtual Learning Context Look like and How Does It Compare to Pre-COVID-19?
4.1.1. Instructional Modality
4.1.2. Lesson Duration
4.1.3. Percentage of Instruction by Format
4.1.4. Technology and Learning Location
4.2. What Classroom Management Challenges Did Teachers Experience and How Does It Compare to Pre-COVID-19?
4.2.1. Difficulty Managing Attention and Time Off-Task
4.2.2. Off-Task Behaviors
4.2.3. Attention Management Strategies
4.2.4. Teacher Stress and Needed Supports
5. Study 1 Discussion
6. Study 2 Method
7. Study 2 Results
7.1. What Does the Virtual Learning Context Look like During COVID-19 from Parents’ Perspectives?
7.1.1. Instructional Modality
7.1.2. Instructional Duration
7.2. How Much Do Children Enjoy Virtual Learning?
7.3. What Are the Challenges Families Experienced?
7.3.1. Difficulty Managing Attention and Time Off-Task
7.3.2. Off-Task Behaviors
7.3.3. Parental Stress and Needed Supports
7.3.4. Strategies to Support Attention Regulation
7.4. How Much Are Children Reportedly Learning?
Quality of Instruction
8. Study 2 Discussion
9. General Discussion
Institutional Review Board Statement
Informed Consent Statement
Data Availability Statement
Conflicts of Interest
|Did not report||8||16|
|Did not report||8||16|
|Did not report||8||16|
|Grade Level Currently Teaching|
|Art, Music, or Physical Education||3||6|
|Total Teaching Experience|
|Less than a year||9||18|
|Current Grade Teaching Experience|
|Less than a year||12||24|
|Aide or Assistant||5||10|
|Did not report||8||16|
|Category||% Of Teachers||Frequency Count|
|Better access to materials and technology (e.g., school supplies, internet) for students/teachers||28%||9|
|Lower teacher workload||13%||4|
|More parental involvement||13%||4|
|Greater flexibility in curriculum design||13%||4|
|Improving learning management system||6%||2|
|Access to childcare||6%||2|
|Greater student effort/engagement||6%||2|
|Dedicated space for students to study at home||3%||1|
|Did not report||28||15|
|Parent Age Group|
|18–24 years old||1||>1|
|25–34 years old||29||15|
|35–44 years old||107||57|
|45–54 years old||24||13|
|55+ years old||2||1|
|Did not report||26||14|
|Parent Education Level|
|High School Graduate||2||1|
|Some College or Trade School||24||13|
|Did not report||25||13|
|Number of Children at Home|
|Did not report||27||14|
|Did not report||2||1|
|American Indian/Alaska Native||17||9|
|Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander||2||1|
|Two or more||13||7|
|Did not report||4||2|
|Category||% of Parents||Frequency Count|
|Modifications to instruction/format/modality||26%||13|
|Increasing teacher engagement & creativity||18%||9|
|Parent-Teacher meetings/Clearer communication||10%||5|
|More technology support for parents/children||10%||5|
|More organization and routine||10%||5|
|Academic support/Additional study time with teacher||8%||4|
|Dedicated space for student to study/work||8%||4|
|More peer interaction||6%||3|
|Student mental health and socio-emotional support||4%||2|
|Streamlining learning platforms||4%||2|
|More teacher training||2%||1|
|Resources to support student motivation||2%||1|
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|Child Enjoyment||Virtual||150||2.89 (1.40)|
|Child Frustration||Virtual||147||2.30 (0.90)|
|Parent Stress||Virtual||148||2.69 (0.89)|
|Teachers’ Perspectives Study 1||Parents’ Perspectives Study 2|
|Instructional modality||During a typical school week instruction was mostly synchronous||Synch. instruction|
75% (SD = 28%)
|Synch. instruction |
61% (SD = 31%)
|Synchronous instruction was the primary modality across core subject areas||Math (85%)|
|Lesson duration varied by modality and subject area||Sig. effect of:|
|Sig effect of:|
Interaction = NS
|Synch. > Asynch.||Synch. > Asynch.|
Math > Science
English > Science
Math & English = NS
NS difference in duration by subject area
Math > Science
English > Science
Math & English = NS
|Attention||Perceived difficulty level of managing children’s attention online differed||77% somewhat or very difficulty||32% somewhat or very difficult|
|Estimated time children spent off-task during virtual instruction||32%||38%|
|Commonly endorsed attention management strategies||Short breaks (76%) |
Modifying Instructional activity (70%)
Modifying duration (70%)
|Short breaks (61%) |
|Sources of off-task behavior during online instruction||Family > emojis, virtual background, technology, peers, toys, supplies|
Family vs. Self = NS
Family vs. Chat box = NS
|Self-distractions > emojis, chat box, virtual backgrounds, technology, peers|
Self vs. Family = NS Self vs. Toys = NS
Self vs. Supplies = NS
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Godwin, K.E.; Kaur, F.; Sonnenschein, S. Teaching and Learning during a Global Pandemic: Perspectives from Elementary School Teachers and Parents. Educ. Sci. 2023, 13, 426. https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci13040426
Godwin KE, Kaur F, Sonnenschein S. Teaching and Learning during a Global Pandemic: Perspectives from Elementary School Teachers and Parents. Education Sciences. 2023; 13(4):426. https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci13040426Chicago/Turabian Style
Godwin, Karrie E., Freya Kaur, and Susan Sonnenschein. 2023. "Teaching and Learning during a Global Pandemic: Perspectives from Elementary School Teachers and Parents" Education Sciences 13, no. 4: 426. https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci13040426