Teacher Educator Wellbeing, Stress and Burnout: A Scoping Review
2. Teacher Educator Wellbeing and Burnout
3.1. Stage 1: Research Questions
3.2. Stage 2: Relevant Studies
3.3. Stage 3: Study Selection
3.4. Stage 4: Charting the Data
3.5. Stage 5: Collating, Summarising and Reporting the Results
5. Results and Discussion
5.1. What Is Known about Teacher Educator Wellbeing, Stress and Burnout?
5.2. What Is Known about the Stressors and Challenges Experienced by Teacher Educators?
5.3. What Is Known about Teacher Educator Exhaustion and Burnout?
5.4. What Is Known about Teacher Educator Wellbeing?
5.5. Where Are the Research Gaps?
7. Disclosure Statement
Institutional Review Board Statement
Informed Consent Statement
Data Availability Statement
Conflicts of Interest
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|Author||Year||Country||Participants||Method||Summary of Findings Relevant to this Review|
|Amos-Williams, Sayed, & Singh||2022||South Africa||8 teacher educators||Qualitative: Semi structured interviews||Effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on teacher educators’ wellbeing|
Teacher educators reported frustration, anxiety, stress and overwhelm caused by the disruptive nature of the COVID-19 pandemic.
Work intensification occurred as a result of the switch to online learning and teaching.
The intensification of labour and working from home blurred boundaries between work and home.
|Richter, Lazarides, and Richter||2021||Germany||304 participants who work part time in schools as teacher educators and part time as school teachers||Quantitative:|
Job satisfaction measured using Work Satisfaction Scale 
Emotional exhaustion measured using Maslach Burnout Inventory 
|Emotional exhaustion and job satisfaction|
There was a negative and statistically significant relationship between career aspirations and emotional exhaustion, also between and social contribution and emotional exhaustion.
|McDonough, Papatraianou, Strangeways, Mansfield, & Beutel||2021||Australia||94 teacher educators||Qualitative survey adapted from the Teachers’ Ten Statements Test||Challenges experienced by teacher educators |
Participants reported challenges in: feeling undervalued or unacknowledged, maintaining a sustainable work–life balance, intensification of workload, relationships with students, colleagues and university leadership, and increased compliance demands.
Supportive factors for teacher educators (wellbeing)
Feeling valued, work–life balance, sense of achievement, research, professional learning, positive relationships with students and colleagues, manageable workload, and receiving positive feedback.
|Kant & Shanker||2021||India||200 teacher educators||Quantitative:|
Emotional intelligence measured using Weisinger’s Emotional Intelligence test (no reference included in article).
Burnout measured using Maslach burnout inventory 
|Emotional intelligence and burnout|
Participants were found to be suffering from extreme (17.5%), mild (74%), and low burnout (8.5%).
Emotional intelligence has a significant negative relationship with burnout of teacher educators.
|Kiltz, Rinas, Daumiller, Fokkens-Bruinsma and Jansen||2020||Germany and Netherlands||10 University teachers including at least one participant from teacher education. Article does not state the exact number of teacher educator participants.||Qualitative: semi-structured interviews||University teacher wellbeing (including at least one teacher educator) |
Engagement with work was central to participants’ wellbeing.
Participants stated that self-awareness and self-regulation were essential for regulating wellbeing.
Eudaimonic wellbeing, illustrated as meaningfulness, was related to intrinsic motivation.
Participants reported that good wellbeing enabled them to be better prepared for teaching, and to feel more energetic, present, and interested.
Participants stated that good wellbeing enabled them to experience better relationships with their students.
Reduced university teacher wellbeing (including at least one teacher educator)
Job insecurity negatively affected participant wellbeing.
The teacher–researcher role conflict negatively affected participant wellbeing.
Restricted voice in faculty matters negatively affected participant wellbeing.
Difficulty of maintaining a work life balance.
Participants reported that their experience of low wellbeing, stress, and feeling overwhelmed negatively impacted their students’ wellbeing.
Participants reported that feelings of low wellbeing resulted in lectures of lower quality and feeling less connected to students.
University teacher and student wellbeing appear to be reciprocal.
University teachers’ wellbeing was negatively impacted by students’ problems.
|Gillett-Swan and Grant-Smith||2020||Australia||11 participants including a mix of academic, sessional and professional staff who mentor pre-service teachers whilst they are on practicum.|
Article does not state the exact number of teacher educator participants.
|Qualitative: descriptive single case-study with semi-structured interviews||University mentor wellbeing and stress during pre-service teacher practicum|
University mentor’s wellbeing is negatively affected by the work required above the allocated workload to mentor pre-service teachers whilst they are on practicum.
Participants reported feeling that practicum supervision is not highly regarded for promotion and tenure purposes, which impacted their wellbeing and performance appraisals.
Participants reported being stressed and anxious due to worrying about the wellbeing of pre-service teachers.
Participant stress was exacerbated by the perception of a lack of university support.
Participants reported feelings of futility and stress in response to effort and unachievable standards.
|Kosnik, Menna and Dharamshi||2020||Canada, United States, Australia and England||28 literacy teacher educators||Qualitative: modified grounded theory using semi-structured interviews||Literacy teacher educator wellbeing|
Participants reported feeling that their wellbeing was compromised due to: feelings of being isolated and tension with colleagues, high workload, feeling overburdened, and decreased job satisfaction.
Participants reported that the demands of external accreditation requirements, in which there was a perceived lack of respect for faculty, were ‘soul destroying’, and led to ‘deep unhealed schisms’ within departments.
Participants reported that job insecurity and forced redundancies negatively affected their wellbeing.
|Coyle, Miller, & Rivera Cotto||2020||United States||162 teacher educators||Mixed methods:|
Online survey adapted from Educator Plateauing Survey 
|Teacher educator stress|
84% of participants needed to bring work home in order to meet deadlines.
Participants stated that maintaining work life balance was a major stressor.
60% of participants felt burdened with overwhelming research, teaching, and service responsibilities.
54% of participants did not feel included in the decision-making processes.
54% of participants did not feel they were adequately compensated for the work that they do.
Top stressors indicated by participants included: unreasonable workload, lack of support from administrators, poor communication, isolation, and poor leadership.
|Naz, Liaqat and Ghyas||2019||Pakistan||50 teacher educators||Quantitative: Comparative statistical analysis between senior teacher educators with PhD and > 5 years experience and junior teacher educators with Masters and < 3 years experience. |
Likert questionnaire designed by authors
|Teacher educators stressors|
Stressors: Junior teacher educators consider workload as their greatest frustration, whereas senior teacher educators considered policies and procedures as their biggest frustration.
Teacher educators motivators (wellbeing)
Motivators: The majority of both senior and junior teacher educators stated that teaching is their favourite part of the job, and respect is the greatest reward in being a teacher educator.
|Cao, Postareff, Lindblom and Toom||2018||China||115 teacher educators||Quantitative: |
Approach to teaching measured by revised version of ‘Approaches to Teaching Inventory’ 
Burnout measured using six items from ‘Socio-contextual Teacher Burnout Inventory’ 
|Teacher educator exhaustion and burnout |
Teacher educator exhaustion and burnout had a statistically significant negative relationship with a student-focused approach to teaching.
|Sharp, Diego-Medrano, Hughes, Raymond, & Piper||2018||United States||61 literacy teacher educators||Qualitative: Open ended survey questions|
Analysed using content analysis techniques
|Challenges and pressures experienced by teacher educators|
Challenges and pressures experienced by participants categorised as: external accountability and mandates, conceptions about literacy and professionalism, characteristics of pre-service teachers, appropriate classroom settings, and teacher preparation program requirements.
|Padilla and Thompson||2016||United States||1439 university faculty participants 127 of these participants from Education faculty.||Quantitative: Descriptive statistics and linear regression||University faculty stressors and burnout (including 8.8% teacher educator participants)|
27% of participants reported experiencing burnout ‘often’ to ‘very often’
Pressure to obtain grants was the strongest risk factor for burnout.
Time spent teaching and pressure to conduct service were also related to burnout.
Conflict arises because teaching and service are weighted less toward promotion than research.
Social support, hours spent with family or on leisure activities were related to a decrease in burnout.
|Roy & Roy||2016||India||41 teacher educators||Quantitative: General well being measured by scale developed by Chauhan & Didwania (no reference included in article)||Teacher educator wellbeing|
There is no difference in participants’ perception of their wellbeing according to gender and area of living or work place (rural or urban).
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Turner, K.; Garvis, S. Teacher Educator Wellbeing, Stress and Burnout: A Scoping Review. Educ. Sci. 2023, 13, 351. https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci13040351
Turner K, Garvis S. Teacher Educator Wellbeing, Stress and Burnout: A Scoping Review. Education Sciences. 2023; 13(4):351. https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci13040351Chicago/Turabian Style
Turner, Kristina, and Susanne Garvis. 2023. "Teacher Educator Wellbeing, Stress and Burnout: A Scoping Review" Education Sciences 13, no. 4: 351. https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci13040351