Enhancing Home Education in Italian Context: Teachers’ Perception of a Hybrid Inclusive Classroom
2. The Homebound Education Service and Related Application Limits to Chronic Disease Cases
- The children or young people receive HE in their own homes;
- The children or young people receive HE in other residential communities;
- The children or young people receive HE at the hospital in case a school service is not present.
3. The Theoretical Framework
3.1. From Hybrid Virtual Classroom
3.2. To Hybrid Inclusive Classroom
3.2.1. The Contextual Dimension
3.2.2. The Organizational Dimension
3.2.3. The Technological Dimension
3.2.4. The Methodological Dimension
4. Materials and Methods
4.1. The Present Study
4.3. Analysis of the Interviews
5.1. The Contextual Dimension
“I consider the student’s mother to be very precise. She always made an effort to give us the requested information and materials in real time: handing over the tests done by N. at school, picking up homework, she never backed out he gave so much…/She always answered to any request, to any message promptly.”
“As might be expected, we can check if all homework was done by the homebound student, or someone made them for her. But at home she has more freedom and that’s right”.
“Make him/her feel important, despite the distance, is an essential part of the class purpose. I think it’s the fundamental thing…”, “because distance could make the homebound student think: ‘They are in classroom, I’m at home, we are not the same’”.
“We pushed him/her, we told him/her ‘well done’ in all ways, from this perspective I think this support helped him/her feel like as he/she is part of the class”.
“…every now and then I say something to him/her, however, I tried to not draw much attention to him/her during my lesson. So far that if I didn’t say hello to him/her… because I also have the same problem as my colleague, who says “I didn’t say hello to him/her”. I don’t even go back to say hello to him/her, because I don’t say hello to them all, I say “hello guys”, I don’t say “hello A, hello B, hi C…”.
“Maybe somehow we found a way to help him/her in him/her relations with peers. He/she is not an outgoing person, particularly extroverted in short, so what helped him/her in teaching (introversion) maybe it was an obstacle in create bonds with classmates. I would say maybe another person could have, even at a distance, created more relationships.”
“I mean, there were dynamics that also involved… but they were class dynamics, even if he/she was from home, even if there was an unpleasant episode… I don’t know how to say it… well, in some ways it was really a class dynamic so… even though of conflict, that seemed to me a positive experience as well”.
5.2. The Organizational Dimension
“Then I used to put earphones on, and I could hear him better even if there was noise’.
“Students have acquired an impressive routine, in the sense that they are completely autonomous in handling technology”.
“The tablet used by the student was not connected with the teacher’s Meet; so, I didn’t really understand technically how this thing was, maybe C could explain it better, I don’t know, but he/she was connected with the teacher and with a companion”.
“(…) the nice and positive thing is that his/her classmates have been always very happy to help him/her from remotely, of course the situations in which this occurred were not many, but it was a good experience for P and for the boys in the class… “.
“As far as the virtual environment is concerned, I must say that the presence of A for me was the key to accustoming myself to using it as much as possible. I wasn’t used to it and it is an important resource, even more important if there is someone at home who needs to have the material at hand. It was therefore an opportunity to regularise and continually update the virtual environment section”.
5.3. The Technological Dimension
“He/she did also asking questions in the chat room, so his/her classmates kept quiet when he/she would speak”.
5.4. The Methodological Dimension
“I would prepare, I learned how to plan. Then I would write all the emails with everything the student at home had to do…I was afraid I would forget everything”.
“We have to keep in mind the person… we knew she was ill and might have specific needs”.
“…the fact also of convening small groups and working in a certain way with them helps a lot from this point of view, I tried as much as possible… yes because I think the art curriculum is fundamental, but it is also fundamental to grow together…”.
“…at the beginning, it seemed that mainly those who already knew him were involved, those who supported him because they knew a bit of his history and so they made themselves immediately available, and then, perhaps, one or two classmates who didn’t know him had joined in, instead…”, even though in some moments teachers also point out some difficulties: “I know that that group didn’t always work very hard”.
“Because my subject in remote education is a disaster… because teaching drawing at a distance is really problematic and I realized this”.
“…the other day, just yesterday, we gave her a round of applause because even at the level of learning, I don’t know how she did it-I do one hour and a half hours of French, the last two hours until a quarter past two-she’s always there, she’s always done everything, we did a listening comprehension test that objectively is impossible to copy, difficult, maybe with the audio not good and she showed that even at the level of learning she held perfectly…”.
5.5. Hybrid Inclusive Classroom Experience
Institutional Review Board Statement
Informed Consent Statement
Data Availability Statement
Conflicts of Interest
- Before your current experience with the HBS… were you familiar with the School in Hospital service?
- According to your experience, what strategies can be useful to maintain educational continuity while a student is hospitalised or absent due to illness?
- According to your experience, what strategies can be useful to maintain social and relational contacts between the hospitalised student and his/her classmates?
- What impact did the student’s hospitalisation have on the class? Did you have to manage critical issues? If so, how were they handled?
- How did things go with the HBS during the medical emergency and the remote learning during lockdown?
- Communication with School in Hospital teachers
- Was the class equipped with technological tools?
- Were you already using technologies?
- What impact did the introduction of technology have in the ‘classroom’ context?
- How did you manage to use technology? Were there any changes during the school year (e.g., did you get used to it)?
- Have class ‘routines’ for technology management been developed (e.g., someone who sets up the PC, launches programmes)?
- Were there any interference elements of this new classroom environment that you had to manage?
- Have you developed new and different organisational management strategies for the ‘new classroom environment’?
- How did you manage your communication with the HBS and the class?
- How did you manage communication between the students and the HBS?
- Did you need to establish new rules in your interactions following the construction of this ‘new class environment’?
- How were the relations with the families involved (HBS and class)?
- UNESCO’s Education Response to COVID-19|UNESCO. Available online: https://www.unesco.org/en/covid-19/education-response (accessed on 7 July 2022).
- Williamson, B.; Eynon, R.; Potter, J. Pandemic Politics, Pedagogies and Practices: Digital Technologies and Distance Education during the Coronavirus Emergency. Learn. Media Technol. 2020, 45, 107–114. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Reimers, F.M.; Schleicher, A. Schooling Disrupted, Schooling Rethought: How the COVID-19 Pandemic Is Changing Education. In OECD Policy Responses Coronavirus (COVID-19); OECD Publishing: Paris, France, 2020. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Huang, R.H.; Liu, D.J.; Tlili, A.; Yang, J.F.; Wang, H.H.; Jemni, M.; Burgos, D. Handbook on Facilitating Flexible Learning during Educational Disruption: The Chinese Experience in Maintaining Undisrupted Learning in COVID-19 Outbreak; Smart Learning Institute of Beijing Normal University: Beijing, China, 2020. [Google Scholar]
- Cai, R.; Wand, Q. A Six-Step Online Teaching Method Based on Protocol-Guided Learning during the COVID-19 Epidemic: A Case Study of the First Middle School Teaching Practice in Changyuan City, Henan Province, China. BECE 2020, 4, 529–534. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Benigno, V.; Caruso, G.; Fante, C.; Ravicchio, F.; Trentin, G. Classi Ibride e Inclusione Socio-Educativa: Il Progretto Tris; Franco Angeli: Milano, Italy, 2018; ISBN 978-88-917-7756-0. [Google Scholar]
- Ferraro, S. From Hospital School to Homebound Education… and beyond: Tackling the Challenge. IJET 2013, 21, 110–113. [Google Scholar]
- Benigno, V.; Caruso, G.; Fante, C. Docenti in Ospedale e a Domicilio: L’esperienza di una Scuola Itinerante; Franco Angeli: Milano, Italy, 2017; ISBN 978-88-917-5018-1. [Google Scholar]
- Bessell, A.G. Children Surviving Cancer: Psychosocial Adjustment, Quality of Life, and School Experiences. Except. Child. 2001, 67, 345–359. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Searle, N.S. Adolescent Cancer Patients’ Perspectives on Their Educational Experiences: Ten Case Studies; University of Houston: Houston, TX, USA, 2001. [Google Scholar]
- Arora, T.(C.M.J.). Elective Home Education and Special Educational Needs. J. Res. Spec. Educ. Needs 2006, 6, 55–66. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Suzuki, L.K.; Kato, P.M. Psychosocial Support for Patients in Pediatric Oncology: The Influences of Parents, Schools, Peers, and Technology. J. Pediatr. Oncol. Nurs. 2003, 20, 159–174. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- A’Bear, D. Supporting the Learning of Children with Chronic Illness. Can. J. Action Res. 2015, 15, 22–39. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Lombaert, E.; Veevaete, P.; Schuurman, D.; Hauttekeete, L.; Valcke, M. A Special Tool for Special Children: Creating an ICT Tool to Fulfil the Educational and Social Needs of Long-Term or Chronic Sick Children. In Current Developments in Technology-Assisted Education; FORMATEX: Badajoz, Spain, 2006; pp. 1075–1080. [Google Scholar]
- Cohen, S.; Wills, T.A. Stress, Social Support, and the Buffering Hypothesis. Psychol. Bull. 1985, 98, 310–357. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Siegel, D.J. La Mente Relazionale: Neurobiologia dell’Esperienza Interpersonale; Raffaello Cortina: Milano, Italy, 2013; ISBN 978-88-6030-582-4. [Google Scholar]
- Jackson, M. The Special Educational Needs of Adolescents Living with Chronic Illness: A Literature Review. Int. J. Incl. Educ. 2013, 17, 543–554. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Foreman, P.; Arthur-Kelly, M. Inclusion in Action; New Zealand Tertiary College: Auckland, New Zealand, 2017. [Google Scholar]
- Lum, A.; Wakefield, C.E.; Donnan, B.; Burns, M.A.; Fardell, J.E.; Jaffe, A.; Kasparian, N.A.; Kennedy, S.E.; Leach, S.T.; Lemberg, D.A.; et al. School Students with Chronic Illness Have Unmet Academic, Social, and Emotional School Needs. Sch. Psychol. 2019, 34, 627–636. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Martinez, Y.J.; Ercikan, K. Chronic Illnesses in Canadian Children: What Is the Effect of Illness on Academic Achievement, and Anxiety and Emotional Disorders? Child Care Health Dev. 2009, 35, 391–401. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Wilkie, K.J.; Jones, A.J. Link and Learn: Students Connecting to Their Schools and Studies Using ICT despite Chronic Illness. In AARE 2008 Conference Paper Collection; Australian Association for Research in Education: Melbourne, Australia, 2009; pp. 1–13. [Google Scholar]
- St Leger, P. Practice of Supporting Young People with Chronic Health Conditions in Hospital and Schools. Int. J. Incl. Educ. 2014, 18, 253–269. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Klunder, S.; Saab, N.; Admiraal, W. A Teacher Perspective on Using a Hybrid Virtual Classroom for Students with a Chronic Illness in Mainstream Primary and Secondary Schools. Technol. Pedagog. Educ. 2022, 1–16. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Saadiah, Y.; Ahmad, E.A.; Jalil, K.A. The Definition and Characteristics of Ubiquitous Learning: A Discussion. Int. J. Educ. Dev. Using Inf. Commun. Technol. 2010, 6, 11. [Google Scholar]
- Benigno, V.; Ravicchio, F.; Fante, C.; Trentin, G. L’effetto inclusivo delle classi ibride su studenti con patologia cronica impossibilitati alla normale frequenza scolastica. In Cadmo: Giornale Italiano di Pedagogia Sperimentale; Franco Angeli: Milano, Italy, 2017; Volume 2. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- de Souza e Silva, A. From Cyber to Hybrid: Mobile Technologies as Interfaces of Hybrid Spaces. Space Cult. 2006, 9, 261–278. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Raes, A.; Detienne, L.; Windey, I.; Depaepe, F. A Systematic Literature Review on Synchronous Hybrid Learning: Gaps Identified. Learn. Env. Res. 2020, 23, 269–290. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Bower, M.; Dalgarno, B.; Kennedy, G.E.; Lee, M.J.W.; Kenney, J. Design and Implementation Factors in Blended Synchronous Learning Environments: Outcomes from a Cross-Case Analysis. Comput. Educ. 2015, 86, 1–17. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Weitze, C.L.; Ørngreen, R.; Levinsen, K.T. The Global Classroom Video Conferencing Model and First Evaluations. In Proceedings of the 12th European Conference on E-Learning: SKEMA Business School, Sophia Antipolis. Lille, France, 30–31 October 2013; Volume 2, pp. 503–510. [Google Scholar]
- Bell, J.; Sawaya, S.; Cain, W. Synchromodal Classes: Designing for Shared Learning Experiences Between Face-to-Face and Online Students. Int. J. Des. Learn. 2014, 5, 68–82. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Wiles, G.; Ball, T. The Converged Classroom. In Proceedings of the 2013 ASEE Annual Conference & Exposition Proceedings, Atlanta, Georgia, 23–26 June 2013; pp. 23.1176.1–23.1176.10. [Google Scholar]
- Cain, W. Technology Navigators: An Innovative Role in Pedagogy, Design and Instructional Support. In Educational Innovations and Contemporary Technologies; Redmond, P., Lock, J., Danaher, P.A., Eds.; Palgrave Macmillan: London, UK, 2015; pp. 21–35. ISBN 978-1-349-50027-7. [Google Scholar]
- Weitze, C.L. Pedagogical Innovation in Teacher Teams—An Organisational Learning Design Model for Continuous Competence Development. In Proceedings of the 14th European Conference on eLearning ECEL-2015, Hatfield, UK, 29–30 October 2015; pp. 629–638. [Google Scholar]
- Ramsey, D.; Evans, J.; Levy, M. Preserving the Seminar Experience. J. Political Sci. Educ. 2016, 12, 256–267. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Zydney, J.M.; McKimmy, P.; Lindberg, R.; Schmidt, M. Here or There Instruction: Lessons Learned in Implementing Innovative Approaches to Blended Synchronous Learning. TechTrends 2019, 63, 123–132. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Fredricks, J.A.; Blumenfeld, P.C.; Paris, A.H. School Engagement: Potential of the Concept, State of the Evidence. Rev. Educ. Res. 2004, 74, 59–109. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Bronfenbrenner, U. Ecologia dello Sviluppo Umano; Il Mulino: Bologna, Italy, 1998; ISBN 978-88-15-01113-8. [Google Scholar]
- Benigno, V.; Caruso, G.; Fante, C.; Ravicchio, F.; Trentin, G. The TRIS Project and the Socio-Educational Inclusion of Homebound Students. Int. J. Technol. Incl. Educ. 2015, 1, 682–689. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Dodici, S.; Reyes, M.C.; Trentin, G. I-mooc, un mooc interattivo personalizzabile nei tempi e nelle sequenze di fruizione dei contenuti: L’opinione dei partecipanti. Ital. J. Educ. Technol. 2020, 28, 121–137. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Brenner, M.E. Interviewing in Educational Research. In Handbook of Complementary Methods in Education Research; Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers: Mahwah, NJ, USA, 2006; pp. 357–370. ISBN 0-8058-5932-2. [Google Scholar]
- Benigno, V.; Fante, C.; Caruso, G.; De Gregorio, E.; Ravicchio, F. Dimensions and Factors to Manage an Hybrid Classroom. J. Incl. Methodol. Technol. Learn. Teach. 2022, 1. Available online: https://inclusiveteaching.it/index.php/inclusiveteaching/article/view/21 (accessed on 6 August 2022).
- Gentile, M.; Benigno, V.; Caruso, G.; Chifari, A.; Ferlino, L.; Fulantelli, G.; Allegra, M. Italian Parents’ Perception about Learning Practices and Educational Effectiveness of Remote Schooling during the First Lockdown. Qwerty 2021, 16, 87–108. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Capurso, M.; Dell’Antonia, F.; Berizzi, G.; Manfredi, G. La percezione degli insegnanti degli aspetti funzionali e problematici della scuola domiciliare per alunni malati. Ric. Pedagog. Didattica. J. Theor. Res. Educ. 2021, 16, 37–57. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Giovannella, C.; Passarelli, M.; Persico, D. The Effects of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Italian Learning Ecosystems: The School Teachers’ Perspective at the Steady State. Interact. Des. Archit. 2020, 45, 264–286. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Bingimlas, K.A. Barriers to the Successful Integration of ICT in Teaching and Learning Environments: A Review of the Literature. Eurasia J. Math. Sci. Technol. Educ. 2009, 5, 235–245. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Gil-Flores, J.; Rodríguez-Santero, J.; Torres-Gordillo, J.-J. Factors That Explain the Use of ICT in Secondary-Education Classrooms: The Role of Teacher Characteristics and School Infrastructure. Comput. Hum. Behav. 2017, 68, 441–449. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Buabeng-Andoh, C. Factors Influencing Teachers Adoption and Integration of Information and Communication Technology into Teaching: A Review of the Literature. Int. J. Educ. Dev. Using Inf. Commun. Technol. 2012, 8, 136–155. [Google Scholar]
- Benigno, V.; Chiorri, C.; Chifari, A.; Manca, S. Adattamento italiano della Intrapersonal Technology Integration Scale, uno strumento per misurare gli atteggiamenti degli insegnanti nei confronti delle TIC. G. Ital. Psicol. 2013, 4, 815–838. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Maor, D.; Mitchem, K.J. Can Technologies Make a Difference for Hospitalized Youth: Findings from Research: Technologies for Hospitalized Youth. J. Comput. Assist. Learn. 2015, 31, 690–705. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Kirkpatrick, K.M. Adolescents With Chronic Medical Conditions and High School Completion: The Importance of Perceived School Belonging. Contin. Educ. 2020, 1, 50–63. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
|Need for collegiality in the management of technology|
Need for collegiality in teaching
|Educational partnership between school and family|
|Creating a climate of trust with the family|
Need for distance mediation by an adult
Management of the home setting
Management of family interference
|Relationships among students|
|Maintaining emotional connections (BOND)|
|Organization of physical and virtual spaces|
|Organize physical spaces|
Organize learning online environments
|Relationships routines to facilitate the teacher’s work|
Establish and shift the virtual desk mate
Relationships routines to facilitate a feeling of friendship
|Application of pre-existing rules for the homebound student and class|
Develop new rules for the homebound student
|Factors hindering use technologies|
|Inadequate sense of self-efficacy in the use of technologies|
Difficulty in managing the technological setting
Resistance to technology integration
|Prerequisites for the use of technologies in the classroom|
|Need for basic skills in the use of ICT|
Need for time to experiment with teaching technologies
Affordance/access to resources
|Positive factors in using technologies|
|Technology as a tool for didactic innovation|
Technology as an inclusion tool
|Planning educational activities|
|Need to plan educational activities|
Alternate between synchronous and asynchronous activity
|Teachers’ Educational Approach|
|Perception of change in one’s professional practice|
Overcoming the lecture-style teaching method
|Learning and evaluation strategies|
Evaluation strategies equal to the rest of the class
|Theme Name||Theme Description||Example Quotes|
|Relationships between school and family||Teacher recognizes the need of a cooperative climate with the family. Teacher also recognizes some critical issues||
“I know for sure that, if all the homework is well done, parents helped their son in doing the work.”|
“The family atmosphere is very respectful, relaxed, so from student’s parents there wasn’t any interference”
|Relationships among and with the students||Teacher recognizes his/her difficulties and those of his/her students in interacting with HBS. Teacher also identifies a series of behaviors aimed at maintaining contact with HBS||
“Some classmates were insensitive toward X, who thought she was privileged”|
“I was afraid that I would not be able to focus myself on X as much as I wanted to
|HBS characteristics||Teacher indicates that HBS personality or his/her health condition may interfere with the HIC||
“I knew his/her personality, strictness and self-control would help him/her!”|
“He/she’s not outgoing, that’s helped him/her in studying but not in relationships.”
|Collegiality and the role of teachers||Teacher affirms the need of colleagues’ cooperation, especially with those involved in personalized teaching activities||“I’m grateful for my colleague’s support. Without her we would had struggle more.”|
|Setting organization||Teacher thinks that managing the HIC setting requires changes in the classroom traditional setting||
“The class group, in which X was part, was connected in videocall with X (using tablet).|
For this reason, group with X worked in the hallway, to avoid that the rest of the class cause audio difficulties during videocall.”
|Relationship routines||Teacher considers routines as necessary for class relationships, still admitting some critical points||“I consider necessary that a classmate helps HBS… however, in some cases, I noticed that this classmate struggled to keep up with lesson because of it, so it’s a role that we teachers have to be careful to assign.”|
|Technological routines||Teacher explains the procedures and routines for starting videocall and handling it, involving HBS and his/her class during daily lessons||“We included the use of the tablet by the classmate on duty, so during lessons X was connected with teacher and classmate both.”|
|Use of different technological resources||Teacher says HIC setting requires several technological resources, finalized to different purposes, such as communication, lesson material storage and so on.||“Regarding the virtual environment (HIC), I have to say that the presence of X gave me the reason to using the tech as much as possible. I was not used to it, but tech is an important resource, even more important if there is someone at home who needs to have the lesson material. So, it was an opportunity for me to regularize and continually update our virtual environment.”|
|Technology as a tool of inclusion||Teacher recognizes that technologies are an important tool for fostering inclusion||“I have two students with special needs in my classes, and everything we had already used with X was useful for those with other needs as well.”|
|Positive factors in using technologies||Teacher claims that prior technologies experiences, before this research, have fostered HIC management. In particular, teacher is mentioning the experience of remote teaching during lockdown||“It wasn’t out of the blue, with this experience I continued to train and do these things, because personally, when I started distance learning last year, I didn’t know so many things that I learned gradually.”|
|Critical factors in using technologies||Teacher observes several|
difficulties related to the setting,
such as noise, connection difficulties and so on
|“There were audio and connection problems, that sometimes make it difficult to connect with HBS.”|
|Planning educational activities||Teacher considers it necessary to plan teaching activities in HIC setting||“So, it wasn’t easy for us (teachers). I mean, I had to prepare materials, I learned how to schedule everything, the emails, the activities to do, and I was afraid of forgetting something.”|
|Teachers’ Educational Approach||Teacher describes teaching experience with the HBS as a professional gratification and a matter of pride for institution.||“I think this pilot experience is meaningful for the territory, not only for our school but for all Italian schools dealing with home schooling.”|
|Learning and evaluation strategies||Teacher claims to have favored active participation and group work strategies to foster socialization as well, and to have adopted the same strategies for both HBS and classmates||
“I adopted the ‘small group’ setting to get him/her in touch with some of his/her classmates, to do homework together or have some not-so-formal moments… ”|
“In my opinion, from learning perspective, it seems to me that he/she was able to keep up with what we were doing in class, he/she was always careful, he/she always had very good results.”
|Hybrid Class Experience|
|Increased workload||Teacher affirms that teaching strategies for the HIC setting result in an increased workload||“I struggled here, because in fact the use of different tools, different way of teaching, the planning… in short, I had to work hard.”|
|HE importance||Teacher says that traditional HE lessons (1:1 at student’s home) were effective||“During individual lessons we did a lot more than what I do in class, because he/she understand better when we interact directly, so it was absolutely positive.”|
|Use of HIC for absent HBS’s classmates||Teacher says that, due to the HIC experience, he/she found easier to use remote learning setting with absent students as well||“No, I just wanted to say that this experience makes me… other times with other students who were, because of long absence or lockdown, forced to stay at home, made the whole thing very normal, you know, even students at a distance were participating a lot to the lessons.”|
|Perceived equality when all class were in remote setting (because of lockdown)||Teacher reports that remote setting due to lockdown made the HBS feel on the same level as others and increased his/her perception of equality||“The other good experience for X was distance learning for the whole class. At that point he/she really felt equal, I had already said that: he/she really opened up whit me, telling me that this context finally put him/her on the same level as the others.”|
|Active involvement of all students when class was in remote setting||Teacher reports that the class actively participated in remote lessons during lockdown||“Of course, in that emergency phase, for me it was all easier, everyone is equal, and so everyone participates, respects others… I find them as a beautiful class even during distance learning, I mean, despite of everything, there is broad participation.”|
Publisher’s Note: MDPI stays neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
© 2022 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).
Benigno, V.; Caruso, G.P.; Dagnino, F.M.; Dalla Mutta, E.; Fante, C. Enhancing Home Education in Italian Context: Teachers’ Perception of a Hybrid Inclusive Classroom. Educ. Sci. 2022, 12, 563. https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci12080563
Benigno V, Caruso GP, Dagnino FM, Dalla Mutta E, Fante C. Enhancing Home Education in Italian Context: Teachers’ Perception of a Hybrid Inclusive Classroom. Education Sciences. 2022; 12(8):563. https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci12080563Chicago/Turabian Style
Benigno, Vincenza, Giovanni Paolo Caruso, Francesca Maria Dagnino, Edoardo Dalla Mutta, and Chiara Fante. 2022. "Enhancing Home Education in Italian Context: Teachers’ Perception of a Hybrid Inclusive Classroom" Education Sciences 12, no. 8: 563. https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci12080563