Entrepreneurship Education and Students’ Entrepreneurial Intention in Higher Education
2.1. Data Sources
2.3. Methods of Analysis
3.1. Entrepreneurship Education
3.2. Entrepreneurship Intention
3.3. Self-Efficacy of Entrepreneurial Decision-Making
3.4. Conceptual Research Framework and Hypotheses
5. Discussion and Conclusion
Conflicts of Interest
|1. The situation of your participation in practices related to start-up during your school:|
□ A. Never participated □ B. Rarely participated □C. Participated occasionally
□ D. Sometimes participated □ E. Often participated
2. The situation of your participation in learning curriculum related to start-up during your school:
□ A. Never learned □ B. Exposure seldom □ C. Learned occasionally
□ D. Learned on the whole □E. More learned
3. Have you participated in the following activities related to start-up?
□ (1) Participate in speeches by successful entrepreneurs in start-up or experts.
□ (2) Go to the school’s start-up guidance institution for consultation.
□ (3) Visit the school-enterprise joint venture practice base.
□ (4) Participate in social surveys by enterprise.
□ (5) Participate in activities of college student start-up club.
□ (6) Participate in pre-match training for the start-up competitions.
□ (7) Participate in competitions related to start-up
□ (8) Apply for the college student start-up fund
|4. Have you participated in the following start-up education curriculums?||Yes||No|
|(1) The curriculums related to career development (such as career planning, employment guidance, etc.)||1||2|
|(2) The curriculums related to start-up guidance (such as start-up guidance for college students, etc.)||1||2|
|(3) The start-up basic curriculums (such as start-up foundation, start-up management, entrepreneurship, etc.)||1||2|
|(4) The curriculums related to the identification of start-up opportunities (such as start-up opportunities and project selection, identification and evaluation of start-up opportunities, etc.)||1||2|
|(5) The curriculums related to writing a start-up business plan||1||2|
|(6) The curriculums related to start-up fundraising (such as start-up financing, start-up fundraising, etc.)||1||2|
|(7) The curriculums related to Start-up policies and regulations (such as industrial and commercial regulations, tax regulations, company law and contract law, interpretation of start-up policies, etc.)||1||2|
|(8) The curriculums related to start-up enterprise management (such as enterprise management, start-up culture construction, etc.)||1||2|
|Degree of Participation||1||2||3||4||5|
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|Male||A dummy variable (Yes = 1, No = 0)|
|Origin of Residency||A dummy variable (South = 1, North = 0)|
|Research University||A dummy variable, (Yes = 1, No = 0)|
|Economics and Management||A dummy variable (Yes = 1, No = 0)|
|Humanities and Social Sciences||A dummy variable (Yes = 1, No = 0)|
|STEM major||Reference group|
|Graduate Student||A dummy variable (Yes = 1, No = 0)|
|Other Undergraduates||A dummy variable (Yes = 1, No = 0)|
|Seniors in College||Reference group|
|Practicum||A. Choose from 1 to 5 for the following (1 = Never participated, 5 = Often participated:|
The situation of your participation in practices related to start-up during your school
|B. Whether they have participated in the following activities (Yes =1, No = 0):|
(a) Lectures by successful entrepreneurs or experts.
(b) Consulting in entrepreneurship consulting institutions established by schools.
(c) Visiting student entrepreneurial practice bases established by schools and enterprises.
(d) Social research in entrepreneurship.
(e) Student entrepreneurial clubs.
(f) Training before entrepreneurship competitions.
(g) Entrepreneurship competitions.
(h) Applying for college student entrepreneurship funds.
|Courses-Taking||A. Choose from 1 to 5 for the following (1 = Never learned, 5 = More learned:|
The situation of your participation in learning curriculum related to start-up during your school
|B. Whether they have taken the following courses related to (Yes = 1, No = 0):|
(a) Career development.
(b) Entrepreneurial guidance.
(c) Entrepreneurship foundations.
(d) Entrepreneurial opportunity recognition.
(e) Writing business plans.
(f) Venture finances.
(g) Entrepreneurship policies and regulations.
(h) Entrepreneurial business management.
|Entrepreneurial Intention||Choose from 1 to 5 for the following (1 = strongly disagree, 5 = strongly agree):|
I intend to……
(a) be employed first after graduation and then start my own business several years later,
(b) look for entrepreneurial opportunities in my daily life,
(c) spend time learning about entrepreneurship.
|Goal-Setting||Choose from 1 to 5 for the following (1= no confidence at all, 5= full confidence):|
I believe that……
(a) entrepreneurship is my ideal career choice,
(b) entrepreneurship is valuable to me,
(c) entrepreneurship is in line with my hobbies.
|Self-Appraisal||Choose from 1 to 5 for the following (1 = not agree at all, 5 = fully agree):|
I am able to ……, or I believe that……
(a) negotiate with others to get entrepreneurial support,
(b) I have some entrepreneurial capabilities,
(c) explore business opportunities in my daily life,
(d) influence the people around me to support or participate in my business plan,
(e) create learning and working atmospheres that encourage innovation,
(f) build business teams by using my own teamwork.
|InformationAcquisition||Choose from 1 to 5 for the following (1 = not agree at all, 5 = fully agree):|
I am able to ……, or I believe that……
(a) know the basic situation of current and prospect entrepreneurship,
(b) know specific affairs that are required by entrepreneurship,
(c) know current and prospect entrepreneurship in my majored field,
(d) entrepreneurship can bring good economic benefits,
(e) learn educational and training information related to entrepreneurship.
|Plan-Making||Choose from 1 to 5 for the following (1 = not agree at all, 5 = fully agree):|
I am able to ……, or I know……
(a) make plans to achieve the entrepreneurial goals,
(b) make specific action plans for the completion of the entrepreneurial plans,
(c) accumulate working and practicing experience of entrepreneurship,
(d) participate in learning and training for future entrepreneurship,
(e) my career plans for the coming 5–10 years,
(f) I am able to acquire more entrepreneurial knowledge and skills.
|Problem-Solving||Choose from 1 to 5 for the following (1 = not agree at all, 5 = fully agree):|
I am able to ……, or I will……
(a) continue working for my entrepreneurial goals, even when I am frustrated,
(b) solve financial problems in entrepreneurship through different ways,
(c) choose entrepreneurship even with parents’ objections,
(d) use national policies and regulations to protect my entrepreneurial rights from infringement,
(e) choose entrepreneurship even if the social situation of economic development is not optimistic,
(f) study and work hard to prepare for the future entrepreneurship even if I am facing failure or negative feedback.
|2. Course-Taking||0.359 *||1.000|
|3. Entrepreneurial Intention||0.240 *||0.403 *||1.000|
|4. Goal-Setting||0.194 *||0.239 *||0.537 *||1.000|
|5. Self-appraisal||0.168 *||0.252 *||0.480 *||0.587 *||1.000|
|6. Information Acquisition||0.203 *||0.312 *||0.381 *||0.479 *||0.623 *||1.000|
|7. Plan-Making||0.162 *||0.306 *||0.471 *||0.547 *||0.675 *||0.691 *||1.000|
|8. Problem-Solving||0.128 *||0.284 *||0.462 *||0.534 *||0.605 *||0.555 *||0.679 *||1.000|
|Model 1||Model 2||Model 1||Model 2||Model 1||Model 2||Model 1||Model 2||Model 1||Model 2|
|Course Taking||0.998 ***|
|F||1.860||5.455 ***||1.127||5.900 ***||1.333||6.088 ***||2.521 *||9.184 ***||0.902||7.808 ***||1.084||7.227 ***|
|Model 1||Model 2||Model 3|
|Male||0.142 * (0.070)||0.083 (0.064)||0.044 (0.055)|
|South||0.168 * (0.081)||0.141 (0.074)||0.105 (0.063)|
|Graduate||0.112 (0.087)||0.037 (0.080)||0.078 (0.068)|
|Other Undergraduates||0.017 (0.098)||0.007 (0.090)||0.016 (0.076)|
|Economics and Management||0.016 (0.073)||−0.125 (0.068)||−0.073 (0.059)|
|Humanities and Social Sciences||0.062 (0.143)||−0.092 (0.132)||0.052 (0.112)|
|Other Colleges and Universities||0.149 * (0.074)||0.064 (0.068)||0.046 (0.058)|
|Practicum||0.655 ** (0.241)||0.317 (0.207)|
|Course-Taking||1.670 *** (0.185)||1.070 *** (0.164)|
|Goal-Setting||0.267 *** (0.037)|
|Self-appraisal||0.160 ** (0.052)|
|Information Acquisition||−0.080 (0.052)|
|Problem-Solving||0.116 * (0.050)|
|F||1.913||15.199 ***||30.301 ***|
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Mei, H.; Lee, C.-H.; Xiang, Y. Entrepreneurship Education and Students’ Entrepreneurial Intention in Higher Education. Educ. Sci. 2020, 10, 257. https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci10090257
Mei H, Lee C-H, Xiang Y. Entrepreneurship Education and Students’ Entrepreneurial Intention in Higher Education. Education Sciences. 2020; 10(9):257. https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci10090257Chicago/Turabian Style
Mei, Hong, Ching-Hung Lee, and Yuanyuan Xiang. 2020. "Entrepreneurship Education and Students’ Entrepreneurial Intention in Higher Education" Education Sciences 10, no. 9: 257. https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci10090257