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Pharmacy, Volume 10, Issue 6 (December 2022) – 41 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): In pharmacy practice, business models driven by mechanized assembly-line processes, business metrics that supersede patient outcomes, and reduction in pharmacy personnel’s professional judgement have contributed to the decline in the experience of providing patient care in today’s health systems. This study revealed that pharmacy personnel’s workplace wellbeing and resilience was beyond the individual level and requires systems change. Several areas for expanded inquiry in this domain were identified, including: (1) shared trauma, (2) professional responsibility and autonomy, (3) learned subjection, (4) moral injury and moral distress, (5) sociocultural effects, and (6) health systems change. View this paper
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21 pages, 549 KiB  
Article
Impact of a Public Health Awareness Campaign on Patients’ Perceptions of Expanded Pharmacy Services in South Dakota Using the Theory of Planned Behavior
by Sharrel Pinto, Christopher Kotschevar, Aaron Hunt, Alex Middendorf, Christopher Robbins, Erin Miller and Deidra Van Gilder
Pharmacy 2022, 10(6), 178; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy10060178 - 19 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2231
Abstract
Background: Pharmacists can offer medication expertise to help better control diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD) and improve patient outcomes, particularly in rural communities. This project evaluated the impact of an awareness campaign on perceptions of expanded pharmacy services. Methods: The “Your [...] Read more.
Background: Pharmacists can offer medication expertise to help better control diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD) and improve patient outcomes, particularly in rural communities. This project evaluated the impact of an awareness campaign on perceptions of expanded pharmacy services. Methods: The “Your Pharmacists Knows” campaign included a 30-s commercial, print material, and media announcements. A non-randomized pre-post study was completed using a modified theory of planned behavior (mTPB) to assess knowledge, attitude, perceived benefits and norms, and perceived control. A 73-item survey was administered to a convenience sample (n = 172) across South Dakota. Regression models to assess intent and utilization were conducted using age, gender, race, education, population, and insurance status as predictors for mTPB constructs. Results: Most common predictors were female gender and higher education level (p < 0.001). All mTPB constructs were significant predictors of intent to use services (p < 0.001). Knowledge and perceived control had the largest influence on intent. Additionally, there was significant improvement in post-campaign service utilization (p < 0.001). Conclusions: This campaign positively influenced intent to seek and utilize services in rural communities where pharmacies may be the only healthcare option for miles. Through targeted campaigns, patients with diabetes or CVD may find access to services to better manage their conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advancing Public Health Through Community Pharmacy Practice)
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10 pages, 619 KiB  
Article
Comparison of Students’ Self-Assessment and Simulated Patient Assessment in a Patient Counseling Evaluation and Perceived Importance of Communication Skills
by Sara A. Wettergreen, Maria J. Pearson and Sarah K. Scoular
Pharmacy 2022, 10(6), 177; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy10060177 - 19 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1717
Abstract
The primary objective of this study was to compare students’ self-assessment ratings with simulated patient (SP) assessment ratings of communication skills in a patient counseling Objective Structured Clinical Exam (OSCE). The secondary objective was to evaluate student perceptions of the importance of communication [...] Read more.
The primary objective of this study was to compare students’ self-assessment ratings with simulated patient (SP) assessment ratings of communication skills in a patient counseling Objective Structured Clinical Exam (OSCE). The secondary objective was to evaluate student perceptions of the importance of communication skills in the practice of pharmacy as well as the impact of a virtual OSCE format. First-year pharmacy students completed an OSCE focused on self-care product counseling. The evaluation was graded using a rubric covering both verbal and non-verbal communication. Students who completed the course were provided a 15-question, post-evaluation survey with questions related to self-assessment of communication skills and perceptions of the importance of communication skills. Of the 138 students in the course, 68 completed the optional post-assessment survey (49% response rate). There were no statistically significant differences between the ratings by students and SPs for the four communication elements included in the self-assessment. Most of the students recognized the importance of communication skills, including developing rapport and trust. Recognition of the importance of communication skills to future practice as a pharmacist positively correlated with performance on the evaluation (r2 = 0.5409, p-value = 0.0007). Student self-assessment is an effective and cost-effective mode of feedback for practice experiences as an alternative to the use of SPs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Pharmacy Education and Student/Practitioner Training)
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10 pages, 215 KiB  
Article
Empowering Student Pharmacists through Social Determinants of Health Activities to Address Patient Outcomes
by Alina Cernasev, Adejumoke Shofoluwe, Katie Odum and Dawn E. Havrda
Pharmacy 2022, 10(6), 176; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy10060176 - 19 Dec 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1408
Abstract
The pharmacy education and its educators have to expose the student pharmacists to a plethora of activities regarding health disparities. It is essential for student pharmacists to be introduced to the key elements that comprise the Social Determinants of Health (SDOH) during their [...] Read more.
The pharmacy education and its educators have to expose the student pharmacists to a plethora of activities regarding health disparities. It is essential for student pharmacists to be introduced to the key elements that comprise the Social Determinants of Health (SDOH) during their didactic curriculum. However, while there have been efforts made in the United States to incorporate the SDOH in the pharmacy curricula, there is limited research on student pharmacists’ perspectives of how content in the didactic curriculum prepared them to provide patient care. A quantitative approach was used for this study. For the Class of 2023, activities were added to a skills-based course series and a professional development course series to introduce, apply, and illustrate how SDOH can impact pharmacist-provided care and patient health experiences. As part of the College’s assessment plan, a survey is sent to the third-year student pharmacists in January prior to beginning Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experiences (APPEs). The online survey consists of 24 Likert Scale questions with five choices ranging from Strongly Agree to Strongly Disagree and not applicable. Four of the 24 questions pertained to health disparities and SDOH and were evaluated in this study. The responses were analyzed using SPSS for Windows, version 25.0 (IBM Corporation, Armonk, NY, USA). Descriptive statistics were calculated for all variables. Chi-square tests were used for all nominal data and Mann–Whitney test was used for all nonparametric numeric data. A total of 530 student pharmacists completed the survey. The mean age was 26 years and majority of the respondents identified as female (64%). More students strongly agreed that they had the ability to identify and address SDOH to improve access to or the delivery of healthcare in the class of 2023 (51.4%) compared to the class of 2022 (37.8%) and class of 2021 (35.8%). In addition, the mean survey score for the question between the class of 2023 improved significantly compared to the class of 2022 (p = 0.015) and 2021 (p = 0.004). Overall, this study suggests that longitudinal activities involving SDOH can improve student pharmacists’ assessment of their abilities to interact with and care for a diverse patient population. The results suggest that the curriculum activities implemented to address a plethora of patients improve student assessment of their abilities to identify and incorporate SDOH in providing patient-centered care. Full article
8 pages, 203 KiB  
Article
Providers’ Perceived Value of Clinical Pharmacist and Technician Services within Primary Care Clinics
by Alan Abbinanti, Stacey Slager, Kyle Turner, Erin Gurney, Golden Benjamin Berrett and Nicholas Cox
Pharmacy 2022, 10(6), 175; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy10060175 - 17 Dec 2022
Viewed by 1195
Abstract
Several studies have demonstrated the benefit of clinical pharmacy services in primary care. However, studies are limited on providers’ perceived value of embedded primary care pharmacy teams. The purpose of this project was to determine how primary care clinical pharmacists and technicians provide [...] Read more.
Several studies have demonstrated the benefit of clinical pharmacy services in primary care. However, studies are limited on providers’ perceived value of embedded primary care pharmacy teams. The purpose of this project was to determine how primary care clinical pharmacists and technicians provide value to medical providers. Primary care providers in University of Utah health clinics where primary care clinical pharmacists are embedded were invited to participate in one-on-one, semi-structured interviews. Interview sessions were recorded, transcribed, and de-identified. The transcripts were coded and analyzed to determine common themes. Questions were on various topics, including what is of greatest value to them, pharmacy integration into care teams, provider burnout, provider happiness at work, provider workload, and provider retention in the health system. In total, 25 interviews were conducted from nine different clinics (response rates of 19.7% for providers and 81.8% for clinics). Coding revealed themes of increased job satisfaction, enhanced patient care, decreased workload and burnout, and a desire for increased access to clinical pharmacy services. The responses related to clinical pharmacists in primary care were overwhelmingly positive, and providers almost unanimously expressed the need for more pharmacy services in primary care. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pharmaceutical Care Services in Pharmacy Practice)
7 pages, 201 KiB  
Article
A Cross-Sectional Survey Study Examining the Provision of Continuous Glucose Monitoring Education in U.S. Doctor of Pharmacy Programs
by Emily Knezevich, Kevin T. Fuji, Krysta Larson and Gabrielle Muniz
Pharmacy 2022, 10(6), 174; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy10060174 - 16 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1252
Abstract
Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) is used to help patients with diabetes and their healthcare providers more effectively manage care. CGM use is expanding to all healthcare settings where pharmacists practice and new pharmacy graduates may increasingly be asked to assist patients utilizing CGM [...] Read more.
Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) is used to help patients with diabetes and their healthcare providers more effectively manage care. CGM use is expanding to all healthcare settings where pharmacists practice and new pharmacy graduates may increasingly be asked to assist patients utilizing CGM devices and assess diabetes management through the interpretation of CGM data. The purpose of this study was to describe CGM education across Doctor of Pharmacy (Pharm.D.) programs in the United States. An online survey was administered to 139 accredited Pharm.D. programs. Information was solicited about CGM education, including curricular placement, course type, hands-on experience, and credential(s) of faculty providing the education. Fifty-seven programs responded with 51 (89.5%) providing CGM education for a median of 1.0 h. Of programs providing detailed responses, content was delivered in required (60.4%) or elective (45.8%) lectures as well as experiential settings (41.7%). Education occurred most frequently in the third year (58.3%), followed by the second (43.8%) and fourth (37.5%) years. Thirty-one (66.0%) programs were taught by a faculty member with an advanced diabetes credential. The results from this study confirm that there is an ongoing need to examine optimal amount, timing, and methods for providing CGM education. Full article
12 pages, 502 KiB  
Article
The Development, Implementation, and Evaluation of a Pharmacist-Managed Therapeutic Drug Monitoring (TDM) Service for Vancomycin—A Pilot Study
by Paul Firman, Ken-Soon Tan, Alexandra Clavarino, Meng-Wong Taing, Sally Dixon, Helender Singh and Karen Whitfield
Pharmacy 2022, 10(6), 173; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy10060173 - 12 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1685
Abstract
Background: In recent years, pharmacists in Australia have been able to expand their scope to include the provision of a range of services. Although evidence has demonstrated the benefits of pharmacist-managed TDM services, recent studies have shown that these services are not prominent [...] Read more.
Background: In recent years, pharmacists in Australia have been able to expand their scope to include the provision of a range of services. Although evidence has demonstrated the benefits of pharmacist-managed TDM services, recent studies have shown that these services are not prominent within Australia and that the current TDM workflow may not be optimal. Methods: An interventional pilot study was conducted of a pharmacist-managed TDM program for vancomycin at a tertiary hospital in Australia. Results: In total, 15 pharmacists participated in the program. They performed 50.5% of the medication-related pathology over the intervention period. Pharmacist involvement in the TDM process was more likely to lead to appropriate TDM sample collection (OR 87.1; 95% CI = 11.5, 661.1) and to an appropriate dose adjustment (OR 19.1; 95% CI = 1.7, 213.5). Pharmacists demonstrated increased confidence after the education and credentialling package was provided. Conclusions: This study demonstrated that a credentialling package for pharmacists can improve knowledge, skills, and confidence around the provision of pharmacist-managed TDM services for vancomycin. This may lead to the evolution of different roles and workflows enabling pharmacists to contribute more efficiently to improving medication safety and use. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pharmacy: State-of-the-Art and Perspectives in Australia)
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14 pages, 736 KiB  
Systematic Review
Systematic Review of Evening Primrose (Oenothera biennis) Preparations for the Facilitation of Parturition
by Timothy C. Hutcherson, Nicole E. Cieri-Hutcherson, Maggie M. Lycouras, Dharmista Koehler, Madison Mortimer, Christina J. Schaefer, Olivia S. Costa, Ashley L. Bohlmann and Mudit K. Singhal
Pharmacy 2022, 10(6), 172; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy10060172 - 10 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2038
Abstract
Background: The objective of this systematic review was to characterize the efficacy and safety of evening primrose (EP) for facilitation of parturition in peripartum persons. Methods: This search sought records related to the efficacy and safety of EP preparations to facilitate parturition. Eligibility [...] Read more.
Background: The objective of this systematic review was to characterize the efficacy and safety of evening primrose (EP) for facilitation of parturition in peripartum persons. Methods: This search sought records related to the efficacy and safety of EP preparations to facilitate parturition. Eligibility criteria were primary literature with efficacy or safety outcomes reported; studied in peripartum persons; and available in English. Records were excluded if they were available as abstracts only. Data was synthesized by study characteristics, patient demographics, and outcomes. The RoB2 and ROBINS-I were used to assess risk of bias. Results: A total of 11 studies met inclusion criteria: seven randomized placebo-controlled trials, one randomized non placebo-controlled trial, one case study, one observational retrospective study, and one quasi-experimental cross-sectional study. Efficacy outcomes included Bishop scores and duration of labor during the different phases. Reported adverse events were generally mild and included increased blood pressure, decreased heart rate, pain, bleeding, nausea, and vomiting. Important risks of bias exist across the literature reviewed. Conclusions: The use of EP for parturition in peripartum individuals is not recommended. Further research is warranted before use during parturition or the peripartum period. Other: The authors deny conflicts of interest. The study was neither registered nor funded. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Women’s Special Issue Series: Pharmacy)
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15 pages, 275 KiB  
Article
Public Perceptions of Community Pharmacy-Based Naloxone Services: A National Cross-Sectional Survey
by Lindsey A. Hohmann, Zach Krauss, Jitisha Patel and Grace T. Marley
Pharmacy 2022, 10(6), 171; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy10060171 - 09 Dec 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1322
Abstract
Little is known about the general public’s perceptions regarding community pharmacist-delivered naloxone services at the national level. Accordingly, the purpose of this study was to describe the US general public’s awareness, knowledge, beliefs, comfort, perceived barriers, abilities, and communication preferences related to community [...] Read more.
Little is known about the general public’s perceptions regarding community pharmacist-delivered naloxone services at the national level. Accordingly, the purpose of this study was to describe the US general public’s awareness, knowledge, beliefs, comfort, perceived barriers, abilities, and communication preferences related to community pharmacy-based naloxone services. A national, online cross-sectional survey was conducted in September 2021 among US adults ≥18 years recruited via Amazon Mechanical Turk (MTurk). Primary outcome measures were assessed via 5-point Likert-type scales, including: (1) naloxone awareness and knowledge; (2) naloxone beliefs; (3) comfort with pharmacist-provided naloxone; (4) perceived barriers to pharmacy-based naloxone; (5) opioid overdose competencies, concerns, and readiness; and (6) preferred pharmacist-patient naloxone communication strategy. Analyses included descriptive statistics and logistic regression models to assess predictors of preferred communication strategies. Of 301 respondents, 82.1% were White, 48.8% female, and mean 43 years. Eighty-five percent were unaware of pharmacy-provided naloxone and mean [SD] knowledge score was low (29.3% [16.8]). Mean [SD] beliefs (3.78 [0.61]) and comfort (3.70 [0.54]) were positive, while perceived barriers were low/neutral (2.93 [0.78]). For communication, 54% preferred general advertisement, 32.9% universal offer, and 13.3% targeted offer. The odds of preferring a general advertisement or universal offer over a targeted offer increased with greater awareness (AOR:4.52; p = 0.003) and comfort (AOR:3.79; p = 0.003), and decreased with greater competence (AOR:0.35; p = 0.001). Although awareness and knowledge regarding community pharmacy-based naloxone services was low, beliefs and comfort were positive and perceived barriers were low/neutral. General or universal offers of naloxone were preferred over targeted approaches. Future studies should test the impact of communication strategies on naloxone uptake. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Addiction and Mental Health in Pharmacy)
9 pages, 218 KiB  
Article
Clinical Pharmacy Services Enhanced by Electronic Health Record (EHR) Access: An Innovation Narrative
by Zach J. Krauss, Martha Abraham and Justin Coby
Pharmacy 2022, 10(6), 170; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy10060170 - 05 Dec 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2619
Abstract
Background: Patient care in the community pharmacy setting is often hindered due to limited access to adequate patient health information (PHI). Various studies suggest that lack of access to PHI is a main reason for delay in pharmaceutical care, medication dispensing errors, and [...] Read more.
Background: Patient care in the community pharmacy setting is often hindered due to limited access to adequate patient health information (PHI). Various studies suggest that lack of access to PHI is a main reason for delay in pharmaceutical care, medication dispensing errors, and lacking interprofessional relationships between prescribers and pharmacists. Literature has shown that interprofessional collaboration and improved access to PHI can improve transitions of care and communication for pharmacists, but literature is sparse on implementation of electronic health record (HER) access within independent community pharmacies. Methods: This observational study follows implementation of HER access into a rural community pharmacy to enhance common clinical services carried out by pharmacy staff. Metrics include number of enhanced consultations by pharmacy staff, type of consultations provided, potential reimbursement, decreased need to follow up with other providers, potential for decreased time to treatment or refills, and aspects of EHR most utilized during search. Results: Two-hundred sixty three patients’ profiles were assessed, with 164 (62.4%) deemed appropriate for EHR access and searching. Most interventions made were related to cardiovascular, endocrinologic, neuropsychiatric, and COVID-19 therapy medications. Conclusion: EHR access in community pharmacy has the potential to improve both the quality and availability of clinical patient interventions through enhanced knowledge of PHI. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advancing Public Health Through Community Pharmacy Practice)
13 pages, 902 KiB  
Article
Pharmacy Student Perceptions of the Roles and Attributes of Pharmacist Preceptors in Australia
by Gillian J. Knott, Martina F. Mylrea and Beverley D. Glass
Pharmacy 2022, 10(6), 169; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy10060169 - 04 Dec 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1578
Abstract
The pharmacist preceptor is key to the success of pharmacy student experiential placements with a recent focus being placed on the quality of preceptors. This study sought to investigate student perceptions of the ideal roles and attributes of pharmacist preceptors to inform the [...] Read more.
The pharmacist preceptor is key to the success of pharmacy student experiential placements with a recent focus being placed on the quality of preceptors. This study sought to investigate student perceptions of the ideal roles and attributes of pharmacist preceptors to inform the development of a preceptor training program. This was a mixed methods study using an online survey of pharmacy students from levels two to four of an undergraduate pharmacy honours program at a regional Australian university followed by qualitative, semi-structured focus group interviews. Surveys were analysed using descriptive statistics and content analysis while interviews were thematically analysed. Thirty-seven complete survey responses were received, and three student focus groups were conducted. Students identified the key role of preceptors in linking theory to practice and felt that the role of the preceptor in student assessment should focus on practical skills, such as communication and professionalism. There was overall strong agreement between the quantitative and qualitative findings on the ideal preceptor attributes with good communication, enthusiasm for the profession and the provision of clear and honest student feedback thought to be most important. Students regarded these attributes as essential for a good preceptor–student relationship to promote learning in the practice environment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Pharmacy Education and Student/Practitioner Training)
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11 pages, 645 KiB  
Article
Development of a Protocol Using the Delphi Method for the ad interim Supply of Hormonal Contraceptives in Swiss Pharmacies
by Tamara Yous, Esther Spinatsch, Samuel Allemann and Monika Lutters
Pharmacy 2022, 10(6), 168; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy10060168 - 02 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1535
Abstract
(1) Background: Pharmacists are often challenged with situations where women are already on hormonal contraceptives (HC) but have no valid prescription. By Swiss law, pharmacists are allowed to supply prescription-only drugs in exceptional situations without a physician’s prescription. Because eligibility for HC can [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Pharmacists are often challenged with situations where women are already on hormonal contraceptives (HC) but have no valid prescription. By Swiss law, pharmacists are allowed to supply prescription-only drugs in exceptional situations without a physician’s prescription. Because eligibility for HC can change, women at risk for complications, such as serious side effects, need to be identified. We aimed to develop a protocol to assist pharmacists in clarifying and documenting eligibility for HC. (2) Methods: We conducted a survey using the Delphi method to identify relevant clarifications and develop a protocol for pharmacists. Proposed material was created based on the literature and existing toolkits/protocols aimed at verifying eligibility for HC. A multidisciplinary expert panel, consisting of gynecologists and pharmacists, reviewed the proposed material and provided anonymized feedback over two survey cycles. (3) Results: This Delphi survey revealed items essential to the clarification of eligibility for HC in pharmacies for women who are already using it. This resulted in a protocol that maps “best practices” regarding these ad interim supplies of HC given without a prescription in Switzerland. (4) Conclusions: This survey, made using the Delphi method, allowed us to create a protocol for pharmacists that aims to verify and document eligibility for HC in Switzerland, where HC is frequently supplied without a prescription. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advancing Public Health Through Community Pharmacy Practice)
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10 pages, 225 KiB  
Article
Attitudes of Community Pharmacy Service Users towards Vaccination Programs in Pharmacy: A Cross-Sectional Survey-Based Study in Croatia
by Doris Rusic, Doris Nanasi, Josko Bozic, Anamarija Jurcev Savicevic, Dario Leskur, Ana Seselja Perisin, Darko Modun, Marino Vilovic and Josipa Bukic
Pharmacy 2022, 10(6), 167; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy10060167 - 01 Dec 2022
Viewed by 1604
Abstract
Background: The aim of this study was to explore community pharmacy service users’ attitudes and opinions towards vaccination programs in pharmacy conducted by a doctor of medicine or a pharmacist. Methods: The questionnaire used in this study comprised 40 items about demographics, sources [...] Read more.
Background: The aim of this study was to explore community pharmacy service users’ attitudes and opinions towards vaccination programs in pharmacy conducted by a doctor of medicine or a pharmacist. Methods: The questionnaire used in this study comprised 40 items about demographics, sources of information, attitudes about vaccination, attitudes about vaccination in community pharmacies, and willingness to pay for such a service. Results: A total of 385 people participated in this study. Injection was the preferred route of administration of vaccine for more than half of study participants (50.6%). Univariate analysis showed that those who had a healthcare worker as a family member and those familiar with the HPV vaccine had better attitudes; however, those results were no longer significant after factoring in other variables in multivariate analysis. More than half (59.2%) of the study population would consider vaccination service in community pharmacies only if it were free or covered by the national health insurance. Conclusions: More than half of the participants believed that providing vaccination services in community pharmacies would result in greater vaccination rates for seasonal illnesses. However, around half would prefer that it were conducted exclusively by a physician. Less than 10% of the study participants would pay out of their pocket for such a service. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pharmaceutical Care Services in Pharmacy Practice)
15 pages, 285 KiB  
Review
The Role of Sodium-Glucose Cotransporter-2 Inhibition in Heart Failure with Preserved Ejection Fraction
by Lindsay Brust-Sisti, Nicole Rudawsky, Jimmy Gonzalez and Luigi Brunetti
Pharmacy 2022, 10(6), 166; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy10060166 - 30 Nov 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2495
Abstract
Sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitors are a novel class of antidiabetic mediations found to also reduce cardiovascular morbidity and mortality and hospitalization for heart failure. Positive results from the EMPEROR-Preserved (empagliflozin) and PRESERVED-HF (dapagliflozin) studies led to recommendations for SGLT2 inhibitors in HFpEF within [...] Read more.
Sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitors are a novel class of antidiabetic mediations found to also reduce cardiovascular morbidity and mortality and hospitalization for heart failure. Positive results from the EMPEROR-Preserved (empagliflozin) and PRESERVED-HF (dapagliflozin) studies led to recommendations for SGLT2 inhibitors in HFpEF within major international heart failure guidelines. However, studies of ipragliflozin and luseogliflozin, agents approved outside the United States (U.S.), reported different outcomes relative to pivotal trials and failed to realize benefits in the HFpEF population. Varying definitions of HFpEF and outcomes studied complicate the interpretation of study results. SGLT2 inhibitors may cause common adverse events (genital mycotic infections, volume depletion) in addition to rare but severe sequela, including euglycemic diabetic ketoacidosis, Fournier’s gangrene, and lower limb amputation. While evidence of CV benefits grows, SGLT2 inhibitor prescribing has lagged, particularly among patients without diabetes. In the U.S., high cost and administrative hurdles may contribute to decreased patient and clinician uptake of this drug class. Future trial results and clinical experience with SGLT2 inhibitors may lead to expanded use and greater uptake among patients with heart failure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Medicine Use in Chronic Disease)
6 pages, 308 KiB  
Commentary
How Well Are Pharmacists Represented in National Institutes of Health R01 Funding to United States Schools of Pharmacy?
by Duong Nguyen, Ashley R. Selby and Ronald G. Hall 2nd
Pharmacy 2022, 10(6), 165; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy10060165 - 30 Nov 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1778
Abstract
Pharmacists are essential healthcare providers but historically are not well represented as principal investigators (PIs) of R01 grants by the United States (US) National Institutes of Health (NIH). Pharmacy organizations have taken steps to provide pharmacists with research training to improve their chances [...] Read more.
Pharmacists are essential healthcare providers but historically are not well represented as principal investigators (PIs) of R01 grants by the United States (US) National Institutes of Health (NIH). Pharmacy organizations have taken steps to provide pharmacists with research training to improve their chances of achieving PI status. We conducted a retrospective cohort study using data from the NIH RePORTER website about R01 grants awarded to PIs affiliated with US Schools of Pharmacy (SOPs) for the fiscal years 2005–2019. Information regarding professional degrees was supplemented using data from the PIs’ institutional website profiles and other internet-based sources. Only doctorate degrees obtained within the US were included for clinically related degrees. Data regarding more than one year of funding for the same project, equipment supplements, and diversity supplements were excluded to focus on unique projects in year one of funding. PhDs were the primary unique PIs of R01 grants at US SOPs (>90%). Pharmacist representation as unique PIs increased over the 15 years but was still only 10.1% for the years 2015–2019. There was a higher percentage of female pharmacists as unique PIs than female non-pharmacists. Pharmacists are currently underrepresented as unique PIs for NIH R01 grants. This conclusion is limited by not knowing how many pharmacist R01 applications were submitted. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pharmacy: State-of-the-Art and Perspectives in USA)
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9 pages, 241 KiB  
Article
Long-Term Evaluation of Changes in Kidney Function after Switching from Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate to Tenofovir Alafenamide in Patients Living with HIV
by Jared M. Gilbert, Kirsten Vest and Troy D. Kish
Pharmacy 2022, 10(6), 164; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy10060164 - 30 Nov 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1771
Abstract
Tenofovir is one of the most widely used medications for HIV treatment and is administered as either tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) or tenofovir alafenamide (TAF). Use of TAF is preferred as it is associated with fewer negative impacts on renal function; however, long-term [...] Read more.
Tenofovir is one of the most widely used medications for HIV treatment and is administered as either tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) or tenofovir alafenamide (TAF). Use of TAF is preferred as it is associated with fewer negative impacts on renal function; however, long-term follow-up beyond 96 weeks is limited. A retrospective chart review of patients ≥18 years who received TDF-containing anti-retroviral therapy (ART) for ≥6 months and then switched to a TAF-containing regimen between 1 December 2015 and 1 January 2020 is presented. The primary objective was to evaluate changes in kidney function as measured by eGFR and Scr. The secondary objective was to evaluate changes in lipids. Among the 142 patients identified, the median age was 66 years old with a median follow-up of 3.6 years. The change in kidney function was a median increase in Scr of 0.1 mg/dL and a decrease in eGFR of −8 mL/min/1.73 m2. The change in lipid panels at the end of the medication use evaluation endpoint was a decrease in total cholesterol, LDL, HDL, and triglycerides of −2.5, −0.1, −0.6, and −9 mmol/L, respectively. There was no clinically meaningful difference in kidney function as measured by eGFR or Scr, nor was there any clinically meaningful difference in lipid panels in patients switched from TDF to TAF-containing ART. Our observations suggest that the favorable impact of TAF on kidney function is sustained for at least 44 months after conversion from TDF. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pharmacists’ Role in the Management of Kidney Disease)
10 pages, 552 KiB  
Perspective
Beyond Contraception: Pharmacist Roles to Support Maternal Health
by Natalie DiPietro Mager, David Bright and Allie Jo Shipman
Pharmacy 2022, 10(6), 163; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy10060163 - 30 Nov 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2674
Abstract
While contraception prescribing by pharmacists has seen rapid growth in recent years, pharmacist-provided services that can impact maternal health encompass more than just contraception. Each phase of maternal health—preconception, pregnancy, and post-pregnancy—has unique needs, and pharmacists are well equipped to provide services to [...] Read more.
While contraception prescribing by pharmacists has seen rapid growth in recent years, pharmacist-provided services that can impact maternal health encompass more than just contraception. Each phase of maternal health—preconception, pregnancy, and post-pregnancy—has unique needs, and pharmacists are well equipped to provide services to meet those needs and are more accessible than other healthcare providers. While pharmacist-provided maternal health services may lead to significant savings to the healthcare system, additional research to more fully capture the value of pharmacist-provided maternal health services is needed. Robust implementation of a pharmacist-provided maternal health services program will require partnerships between providers, payers, and pharmacists. Infant and maternal mortality, preterm birth, and unintended pregnancies are significant public health issues, and pharmacists should be seen as a capable workforce who can provide needed maternal health care and serve as a gateway into the healthcare system for those capable of pregnancy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advancing Public Health Through Community Pharmacy Practice)
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8 pages, 553 KiB  
Article
Home Drug Delivery Service from the Perspective of Community Pharmacy Staff in Saudi Arabia
by Majed Ahmed Algarni, Mona Yaser Alsheikh, Ahmed Ibrahim Fathelrahman, Meshal Suwaylih Alzaidi, Fawaz Jilan Faqeeh, Abdulelah Mohammad Althobaiti and Ali Mofleh Alshahrani
Pharmacy 2022, 10(6), 162; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy10060162 - 29 Nov 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1842
Abstract
Background: In response to COVID-19, many big pharmacy chains in Saudi Arabia have started to provide home drug delivery services. This study aims to understand home drug delivery service from the perspective of community pharmacists in Saudi Arabia. Also, the study investigates [...] Read more.
Background: In response to COVID-19, many big pharmacy chains in Saudi Arabia have started to provide home drug delivery services. This study aims to understand home drug delivery service from the perspective of community pharmacists in Saudi Arabia. Also, the study investigates the obstacles that may limit the use of home drug delivery service. Methods: A cross-sectional self-reported survey was distributed from February 2021 to May 2021. Descriptive analysis of sociodemographic characteristics was conducted and presented. Frequencies and percentages were calculated for all variables. Results: A total of 965 community pharmacists were surveyed. Most of the pharmacists, (73.5%) were young, aged 23 to 34 years old. The vast majority of the participants, (93.6%), said that the service will improve drug adherence. The lack of required knowledge and skills among pharmacists could be the main obstacle to implement home drug delivery service (34%). A shortage in the number of community pharmacists was the second main obstacle (24%). Conclusion: Home delivery services in the future may largely replace the tradition of going in person to the pharmacy. There are obstacles that may limit the full use of the service like shortage in number of pharmacists and the lack of required training. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Delivery of Pharmaceutical Care—Leaving No One Behind)
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13 pages, 427 KiB  
Article
Podcasts as a Method to Deliver Education on Stigma Surrounding Opioid Use Disorder
by Logan M. Kissell, Kim C. Coley, Alyssa S. Khieu, Elizabeth J. Bunk, Sophia M. C. Herbert and Joni C. Carroll
Pharmacy 2022, 10(6), 161; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy10060161 - 29 Nov 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2163
Abstract
The objective of this research was to evaluate the effectiveness of a podcast miniseries to reduce stigma surrounding opioid use disorder (OUD) among student pharmacists. Students in their second and third professional years from two schools of pharmacy listened to five, 10–23 min [...] Read more.
The objective of this research was to evaluate the effectiveness of a podcast miniseries to reduce stigma surrounding opioid use disorder (OUD) among student pharmacists. Students in their second and third professional years from two schools of pharmacy listened to five, 10–23 min podcasts incorporated into their coursework. The podcasts highlighted: (1) interviews with OUD professionals and those with lived experiences; (2) types of stigma and how it affects health outcomes; (3) OUD disease state processes, and (4) harm reduction strategies. Surveys assessed changes in perception of OUD and its associated stigma and included free-response and Likert scale questions. Subjects (n = 121) who completed a pre- and post-podcast survey were included. Paired t-tests assessed changes in survey responses from baseline and a content analysis was performed on all free-responses. There was a statistically significant change from baseline for each survey question, demonstrating a decrease in stigma towards OUD. Free-responses were categorized into four learning domains: (1) Impact of stigma on access to care; (2) Compassion and empathy; (3) Resources and support; and (4) Call to action. Podcasts can be an effective tool to reduce student pharmacist stigma associated with OUD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Addiction and Mental Health in Pharmacy)
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9 pages, 249 KiB  
Article
Impact of Clinical Pharmacy Expansion within a Rural Federally Qualified Health Center through Implementation of Pharmacist-Led Medicare Annual Wellness Visits
by Carrington Royals, Reagan K. Barfield, Mary Francis Newman, Lori Mor, Tammy H. Cummings and P. Brandon Bookstaver
Pharmacy 2022, 10(6), 160; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy10060160 - 29 Nov 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1723
Abstract
Medicare Annual Wellness Visits (AWVs) are annual appointments with the primary care team to prepare personalized prevention plans and focus on gaps in care. Although beneficial, AWVs are often difficult for providers to schedule and complete due to the increased time commitments compared [...] Read more.
Medicare Annual Wellness Visits (AWVs) are annual appointments with the primary care team to prepare personalized prevention plans and focus on gaps in care. Although beneficial, AWVs are often difficult for providers to schedule and complete due to the increased time commitments compared to other visits. The purpose of this study was to assess the clinical, economic and patient-level value of newly implemented pharmacist-led AWVs within a rural Federally Qualified Health Center (FQHC). This retrospective, cohort study included patients who completed an AWV between 1 October 2021, and 14 February 2022. The primary objective was to compare the per clinician rate of completed AWVs between pharmacists and providers. The secondary objectives were to compare revenue generated, interventions made, and patient satisfaction between pharmacist- and provider-led AWVs. During the study period, nine providers completed 139 AWVs (15.4/provider) and two pharmacists completed 116 AWVs (58/pharmacist). Proportions of interventions ordered among those due in eligible patients were similar between pharmacists and providers (47.6% vs. 44.5%; p = 0.356). Patient satisfaction was overall positive with no difference between groups. Pharmacist-led AWVs increased completion of AWVs by 83% over a 20-week period, including significantly more initial, compared to subsequent, AWVs than providers. Sustainability of pharmacist-led AWVs at this FQHC is supported by study outcomes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pharmacy: State-of-the-Art and Perspectives in USA)
12 pages, 294 KiB  
Communication
Evaluation of Point-of-Care Testing in Pharmacy to Inform Policy Writing by the New Brunswick College of Pharmacists
by Lauren Hutchings and Anastasia Shiamptanis
Pharmacy 2022, 10(6), 159; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy10060159 - 26 Nov 2022
Viewed by 2625
Abstract
Pharmacy practice continues to advance, allowing professionals to contribute further to patient care and the healthcare system. Pharmacists are authorized to perform point-of-care testing (POCT) in seven out of ten Canadian provinces. In considering the potential for enhanced clinical decision-making with the opportunity [...] Read more.
Pharmacy practice continues to advance, allowing professionals to contribute further to patient care and the healthcare system. Pharmacists are authorized to perform point-of-care testing (POCT) in seven out of ten Canadian provinces. In considering the potential for enhanced clinical decision-making with the opportunity to gain patient data at the site of care, the New Brunswick College of Pharmacists (NBCP) proceeded to draft regulatory amendments and a policy to enable POCT scope in New Brunswick. Policy writing is a core function of Provincial Regulatory Authorities in Canada as the process determines principles that direct pharmacy practice. Each province has a differing scope of practice and method for developing documents. This paper highlights the approach, analysis, and findings of the NBCP pursuant to drafting a POCT policy. The policy development process included a literature search and environmental scan of the ten Canadian provincial regulatory authorities along with other countries. The findings highlighted in this paper describe the use of POCT, quality assurance, regulatory framework, educational opportunities, and the role of pharmacy technicians in relation to POCT in a pharmacy setting. The approach NBCP took to engage professionals and decisions on the direction of the policy are described. As point-of-care services continue to expand in pharmacies, the insights by the NBCP can be utilized by other regulatory bodies or pharmacy professionals who are implementing or enhancing POCT policies or procedures within their organizations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pharmaceutical Care Services in Pharmacy Practice)
25 pages, 352 KiB  
Review
Pharmacy Workplace Wellbeing and Resilience: Themes Identified from a Hermeneutic Phenomenological Analysis with Future Recommendations
by Jon C. Schommer, Caroline A. Gaither, Nancy A. Alvarez, SuHak Lee, April M. Shaughnessy, Vibhuti Arya, Lourdes G. Planas, Olajide Fadare and Matthew J. Witry
Pharmacy 2022, 10(6), 158; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy10060158 - 23 Nov 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2966
Abstract
This study applied a hermeneutic phenomenological approach to better understand pharmacy workplace wellbeing and resilience using respondents’ written comments along with a blend of the researchers’ understanding of the phenomenon and the published literature. Our goal was to apply this understanding to recommendations [...] Read more.
This study applied a hermeneutic phenomenological approach to better understand pharmacy workplace wellbeing and resilience using respondents’ written comments along with a blend of the researchers’ understanding of the phenomenon and the published literature. Our goal was to apply this understanding to recommendations for the pharmacy workforce and corresponding future research. Data were obtained from the 2021 APhA/NASPA National State-Based Pharmacy Workplace Survey, launched in the United States in April 2021. Promotion of the online survey to pharmacy personnel was accomplished through social media, email, and online periodicals. Responses continued to be received through the end of 2021. A data file containing 6973 responses was downloaded on 7 January 2022 for analysis. Usable responses were from those who wrote an in-depth comment detailing stories and experiences related to pharmacy workplace and resilience. There were 614 respondents who wrote such comments. The findings revealed that business models driven by mechanized assembly line processes, business metrics that supersede patient outcomes, and reduction of pharmacy personnel’s professional judgement have contributed to the decline in the experience of providing patient care in today’s health systems. The portrait of respondents’ lived experiences regarding pharmacy workplace wellbeing and resilience was beyond the individual level and revealed the need for systems change. We propose several areas for expanded inquiry in this domain: (1) shared trauma, (2) professional responsibility and autonomy, (3) learned subjection, (4) moral injury and moral distress, (5) sociocultural effects, and (6) health systems change. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pharmacy Reviews in 2022)
11 pages, 228 KiB  
Article
Successful Development and Implementation of a Large Virtual Interprofessional Education Activity Applying the Social Determinants of Health
by Karl R. Kodweis, Elizabeth A. Hall, Chelsea P. Renfro, Neena Thomas-Gosain, Robin Lennon-Dearing, Jonathon K. Walker and Tyler M. Kiles
Pharmacy 2022, 10(6), 157; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy10060157 - 23 Nov 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1808
Abstract
Interprofessional education (IPE) activities provide students insight into healthcare teams, shared decision-making, and social determinants of health (SDOH). Virtual IPE activities with large student populations or across multicampus have not been evaluated. The study aimed to explore the interprofessional competency growth in students, [...] Read more.
Interprofessional education (IPE) activities provide students insight into healthcare teams, shared decision-making, and social determinants of health (SDOH). Virtual IPE activities with large student populations or across multicampus have not been evaluated. The study aimed to explore the interprofessional competency growth in students, across several disciplines, following participation in a large-scale, virtual IPE activity. Students from pharmacy, medicine, social work, and physician assistant programs across Tennessee participated in an IPE patient case and SDOH in fall 2020 and fall 2021. Pre- and postsurveys included Likert ranking of 16 statements based on the 2011 Interprofessional Education Collaborative (IPEC) framework. A total of 607 students completed surveys (overall response rate, 76%). Wilcoxon signed-rank tests were performed on the pre-/postsurvey data, in aggregate and by discipline. Significant increases in all IPEC competency statements were seen, both in aggregate (100% of statements with p < 0.001) and in pharmacy (100% of statements with p < 0.001) and medicine subgroups (94% of statements with p < 0.001). Implementing large virtual IPE activities involving a complex patient case and SDOH significantly increased student IPEC competency outcomes for participating students, whether in aggregate or on a discipline-specific basis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Technology-Enhanced Pharmacy Teaching and Learning Strategies III)
9 pages, 4383 KiB  
Brief Report
Examining Routine Pediatric Vaccination Availability in Community Pharmacies in Washington State
by Kimberly Caye McKeirnan, Madison Shea Motzner and Sorosh Kherghehpoush
Pharmacy 2022, 10(6), 156; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy10060156 - 22 Nov 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1581
Abstract
To address diminishing pediatric vaccination rates resulting from the COVID-19 pandemic, the Public Readiness and Emergency Preparedness (PREP) Act allows pharmacists, technicians, and pharmacy interns to administer any vaccine that the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) guidelines recommend for all patients aged [...] Read more.
To address diminishing pediatric vaccination rates resulting from the COVID-19 pandemic, the Public Readiness and Emergency Preparedness (PREP) Act allows pharmacists, technicians, and pharmacy interns to administer any vaccine that the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) guidelines recommend for all patients aged 3 years and older. A survey was conducted to evaluate the role of pharmacy personnel in the community setting providing immunizations for the pediatric patients. Sixty-seven pharmacies were contacted in a state where pharmacists are allowed to administer vaccinations to any patient over the age of six months. Of the 58 respondent pharmacies offering vaccinations for pediatric patients, the most commonly reported vaccines included influenza (97%), tetanus, diphtheria, and pertussis (88%), hepatitis (71%), human papillomavirus (69%), meningococcal vaccines (66%), polio (45%), and Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine (40%). Nearly all respondent pharmacies (56/58) reported having at least one of the ACIP-recommended routine childhood vaccinations available for patients under the age of 18. Community pharmacies are well-positioned to administer routine vaccinations to pediatric patients and address declining pediatric vaccination rates. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pharmacist-Based Interventions for Health Behavior Change 2.0)
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9 pages, 251 KiB  
Communication
Over-the-Counter Drug Misuse and Dependence: Public Health Ethics’ Foray into Fight against the Codeine Crisis
by Hiroyasu Ino and Eisuke Nakazawa
Pharmacy 2022, 10(6), 155; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy10060155 - 20 Nov 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 4558
Abstract
Over-the-counter (OTC) drugs, such as codeine, are available as an OTC drug at common drugstores and major e-commerce platforms, despite their known propensity for causing psychological dependence and harm from overuse. Misuse of and dependence on over-the-counter drugs are serious public health issues. [...] Read more.
Over-the-counter (OTC) drugs, such as codeine, are available as an OTC drug at common drugstores and major e-commerce platforms, despite their known propensity for causing psychological dependence and harm from overuse. Misuse of and dependence on over-the-counter drugs are serious public health issues. Possible measures include stricter regulation and control, as well as regulation of access to information and awareness activities, but their effectiveness is limited. Up-scheduling, in which OTC drugs are placed under prescription or full regulation, is expected to have a definite effect. However, up-scheduling poses public health ethical challenges. Up-scheduling restricts the freedom of consumers to purchase OTC drugs, and the economic right of manufacturers and sellers. Up-scheduling may also interfere with people’s right to seek self-care through the proper use of OTC drugs. Limited up-scheduling with respect to age may be an effective way to implement up-scheduling while avoiding ethical issues. However, from a public health perspective, it is necessary to improve the information infrastructure so that prescription drug information can be shared electronically, and to strengthen measures to prevent mental health problems among young people that lead to OTC drug misuse, even after up-scheduling. Full article
9 pages, 1449 KiB  
Brief Report
Pronounced Declines in Meperidine in the US: Is the End Imminent?
by Lavinia R. Harrison, Rhudjerry E. Arnet, Anthony S. Ramos, Poul A. Chinga, Trinidy R. Anthony, John M. Boyle, Kenneth L. McCall, Stephanie D. Nichols and Brian J. Piper
Pharmacy 2022, 10(6), 154; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy10060154 - 20 Nov 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3624
Abstract
Background: Once a widely used analgesic in the United States (US), meperidine offered an alternative opioid to other opioids as a pain reliever and was widely assumed to be safer with acute pancreatitis. However, within the last two decades meperidine, has gone [...] Read more.
Background: Once a widely used analgesic in the United States (US), meperidine offered an alternative opioid to other opioids as a pain reliever and was widely assumed to be safer with acute pancreatitis. However, within the last two decades meperidine, has gone from a frequently used drug to being used only when patients exhibit atypical reactions to opioids (e.g., morphine and hydromorphone), to being taken off the World Health Organization List of Essential Medications and receiving strong recommendations for overall avoidance. The aim of this study was to identify changes in meperidine distribution in the US, and regional disparities as reported to the Drug Enforcement Administration’s Automation of Reports and Consolidated Orders System (DEA ARCOS) and Medicaid. Methods: Data related to meperidine distribution was obtained through ARCOS (2001–2021) and Medicaid public use files (2016–2021). Heat maps were used to visualize regional disparities in distribution by state. States outside a 95% confidence interval were statistically significant. Results: Meperidine distribution between 2001 and 2021 decreased by 97.4% (R = −0.97, p < 0.0001). There was a 34-fold state-level difference in meperidine distribution between Arkansas (16.8 mg/10 persons) and Connecticut (0.5 mg/10 persons) in 2020. Meperidine distribution in 2020 was elevated in Arkansas, Mississippi, and Alabama. In 2021, meperidine distribution was highest in Arkansas (16.7 mg/10 persons) and lowest in Connecticut (0.8 mg/10 persons). Total prescriptions of meperidine as reported by Medicaid decreased by 73.8% (R = −0.67, p = 0.045) between 2016 and 2021. Conclusion: We observed a decrease in the overall distribution of meperidine in the past two decades, with a similar recent decline in prescribing it to Medicaid enrollees. The shortage of some parenteral formulations is an important contributor to these declines, however, the most likely explanation for this global decline in use is related to an increased recognition of safety concerns related to important drug interactions and a neurotoxic metabolite. This data may reflect plans to phase out the use of this opioid, especially in the many situations where safer and more preferred opioids are available. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Pharmacy Practice and Practice-Based Research)
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12 pages, 436 KiB  
Article
Effectiveness of an Advanced Naloxone Training, Simulation, and Assessment of Second-Year Pharmacy Students
by Jennifer Courtney, Eugene Kreys, Bryan Luu, Tiffany Kreys, Ruth Vinall, Vy Quang and Erika Titus-Lay
Pharmacy 2022, 10(6), 153; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy10060153 - 19 Nov 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2016
Abstract
Background: Opioid overdoses continue to be one of the most urgent public health priorities. In 2020, reported overdose deaths in the United States reached a high of over 93,000 cases. As the COVID-19 pandemic and opioid crisis continues to be addressed, life-saving agents [...] Read more.
Background: Opioid overdoses continue to be one of the most urgent public health priorities. In 2020, reported overdose deaths in the United States reached a high of over 93,000 cases. As the COVID-19 pandemic and opioid crisis continues to be addressed, life-saving agents must be more widely accessible to those with a high overdose risk. An essential step to increasing access is to train student pharmacists to dispense naloxone. Once licensed, the number of personnel authorized to dispense naloxone can increase. Objectives: To design a training program to educate second-year pharmacy (P2) students on furnishing naloxone under a state protocol. Methods: A multi-phased curriculum-based naloxone training program was delivered to P2 students and included lecture-based education, team-based learning (TBL) applications, case-based scenarios, and summative assessments to improve student knowledge and confidence in furnishing naloxone. Students were surveyed on their knowledge and confidence with naloxone prior to training, after the in-class training and TBL applications and after three assessments. Assessments included simulated patient counseling, case-based scenarios, and proper dispensing of naloxone in a community pharmacy simulation lab. Results: A total of 185 student pharmacists completed the naloxone training program and 68 completed all three surveys. Average scores for naloxone assessments were 83% for the APPS lab patient case, 90.5% for the prescription label typed for the naloxone product, and 88.5% for patient counseling. Statistically significant increases in knowledge-based quiz-like scores (42.1% after training vs. 7.2% after assessment) and in the proportion of students affirmatively answering survey questions after training and assessment was observed. Conclusion: Multi-phase curriculum-based naloxone training program improved pharmacy student knowledge and confidence in furnishing naloxone under a state BOP protocol. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Pharmacy Education and Student/Practitioner Training)
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9 pages, 554 KiB  
Article
Knowledge of Saudi Patients with Autoimmune Diseases about Hydroxychloroquine Toxicity: The Role of Physician–Patient Communication
by Amal Aldarwesh, Ali Almustanyir, Mazoon Alharthi and Duja Alhayan
Pharmacy 2022, 10(6), 152; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy10060152 - 17 Nov 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1503
Abstract
This cross-sectional internet-based questionnaire aimed to assess the knowledge and experience of autoimmune disease patients in Saudi Arabia of the ocular effects of hydroxychloroquine (HCQ). Among the 245 respondents, discontinuation of the drug was linked to its ocular toxicity in approximately 7.3%. Most [...] Read more.
This cross-sectional internet-based questionnaire aimed to assess the knowledge and experience of autoimmune disease patients in Saudi Arabia of the ocular effects of hydroxychloroquine (HCQ). Among the 245 respondents, discontinuation of the drug was linked to its ocular toxicity in approximately 7.3%. Most patients had taken HCQ for a period longer than five years, exceeding a dose of 5 mg/Kg. A lack of education and physician communication about medication toxicity was reported by approximately 40.8% of the participants. Despite the knowledge about HCQ retinopathy, the drug is prescribed to autoimmune disease patients at an inappropriate dosage. Knowledge obtained from physicians’ communication may improve the health outcomes of chronically ill patients. Rheumatologists and ophthalmologists should work together to recognize patients at risk of hydroxychloroquine toxicity and ensure they receive proper education and adhere to periodic follow-up. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Medicine Use in Chronic Disease)
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7 pages, 233 KiB  
Review
Instruments to Measure Patient Satisfaction with Comprehensive Medication Management Services: A Scoping Review Protocol
by Lorayne Caroline Resende, Mariana Martins Gonzaga do Nascimento, Mariana Michel Barbosa, Cristiane de Paula Rezende, Laís Lessa Neiva Pantuzza and Edna Afonso Reis
Pharmacy 2022, 10(6), 151; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy10060151 - 14 Nov 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1555
Abstract
Comprehensive medication management (CMM) is the service offered within the clinical practice of pharmaceutical care, which has the objective to optimize pharmacotherapeutic outcomes. Patient satisfaction is a multidimensional construct that points to the quality of the health services offered and the degree to [...] Read more.
Comprehensive medication management (CMM) is the service offered within the clinical practice of pharmaceutical care, which has the objective to optimize pharmacotherapeutic outcomes. Patient satisfaction is a multidimensional construct that points to the quality of the health services offered and the degree to which the patients’ expectations and needs are met. The evaluation of the level of patient satisfaction is a key indicator to support decisions and to improve the quality of the service provided. This study aims to describe the protocol for a scoping review to map the instruments to measure patient satisfaction with CMM services and compare them according to their development characteristics and the applicability of patient-reported outcome measures. The literature search will be conducted using the scoping review methodology, proposed by the Joanna Briggs Institute and the PRISMA Extension for Scoping Reviews (PRISMA-ScR) method. The results will be presented in two sessions: (1) description of the search strategy; and (2) the characteristics of the satisfaction instruments, number of items and questions related to the conceptual model, content validity, construct validity, reliability, score/interpretation, and respondent burden. This review will shed light on the available satisfaction measurement instruments, allowing existing gaps to be identified for future research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Pharmacy Practice and Practice-Based Research)
14 pages, 258 KiB  
Article
National Survey of Pharmacist Awareness, Interest, and Readiness for Over-the-Counter Hearing Aids
by Elizabeth S. Midey, Alexis Gaggini, Elaine Mormer and Lucas A. Berenbrok
Pharmacy 2022, 10(6), 150; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy10060150 - 12 Nov 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2009
Abstract
Hearing loss is a major public health concern, affecting over 30 million Americans. Few adults who could benefit from hearing aids use them. Hearing aids are now available over-the-counter (OTC) for persons with perceived mild-to-moderate hearing loss. Community pharmacies will sell OTC hearing [...] Read more.
Hearing loss is a major public health concern, affecting over 30 million Americans. Few adults who could benefit from hearing aids use them. Hearing aids are now available over-the-counter (OTC) for persons with perceived mild-to-moderate hearing loss. Community pharmacies will sell OTC hearing aids to increase public access to hearing healthcare. The purpose of this study was to describe pharmacist awareness, interest, and readiness to offer OTC hearing aids at community pharmacies. A multiple-item online survey was designed using the Theory of Planned Behavior and responses were collected from licensed pharmacists from July 2021 to December 2021. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize the 97 responses collected. Most respondents were not aware of the upcoming OTC hearing aid availability. Most respondents were somewhat or very interested in increasing their knowledge on OTC hearing aids, selling OTC hearing aids, and assisting patients with OTC hearing aid selection. Most respondents disagreed or strongly disagreed that they had the necessary knowledge to counsel patients on OTC hearing aids. The most reported supporting factor was training and educational resources. OTC hearing aids are a unique public health initiative which will expand patient access to hearing health care to community pharmacies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advancing Public Health Through Community Pharmacy Practice)
15 pages, 276 KiB  
Article
Study Destination Choice and Career Preferences of International Students at China Pharmaceutical University
by Raphael N. Alolga, Said Abasse Kassim and Pierre Dramou
Pharmacy 2022, 10(6), 149; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy10060149 - 10 Nov 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2006
Abstract
This study had two main thematic aims: first, to determine the factors that influenced the choice of international students at China Pharmaceutical University (CPU) to consider China as a study destination; second, to determine the career preferences of international students upon completion of [...] Read more.
This study had two main thematic aims: first, to determine the factors that influenced the choice of international students at China Pharmaceutical University (CPU) to consider China as a study destination; second, to determine the career preferences of international students upon completion of their various programs of study. As a cross-sectional study, relevant data were collected from undergraduate pharmacy students and postgraduates using a self-administered questionnaire. On the whole, the five most important pull factors that influenced the choice of China as the study destination for the respondents were: (1) quality of education, (2) quality of academic staff, (3) security, (4) desire to obtain a certificate from a foreign country and (5) availability of scholarship opportunities. With respect to the career choices, the top three career preferences of the international students were: (1) to work in the pharmaceutical industry (i.e., pharmaceutical manufacturing companies), (2) to practice clinical pharmacy and (3) to seek employment opportunities outside their countries. This study provides additional details on why China has gradually become a study destination of choice for international students. The career preferences of students could be useful in the design of academic programs that could meet their job aspirations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Pharmacy Education and Student/Practitioner Training)
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