Numerical Investigation of Bio-Aviation Fuel: Dubai’s Future Perspective
2.1. Reference Design
2.2. PUGH Matrix
2.2.1. Wing Configuration
2.2.2. Tail Configuration
2.2.3. Engine and Engine Number
2.2.4. Environmental Impact and Fuel
2.2.5. Aerodynamic Performance
2.3. Final Design
2.4. Aircraft Design Methodology—Weight Estimation
2.5. Aircraft Design Methodology—Constraint Sizing
2.6. ICAO Landing and Take-Off (LTO) Cycle
- Take-off: the first stage of the LTO cycle that matches the thrust setting from the aircraft’s take-off until the main throttle back segment;
- Climb: the thrust setting corresponds to the throttle back instant until the maximum altitude of 3000 ft is reached in the LTO cycle;
- Approach: occupies the thrust setting from the maximum altitude up until the touchdown along with the roll-out at the end of the runway;
- Taxi: corresponds to the thrust setting for two divisions; one from the engine warming period until the take-off brake release point for taxi out, and two from the end of the landing and parking phase until the engine shutdown for taxi out.
2.7. CFD Analysis of Fuel Combustion
- Energy: this model was selected to account for the energy change due to the temperature change and heat transfer in the process;
- Radiation: to produce a more accurate solution, the discrete ordinates (DO) model was selected;
- Viscous: the selected model was SST k-omega with the default constant values;
- Species: this model was the most significant since it sets the combustion characteristics. The model was set as non-premixed, and inlet diffusion, and eddy dissipation were selected. Chemical equilibrium was chosen for the state relation, besides the non-adiabatic energy treatment.
3.1. Numerical Simulation Results
3.1.1. Power Output
3.1.2. Combustor Exit Temperatures
- Emission Index CO:
- Emission Index CO2:
3.2. Final Designs’ Analysis
3.3. UAE and Biofuel
3.4. Ticket Cost Analysis
- Through a PUGH analysis, it was concluded that the optimum aircraft design had a transonic truss-braced wing configuration and was powered by a 60% biofuel blend.
- By researching and comparing different biofuels, camelina was selected to power the optimum design as it was found to be the best plant for oil extraction and biofuel production in the UAE.
- A numerical simulation was conducted to confirm and study the effects of camelina biofuel on emissions. The results showed a decrease of 50% and 24% in CO and CO2 emissions, respectively, owing to its chemical composition that yielded fewer particulates than jet fuel when burned, in return emitting less greenhouse gases.
- It was also found from the simulation that while a higher mass flow rate is needed for biofuels, they are capable of producing the same energy as Jet-A with a reduction in the combustor’s exit temperature.
- From the design analysis it was concluded that an aircraft design with a TTBW configuration running on a 60% camelina biofuel blend is expected to increase the take-off weight by 1.34% and reduce the emission and fuel consumption by 30% and 10%, respectively, compared with the conventional aircraft design.
- Lastly, through a cost investigation, it was established that flying on board a 100%-biofuel-powered aircraft would increase the ticket cost by 453 USD (1653.18 AED) per passenger.
Institutional Review Board Statement
Informed Consent Statement
Data Availability Statement
Conflicts of Interest
|CFD||Computational Fluid Dynamics|
|Maximum required Take-off Lift coefficient with flaps up|
|Maximum required Lift coefficient for Take-off|
|Maximum required Take-off Lift coefficient for landing|
|HEFA||Hydro process asters and fatty acids|
|IATA||International Air Transport Association|
|ICAO||International Civil Aviation Organization|
|LHV||Lower heating value|
|LTO||Landing and Take-off|
|L/D||Lift to drag ratio|
|Air Mass flow rate|
|Fuel Mass flow rate|
|Mass flow rate of water|
|SUGAR||Subsonic Ultra-Green Aircraft Research|
|TTBW||Transonic Truss-braced Wing|
|Wtfo||Trapped fuel oil weight|
|Actual heat release|
|Theoretical heat release|
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|Design Option||Wing||Engine Placement and Number||Tail||Landing Gear|
|60% Biofuel||Cantilever conventional wing||2 Rear fuselage||T-tail||Retractable tricycle|
|TTBW_1 + Jet Fuel||TTBW_1||2 Under the wing||Cruciform||Retractable tricycle|
|TTBW_2 + Jet Fuel||TTBW_2||2 Under the wing||V-tail||Retractable tricycle|
|TTBW_1 + 60% Biofuel||TTBW_1||2 Under the wing||T-tail||Retractable tricycle|
|BWB + Jet Fuel||Blended wing||2 toward the trailing edge of the fuselage||No tail||Retractable tricycle|
|Criteria||Weighting||60% Biofuel||TTBW_1 + Jet Fuel||TTBW_2 + Jet Fuel||TTBW_1 + 60% Biofuel||BWB + Jet Fuel|
|Environmental impact and fuel||40%||66.75||67.5||70||82.75||70.5|
|Operating Pressure (pa)||101,325||655,804||1,981,730||2,343,346|
|Oxidizer temperature (K)||311.15||418.82||674.25||743.91|
|Fuel||Jet-A ||Jatropha ||Camelina [67,68,69]|
|Stoichiometric Air-to-Fuel Ratio||14.7||13.3||12.5|
|Stoichiometric Fuel-to-Air Ratio||0.0680||0.0751||0.0799|
|Flash point (K)||312||445||317.6|
|Lower Heating Value (MJ/kg)||43.1||39.5||39.26|
|Baseline Conventional Business Jet||Conventional Business Jet with 60% Camelina Biofuel||TTBW_1T Business Jet with Conventional Fuel||TTB_1T Business Jet with 60% Camelina Biofuel|
|Gross Take-Off Weight (WTO)||15,000 lb||18,000 lb||12,600 lb||15,200 lb|
|Wing Loading (W/S)||75 psf||75 psf||87 psf||87 psf|
|Thrust-to-Weight Ratio (T/W)||0.48||0.48||0.55||0.55|
|Jet-A fuel ||● Low melting point|
● Proven effectiveness
● Well-established market
● Relatively cheaper
|● Non-renewable energy source|
● Source of greenhouse gases
● High carbon emission
|Camelina biofuel [76,77,78,79]||● Renewable energy source|
● Easy production
● No threat to the food supply
● Competitive calorific power
● Extensive extraction process
● No well-established market
|Jatropha biofuel [79,80]||● Renewable energy source|
● Can be grown in harsh conditions
● Low production cost
● No threat to the food supply
|● Lower yield through extraction|
● High viscosity
● High density
|Fuel Blends||Fuel Cost (USD/nm)||Ticket Price|
|40% BIO + 60% JET||0.554||19,530.38||2929.55||179.60||659.69|
|50% BIO + 50% JET||0.567||19,829.60||2974.44||224.49||824.57|
|60% BIO + 40% JET||0.580||20,133.50||3020.02||270.07||991.99|
|70% BIO + 30% JET||0.593||20,428.01||3064.20||314.25||1154.27|
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Aldarrai, H.; Alsuwaidi, D.; Khan, B.; Xu, H.; Tolouei, E. Numerical Investigation of Bio-Aviation Fuel: Dubai’s Future Perspective. Aerospace 2023, 10, 338. https://doi.org/10.3390/aerospace10040338
Aldarrai H, Alsuwaidi D, Khan B, Xu H, Tolouei E. Numerical Investigation of Bio-Aviation Fuel: Dubai’s Future Perspective. Aerospace. 2023; 10(4):338. https://doi.org/10.3390/aerospace10040338Chicago/Turabian Style
Aldarrai, Houreya, Dhabya Alsuwaidi, Beenish Khan, Haoyang Xu, and Elham Tolouei. 2023. "Numerical Investigation of Bio-Aviation Fuel: Dubai’s Future Perspective" Aerospace 10, no. 4: 338. https://doi.org/10.3390/aerospace10040338