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Climate, Volume 11, Issue 6 (June 2023) – 18 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): A fire climate is an incoming climate external to a region that governs the mean and distribution of fire weather. Reconstructed annual fire danger indices for Australian states and regions 1957–2021 show clear regime shifts in the S and W during 1997–2003 and the NE from 2011. The one-in-ten fire season of the former regime is now exceeded one in every two years on average, ranging from three to seven times as often. The 1 in 20 fire season is now experienced an average of 2 every 5 years, with a frequency ranging from 1:10 to 7:10. The fire regime shifts were caused by downward shifts in relative humidity and upward shifts in fire-season-maximum temperatures. A shift in mean global fire season length in 2002 shows that similar changes in wildfire risk are widespread. View this paper
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Article
Interannual Variability in the Coastal Zones of the Gulf of California
Climate 2023, 11(6), 132; https://doi.org/10.3390/cli11060132 - 17 Jun 2023
Viewed by 1090
Abstract
Few studies have explored the details of climatology in the Gulf of California (GoC) coastal zone, a region characterized by robust land–sea breeze circulation that results from land heating on both coasts of the GoC. Using hourly historical observations from automatic weather stations [...] Read more.
Few studies have explored the details of climatology in the Gulf of California (GoC) coastal zone, a region characterized by robust land–sea breeze circulation that results from land heating on both coasts of the GoC. Using hourly historical observations from automatic weather stations (AWSs) from 2008 to 2018, we performed harmonic and empirical orthogonal function analyses to describe the climatology of several characteristics that are regularly monitored in the GoC coastal zone. The characteristics included air temperature (°C), relative humidity (%), atmospheric pressure (hPa), wind intensity (m s−1), and wind direction (°). The National Water Commission (CNA) provided records for stations located along the coast of the GoC. The results revealed an intense annual and, to a lesser extent, interannual signal for all characteristics. The presence of synoptic patterns forces seasonal and intraseasonal variations to occur. In summer, tropical systems increase the seasonal variability, mainly at the eastern mouth of the GoC. Some stations display this increase until the cold season arrives with the passage of winter systems. Finally, we found that interannual variability could be associated with El Niño–Southern Oscillation events. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Climate and Environment)
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Article
Disaster Risk, Climate Change, and Urbanization as Research Topics in Western Asia—A Bibliometric Literature Analysis
Climate 2023, 11(6), 131; https://doi.org/10.3390/cli11060131 - 17 Jun 2023
Viewed by 1064
Abstract
Scientifically analyzing and documenting climate change and related disaster risks is demanded by international organizations such as the United Nations. However, global or national studies predominate, and cross-regional overviews are lacking, especially for Western Asia. In four countries in the region, Iran, Israel, [...] Read more.
Scientifically analyzing and documenting climate change and related disaster risks is demanded by international organizations such as the United Nations. However, global or national studies predominate, and cross-regional overviews are lacking, especially for Western Asia. In four countries in the region, Iran, Israel, Saudi Arabia, and Turkey, transport accidents, floods, fires, and earthquakes are the predominant accidents and disasters in the Emergency Events Database (EM-DAT). The result is different when analyzing the scientific publications via a bibliometric literature analysis using VOS viewer and the Web of Science, and earthquakes, climate change, COVID-19, and terrorism dominate here. Governance and management are also an important and recurring cluster topic. The conceptual components of vulnerability and resilience are discussed in most countries. The hazards are often associated with specific concepts and quantitative methods. GIS and remote sensing as specific methodologies also often appear in a cluster. Further clusters derived from the keyword search include floods and droughts, food security and agriculture, and posttraumatic stress and psychological aspects. The results help us to identify countries with a rich literature on certain hazards and gaps in relation to other types of disasters, which are more prevalent. The findings can help scientists and policymakers to support future studies based on either high or low research coverage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Disasters and Extreme Hazards under Changing Climate)
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Article
Characterizing Northeast Africa Drought and Its Drivers
Climate 2023, 11(6), 130; https://doi.org/10.3390/cli11060130 - 10 Jun 2023
Viewed by 1078
Abstract
This study explores the drivers of drought over northeast (NE) Africa as represented by monthly ERA5 potential evaporation during 1970–2022. The comparisons with surface heat flux and A-pan measurements suggest that potential evaporation quantifies moisture deficits that lead to drought. A principal component [...] Read more.
This study explores the drivers of drought over northeast (NE) Africa as represented by monthly ERA5 potential evaporation during 1970–2022. The comparisons with surface heat flux and A-pan measurements suggest that potential evaporation quantifies moisture deficits that lead to drought. A principal component (PC) analysis of potential evaporation has the following leading modes: PC-1 in the Nile Basin and PC-2 in the Rift Valley. Time scores were filtered and regressed onto fields of SST, netOLR, and 500 hPa zonal wind to find teleconnections, and drought composites were analyzed for anomalous structure. The results identify that cold-phase Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) couples with the overlying zonal Walker circulation. Deep easterly winds subside at −0.1 m/s over the west Indian Ocean and NE Africa, causing desiccation that spreads westward from the Rift Valley via diurnal heat fluxes. Insights are gained on IOD modulation based on the Pacific ENSO, but long-range forecasts remain elusive. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Climate System Modelling and Observations)
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Review
Nanofertilizer Use for Adaptation and Mitigation of the Agriculture/Climate Change Dichotomy Effects
Climate 2023, 11(6), 129; https://doi.org/10.3390/cli11060129 - 10 Jun 2023
Viewed by 1316
Abstract
Agriculture is considered a significant climate change (CC) driver due to greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and the loss of fertilizers that contribute to water eutrophication. On the other hand, climate change effects are already impacting agriculture, endangering food security. This paper explores the [...] Read more.
Agriculture is considered a significant climate change (CC) driver due to greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and the loss of fertilizers that contribute to water eutrophication. On the other hand, climate change effects are already impacting agriculture, endangering food security. This paper explores the dichotomies of the effects of agriculture on CC as well as of CC on agriculture, focusing on the contribution that nanofertilizers can bring to this complex system in both directions. The strategies to reduce CC while adapting and mitigating its effects must be a global effort. It is not possible to focus only on the reduction in GHG emissions to stop the effects that are already being felt worldwide. Nanofertilizers, especially slow- and controlled-release nanofertilizers, can reduce the nutrient input and also boost productivity while mitigating some CC effects, such as soil nutrient imbalance and agricultural emissions. As so, this review highlights the benefits of nanofertilizers and their role as a part of the strategy to reduce the reach of CC and mitigate its ever-growing effects, and presents some guidelines for the increased use of these materials in order to enhance their efficacy in this strategy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Review Feature Papers for Climate)
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Article
Wind–Wave Conditions and Change in Coastal Landforms at the Beach–Dune Barrier of Cesine Lagoon (South Italy)
Climate 2023, 11(6), 128; https://doi.org/10.3390/cli11060128 - 10 Jun 2023
Viewed by 884
Abstract
Several coastal barriers experienced significant erosion and change in shape throughout the Mediterranean coasts over the past decades, and the issue has become of increasing concern for scientists and policymakers. With reference to a case study and by meteorological and geomorphological investigations, this [...] Read more.
Several coastal barriers experienced significant erosion and change in shape throughout the Mediterranean coasts over the past decades, and the issue has become of increasing concern for scientists and policymakers. With reference to a case study and by meteorological and geomorphological investigations, this note aims to define the wind–wave conditions, infer the net longshore transport, and detect the geomorphological processes that shape the landforms of the Cesine Lagoon barrier (South Italy). Despite the importance of the site in coastal defense and environmental conservation, there are still no specific studies. A challenge for this research was to obtain significant results from publicly available sources and simple and inexpensive methods. Geomorphological changes, such as the retreat of dune toes, accretion of washover fans, and formation of gravel beaches, are related to the analyzed wind–wave conditions. The net longshore transport is found in accordance with the direction of the more intense winds. The role of extreme events in the shaping of coastal landforms is yet to be established, even if they greatly increase the vulnerability to flooding of the study area. The results achieved so far are starting points for further data collection and analysis in the perspective of assessing the impact of climate changes and the threatening hazards on the lagoon barrier. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Climate Variability in the Mediterranean Region)
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Article
Climate Risk Analysis Using a High-Resolution Spatial Model in Costa Rica
Climate 2023, 11(6), 127; https://doi.org/10.3390/cli11060127 - 08 Jun 2023
Viewed by 1081
Abstract
Increasing extreme weather and climate events have led to recurrent disasters that cause significant harm to human populations. The aim of this present study is to complement Costa Rica’s National Meteorological Institute 2017 risk assessment methodology for extreme weather and climate events. This [...] Read more.
Increasing extreme weather and climate events have led to recurrent disasters that cause significant harm to human populations. The aim of this present study is to complement Costa Rica’s National Meteorological Institute 2017 risk assessment methodology for extreme weather and climate events. This methodology uses different socio-spatial indicators related to vulnerability and hazards to extreme hydrometeorological events. However, in the methodology applied and presented in this document, an exposure component was added to the model to obtain a more detailed representation of climate-related risks. The presented methodology was implemented in the municipalities of Cartago and Turrialba, where the frequency and severity of weather events have been a major issue in the last few decades. The results showed in fact, there were considerable differences between both, whereby factoring in the exposure component it is possible to visualize more specific risk zones, which evidences the need to include exposure components in this type of model, as this may allow for more timely responses and disaster risk prevention according to the specific vulnerability conditions in these zones. The outcomes at the minimal geostatistical unit level can aid local decision makers in developing more effective disaster risk management and adaptation strategies to minimize the loss of life and property resulting from extreme weather and climate events in Costa Rica. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Climate Adaptation and Mitigation)
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Article
Impact of Escalating Heat Waves on Students’ Well-Being and Overall Health: A Survey of Primary School Teachers
Climate 2023, 11(6), 126; https://doi.org/10.3390/cli11060126 - 07 Jun 2023
Viewed by 6899
Abstract
Children in developing countries such as India will experience severe consequences of climate change. Primary school students, in particular, are the most vulnerable to extreme weather conditions, such as heat waves intensifying due to climate change. This will adversely impair their development, well-being, [...] Read more.
Children in developing countries such as India will experience severe consequences of climate change. Primary school students, in particular, are the most vulnerable to extreme weather conditions, such as heat waves intensifying due to climate change. This will adversely impair their development, well-being, and learning outcomes. However, significant research gaps exist in understanding and mitigating children’s vulnerabilities. There is an urgent need for a deeper understanding of the impact of heat waves on children’s health and well-being in India. Further, the discussion on the state of heat safety in Indian primary schools is limited. This study addresses these gaps by surveying 335 primary school teachers in seven Indian cities. The data gathered from the field survey offers a better understanding of classroom experiences and challenges encountered by children and teachers during heat waves. It underscores several aspects of students’ vulnerability to heat exposure and its adverse impact on their health, such as absence from school, physical symptoms of heat distress, etc. Furthermore, it highlights the pressing need for classroom heat risk management in light of climate change and makes several policy prescriptions in primary schools. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Interactions between Climate Science and Education)
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Article
Correlates of Climate Change Action Communication Modalities in the United States
Climate 2023, 11(6), 125; https://doi.org/10.3390/cli11060125 - 07 Jun 2023
Viewed by 1035
Abstract
Communicating about actions to address climate change is critical to mobilize collective actions, and enact policies for climate change mitigation (prevention) and adaptation to climate change. The current study assessed factors associated with climate change action (CCA) communications in the US. Respondents were [...] Read more.
Communicating about actions to address climate change is critical to mobilize collective actions, and enact policies for climate change mitigation (prevention) and adaptation to climate change. The current study assessed factors associated with climate change action (CCA) communications in the US. Respondents were recruited through Prolific, an online survey research platform. The sample was restricted to the 599 respondents who reported that the issue of climate change was extremely or very important to them. Key outcome variables included (1) talking to family/friends about CCA, (2) texting/emailing family/friends about CCA, and (3) posting or sharing a post on social media about CCA. Multinomial logistic regression models examined correlates of CCA communications. Descriptive and injunctive social norms, barriers to CCA, and climate change distress were consistently significantly associated with engaging in the three CCA communication modalities in the prior month compared to never. This study’s results suggest that talking with peers is the most common form of CCA communication, and is associated with social norms and distinct barriers to CCA. Organizations that address climate change should consider utilizing dialogical approaches to shift social norms related to CCA, and foster CCA communications and address barriers to CCA. Full article
Review
Climate Change Adaptation and the Agriculture–Food System in Myanmar
Climate 2023, 11(6), 124; https://doi.org/10.3390/cli11060124 - 06 Jun 2023
Viewed by 1795
Abstract
The agricultural sector provides employment and income to the majority of Myanmar’s population. The sector, however, is extremely susceptible to severe weather, rising temperatures, and changes in precipitation. A lack of knowledge about farming communities’ climate change vulnerabilities, as well as the insufficient [...] Read more.
The agricultural sector provides employment and income to the majority of Myanmar’s population. The sector, however, is extremely susceptible to severe weather, rising temperatures, and changes in precipitation. A lack of knowledge about farming communities’ climate change vulnerabilities, as well as the insufficient integration of policies and programs, is a constraint to climate change adaptation in agriculture sectors. This paper analyzes the drivers of the agricultural sector’s vulnerability to climate change and highlights the key production systems that are most at risk in Myanmar. The paper examines historical climate information and the anticipated effects of climate change. We include an in-depth literature review and summaries of climate change adaptation efforts in agriculture sectors, along with recommendations for targeted, locally appropriate actions to strengthen the resilience of the agricultural sector. Farm households use a combination of scientific and indigenous adaptation strategies to cope with the effects of climate change. Additionally, the study reviews Myanmar’s institutional framework for climate action and government priorities for adaptation measures, emphasizes the urgent need for climate action in agriculture sectors, and calls for more research and development efforts on the effects of climate change on rural livelihoods and agriculture. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Climate and Weather Extremes: Volume II)
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Article
How Can a Changing Climate Influence the Productivity of Traditional Olive Orchards? Regression Analysis Applied to a Local Case Study in Portugal
Climate 2023, 11(6), 123; https://doi.org/10.3390/cli11060123 - 01 Jun 2023
Viewed by 1152
Abstract
Nowadays, the climate is undoubtedly one of the main threats to the sustainability of olive orchards, especially in the case of rainfed traditional production systems. Local warming, droughts, and extreme weather events are some of the climatological factors responsible for environmental thresholds in [...] Read more.
Nowadays, the climate is undoubtedly one of the main threats to the sustainability of olive orchards, especially in the case of rainfed traditional production systems. Local warming, droughts, and extreme weather events are some of the climatological factors responsible for environmental thresholds in relation to crops being exceeded. The main objective of this study was to investigate the influence of microclimatic variability on the productivity of traditional olive orchards in a municipality located in northeastern Portugal. For this purpose, official data on climate, expressed through agro-bioclimatic indicators, and olive productivity for a 21-year historical period (2000–2020) were used to evaluate potential correlations. In addition, a comprehensive regression analysis involving the dataset and the following modeling scenarios was carried out to develop regression models and assess the resulting predictions: (a) Random Forest (RF) with selected features; (b) Ordinary Least-Squares (OLS) with selected features; (c) OLS with correlation features; and (d) OLS with all features. For the a and b scenarios, features were selected applying the Recursive Feature Elimination with Cross-Validation (RFECV) technique. The best statistical performance was achieved considering nonlinearity among variables (a scenario, R2 = 0.95); however, it was not possible to derive any model given the underlying methodology to this scenario. In linear regression applications, the best fit between model predictions and the real olive productivity was obtained when all the analyzed agro-bioclimatic indicators were included in the regression (d scenario, R2 = 0.85). When selecting only the most relevant indicators using RFECV and correlation techniques, moderate correlations for the b and c regression scenarios were obtained (R2 of 0.54 and 0.49, respectively). Based on the research findings, especially the regression models, their adaptability to other olive territories with similar agronomic and environmental characteristics is suggested for crop management and regulatory purposes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Importance of Long Climate Records)
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Article
Risky Business: Modeling the Future of Jamaica’s Coffee Production in a Changing Climate
Climate 2023, 11(6), 122; https://doi.org/10.3390/cli11060122 - 30 May 2023
Viewed by 1449
Abstract
Jamaica produces one of the most expensive coffees on the global market. The local specialty coffee industry plays a significant role in the island’s economy and also contributes to the livelihood of smallholders—the majority of whom operate the industry’s coffee farms. While climate [...] Read more.
Jamaica produces one of the most expensive coffees on the global market. The local specialty coffee industry plays a significant role in the island’s economy and also contributes to the livelihood of smallholders—the majority of whom operate the industry’s coffee farms. While climate model projections suggest that Jamaica will continue to experience a warming and drying trend, no study has assessed the future impacts of changing climatic patterns on local coffee-growing areas. This research developed a number of geospatial processing models within the ArcMap software platform to model current coffee suitability and future crop suitability across three Shared Socioeconomic Pathways (SSP1-2.6, SSP2-4.5, and SSP5-8.5) and three future time periods (2021–2040, 2041–2060, and 2081–2100). The results validated current locations of coffee production and revealed that there was an observable decrease in coffee suitability across the island, across all SSP scenarios and time periods under study. Most growing regions were projected to experience declines in production suitability of at least 10%, with the most severe changes occurring in non-Blue Mountain regions under the SSP5-8.5 scenario. Implications of this projected suitability change range from decreased production volumes, increased price volatility, and disruption to market operations and livelihood incomes. The paper’s findings offer stakeholders within Jamaica’s coffee industry the opportunity to develop targeted adaptation planning initiatives, and point to the need for concrete decisions concerning future investment pathways for the industry. It also provides insight into other tropical coffee-growing regions around the world that are facing the challenges associated with climate change. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Climate Adaptation Ways for Smallholder Farmers)
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Article
Identifying and Attributing Regime Shifts in Australian Fire Climates
Climate 2023, 11(6), 121; https://doi.org/10.3390/cli11060121 - 28 May 2023
Viewed by 2011
Abstract
This paper introduces and analyzes fire climate regimes, steady-state conditions that govern the behavior of fire weather. A simple model representing fire climate was constructed by regressing high-quality regional climate averages against the station-averaged annual Forest Fire Danger Index (FFDI) for Victoria, Australia. [...] Read more.
This paper introduces and analyzes fire climate regimes, steady-state conditions that govern the behavior of fire weather. A simple model representing fire climate was constructed by regressing high-quality regional climate averages against the station-averaged annual Forest Fire Danger Index (FFDI) for Victoria, Australia. Four FFD indices for fire years 1957–2021 were produced for 10 regions. Regions with even coverage of station-averaged total annual FFDI (ΣFFDI) from 1971–2016 exceeded Nash–Sutcliffe efficiencies of 0.84, validating its widespread application. Data were analyzed for shifts in mean, revealing regime shifts that occurred between 1996 and 2003 in the southern states and 2012–2013 in Queensland. ΣFFDI shifted up by ~25% in SE Australia to 8% in the west; by approximately one-third in the SE to 7% in the west for days above high fire danger; by approximately half in the SE to 11% in the west for days above very high, with a greater increase in Tasmania; and by approximately three-quarters in the SE to 9% in the west for days above severe FFDI. Attribution of the causes identified regime shifts in the fire season maximum temperature and a 3 p.m. relative humidity, with changing drought factor and rainfall patterns shaping the results. The 1:10 fire season between Regimes 1 and 2 saw a three to seven times increase with an average of five. For the 1:20 fire season, there was an increase of 2 to 14 times with an average of 8. Similar timing between shifts in the Australian FFDI and the global fire season length suggests that these changes may be global in extent. A trend analysis will substantially underestimate these changes in risk. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Climate Change Impacts in Australia)
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Article
Performance Evaluation of TerraClimate Monthly Rainfall Data after Bias Correction in the Fes-Meknes Region (Morocco)
Climate 2023, 11(6), 120; https://doi.org/10.3390/cli11060120 - 27 May 2023
Viewed by 1090
Abstract
Morocco’s meteorological observation network is quite old, but the spatial coverage is insufficient to conduct studies over large areas, especially in mountainous regions, such as the Fez-Meknes region, where spatio-temporal variability in precipitation depends on altitude and exposure. The lack of station data [...] Read more.
Morocco’s meteorological observation network is quite old, but the spatial coverage is insufficient to conduct studies over large areas, especially in mountainous regions, such as the Fez-Meknes region, where spatio-temporal variability in precipitation depends on altitude and exposure. The lack of station data is the main reason that led us to look for alternative solutions. TerraClimate (TC) reanalysis data were used to remedy this situation. However, reanalysis data are usually affected by a bias in the raw values. Bias correction methods generally involve a procedure in which a “transfer function” between the simulated and corrected variable is derived from the cumulative distribution functions (CDFs) of these variables. We explore the possibilities of using TC precipitation data for the Fez-Meknes administrative region (Morocco). This examination is of great interest for the region whose mountain peaks constitute the most important reservoir of water in the country, where TC data can overcome the difficulty of estimating precipitation in mountainous regions where the spatio-temporal variability is very high. Thus, we carried out the validation of TC data on stations belonging to plain and mountain topographic units and having different bioclimatic and topographic characteristics. Overall, the results demonstrate that the TC data capture the altitudinal gradient of precipitation and the average rainfall pattern, with a maximum in November and a minimum in July, which is a characteristic of the Mediterranean climate. However, we identified quasi-systematic biases, negative in mountainous regions and positive in lowland stations. In addition, summer precipitation is overestimated in mountain regions. It is considered that this bias comes from the imperfect representation of the physical processes of rainfall formation by the models. To reduce this bias, we applied the quantile mapping (QM) method. After correction using five QM variants, a significant improvement was observed for all stations and most months, except for May. Validation statistics for the five bias correction variants do not indicate the superiority of any particular method in terms of robustness. Indeed, results indicate that most QM methods lead to a significant improvement in TC data after monthly bias corrections. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Climate Variability in the Mediterranean Region)
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Article
A Relationship between Climate Finance and Climate Risk: Evidence from the South Asian Region
Climate 2023, 11(6), 119; https://doi.org/10.3390/cli11060119 - 26 May 2023
Viewed by 1553
Abstract
South Asia is the most vulnerable region in the context of global warming, climate change, and climate risk. Climate finance is the most useful tool for combating climate challenges worldwide. The study explores the present picture of climate finance in South Asian (SA) [...] Read more.
South Asia is the most vulnerable region in the context of global warming, climate change, and climate risk. Climate finance is the most useful tool for combating climate challenges worldwide. The study explores the present picture of climate finance in South Asian (SA) countries. The study uses multilateral development bank (MDB), Green Climate Fund (GCF), and Germanwatch supplied data from 2011 to 2021. Under the theoretical lens of institutional capacity development, the study attempts to correlate climate finance and climate risk. The study indicates an increasing trend of MBDs’ and the GCF’s climate finance in many countries worldwide. The study finds that MDBs’ total global climate finance is USD 446,977 million, while the SA region has received USD 59,301 million since 2011. It also reports that MDBs provide 77% and 23% of the money to the mitigation and adaptation areas. Moreover, the study reports that, after COVID-19, MDBs substantially increased the amount of global climate financing, but this increase was not seen in the SA region. Our climate risk data indicate that most of the SA countries are highly long-term climate risky and lose, on average, 0.378% of GDP. The correlation matrix finds a negative and significant correlation between climate finance and long-term and yearly climate risk. The study identifies that the region’s climate financing flow of money is not rationally distributed based on the short-run and long-run climate risks. The study presumes that more climate finance would be the most effective mechanism to mitigate climate risk. Therefore, SA region leadership drastically requires a holistic framework to address the prevailing climate problems and to ensure regional coordination and cooperation toward climate finance and policies. The research findings have significant implications for climate policy and climate finance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Climate and Economics)
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Review
Changing Water Cycle under a Warming Climate: Tendencies in the Carpathian Basin
Climate 2023, 11(6), 118; https://doi.org/10.3390/cli11060118 - 26 May 2023
Viewed by 1457
Abstract
In this mini-review, we present evidence from the vast literature that one essential part of the coupled atmosphere–ocean system that makes life on Earth possible, the water cycle, is exhibiting changes along with many attributes of the global climate. Our starting point is [...] Read more.
In this mini-review, we present evidence from the vast literature that one essential part of the coupled atmosphere–ocean system that makes life on Earth possible, the water cycle, is exhibiting changes along with many attributes of the global climate. Our starting point is the 6th Assessment Report of the IPCC, which appeared in 2021, where the almost monograph-size Chapter 8, with over 1800 references, is devoted entirely to the water cycle. In addition to listing the main observations on the Earth globally, we focus on Europe, particularly on the Carpathian (Pannonian) Basin. We collect plausible explanations of the possible causes behind an observably accelerating and intensifying water cycle. Some authors still suggest that changes in the natural boundary conditions, such as solar irradiance or Earth’s orbital parameters, explain the observations. In contrast, most authors attribute such changes to the increasing greenhouse gas concentrations since the industrial revolution. The hypothesis being tested, and which has already yielded convincing affirmative answers, is that the hydrological cycle intensifies due to anthropogenic impacts. The Carpathian Basin, a part of the Danube watershed, including the sub-basin of the Tisza River, is no exception to these changes. The region is experiencing multiple drivers contributing to alterations in the water cycle, including increasing temperatures, shifting precipitation regimes, and various human impacts. Full article
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Article
Effects of Extreme Temperature and Precipitation Events on Daily CO2 Fluxes in the Tropics
Climate 2023, 11(6), 117; https://doi.org/10.3390/cli11060117 - 25 May 2023
Viewed by 999
Abstract
The effects of anomalous weather conditions (such as extreme temperatures and precipitation) on CO2 flux variability in different tropical ecosystems were assessed using available reanalysis data, as well as information about daily net CO2 fluxes from the global FLUXNET database. A [...] Read more.
The effects of anomalous weather conditions (such as extreme temperatures and precipitation) on CO2 flux variability in different tropical ecosystems were assessed using available reanalysis data, as well as information about daily net CO2 fluxes from the global FLUXNET database. A working hypothesis of the study suggests that the response of tropical vegetation can differ depending on local geographical conditions and intensity of temperature and precipitation anomalies. The results highlighted the large diversity of CO2 flux responses to the fluctuations of temperature and precipitation in tropical ecosystems that may differ significantly from some previously documented relationships (e.g., higher CO2 emission under the drier and hotter weather, higher CO2 uptake under colder and wetter weather conditions). They showed that heavy precipitation mainly leads to the strong intensification of mean daily CO2 release into the atmosphere at almost all stations and in all types of study biomes. For the majority of considered tropical ecosystems, the intensification of daily CO2 emission during cold and wet weather was found, whereas the ecosystems were predominantly served as CO2 sinks from the atmosphere under hot/dry conditions. Such disparate responses suggested that positive and negative temperature and precipitation anomalies influence Gross Primary Production (GPP) and Ecosystem Respiration (ER) rates differently that may result in various responses of Net Ecosystem Exchanges (NEE) of CO2 to external impacts. Their responses may also depend on various local biotic and abiotic factors, including plant canopy age and structure, plant biodiversity and plasticity, soil organic carbon and water availability, surface topography, solar radiation fluctuation, etc. Full article
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Article
De-Sealing Reverses Habitat Decay More Than Increasing Groundcover Vegetation
Climate 2023, 11(6), 116; https://doi.org/10.3390/cli11060116 - 25 May 2023
Viewed by 1154
Abstract
Modeling ecosystem services is a growing trend in scientific research, and Nature-based Solutions (NbSs) are increasingly used by land-use planners and environmental designers to achieve improved adaptation to climate change and mitigation of the negative effects of climate change. Predictions of ecological benefits [...] Read more.
Modeling ecosystem services is a growing trend in scientific research, and Nature-based Solutions (NbSs) are increasingly used by land-use planners and environmental designers to achieve improved adaptation to climate change and mitigation of the negative effects of climate change. Predictions of ecological benefits of NbSs are needed early in design to support decision making. In this study, we used ecological analysis to predict the benefits of two NbSs applied to a university masterplan and adjusted our preliminary design strategy according to the first modeling results. Our Area of Interest was the IZTECH campus, which is located in a rural area of the eastern Mediterranean region (Izmir/Turkey). A primary design goal was to improve habitat quality by revitalizing soil. Customized analysis of the Baseline Condition and two NbSs scenarios was achieved by using local values obtained from a high-resolution photogrammetric scan of the catchment to produce flow accumulation and habitat quality indexes. Results indicate that anthropogenic features are the primary cause of habitat decay and that decreasing imperviousness reduces habitat decay significantly more than adding vegetation. This study creates a method of supporting sustainability goals by quickly testing alternative NbSs. The main innovation is demonstrating that early approximation of the ecological benefits of NbSs can inform preliminary design strategy. The proposed model may be calibrated to address specific environmental challenges of a given location and test other forms of NbSs. Full article
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Article
Climate Change Knowledge and Perception among Farming Households in Nigeria
Climate 2023, 11(6), 115; https://doi.org/10.3390/cli11060115 - 24 May 2023
Viewed by 1620
Abstract
Nigeria is committed to achieving a 20% unconditional and 45% conditional reduction of GHG emissions by 2030 through a strong focus on awareness of and preparedness for climate change impacts via the mobilization of local communities for climate change mitigation actions. As land [...] Read more.
Nigeria is committed to achieving a 20% unconditional and 45% conditional reduction of GHG emissions by 2030 through a strong focus on awareness of and preparedness for climate change impacts via the mobilization of local communities for climate change mitigation actions. As land cover changes and forestry contribute 38% and agriculture contributes 13% of the country’s GHGs, farmers are among the stakeholders to be aware of and prepare for climate change mitigations and adaptations. This study assessed the knowledge of agriculturally related practices associated with climate change and its relation to climate change perception. One thousand and eighty (1080) smallholder farmers were interviewed across six agroecological zones (AEZs) of Nigeria using a structured questionnaire. The results revealed that most farmers know that deforestation and land clearance by bush burning contributes to climate change. However, many farmers did not know that methane emissions from livestock (enteric fermentation) can cause climate change. Our results further show that the farmers’ perception of climate change is associated with climate change knowledge. Factors affecting the climate change knowledge of farmers include information received from government extension services, environmental NGOs, and radio, as well as experiencing extreme weather events. Farmers of dry AEZs were more aware and knowledgeable of the agricultural practices contributing to the changing environment. Increased exposure to climate change events thus appears to elevate the knowledge on the topic. Using government services, environmental NGOs, and radio to disseminate climate change information will help further in guiding and shaping farmers’ perceptions towards scientific findings for appropriate actions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Adaptation and Mitigation Practices and Frameworks)
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