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Climate, Volume 11, Issue 12 (December 2023) – 16 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): An advanced methodology was introduced to evaluate the risk occurrences of extremes in historical and future periods. The approach was designed to create intensity, duration, and return periods curves that can assess multi-hazard scenarios associated with hazards such as heat waves, cold waves, wildfires, extreme precipitation and wind. The approach can be applied to one or multiple locations that have diverse climate conditions. It can help to assess their vulnerability to climate change by studying the behavior of extremes. The curves can represent extreme scenarios and the respective extreme can be assessed by its persistence. It can be quantified by how extreme it could potentially be. The analysis showed how the curves change over time and space, leading to different interpretations of extreme events under a changing climate in Greece. View this paper
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18 pages, 1035 KiB  
Review
Examining the Heat Health Burden in Australia: A Rapid Review
Climate 2023, 11(12), 246; https://doi.org/10.3390/cli11120246 - 18 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1621
Abstract
Extreme heat has been linked to increased mortality and morbidity across the globe. Increasing temperatures due to climatic change will place immense stress on healthcare systems. This review synthesises Australian literature that has examined the effect of hot weather and heatwaves on various [...] Read more.
Extreme heat has been linked to increased mortality and morbidity across the globe. Increasing temperatures due to climatic change will place immense stress on healthcare systems. This review synthesises Australian literature that has examined the effect of hot weather and heatwaves on various health outcomes. Databases including Web of Science, PubMed and CINAHL were systematically searched for articles that quantitatively examined heat health effects for the Australian population. Relevant, peer-reviewed articles published between 2010 and 2023 were included. Two authors screened the abstracts. One researcher conducted the full article review and data extraction, while another researcher randomly reviewed 10% of the articles to validate decisions. Our rapid review found abundant literature indicating increased mortality and morbidity risks due to extreme temperature exposures. The effect of heat on mortality was found to be mostly immediate, with peaks in the risk of death observed on the day of exposure or the next day. Most studies in this review were concentrated on cities and mainly included health outcome data from temperate and subtropical climate zones. There was a dearth of studies that focused on tropical or arid climates and at-risk populations, including children, pregnant women, Indigenous people and rural and remote residents. The review highlights the need for more context-specific studies targeting vulnerable population groups, particularly residents of rural and remote Australia, as these regions substantially vary climatically and socio-demographically from urban Australia, and the heat health impacts are likely to be even more substantial. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Climate Change Impacts in Australia)
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15 pages, 15571 KiB  
Article
Precipitation Projection in Cambodia Using Statistically Downscaled CMIP6 Models
Climate 2023, 11(12), 245; https://doi.org/10.3390/cli11120245 - 16 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1632
Abstract
The consequences of climate change are arising in the form of many types of natural disasters, such as flooding, drought, and tropical cyclones. Responding to climate change is a long horizontal run action that requires adaptation and mitigation strategies. Hence, future climate information [...] Read more.
The consequences of climate change are arising in the form of many types of natural disasters, such as flooding, drought, and tropical cyclones. Responding to climate change is a long horizontal run action that requires adaptation and mitigation strategies. Hence, future climate information is essential for developing effective strategies. This study explored the applicability of a statistical downscaling method, Bias-Corrected Spatial Disaggregation (BCSD), in downscaling climate models from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 6 (CMIP6) and then applied the downscaled data to project the future condition of precipitation pattern and extreme events in Cambodia. We calculated four climate change indicators, namely mean precipitation changes, consecutive dry days (CDD), consecutive wet days (CWD), and maximum one-day precipitation (rx1day) under two shared socioeconomic pathways (SSPs) scenarios, which are SSP245 and SSP585. The results indicated the satisfactory performance of the BCSD method in capturing the spatial feature of orographic precipitation in Cambodia. The analysis of downscaled CMIP6 models shows that the mean precipitation in Cambodia increases during the wet season and slightly decreases in the dry season, and thus, there is a slight increase in annual rainfall. The projection of extreme climate indices shows that the CDD would likely increase under both climate change scenarios, indicating the potential threat of dry spells or drought events in Cambodia. In addition, CWD would likely increase under the SSP245 scenario and strongly decrease in the eastern part of the country under the SSP585 scenario, which inferred that the wet spell would have happened under the moderate scenario of climate change, but it would be the opposite under the SSP585 scenario. Moreover, rx1day would likely increase over most parts of Cambodia, especially under the SSP585 scenario at the end of the century. This can be inferred as a potential threat to extreme rainfall triggering flood events in the country due to climate change. Full article
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12 pages, 2831 KiB  
Article
Homogeneity Assessment and Correction Methodology for the 1980–2022 Daily Temperature Series in Padua, Italy
Climate 2023, 11(12), 244; https://doi.org/10.3390/cli11120244 - 15 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1353
Abstract
Meteorological observations over the last four decades are of paramount importance to investigating ongoing climate change. An important issue is the quality and reliability of the climatic series, which are fundamental prerequisites to drawing the correct conclusions. Homogeneity tests are used to detect [...] Read more.
Meteorological observations over the last four decades are of paramount importance to investigating ongoing climate change. An important issue is the quality and reliability of the climatic series, which are fundamental prerequisites to drawing the correct conclusions. Homogeneity tests are used to detect discontinuities whose interpretation is facilitated by metadata availability. In this work, daily minimum and maximum temperature measurements collected in Padua, Italy, between 1980 and 2022 are examined. During this period, the weather station of Padua center underwent many changes in location or instruments; therefore, some tests have been used to identify and remove their effects and obtain homogeneous series. Some well-known absolute tests have been applied to investigate the shift in the mean value: Standard Normal Homogeneity test (SNH), Buishand U and range tests, Pettitt test, F-test, and STARS. Relative tests have been applied too, using several stations nearby Padua and two reanalysis datasets (ERA5 and MERIDA) as reference series to enhance the picture of the local situation and provide more robust conclusions. The applied tests identify change-points in the years in which a change in instrument or the location of the station has occurred, confirming that these changes have compromised the homogeneity of the series. The sub-series obtained, splitting the observations in correspondence with these change-points, have been homogenized with respect to a selected period. The corrected series of the minimum and maximum temperatures are more coherent with the modern warming trend. The transfer functions to be applied to future measurements of minimum temperature have been calculated, while the series of maximum temperature measurements can be directly extended. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Climate Variability in the Mediterranean Region)
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25 pages, 5458 KiB  
Article
Linking Climate Change Information with Crop Growing Seasons in the Northwest Ethiopian Highlands
Climate 2023, 11(12), 243; https://doi.org/10.3390/cli11120243 - 15 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1351
Abstract
In Ethiopia, the impacts of climate change are expected to have significant consequences for agriculture and food security. This study investigates both past (1981–2010) and future (2041–2070) climate trends and their influence on the length of the growing season (LGS) in the North-Western [...] Read more.
In Ethiopia, the impacts of climate change are expected to have significant consequences for agriculture and food security. This study investigates both past (1981–2010) and future (2041–2070) climate trends and their influence on the length of the growing season (LGS) in the North-Western Ethiopian highlands. Climate observations were obtained from the National Meteorological Agency of Ethiopia, while the best performing and highest resolution models from the CMIP5 experiment and RCP6 (Coupled Models Intercomparison Project and representative concentration pathway 6) were used for the analysis. Standard statistical methods were applied to compute soil water content, evaluate climate variability and trends, and assess their impact on the length of the growing season. Maximum temperature (tasmax) and minimum temperature (tasmin) inter-annual variability anomalies show that the region has experienced cooler years than hotter years in the past. However, in the future, the coolest years are expected to decrease by −1.2 °C, while the hottest years will increase by +1.3 °C. During the major rainfall season (JJAS), the area has received an adequate amount of rainfall in the past and is very likely to receive similar rainfall in the future. On the other hand, the rainfall amount in the season February to May (FMAM) is expected to assist only with early planting. For the season October to January (ONDJ), the rainfall amount may help lengthen the growing season of JJAS if properly utilized; otherwise, the season has the potential to destroy crops before and during the harvesting time. The soil water content changes in the future remain close to those of the past period. The length of growing seasons has less variable onset and cessation dates, while in the future, the length of the growing period (LGP) of 174 to 177 days will be suitable for short- and long-cycle crops, as well as double cropping, benefiting crop production yield in the North-Western Ethiopian highlands in the future. Full article
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21 pages, 11232 KiB  
Article
Multi-Hazard Extreme Scenario Quantification Using Intensity, Duration, and Return Period Characteristics
Climate 2023, 11(12), 242; https://doi.org/10.3390/cli11120242 - 12 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1458
Abstract
Many modern frameworks for community resilience and emergency management in the face of extreme hydrometeorological and climate events rely on scenario building. These scenarios typically cover multiple hazards and assess the likelihood of their occurrence. They are quantified by their main characteristics, including [...] Read more.
Many modern frameworks for community resilience and emergency management in the face of extreme hydrometeorological and climate events rely on scenario building. These scenarios typically cover multiple hazards and assess the likelihood of their occurrence. They are quantified by their main characteristics, including likelihood of occurrence, intensity, duration, and spatial extent. However, most studies in the literature focus only on the first two characteristics, neglecting to incorporate the internal hazard dynamics and their persistence over time. In this study, we propose a multidimensional approach to construct extreme event scenarios for multiple hazards, such as heat waves, cold spells, extreme precipitation and snowfall, and wind speed. We consider the intensity, duration, and return period (IDRP) triptych for a specific location. We demonstrate the effectiveness of this approach by developing pertinent scenarios for eight locations in Greece with diverse geographical characteristics and dominant extreme hazards. We also address how climate change impacts the scenario characteristics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Climate and Weather Extremes: Volume II)
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28 pages, 14261 KiB  
Article
Intercomparison of Different Sources of Precipitation Data in the Brazilian Legal Amazon
Climate 2023, 11(12), 241; https://doi.org/10.3390/cli11120241 - 09 Dec 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1804
Abstract
Monitoring rainfall in the Brazilian Legal Amazon (BLA), which comprises most of the largest tropical rainforest and largest river basin on the planet, is extremely important but challenging. The size of the area and land cover alone impose difficulties on the operation of [...] Read more.
Monitoring rainfall in the Brazilian Legal Amazon (BLA), which comprises most of the largest tropical rainforest and largest river basin on the planet, is extremely important but challenging. The size of the area and land cover alone impose difficulties on the operation of a rain gauge network. Given this, we aimed to evaluate the performance of nine databases that estimate rainfall in the BLA, four from gridded analyses based on pluviometry (Xavier, CPC, GPCC and CRU), four based on remote sensing (CHIRPS, IMERG, CMORPH and PERSIANN-CDR), and one from reanalysis (ERA5Land). We found that all the bases are efficient in characterizing the average annual cycle of accumulated precipitation in the BLA, but with a predominantly negative bias. Parameters such as Pearson’s correlation (r), root-mean-square error (RMSE) and Taylor diagrams (SDE), applied in a spatial analysis for the entire BLA as well as for six pluviometrically homogeneous regions, showed that, based on a skill ranking, the data from Xavier’s grid analysis, CHIRPS, GPCC and ERA5Land best represent precipitation in the BLA at monthly, seasonal and annual levels. The PERSIANN-CDR data showed intermediate performance, while the IMERG, CMORPH, CRU and CPC data showed the lowest correlations and highest errors, characteristics also captured in the Taylor diagrams. It is hoped that this demonstration of hierarchy based on skill will subsidize climate studies in this region of great relevance in terms of biodiversity, water resources and as an important climate regulator. Full article
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16 pages, 546 KiB  
Article
A Social Dimension of Adaptation and Mitigation of Climate Change: Empowering Local Rural Communities to Confront Extreme Poverty
Climate 2023, 11(12), 240; https://doi.org/10.3390/cli11120240 - 08 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1564
Abstract
Climate change impacts occur at varying spatial scales requiring appropriately scaled responses. In impoverished rural areas, adapting to or mitigating the effects of climate change is challenging, with any short-term impairment to precarious livelihoods likely triggering negative community responses even if people are [...] Read more.
Climate change impacts occur at varying spatial scales requiring appropriately scaled responses. In impoverished rural areas, adapting to or mitigating the effects of climate change is challenging, with any short-term impairment to precarious livelihoods likely triggering negative community responses even if people are aware of long-term benefits. The paper will discuss a community-based carbon sequestration project in eastern Iran. It started in 2003 and since then has been expanded widely. It was nominated by UNDP as one of 10 transformative projects in Asia/Pacific in 2016. Over the past 20 years, the project has targeted improving the livelihood of the local communities while addressing local measures to adapt to/mitigate climate change. The paper elaborates on the formation of village development groups as pivotal drivers of success by highlighting local income-generating schemes and project documentation. Key lessons for climate change adaptation can be learnt and are applicable to other developing countries. Extreme poverty in rural areas facing climate change could be tackled through implementing bottom-up approaches in which local communities can be respected and engaged in co-leadership and planning. Full article
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14 pages, 4966 KiB  
Perspective
The Umlindi Newsletter: Disseminating Climate-Related Information on the Management of Natural Disaster and Agricultural Production in South Africa
Climate 2023, 11(12), 239; https://doi.org/10.3390/cli11120239 - 05 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1614
Abstract
The Umlindi newsletter was developed to provide information towards climate advisories, considering, for instance, drought conditions, presented in a relevant manner for the agricultural and disaster sectors in South Africa. This newsletter, which is disseminated on a monthly basis, provides information derived from [...] Read more.
The Umlindi newsletter was developed to provide information towards climate advisories, considering, for instance, drought conditions, presented in a relevant manner for the agricultural and disaster sectors in South Africa. This newsletter, which is disseminated on a monthly basis, provides information derived from climate-related monitoring products obtained from an integration of remote sensing and in situ data from weather stations. It contains useful indicators, such as rainfall, vegetation, and fire conditions, that provide an overview of conditions across the country. The present study demonstrates how these natural resource indices are integrated and consolidated for utilization by farmers, policy-makers, private organizations, and the general public to make day-to-day decisions on the management and mitigation of natural disasters. However, there is a need to expand these baseline observation initiatives, including the following: (1) forecasting future conditions to strengthen coping mechanisms of government, farmers, and communities at large; and (2) incorporating information on other natural disasters such as floods and extreme heat. In the context of South Africa, this information is important to improve disaster preparedness and management for agricultural productivity. In a global context, the Umlindi newsletter can be insightful for developing and disseminating natural resources information on adaptation to and mitigation of climate change and variability impacts to other regions facing similar risks. Furthermore, while international organizations also provide natural resource information, the Umlindi newsletter may be distinguished by its regional focus and linkages to individual communities. It bridges the gap between global environmental data and local decision-making by illustrating how global scientific knowledge may be applied locally. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modeling and Forecasting of Climate Risks)
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21 pages, 20514 KiB  
Article
Climate Change and Extreme Events in Northeast Atlantic and Azores Islands Region
Climate 2023, 11(12), 238; https://doi.org/10.3390/cli11120238 - 04 Dec 2023
Viewed by 2149
Abstract
In small island regions, the influence of climate change assumes particular relevance. In the Azores archipelago, made up of nine islands, the geographical circumstances, oceanic condition, territorial dispersion, land use model and other physiographic constraints reinforce and enhance the vulnerability of the islands [...] Read more.
In small island regions, the influence of climate change assumes particular relevance. In the Azores archipelago, made up of nine islands, the geographical circumstances, oceanic condition, territorial dispersion, land use model and other physiographic constraints reinforce and enhance the vulnerability of the islands to changes in current weather patterns. Coupled Model Intercomparison Phase 6 (CMIP6) projections are used for the northeast Atlantic region to evaluate daily extreme climate events in large scale for the Azores region. Results shows changes in the annual maximum number of consecutive dry days, the annual number of wet days, and especially in the annual number of tropical nights. Despite limitations due to the lack of spatial detail, the large-scale framework suggests changes that may be enhanced by topography, particularly with respect to precipitation. The conclusions point to the need to establish standard rules in the processes of design, reviewing and/or amending territorial management instruments at the municipal scale in the Autonomous Region of the Azores, with the goal of adapting to a different climate from the recent past. Full article
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17 pages, 4346 KiB  
Article
Residential Wind Loss Mitigation Case Study: An Analysis of Insurance Claim Data for Hurricane Michael
Climate 2023, 11(12), 237; https://doi.org/10.3390/cli11120237 - 04 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1458
Abstract
This study analyzes insurance claim data from an 11-county area in the Florida Panhandle following the landfall of Hurricane Michael. The data includes 1467 non-mobile home structures, with 902 (61.5%) storm-damaged structures in Bay County. The analysis focuses on Wind Mitigation form 1802. [...] Read more.
This study analyzes insurance claim data from an 11-county area in the Florida Panhandle following the landfall of Hurricane Michael. The data includes 1467 non-mobile home structures, with 902 (61.5%) storm-damaged structures in Bay County. The analysis focuses on Wind Mitigation form 1802. Specifically, building design variables were analyzed via linear regression as to their influence on the percent claim loss. The building design variables included total square footage, dwelling construction type, age of the building, roof type, roof cover type, roof deck attachment type, roof to wall attachment, the presence of secondary water resistance (or sealed roof deck), opening protection type, and roof shape. Results show that building design variables for insurance claims have a high predictive value relative to a Category 5 hurricane event. However, the predictive values of building design variables are also dependent on the dwelling’s proximity to the coast, its location relative to the strong or weak side of the storm, the diameter of the storm, and other wind field variables. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Analysis of Hurricane Extremes)
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14 pages, 937 KiB  
Article
Minimal Mechanisms Responsible for the Dispersive Behavior of the Madden–Julian Oscillation
Climate 2023, 11(12), 236; https://doi.org/10.3390/cli11120236 - 29 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1657
Abstract
An attempt has been made to explore the relative contributions of moisture feedback processes on tropical intraseasonal oscillation or Madden–Julian Oscillation (MJO). We focused on moisture feedback processes, including evaporation wind feedback (EWF) and moisture convergence feedback (MCF), which integrate the mechanisms of [...] Read more.
An attempt has been made to explore the relative contributions of moisture feedback processes on tropical intraseasonal oscillation or Madden–Julian Oscillation (MJO). We focused on moisture feedback processes, including evaporation wind feedback (EWF) and moisture convergence feedback (MCF), which integrate the mechanisms of convective interactions into the tropical atmosphere. The dynamical framework considered here is a moisture-coupled, single-layer linear shallow-water model on an equatorial beta-plane with zonal momentum damping. With this approach, we aimed to recognize the minimal physical mechanisms responsible for the existence of the essential dispersive characteristics of the MJO, including its eastward propagation (k>0), the planetary-scale (small zonal wavenumbers) instability, and the slow phase speed of about ≈5 m/s. Furthermore, we extended our study to determine each feedback mechanism’s influence on the simulated eastward dispersive mode. Our model emphasized that the MJO-like eastward mode is a possible outcome of the combined effect of moisture feedback processes without requiring additional complex mechanisms such as cloud radiative feedback and boundary layer dynamics. The results substantiate the importance of EWF as a primary energy source for developing an eastward moisture mode with a planter-scale instability. The eastward moisture mode exhibits the highest growth rate at the largest wavelengths and is also sensitive to the strength of the EWF, showing a significant increase in the growth rate with the increasing strength of the EWF; however, the eastward moisture mode remains unstable at planetary-scale wavelengths. Moreover, our model endorses that the MCF alone could not produce instability without surface fluxes, although it has a significant role in developing deep convection. It was found that the MCF exhibits a damping mechanism by regulating the frequency and growth rate of the eastward moisture mode at shorter wavelengths. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Climate Dynamics and Modelling)
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32 pages, 15261 KiB  
Article
Assessing Tropical Cyclone Risk in Australia Using Community Exposure–Vulnerability Indices
Climate 2023, 11(12), 235; https://doi.org/10.3390/cli11120235 - 28 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1526
Abstract
Tropical cyclones (TCs) are one of the most destructive natural hazards to impact on Australia’s population, infrastructure, and the environment. To examine potential TC impacts, it is important to understand which assets are exposed to the hazard and of these, which are vulnerable [...] Read more.
Tropical cyclones (TCs) are one of the most destructive natural hazards to impact on Australia’s population, infrastructure, and the environment. To examine potential TC impacts, it is important to understand which assets are exposed to the hazard and of these, which are vulnerable to damage. The aim of this study is to improve TC risk assessments through developing an exposure–vulnerability index, utilising a case study for the six Local Government Areas (LGAs) impacted by the landfall of TC Debbie in 2017: Burdekin Shire, Charters Towers Region, Isaac Region, Mackay Region, City of Townsville, and Whitsunday Region. This study utilised a natural hazard risk assessment methodology, linking exposure and vulnerability indicators related to social factors, infrastructure, and the environment. The two LGAs with the most extreme exposure–vulnerability values were the coastal regions of Mackay Region and the City of Townsville. This is consistent with urbanisation and city development trends, with these LGAs having more people (social) and infrastructure exposed, while the environmental domain was more exposed and vulnerable to TC impacts in rural LGAs. Therefore, further resilience protocols and mitigation strategies are required, particularly for Mackay Region and the City of Townsville, to reduce the damage and ultimate loss of lives and livelihoods from TC impacts. This study serves as a framework for developing a TC risk index based on hazard, exposure, and vulnerability indices, and insight into the improved mitigation strategies for communities to implement in order to build resilience to the impacts of future TCs. Full article
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13 pages, 1051 KiB  
Review
The Shift to Synergies in China’s Climate Planning: Aligning Goals with Policies and Institutions
Climate 2023, 11(12), 234; https://doi.org/10.3390/cli11120234 - 28 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1527
Abstract
China has long sought to address climate change in line with other development goals. However, research supporting this alignment often employs data-driven models that downplay the policies and institutions needed to achieve the multiple benefits that studies feature in their analyses. This oversight [...] Read more.
China has long sought to address climate change in line with other development goals. However, research supporting this alignment often employs data-driven models that downplay the policies and institutions needed to achieve the multiple benefits that studies feature in their analyses. This oversight is troubling because it neglects gaps between goals and the actual integration of climate and development or co-control of air pollution and greenhouse gases (GHGs). Additionally, this oversight may overlook growing implementation challenges as China pursues synergies between net-zero emissions, biodiversity, and circularity. This article illustrates these challenges by tracing the goals and policies/institutions in China over three phases: (1) integration (1979–2010), (2) co-control (2011–2019), and (3) synergies (2020–present). This article argues that China needs to strengthen the science–policy interface and ensure that new market-based policy instruments (such as emissions trading programs) as well as the leadership responsibility system incentivize reductions in overall GHG emissions while shrinking ecological footprints in the shifts to synergies. Full article
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12 pages, 269 KiB  
Article
The Roles of Four Important Contexts in Japan’s Carbon Neutrality Policy and Politics, 1990–2020
Climate 2023, 11(12), 233; https://doi.org/10.3390/cli11120233 - 23 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1572
Abstract
This study answers four research questions by contextualising the background to Japan’s “carbon neutrality and net-zero” (CNN) policy, which was announced in October 2020, and identifying important changes in Japanese climate policy between 1990 and 2020. What is the link between the problem [...] Read more.
This study answers four research questions by contextualising the background to Japan’s “carbon neutrality and net-zero” (CNN) policy, which was announced in October 2020, and identifying important changes in Japanese climate policy between 1990 and 2020. What is the link between the problem of fairness under the Kyoto targets and the Japanese government’s initial reluctance towards ambitious carbon emission reductions? Why did the Japanese business sector initially resist the possibility of ambitious carbon emission reductions? How has the term “climate crisis” contributed to the need for CNN policy? Why did the Japanese government change its reluctant stance and announce the CNN policy in October 2020? Four main findings were extracted from a narrative technique-based analysis of Japan’s policy documents related to CNN. The following are the findings: [i] the framing of climate change as a “climate crisis” by influential Japanese climate stakeholders was a key motivation for Japan to formally announce its CNN policy in October 2020; [ii] pressure from the international community and the political leadership of the Yoshihide Suga administration are essential factors that led the Japanese government to change its stance and announced this policy; [iii] it is possible that the policy could have been announced sooner, but concern among Japanese climate stakeholders about the problem of fairness in the Kyoto Protocol’s emission reduction targets likely impeded such an announcement; and [iv] this concern underpinned Keidanren’s (or the business sector’s) consistent opposition to the introduction of regulatory schemes. These results emerge for the first time in a study of Japan’s carbon neutrality, particularly in terms of the broader context of climate politics. Finally, we offer a possible explanation for Suga’s deliberate announcement of the CNN policy. This opens up space for future research to complement our study by providing important indicators on the trajectory of this important policy. Full article
12 pages, 3127 KiB  
Article
Tropical Cyclonic Energy Variability in North Indian Ocean: Insights from ENSO
Climate 2023, 11(12), 232; https://doi.org/10.3390/cli11120232 - 21 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1716
Abstract
Tropical cyclones (TC) are one of the deadliest natural meteorological hazards with destructive winds and heavy rains, resulting losses often reach billions of dollars, imposing a substantial and long-lasting burden on both local and national economies. The El-Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO), a tropical [...] Read more.
Tropical cyclones (TC) are one of the deadliest natural meteorological hazards with destructive winds and heavy rains, resulting losses often reach billions of dollars, imposing a substantial and long-lasting burden on both local and national economies. The El-Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO), a tropical ocean–atmosphere interaction, is known to significantly impact cyclonic systems over global ocean basins. This study investigates the variability of TC activity in the presence of ENSO over the North Indian Ocean (NIO), comprising the Arabian Sea (ARB) and the Bay of Bengal (BOB) basins during the pre- and post-monsoon season, using accumulated cyclone energy (ACE) over the last 29 years. Our analysis reveals a significant rise in tropical cyclone energy intensity over the past two decades, with eight of the ten most active years occurring since the 2000s. Total ACE over the NIO is found to be higher in La-Niña. Higher ACE observed over ARB is strongly associated with a combination of elevated sea surface height (SSH) anomaly and low vertical wind shear during the El-Niño episodes, with higher sea surface temperatures (SST) during the post-monsoon season. Whereas in the BOB, El Niño not only reduces ACE, but also decreases basin-wide variability, and more pronounced effects during the post-monsoon season, coinciding with warmer SST and higher SSH along the coast during La-Niña. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tropical Cyclones Dynamics and Forecast System)
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22 pages, 3035 KiB  
Review
The Contribution of Low-Carbon Energy Technologies to Climate Resilience
Climate 2023, 11(12), 231; https://doi.org/10.3390/cli11120231 - 21 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1783
Abstract
The UN vision of climate resilience contains three independent outcomes: resilient people and livelihoods, resilient business and economies, and resilient environmental systems. This article analyzes the positive contributions of low-carbon energy technologies to climate resilience by reviewing and critically assessing the existing pool [...] Read more.
The UN vision of climate resilience contains three independent outcomes: resilient people and livelihoods, resilient business and economies, and resilient environmental systems. This article analyzes the positive contributions of low-carbon energy technologies to climate resilience by reviewing and critically assessing the existing pool of studies published by researchers and international organizations that offer comparable data (quantitative indicators). Compilation, critical analysis, and literature review methods are used to develop a methodological framework that is in line with the UN vision of climate resilience and makes it possible to compare the input of low-carbon energy technologies climate resilience by unit of output or during their lifecycle. The framework is supported by the three relevant concepts—energy trilemma, sharing economy/material footprint, and Planetary Pressures-Adjusted Human Development Index. The study identifies indicators that fit the suggested framework and for which the data are available: total material requirement (TMR), present and future levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) without subsidies, CO2 emissions by fuel or industry, lifecycle CO2-equivalent emissions, and mortality rates from accidents and air pollution. They are discussed in the paper with a focus on multi-country and global studies that allow comparisons across different geographies. The findings may be used by decision-makers when prioritizing the support of low-carbon technologies and planning the designs of energy systems. Full article
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