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Climate, Volume 10, Issue 10 (October 2022) – 24 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): This study explores the spatiotemporal patterns of FWI in Greece. FWI has been calculated for current and future periods using data from the CFSR reanalysis model as well as NCEP, NASA, and ECWMF in the form of netCDF files. Python programming is utilized, and fire-related indices such as SPI, Dry50, and Fosberg are also considered. Similar patterns can easily be noted for all indices with higher values in the southeast due to the higher temperatures and more frequent drought events. View this paper
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27 pages, 2848 KiB  
Article
Downscaled Climate Change Projections in Urban Centers of Southwest Ethiopia Using CORDEX Africa Simulations
by Tesfaye Dessu Geleta, Diriba Korecha Dadi, Chris Funk, Weyessa Garedew, Damilola Eyelade and Adefires Worku
Climate 2022, 10(10), 158; https://doi.org/10.3390/cli10100158 - 21 Oct 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2771
Abstract
Projections of future climate change trends in four urban centers of southwest Ethiopia were examined under a high Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP8.5) scenario for near- (2030), mid- (2050), and long-term (2080) periods based on high-resolution (0.220) Coordinated Regional Climate Downscaling Experiment [...] Read more.
Projections of future climate change trends in four urban centers of southwest Ethiopia were examined under a high Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP8.5) scenario for near- (2030), mid- (2050), and long-term (2080) periods based on high-resolution (0.220) Coordinated Regional Climate Downscaling Experiment (CORDEX) for Africa data. The multi-model ensemble projects annual maximum and minimum temperatures increasing by 0.047 °C per year (R2 > 0.3) and 0.038 °C per year (R2 > 0.7), respectively, with the rates increased by a factor of 10 for decadal projections between the 2030s and 2080s. The monthly maximum temperature increase is projected to be 1.41 °C and 2.82 °C by 2050 and 2080, respectively. In contrast, the monthly minimum temperature increase is projected to reach +3.2 °C in 2080. The overall seasonal multi-model ensemble average shows an increment in maximum temperature by +1.1 °C and +1.9 °C in 2050 and 2080, with the highest change in the winter, followed by spring, summer, and autumn. Similarly, the future minimum temperature is projected to increase across all seasons by 2080, with increases ranging from 0.4 °C (2030s) to 3.2 °C (2080s). All models consistently project increasing trends in maximum and minimum temperatures, while the majority of the models projected declining future precipitation compared to the base period of 1971–2005. A two-tailed T-test (alpha = 0.05) shows a significant change in future temperature patterns, but no significant changes in precipitation were identified. Changes in daily temperature extremes were found in spring, summer, and autumn, with the largest increases in extreme heat in winter. Therefore, our results support proactive urban planning that considers suitable adaptation and mitigation strategies against increasing air temperatures in urban centers in southwest Ethiopia. Future work will examine the likely changes in temperature and precipitation extremes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microclimate Variations and Urban Heat Island)
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14 pages, 19771 KiB  
Article
Quantifying Aggravated Threats to Stormwater Management Ponds by Tropical Cyclone Storm Surge and Inundation under Climate Change Scenarios
by Hongyuan Zhang, Dongliang Shen, Shaowu Bao, Leonard Pietrafesa, Paul T. Gayes and Hamed Majidzadeh
Climate 2022, 10(10), 157; https://doi.org/10.3390/cli10100157 - 21 Oct 2022
Viewed by 1590
Abstract
Stormwater management ponds (SMPs) protect coastal communities from flooding caused by heavy rainfall and runoff. If the SMPs are submerged under seawater during a tropical cyclone (TC) and its storm surge, their function will be compromised. Under climate change scenarios, this threat is [...] Read more.
Stormwater management ponds (SMPs) protect coastal communities from flooding caused by heavy rainfall and runoff. If the SMPs are submerged under seawater during a tropical cyclone (TC) and its storm surge, their function will be compromised. Under climate change scenarios, this threat is exacerbated by sea level rise (SLR) and more extreme tropical cyclones. This study quantifies the impact of tropical cyclones and their storm surge and inundation on South Carolina SMPs under various SLR scenarios. A coupled hydrodynamic model calculates storm surge heights and their return periods using historical tropical cyclones. The surge decay coefficient method is used to calculate inundation areas caused by different return period storm surges under various SLR scenarios. According to the findings, stormwater management ponds will be aggravated by sea level rise and extreme storm surge. In South Carolina, the number of SMPs at risk of being inundated by tides and storm surges increases almost linearly with SLR, by 10 SMPs for every inch of SLR for TC storm surges with all return periods. Long Bay, Charleston, and Beaufort were identified as high-risk coastal areas. The findings of this study indicate where current SMPs need to be redesigned and where more SMPs are required. The modeling and analysis system used in this study can be employed to evaluate the effects of SLR and other types of climate change on SMP facilities in other regions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tropical Cyclones Dynamics and Forecast System)
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19 pages, 4465 KiB  
Article
Appraisal of Satellite Rainfall Products for Malwathu, Deduru, and Kalu River Basins, Sri Lanka
by Helani Perera, Nipuna Senaratne, Miyuru B. Gunathilake, Nitin Mutill and Upaka Rathnayake
Climate 2022, 10(10), 156; https://doi.org/10.3390/cli10100156 - 20 Oct 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1891
Abstract
Satellite Rainfall Products (SRPs) are now in widespread use around the world as a better alternative for scarce observed rain gauge data. Upon proper analysis of the SRPs and observed rainfall data, SRP data can be used in many hydrological applications. This evaluation [...] Read more.
Satellite Rainfall Products (SRPs) are now in widespread use around the world as a better alternative for scarce observed rain gauge data. Upon proper analysis of the SRPs and observed rainfall data, SRP data can be used in many hydrological applications. This evaluation is very much necessary since, it had been found that their performances vary with different areas of interest. This research looks at the three prominent river basins; Malwathu, Deduru, and Kalu of Sri Lanka and evaluates six selected SRPs, namely, IMERG, TRMM 3B42, TRMM 3B42-RT, PERSIANN, PERSIANN-CCS, PERSIANN-CDR against 15+ years of observed rainfall data with the use of several indices. Four Continuous Evaluation Indices (CEI) such as Root Mean Square Error (RMSE), Percentage Bias (PBIAS), Pearson’s Correlation Coefficient (r), and Nash Sutcliffe Efficiency (NSE) were used to evaluate the accuracy of SRPs and four Categorical Indices (CI) namely, Probability of Detection (POD), Critical Success Index (CSI), False Alarm Ratio (FAR) and Proportion Correct (PC) was used to evaluate the detection and prediction accuracy of the SRPs. Then, the Mann–Kendall Test (MK test) was used to identify trends in the datasets and Theil’s and Sens Slope Estimator to quantify the trends observed. The study of categorical indicators yielded varying findings, with TRMM-3B42 performing well in the dry zone and IMERG doing well in the wet zone and intermediate zone of Sri Lanka. Regarding the CIs in the three basins, overall, IMERG was the most reliable. In general, all three basins had similar POD and PC findings. The SRPs, however, underperformed in the dry zone in terms of CSI and FAR. Similar findings were found in the CEI analysis, as IMERG gave top performance across the board for all four CEIs in the three basins. The three basins’ overall weakest performer was PERSIANN-CCS. The trend analysis revealed that there were very few significant trends in the observed data. Even when significant trends were apparent, the SRP projections seldom captured them. TRMM-3B42 RT had the best trend prediction performance. However, Sen’s slope analysis revealed that while the sense of the trend was properly anticipated, the amplitude of the prediction significantly differed from that of the observed data. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Subseasonal to Seasonal Climate Forecasting)
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7 pages, 1241 KiB  
Communication
Mid-XIX Century Estuary SST Time Series Recorded in the Venice Lagoon
by Sara Rubinetti, Davide Zanchettin, Kevin Gazzola, Alvise Papa and Angelo Rubino
Climate 2022, 10(10), 155; https://doi.org/10.3390/cli10100155 - 20 Oct 2022
Viewed by 1317
Abstract
Sea surface temperature (SST) is of paramount importance for comprehending ocean dynamics and hence the Earth’s climate system. Accordingly, it is also the most measured oceanographic parameter. However, until the end of the XIX century, no continuous time series of SST seems to [...] Read more.
Sea surface temperature (SST) is of paramount importance for comprehending ocean dynamics and hence the Earth’s climate system. Accordingly, it is also the most measured oceanographic parameter. However, until the end of the XIX century, no continuous time series of SST seems to exist, with most of the available data deriving from measurements on ships. Here, we present a continuous digitalized record of surface water measurements originally written in a book published in 1853. The measurements were retrieved thrice daily in the Venice lagoon, in the northeastern part of the Italian peninsula, from June to August 1851 and 1852. To the best of our knowledge, these data constitute the oldest time series of the entire world ocean. The measurements were performed by immersing a Réaumur thermometer a few meters deep in the lagoon water at 8 a.m., 12 p.m., and 8 p.m. Despite several limitations affecting these data (e.g., lacking information regarding the exact water depth where measurements were performed and instrumental metadata), they are of utmost significance, as they put many decades backward the date of the development of a fundamental aspect of oceanographic observations. Moreover, the data were collected close to the Punta della Salute site, where actual sea water temperature measurements have been performed since 2002. Therefore, a unique comparison between surface water temperatures within the Lagoon of Venice across three centuries is possible. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Regional Special Issue: Climate Change in Italy)
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18 pages, 8683 KiB  
Article
Analysis of the Temporal Evolution of Climate Variables Such as Air Temperature and Precipitation at a Local Level: Impacts on the Definition of Strategies for Adaptation to Climate Change
by Leonel J. R. Nunes
Climate 2022, 10(10), 154; https://doi.org/10.3390/cli10100154 - 18 Oct 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1898
Abstract
Climate change is a global phenomenon that can affect neighbouring territories and the communities residing there in different ways. This fact, which is associated with the specificities of each of the territories, leads to the need to implement adaptive measures to address the [...] Read more.
Climate change is a global phenomenon that can affect neighbouring territories and the communities residing there in different ways. This fact, which is associated with the specificities of each of the territories, leads to the need to implement adaptive measures to address the new reality imposed by climate change and to create more resilient territories and communities capable of facing this new paradigm. The more these measures are adjusted to the specificities of the territories and their communities, the more efficient they will be. Thus, it is essential to have a thorough understanding of the evolution of the climate on the local scale and the real needs of the resident populations. To identify these needs, a survey was conducted, and it was found that the dominant opinion of all respondents, comprising citizens residing in Portugal, was that climate change can affect geographically close territories in different ways. In the present work, the municipality of Guimarães, located in the north of Portugal, was used as a case study, where a comparative analysis was carried out to assess the period between the current climate, characterized by the period of 1971–2021, and the climate of 100 years ago, characterized by the decade of 1896–1905, to determine trends for the variables of air temperature and precipitation. It was found that the temperature in the winter months increased, with less uniformity in the distribution of precipitation throughout the year. These differences in the air temperature and precipitation, as variables, lead to the need to plan adaptive measures that can be implemented so that the territory and its communities become more resilient to climate change. Full article
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32 pages, 3023 KiB  
Review
Seaside Renewable Energy Resources Literature Review
by Nebiyu Wolde Girgibo
Climate 2022, 10(10), 153; https://doi.org/10.3390/cli10100153 - 18 Oct 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 3403
Abstract
This review paper describes seaside renewable energy resources. The motivation and need behind this work are to give background literature on the use of climate change effects as a resource support for shallow geothermal-energy (seaside energy solutions) production. This leads to combating and [...] Read more.
This review paper describes seaside renewable energy resources. The motivation and need behind this work are to give background literature on the use of climate change effects as a resource support for shallow geothermal-energy (seaside energy solutions) production. This leads to combating and mitigating climate change by using its effect to our advantage. As a part of my literature review as a report series, this report gives some background about seaside energy solutions relating to water quality and climate change. This review paper addresses all aspects of renewable energy. The methodology implemented in this review paper and other series was a systematic literature review process. After searching and collecting articles from three databases, they were evaluated by title, abstract and whole article then synthesized into the literature review. The key conclusion is that seaside renewable energy is mainly shallow geothermal-energy and most of the methods use climate change effects to their advantage such as sediment heat energy production. The main recommendation is to use the effects of climate change to combat and mitigate its causes and further consequences. The overall conclusions are built on the relationships between different aspects of the topics. The paper contributes a precise current review of renewable energy. It is the last part of a series of four review papers on climate change, land uplift, water resources, and these seaside energy solutions. Full article
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21 pages, 1842 KiB  
Article
The Value-Add of Tailored Seasonal Forecast Information for Industry Decision Making
by Clare Mary Goodess, Alberto Troccoli, Nicholas Vasilakos, Stephen Dorling, Edward Steele, Jessica D. Amies, Hannah Brown, Katie Chowienczyk, Emma Dyer, Marco Formenton, Antonio M. Nicolosi, Elena Calcagni, Valentina Cavedon, Victor Estella Perez, Gertie Geertsema, Folmer Krikken, Kristian Lautrup Nielsen, Marcello Petitta, José Vidal, Martijn De Ruiter, Ian Savage and Jon Uptonadd Show full author list remove Hide full author list
Climate 2022, 10(10), 152; https://doi.org/10.3390/cli10100152 - 16 Oct 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2138
Abstract
There is a growing need for more systematic, robust, and comprehensive information on the value-add of climate services from both the demand and supply sides. There is a shortage of published value-add assessments that focus on the decision-making context, involve participatory or co-evaluation [...] Read more.
There is a growing need for more systematic, robust, and comprehensive information on the value-add of climate services from both the demand and supply sides. There is a shortage of published value-add assessments that focus on the decision-making context, involve participatory or co-evaluation approaches, avoid over-simplification, and address both the quantitative (e.g., economic) and qualitative (e.g., social) values of climate services. The 12 case studies that formed the basis of the European Union-funded SECLI-FIRM project were co-designed by industrial and research partners in order to address these gaps while focusing on the use of tailored sub-seasonal and seasonal forecasts in the energy and water industries. For eight of these case studies, it was possible to apply quantitative economic valuation methods: econometric modelling was used in five case studies while three case studies used a cost/loss (relative economic value) analysis and avoided costs. The case studies illustrated the challenges in attempting to produce quantitative estimates of the economic value-add of these forecasts. At the same time, many of them highlighted how practical value for users—transcending the actual economic value—can be enhanced; for example, through the provision of climate services as an extension to their current use of weather forecasts and with the visualisation tailored towards the user. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Seasonal Forecasting Climate Services for the Energy Industry)
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32 pages, 14482 KiB  
Article
Spatiotemporal Variation of Tourism Climate Index for Türkiye during 1981–2020
by Bahtiyar Efe, Edanur Gözet, Evren Özgür, Anthony R. Lupo and Ali Deniz
Climate 2022, 10(10), 151; https://doi.org/10.3390/cli10100151 - 14 Oct 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2160
Abstract
Tourism activities are highly dependent on climatological conditions. The climatological suitability of tourism destinations is investigated by using a Tourism Climate Index (TCI) that is frequently used by researchers. The TCI varies between 0 and 100 and is created by using temperature, relative [...] Read more.
Tourism activities are highly dependent on climatological conditions. The climatological suitability of tourism destinations is investigated by using a Tourism Climate Index (TCI) that is frequently used by researchers. The TCI varies between 0 and 100 and is created by using temperature, relative humidity, sunshine duration, wind and precipitation data. For TCI, 100 is for ideal and 0 is for extremely unfavorable conditions for tourism. In this study, the meteorological data covering the period of 1981–2020 for 98 stations is used to calculate the TCI of each station for all seasons and months. The Mann-Kendall trend test is used for TCI behavior of the entire country and Sen Innovative Trend Analysis method is used for four famous tourism destinations. For summer, coastal regions have smaller TCI values than inland regions due to the high amount of relative humidity. Most stations have TCI values in the “Very Good” category or better. In spring and autumn, the TCI values fall into the “Acceptable” category or better. The winter is the season with smallest TCI values. For summer, 54 of 98 stations have a decreasing trend at different levels of significance and four of them have an increasing trend. In autumn, 30 stations have an increasing trend and two stations have a decreasing trend at standard levels of significance. Similarly, for spring, 20 stations have an increasing trend and one has a decreasing trend. During winter, 14 stations have an increasing trend while one has decreasing trend. The Sen Innovative Trend test shows an increasing trend on average for four famous tourism destinations during May–September months. Full article
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22 pages, 4438 KiB  
Article
Variation Patterns of the ENSO’s Effects on Dust Activity in North Africa, Arabian Peninsula, and Central Asia of the Dust Belt
by Zhi-Yong Yin, Anne Maytubby and Xiaodong Liu
Climate 2022, 10(10), 150; https://doi.org/10.3390/cli10100150 - 13 Oct 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1805
Abstract
El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events produce anomalous oceanographic and atmospheric conditions in regions far from the equatorial central-eastern Pacific, which modulate the atmospheric and surface processes that influence the dust emission, transport, and deposition in many places on Earth. In this study, we [...] Read more.
El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events produce anomalous oceanographic and atmospheric conditions in regions far from the equatorial central-eastern Pacific, which modulate the atmospheric and surface processes that influence the dust emission, transport, and deposition in many places on Earth. In this study, we examined the MERRA-2 dust column mass density data in five subregions of the “dust belt”: eastern and western Arabian Peninsula, western and eastern Central Asia, and North Africa-Sahara during 1980–2021. We discovered that, while there is a common dust season from April to July, the specific dust seasons in these subregions are different with the peaks of dust activity occurring at different times of the year. In the meantime, the modulating effects of ENSO also peak at different times within the respective dust seasons. For example, ENSO has a persistent effect on dust activity during April-August in the eastern Arabian Peninsula, while its influence in eastern Central Asia lasts from February to November. For different well-recognized factors of dust activities, such as precipitation/humidity, wind, vegetation, and soil moisture, their responses to ENSO are also different in these subregions. For precipitation, humidity, and soil moisture, their responses to ENSO are mostly positive in winter and spring/early summer months during El Niño years, while mean daily maximum wind responded positively in spring, but it did so negatively in summer. During the three months when the ENSO’s effects were strongest, these factors could explain 25.1–58.6% of the variance in the dust column mass density in combination with the ENSO’s modulation effects. However, the highest model-explained variance was obtained for the North Africa–Sahara subregion where the intensity of dust activity was not statistically correlated with ENSO. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Climate Change Impacts at Various Geographical Scales)
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20 pages, 3140 KiB  
Article
Climate Shocks and Social Networks: Understanding Adaptation among Rural Indian Households
by Richard Anthony Ramsawak
Climate 2022, 10(10), 149; https://doi.org/10.3390/cli10100149 - 12 Oct 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1620
Abstract
This paper seeks to uncover the impact of negative rainfall shocks on household social network relationships. I leverage the uncertainty generated from fluctuating long-term rainfall patterns across India, to estimate the impact of heightened climate risks on investments in social network relationships. In [...] Read more.
This paper seeks to uncover the impact of negative rainfall shocks on household social network relationships. I leverage the uncertainty generated from fluctuating long-term rainfall patterns across India, to estimate the impact of heightened climate risks on investments in social network relationships. In so doing, I attempt to disentangle the “direct” and “adaptive” impacts of climate shocks on social network relationships. I found that households that experience higher than average negative rainfall shocks (lower than average rainfall levels over the long term) tend to invest more in family–caste and vertical or linked network relationships. These network relationships were also found to be associated with greater access to financial credit, credit sourced specifically from family members, higher reported collaboration, more diversified businesses, and the use of private irrigation technologies, all of which are key to mitigating the negative impacts of climate shocks. Unlike past research, these results suggest that households’ decisions to invest in social networks may be an adaptive response to higher climate risk. In terms of policy implications, these results highlight the importance of strengthening and supporting family-based and linked networks (such as links to local governmental agencies and extension services) in the face of higher climate risks. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Adaptation and Mitigation Practices and Frameworks)
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26 pages, 6594 KiB  
Article
Evolution and Trends of Meteorological Drought and Wet Events over the Republic of Djibouti from 1961 to 2021
by Omar Assowe Dabar, Abdi-Basid Ibrahim Adan, Moussa Mahdi Ahmed, Mohamed Osman Awaleh, Moussa Mohamed Waberi, Pierre Camberlin, Benjamin Pohl and Jalludin Mohamed
Climate 2022, 10(10), 148; https://doi.org/10.3390/cli10100148 - 12 Oct 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 3233
Abstract
Drought is a meteorological and hydrological phenomenon affecting the environment, agriculture, and socioeconomic conditions, especially in arid and semi-arid regions. A better understanding of drought characteristics over short and long timescales is therefore crucial for drought mitigation and long-term strategies. For the first [...] Read more.
Drought is a meteorological and hydrological phenomenon affecting the environment, agriculture, and socioeconomic conditions, especially in arid and semi-arid regions. A better understanding of drought characteristics over short and long timescales is therefore crucial for drought mitigation and long-term strategies. For the first time, this study evaluates the occurrence, duration, and intensity of drought over the Republic of Djibouti by using a long-term (1961–2021) rainfall time series at Djibouti Airport, completed by the CHIRPS precipitation product and local records from 35 weather stations. The drought is examined based on the Standardized Precipitation–Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI) and the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) at 3-, 6-, 9-, 12-, and 24-month timescales, so as to document short-, medium-, and long-duration events. The SPEI and SPI showed a significant drying tendency for the indices computed over 12 and 24 months at Djibouti Airport. The eastern coastal region of the Republic of Djibouti was the most affected by the increased drought incidence in recent decades, with more than 80% of the extremely and severely dry events occurring within the period 2007–2017. In contrast, the western regions recorded a positive trend in their SPIs during the period 1981–2021, due to the dominance of the June–September (JJAS) rains, which tend to increase. However, in the last few decades, the whole country experienced the droughts of 2006/2007 and 2010/2011, which were the longest and most intense on record. Large-scale climate variability in the Indo-Pacific region partially affects drought in Djibouti. The SPI and SPEI are significantly positively correlated with the Indian Ocean Dipole during October–December (OND), while for JJAS the SPI and SPEI are negatively correlated with Nino3.4. The wet event in 2019 (OND) causing devastating floods in Djibouti city was linked with a positive IOD anomaly. This study provides essential information on the characteristics of drought in the Republic of Djibouti for decision-makers to better plan appropriate strategies for early warning systems to adapt and mitigate recurrent droughts that put the country’s agro-pastoral populations in a precarious situation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Climate and Weather Extremes: Volume II)
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17 pages, 2992 KiB  
Review
Comprehensive Review: Advancements in Rainfall-Runoff Modelling for Flood Mitigation
by Muhammad Jehanzaib, Muhammad Ajmal, Mohammed Achite and Tae-Woong Kim
Climate 2022, 10(10), 147; https://doi.org/10.3390/cli10100147 - 10 Oct 2022
Cited by 29 | Viewed by 6797
Abstract
Runoff plays an essential part in the hydrological cycle, as it regulates the quantity of water which flows into streams and returns surplus water into the oceans. Runoff modelling may assist in understanding, controlling, and monitoring the quality and amount of water resources. [...] Read more.
Runoff plays an essential part in the hydrological cycle, as it regulates the quantity of water which flows into streams and returns surplus water into the oceans. Runoff modelling may assist in understanding, controlling, and monitoring the quality and amount of water resources. The aim of this article is to discuss various categories of rainfall–runoff models, recent developments, and challenges of rainfall–runoff models in flood prediction in the modern era. Rainfall–runoff models are classified into conceptual, empirical, and physical process-based models depending upon the framework and spatial processing of their algorithms. Well-known runoff models which belong to these categories include the Soil Conservation Service Curve Number (SCS-CN) model, Storm Water Management model (SWMM), Hydrologiska Byråns Vattenbalansavdelning (HBV) model, Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model, and the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model, etc. In addition, the data-driven models such as Adaptive Neuro Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS), Artificial Neural Network (ANN), Deep Neural Network (DNN), and Support Vector Machine (SVM) have proven to be better performance solutions in runoff modelling and flood prediction in recent decades. The data-driven models detect the best relationship based on the input data series and the output in order to model the runoff process. Finally, the strengths and downsides of the outlined models in terms of understanding variation in runoff modelling and flood prediction were discussed. The findings of this comprehensive study suggested that hybrid models for runoff modeling and flood prediction should be developed by combining the strengths of traditional models and machine learning methods. This article suggests future research initiatives that could help with filling existing gaps in rainfall–runoff research and will also assist hydrological scientists in selecting appropriate rainfall–runoff models for flood prediction and mitigation based on their benefits and drawbacks. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Disasters and Extreme Hazards under Changing Climate)
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12 pages, 1613 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of Bioclimatic Discomfort Trend in a Central Area of the Mediterranean Sea
by Pietro Monforte and Maria Alessandra Ragusa
Climate 2022, 10(10), 146; https://doi.org/10.3390/cli10100146 - 5 Oct 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1510
Abstract
Effects of climate change are perceived in ever larger areas of the planet. Heat waves occur with increasing frequency, constituting a risk to the population, especially for the most sensitive subjects. Preventive information to the population on the characteristics of the phenomenon and [...] Read more.
Effects of climate change are perceived in ever larger areas of the planet. Heat waves occur with increasing frequency, constituting a risk to the population, especially for the most sensitive subjects. Preventive information to the population on the characteristics of the phenomenon and on the behavior to be supported is the means to reduce the health risks. To monitor the intensity of heat and the physiological discomfort perceived by humans, there are indices based on the perception of meteorological parameters such as temperature and relative humidity. In this work, by applying the Thom Discomfort Index (TDI), the first bioclimatic characterization of the provinces that make up Sicily, a Mediterranean region defined as a hotspot for climate change, was performed by the authors. The nonparametric Mann–Kendall test was applied to the daily values of the TDI in all provinces in order to verify the presence of significant trends. The test results highlighted the existence of increasing trends, especially in the months of August and September, when the TDI value undergoes a significant increase due not only to high temperatures, as one might expect, but above all to a high humidity rate. When these two meteorological parameters reach certain values, the physiological discomfort from humid heat represents a risk to the population. Full article
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20 pages, 4295 KiB  
Article
Compound Risk of Air Pollution and Heat Days and the Influence of Wildfire by SES across California, 2018–2020: Implications for Environmental Justice in the Context of Climate Change
by Shahir Masri, Yufang Jin and Jun Wu
Climate 2022, 10(10), 145; https://doi.org/10.3390/cli10100145 - 1 Oct 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3123
Abstract
Major wildfires and heatwaves have begun to increase in frequency throughout much of the United States, particularly in western states such as California, causing increased risk to public health. Air pollution is exacerbated by both wildfires and warmer temperatures, thus adding to such [...] Read more.
Major wildfires and heatwaves have begun to increase in frequency throughout much of the United States, particularly in western states such as California, causing increased risk to public health. Air pollution is exacerbated by both wildfires and warmer temperatures, thus adding to such risk. With climate change and the continued increase in global average temperatures, the frequency of major wildfires, heat days, and unhealthy air pollution episodes is projected to increase, resulting in the potential for compounding risks. Risks will likely vary by region and may disproportionately impact low-income communities and communities of color. In this study, we processed daily particulate matter (PM) data from over 18,000 low-cost PurpleAir sensors, along with gridMET daily maximum temperature data and government-compiled wildfire perimeter data from 2018–2020 in order to examine the occurrence of compound risk (CR) days (characterized by high temperature and high PM2.5) at the census tract level in California, and to understand how such days have been impacted by the occurrence of wildfires. Using American Community Survey data, we also examined the extent to which CR days were correlated with household income, race/ethnicity, education, and other socioeconomic factors at the census tract level. Results showed census tracts with a higher frequency of CR days to have statistically higher rates of poverty and unemployment, along with high proportions of child residents and households without computers. The frequency of CR days and elevated daily PM2.5 concentrations appeared to be strongly related to the occurrence of nearby wildfires, with over 20% of days with sensor-measured average PM2.5 > 35 μg/m3 showing a wildfire within a 100 km radius and over two-thirds of estimated CR days falling on such days with a nearby wildfire. Findings from this study are important to policymakers and government agencies who preside over the allocation of state resources as well as organizations seeking to empower residents and establish climate resilient communities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Climate Change and Outdoor-Indoor Air Pollution in Urban Environments)
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19 pages, 4774 KiB  
Article
Temporal and Spatial Variability of Dryness Conditions in Kazakhstan during 1979–2021 Based on Reanalysis Data
by Irina Zheleznova, Daria Gushchina, Zhiger Meiramov and Alexander Olchev
Climate 2022, 10(10), 144; https://doi.org/10.3390/cli10100144 - 30 Sep 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2428
Abstract
The spatial and temporal variability of dryness conditions in the territory of Kazakhstan during the period 1979–2021 was investigated using monthly and hourly ERA5 reanalysis data on air temperature and precipitation as well as various aridity indices. A large part of the territory [...] Read more.
The spatial and temporal variability of dryness conditions in the territory of Kazakhstan during the period 1979–2021 was investigated using monthly and hourly ERA5 reanalysis data on air temperature and precipitation as well as various aridity indices. A large part of the territory is characterized by the air temperature increase in summer and spring, as well as precipitation reduction, especially during the summer months. It was shown that the end of the 20th century (1979–2000) and the beginning of the 21st century (2001–2021) are characterized by different trends in air temperature and precipitation. All applied indices, i.e., the Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI), the Keetch–Byram Drought Index (KBDI), Standardized Precipitation (SPI) and Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration (SPEI), showed increased dryness in most parts of the territory of Kazakhstan. KBDI indicated an increased risk of wildfires, especially in the southwestern and northwestern regions. The hottest and driest areas are situated in the regions that are simultaneously affected by rising temperatures and reduced precipitation in spring and summer. The strongest increase in aridity and fire risk in the southwest and northwest is mainly due to reduced precipitation in the summer. Minimal risks of droughts occur in the northern and central regions, where conditions in the early 21st century became even less favorable for drought formation compared to the late 20th century (increased precipitation in both spring and summer and lower summer temperatures). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Coping with Flooding and Drought)
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29 pages, 12055 KiB  
Article
Contribution to the Study of Forest Fires in Semi-Arid Regions with the Use of Canadian Fire Weather Index Application in Greece
by Nikolaos Ntinopoulos, Marios Spiliotopoulos, Lampros Vasiliades and Nikitas Mylopoulos
Climate 2022, 10(10), 143; https://doi.org/10.3390/cli10100143 - 30 Sep 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2753
Abstract
Forest fires are of critical importance in the Mediterranean region. Fire weather indices are meteorological indices that produce information about the impact as well as the characteristics of a fire event in an ecosystem and have been developed for that reason. This study [...] Read more.
Forest fires are of critical importance in the Mediterranean region. Fire weather indices are meteorological indices that produce information about the impact as well as the characteristics of a fire event in an ecosystem and have been developed for that reason. This study explores the spatiotemporal patterns of the FWI system within a study area defined by the boundaries of the Greek state. The FWI has been calculated and studied for current and future periods using data from the CFSR reanalysis model from the National Centers for Environmental Protection (NCEP) as well as data from NASA satellite programs and the European Commission for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECWMF) in the form of netCDF files. The calculation and processing of the results were conducted in the Python programming language, and additional drought- and fire-related indices were calculated, such as the standardized precipitation index (SPI), number of consecutive 50-day dry periods (Dry50), the Fosberg fire weather index (FFWI), the days where the FWI exceeds values of 40 and 50 days (FWI > 40) and (days FWI > 50). Similar patterns can easily be noted for all indices that seem to have their higher values concentrated in the southeast of the country owing to the higher temperatures and more frequent drought events that affect the indices’ behavior in both the current and future periods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Disasters and Extreme Hazards under Changing Climate)
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25 pages, 1334 KiB  
Article
Temperature and Residential Electricity Demand for Heating and Cooling in G7 Economies: A Method of Moments Panel Quantile Regression Approach
by Chukwuemeka Chinonso Emenekwe and Nnaemeka Vincent Emodi
Climate 2022, 10(10), 142; https://doi.org/10.3390/cli10100142 - 29 Sep 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2648
Abstract
The global energy system is highly vulnerable to climate variability and change. This results in a vast range of impacts on the energy demand sector and production and supply channels. This article aims to estimate the impacts of variables such as heating and [...] Read more.
The global energy system is highly vulnerable to climate variability and change. This results in a vast range of impacts on the energy demand sector and production and supply channels. This article aims to estimate the impacts of variables such as heating and cooling temperatures, income, population, and price on residential electricity demand in G7 countries. Methodologically, this study uses the second-generation panel unit root and cointegration approaches (which are robust in the presence of cross-sectional dependence), a panel fixed effects model with Driscoll–Kraay standard errors, and a novel method of moments quantile regression (MM-QR) to determine long-run elasticities. The results suggest that the residential electricity demand of G7 countries is statistically and positively responsive to cold days rather than hot days. This study also presents some policy-relevant issues based on the results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Climate Variability Impacts on the Energy System)
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16 pages, 6170 KiB  
Article
Thunderstorm Activity and Extremes in Vietnam for the Period 2015–2019
by Khiem Van Mai, Terhi K. Laurila, Lam Phuc Hoang, Tien Duc Du, Antti Mäkelä and Sami Kiesiläinen
Climate 2022, 10(10), 141; https://doi.org/10.3390/cli10100141 - 28 Sep 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3490
Abstract
Within a meteorological capacity building project in Vietnam, lightning location data and manual (human-observed) thunderstorm day observations were analyzed for the period 2015–2019. The lightning location dataset, based on the global lightning detection system Vaisala GLD360, consists of a total of 315,522,761 lightning [...] Read more.
Within a meteorological capacity building project in Vietnam, lightning location data and manual (human-observed) thunderstorm day observations were analyzed for the period 2015–2019. The lightning location dataset, based on the global lightning detection system Vaisala GLD360, consists of a total of 315,522,761 lightning strokes. The results indicate that, on average, 6.9 million lightning flashes per year occur in the land areas of Vietnam; this equals a lightning flash density of 20 flashes km−2 yr−1. The largest average annual flash density values occur in three regions in North, Central and South Vietnam. The majority of lightning occurs in the monsoon season (April–September), peaking in May, while in October–March, the lightning activity is very modest. During individual intense thunderstorm days, the flash density may exceed 12 flashes km−2 day−1. Thunderstorms in Central Vietnam are generally more intense, i.e., more lightning is expected on average per one thunderstorm day in Central Vietnam than in other regions. This study is a continuation of several years of meteorological capacity building in Vietnam, and the results suggest that large socio-economic benefits can be received by understanding the local thunderstorm climatology in high detail, especially in a country such as Vietnam, where lightning causes substantial socio-economic losses annually. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Weather, Events and Impacts)
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17 pages, 2248 KiB  
Article
A New Way to Obtain Climate Files in Areas with the Presence of Microclimates by Applying the Sandia Method: A Galician Case Study
by Antonio Couce-Casanova, Juan de Dios Rodríguez-García, María Isabel Lamas and José A. Orosa
Climate 2022, 10(10), 140; https://doi.org/10.3390/cli10100140 - 25 Sep 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1630
Abstract
In order to obtain reliable energy simulation results, it is essential to have accurate climate files corresponding to specific geographical locations. The present work describes a selection process of the Typical Meteorological Months (TMM) that will generate the Typical Meteorological Years (TMY) in [...] Read more.
In order to obtain reliable energy simulation results, it is essential to have accurate climate files corresponding to specific geographical locations. The present work describes a selection process of the Typical Meteorological Months (TMM) that will generate the Typical Meteorological Years (TMY) in eight locations of the Community of Galicia for an analysis period between 2008 and 2017 (10 years). The region of Galicia, located in the northwest of the Iberian Peninsula, due to its particular orography, is prone to the generation of differentiated microclimates in relatively close locations. The process of selecting the typical meteorological months has been carried out following the Sandia Laboratories method. In the present work, data from terrestrial meteorological stations have been combined with solar radiation data obtained from satellite images. Finally, for the validation and comparative study of results, files have been generated in Energy Plus Weather (epw) format. Trends have been checked and typical statistics have been used to analyse the correlations between the files generated with the Sandia method, and the usual reference files (LT, WY, BY). It is observed that with the eight files generated, new differentiated climates are detected, which will affect the improvement of the precision of the energy simulations of buildings that are going to be carried out. For example, in the case of the Campus Lugo and Pedro Murias stations, located in the same climatic zone according to Spanish regulations, differences are observed in the annual averages: DTm (13.7%), WV (41%) or GHI (9%). Full article
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16 pages, 2657 KiB  
Article
Potential Climate Impacts of Hydrological Alterations and Discharge Variabilities of the Mura, Drava, and Danube Rivers on the Natural Resources of the MDD UNESCO Biosphere Reserve
by Lidija Tadić, Enikő Anna Tamás, Melita Mihaljević and Josip Janjić
Climate 2022, 10(10), 139; https://doi.org/10.3390/cli10100139 - 25 Sep 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1937
Abstract
This study investigated hydrological alterations in the sections of the Mura, Drava, and Danube rivers, which together form a unique river landscape proclaimed by UNESCO as the Transboundary Biosphere Reserve Mura, Drava, and Danube (TBR MDD). A coherent network of 12 major protected [...] Read more.
This study investigated hydrological alterations in the sections of the Mura, Drava, and Danube rivers, which together form a unique river landscape proclaimed by UNESCO as the Transboundary Biosphere Reserve Mura, Drava, and Danube (TBR MDD). A coherent network of 12 major protected areas along the rivers highlights their ecological value, which could be endangered by climate change and consequent environmental changes. Statistical analyses, such as the homogeneity test, Mann–Kendall trend test of monthly and seasonal discharges, and empirical probabilities of daily discharges, were applied to discharge data series (1960–2019) from six hydrological stations prior to the calculation of indicators of hydrologic alteration (IHA). This method could be a helpful tool for recognizing the changes in hydrological regimes that can affect river ecosystems. The 33 indicators were organized into five groups. The results showed a decrease in low pulse duration and increase in rise/fall rates and the number of reversals. From an ecological perspective, the results obtained for the probabilities of long flooding periods were particularly significant. They drastically decreased for all three rivers on their stretches within the reserve. According to IHA modeling results, the river sections analyzed were moderately altered with global indicator values between 0.5 and 0.75. The most pronounced hydrological alterations were associated with the frequency and duration of low and high pulses and the rate and frequency of changes in water condition, which could have a significant impact on the ecological values of the TBR MDD. In addition, results show more pronounced climate impact versus human activities. Full article
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23 pages, 31902 KiB  
Article
On the Intercontinental Transferability of Regional Climate Model Response to Severe Forestation
by Olivier Asselin, Martin Leduc, Dominique Paquin, Alejandro Di Luca, Katja Winger, Melissa Bukovsky, Biljana Music and Michel Giguère
Climate 2022, 10(10), 138; https://doi.org/10.3390/cli10100138 - 23 Sep 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1984
Abstract
The biogeophysical effects of severe forestation are quantified using a new ensemble of regional climate simulations over North America and Europe. Following the protocol outlined for the Land-Use and Climate Across Scales (LUCAS) intercomparison project, two sets of simulations are compared, FOREST and [...] Read more.
The biogeophysical effects of severe forestation are quantified using a new ensemble of regional climate simulations over North America and Europe. Following the protocol outlined for the Land-Use and Climate Across Scales (LUCAS) intercomparison project, two sets of simulations are compared, FOREST and GRASS, which respectively represent worlds where all vegetation is replaced by trees and grasses. Three regional climate models were run over North America. One of them, the Canadian Regional Climate Model (CRCM5), was also run over Europe in an attempt to bridge results with the original LUCAS ensemble, which was confined to Europe. Overall, the CRCM5 response to forestation reveals strong inter-continental similarities, including a pronounced wintertime and springtime warming concentrated over snow-masking evergreen forests. Crucially, these northern evergreen needleleaf forests populate lower, hence sunnier, latitudes in North America than in Europe. Snow masking reduces albedo similarly over both continents, but stronger insolation amplifies the net shortwave radiation and hence warming simulated over North America. In the summertime, CRCM5 produces a mixed response to forestation, with warming over northern needleleaf forests and cooling over southern broadleaf forests. The partitioning of the turbulent heat fluxes plays a major role in determining this response, but it is not robust across models over North America. Implications for the inter-continental transferability of the original LUCAS results are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Climate Dynamics and Modelling)
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20 pages, 3124 KiB  
Article
Intensity, Duration and Spatial Coverage of Aridity during Meteorological Drought Years over Northeast Thailand
by Tenanile Dlamini, Veeranun Songsom, Werapong Koedsin and Raymond J. Ritchie
Climate 2022, 10(10), 137; https://doi.org/10.3390/cli10100137 - 23 Sep 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2393
Abstract
Gaps in drought monitoring result in insufficient preparation measures for vulnerable areas. This paper employed the standardized precipitation index (SPI) to identify meteorological drought years and the Thornthwaite aridity index (TAI) to evaluate aridity in three provinces of northeast Thailand growing cassava and [...] Read more.
Gaps in drought monitoring result in insufficient preparation measures for vulnerable areas. This paper employed the standardized precipitation index (SPI) to identify meteorological drought years and the Thornthwaite aridity index (TAI) to evaluate aridity in three provinces of northeast Thailand growing cassava and sugarcane at massive scales. Precipitation and temperature data were sourced from Global Land Data Assimilation System-2 (GLDAS-2) Noah Model products at 0.25 degree resolution and used for calculating the drought indices. This study was conducted for the period of 2004 to 2015. The SPI was computed for 1, 3 and 6 months scales to measure short- to medium-term moisture. The results indicated major meteorological drought years as 2004, 2005, 2010, 2012, 2014 and 2015. A range of 1 to 3 months of extreme rainfall shortage was experienced during each of these years, including the growing season of 2004, 2012 and 2015. TAI-based results indicated that the area experiences an average of 7 to 8 months of aridity during drought periods, compared to the historical overall average of 6 months. The spatial TAI for the major drought years indicated delayed onset, intermittency or early cut-off of the rainy season. The year 2004 was the most intense in terms of aridity. The longest duration of aridness for some areas was between 9 and 10 months in 2012 and 2014, respectively. In terms of spatial coverage, all meteorological drought years had out-of-season aridity. Based on the region’s historical records, this highlighted an increase in the frequency of droughts and duration of aridity. A disturbance in the growing season has the potential to affect crop yields, hence, the need to improve and strengthen existing adaptive measures for agriculture as the main source of food and income in the northeast. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Disasters and Extreme Hazards under Changing Climate)
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15 pages, 5963 KiB  
Article
The Western Pacific North Equatorial Countercurrent Responses to Two Forms of El Niño during the Period 1978 to 2017
by Yusuf Jati Wijaya, Ulung Jantama Wisha and Yukiharu Hisaki
Climate 2022, 10(10), 136; https://doi.org/10.3390/cli10100136 - 20 Sep 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2061
Abstract
This research aims to examine how the Western Pacific North equatorial countercurrent (NECC) flow reacts to two different forms of El Niño (EN) over a 40-year period. To establish the prevailing modes for each season, we implemented Empirical Orthogonal Function (EOF) analysis on [...] Read more.
This research aims to examine how the Western Pacific North equatorial countercurrent (NECC) flow reacts to two different forms of El Niño (EN) over a 40-year period. To establish the prevailing modes for each season, we implemented Empirical Orthogonal Function (EOF) analysis on the eastward current component of the Ocean Reanalysis System 5 (ORAS5) dataset. In comparison to the Central Pacific (CP) episode, the time series principal component of the first mode (PC1) demonstrated that the strongest NECC’s magnitude often emerged during the development period (spring to fall) of the Eastern Pacific (EP) EN event. However, in episode CP 2002/2003, we witnessed an abnormal behavior in which the stronger NECC manifested. This was due to the emergence of a strong anomalous westerly wind, which differed from other CP events and forced the NECC’s magnitude to be greater. When approaching the peak stage, on the other hand, the magnitude of the NECC during the CP episode was typically greater than that of the EP episode. The NECC’s magnitude fell greatly in the second year of the EP episode, particularly during the spring season, since most EP episodes would transition into an La Niña (LN) event in the succeeding event. During the EP EN, it was found that the strength of the westerly wind had a bigger effect on the NECC than during the CP EN. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Climate System Modelling and Observations)
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19 pages, 2853 KiB  
Article
Embodied Carbon Emissions of the Residential Building Stock in the United States and the Effectiveness of Mitigation Strategies
by Ming Hu
Climate 2022, 10(10), 135; https://doi.org/10.3390/cli10100135 - 20 Sep 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 4325
Abstract
According to the 2021 Global Status Report for Buildings and Construction published by the United Nations Environment Programme, global carbon emissions from the building sector in 2019 were nearly 14 gigatons (Gt), representing 38% of total global carbon emissions, including 10% from building [...] Read more.
According to the 2021 Global Status Report for Buildings and Construction published by the United Nations Environment Programme, global carbon emissions from the building sector in 2019 were nearly 14 gigatons (Gt), representing 38% of total global carbon emissions, including 10% from building construction. In the United States, the largest knowledge gap regarding embodied carbon in buildings exists at the whole-building level. The first step in creating informative policy to reduce embodied carbon emissions is to map the existing building stock emissions and changes over time to understand the primary contributing building types and hot spots (states), and then to compare and analyze mitigation scenarios. To fill this knowledge gap, this study first developed a bottom-up model to assess the embodied carbon of the US residential building stock by using 64 archetypes to represent the building stock. Then, the embodied carbon characteristics of the current building stock were analyzed, revealing that the primary contributor was single-family detached (SD) houses. The results indicated that the exterior wall was a major contributor, and that small multifamily housing was the most embodied carbon-intense building type. Two scenarios, the baseline scenario and progressive scenario, were formed to evaluate the effectiveness of six mitigation strategies. The progressive scenario with all mitigation strategies (M1–M6) applied produced a total reduction of 33.13 Gt CO2eq (42%) in the cumulative residential building stock related to carbon emissions during 2022–2050, and a total reduction of 88.34 Gt CO2eq (80%) during 2022–2100. The results show that with an embodied carbon emissions reduction in the progressive scenario (42% by 2100), the total embodied carbon emissions comply with the carbon budget of a 2 °C pathway, but will exceed the budget for a 1.5 °C pathway. Full article
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