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J. Sens. Actuator Netw., Volume 11, Issue 4 (December 2022) – 32 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Modern constructions are often characterized by the presence of slender and aesthetically fascinating components and assemblies. For pedestrian systems, special attention goes to possible vibration issues and, thus, to the need for specific calculations about human-induced loads. What happens, however, in transparent pedestrian systems made of structural glass? Based on a single microelectromechanical system (MEMS) sensor introduced in the body’s center of mass (CoM), this paper shows that human-induced effects can suffer from relevant modifications. Major attention is given to the well-known dynamic load factor (DLF). Comparative DLF experimental results are proposed for two relatively light and flexible glass floors (SLAB#2 and SLAB#3), towards a rigid reinforced concrete (RC) slab (SLAB#1). View this paper
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19 pages, 516 KiB  
Article
Enabling LPWANs for Coexistence and Diverse IoT Applications in Smart Cities Using Lightweight Heterogenous Multihomed Network Model
by Emmanuel Utochukwu Ogbodo, Adnan M. Abu-Mahfouz and Anish M. Kurien
J. Sens. Actuator Netw. 2022, 11(4), 87; https://doi.org/10.3390/jsan11040087 - 19 Dec 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2325
Abstract
Smart cities have been envisioned to provide smartness in managing internet of things (IoT) application domains, such as transport and mobility, health care, natural resources, electricity and energy, homes and buildings, commerce and retail, society and workplace, industry, agriculture, and the environment. The [...] Read more.
Smart cities have been envisioned to provide smartness in managing internet of things (IoT) application domains, such as transport and mobility, health care, natural resources, electricity and energy, homes and buildings, commerce and retail, society and workplace, industry, agriculture, and the environment. The growth trajectory in usage of these IoT domains has led to a heterogeneous dense network in a smart city environment. The heterogeneous dense network in smart cities has led to challenges, such as difficulties in the management of LPWAN coexistence, interference, spectrum insufficiency, QoS, and scalability issues. The existing LPWAN technologies cannot support the heterogeneous dense network challenges in smart cities. Further, it cannot support diverse IoT, including medium- to high-bandwidth applications, due to the power, complexity, and resource constraints of the LPWAN devices. Hence, this paper addresses high data rate IoT applications and heterogeneous dense networks. This paper proposes a lightweight heterogenous multihomed network (LHM-N) model for diverse smart city applications that will address dense heterogeneity network challenges in a smart city. The work aims to advocate and integrate a manageable license-free LPWAN that will coexist with 5G private and public cellular networks in the LHM-N model. This will help to provide a cost-effective solution model in a heterogeneous dense smart city environment. Further, a secured lightweight energy-efficient packet-size forwarding engine (PSFE) algorithm is presented using the discrete event simulation (DES) methodological approach in MATLAB for complexity evaluation. In addition, a 5G reduced capability (RedCap) IoT device is integrated into the (LHM-N) model to support smart city. Finally, the results show that the LHM-N model outperforms the conventional quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) protocol scheme in terms of error rate, latency, and data throughput with reduced energy costs for medium- to high-bandwidth industrial IoT applications. This validates the suitability of the LHM-N model for high data rate IoT applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Big Data, Computing and Artificial Intelligence)
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22 pages, 666 KiB  
Review
A Review of Research on Privacy Protection of Internet of Vehicles Based on Blockchain
by Wendong Chen, Haiqin Wu, Xiao Chen and Jinfu Chen
J. Sens. Actuator Netw. 2022, 11(4), 86; https://doi.org/10.3390/jsan11040086 - 19 Dec 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3669
Abstract
Numerous academic and industrial fields, such as healthcare, banking, and supply chain management, are rapidly adopting and relying on blockchain technology. It has also been suggested for application in the internet of vehicles (IoV) ecosystem as a way to improve service availability and [...] Read more.
Numerous academic and industrial fields, such as healthcare, banking, and supply chain management, are rapidly adopting and relying on blockchain technology. It has also been suggested for application in the internet of vehicles (IoV) ecosystem as a way to improve service availability and reliability. Blockchain offers decentralized, distributed and tamper-proof solutions that bring innovation to data sharing and management, but do not themselves protect privacy and data confidentiality. Therefore, solutions using blockchain technology must take user privacy concerns into account. This article reviews the proposed solutions that use blockchain technology to provide different vehicle services while overcoming the privacy leakage problem which inherently exists in blockchain and vehicle services. We analyze the key features and attributes of prior schemes and identify their contributions to provide a comprehensive and critical overview. In addition, we highlight prospective future research topics and present research problems. Full article
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26 pages, 788 KiB  
Article
Implementation of a Biometric-Based Blockchain System for Preserving Privacy, Security, and Access Control in Healthcare Records
by Ezedin Barka, Mohammed Al Baqari, Chaker Abdelaziz Kerrache and Jorge Herrera-Tapia
J. Sens. Actuator Netw. 2022, 11(4), 85; https://doi.org/10.3390/jsan11040085 - 13 Dec 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3344
Abstract
The use of Electronic Health Record (EHR) systems has emerged with the continuous advancement of the Internet of Things (IoT) and smart devices. This is driven by the various advantages for both patients and healthcare providers, including timely and distant alerts, continuous control, [...] Read more.
The use of Electronic Health Record (EHR) systems has emerged with the continuous advancement of the Internet of Things (IoT) and smart devices. This is driven by the various advantages for both patients and healthcare providers, including timely and distant alerts, continuous control, and reduced cost, to name a few. However, while providing these advantages, various challenges involving heterogeneity, scalability, and network complexity are still open. Patient security, data privacy, and trust are also among the main challenges that need more research effort. To this end, this paper presents an implementation of a biometric-based blockchain EHR system (BBEHR), a prototype that uniquely identifies patients, enables them to control access to their EHRs, and ensures recoverable access to their EHRs. This approach overcomes the dependency on the private/public key approach used by most blockchain technologies to identify patients, which becomes more crucial in situations where a loss of the private key permanently hinders the ability to access patients’ EHRs. Our solution covers component selection, high-level implementation, and integration of subsystems, was well as the coding of a prototype to validate the mitigation of the risk of permanent loss of access to EHRs by using patients’ fingerprints. A performance analysis of BBEHR showed our system’s robustness and effectiveness in identifying patients and ensuring access control for their EHRs by using blockchain smart contracts with no additional overhead. Full article
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17 pages, 3304 KiB  
Article
Fog Computing, Cloud Computing and IoT Environment: Advanced Broker Management System
by Mohammed Al Masarweh, Tariq Alwada’n and Waleed Afandi
J. Sens. Actuator Netw. 2022, 11(4), 84; https://doi.org/10.3390/jsan11040084 - 09 Dec 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 4124
Abstract
Cloud computing is a massive amount of dynamic ad distributed resources that are delivered on request to clients over the Internet. Typical centralized cloud computing models may have difficulty dealing with challenges caused by IoT applications, such as network failure, latency, and capacity [...] Read more.
Cloud computing is a massive amount of dynamic ad distributed resources that are delivered on request to clients over the Internet. Typical centralized cloud computing models may have difficulty dealing with challenges caused by IoT applications, such as network failure, latency, and capacity constraints. One of the introduced methods to solve these challenges is fog computing which makes the cloud closer to IoT devices. A system for dynamic congestion management brokerage is presented in this paper. With this proposed system, the IoT quality of service (QoS) requirements as defined by the service-level agreement (SLA) can be met as the massive amount of cloud requests come from the fog broker layer. In addition, a forwarding policy is introduced which helps the cloud service broker to select and forward the high-priority requests to the appropriate cloud resources from fog brokers and cloud users. This proposed idea is influenced by the weighted fair queuing (WFQ) Cisco queuing mechanism to simplify the management and control of the congestion that may possibly take place at the cloud service broker side. The system proposed in this paper is evaluated using iFogSim and CloudSim tools, and the results demonstrate that it improves IoT (QoS) compliance, while also avoiding cloud SLA violations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Edge Computing for the Internet of Things (IoT))
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25 pages, 5562 KiB  
Article
Adaptive Emergency Call Service for Disaster Management
by Vishaka Basnayake, Hakim Mabed, Dushantha Nalin K. Jayakody, Philippe Canalda and Marko Beko
J. Sens. Actuator Netw. 2022, 11(4), 83; https://doi.org/10.3390/jsan11040083 - 29 Nov 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2502
Abstract
Reliable and efficient transmission of emergency calls during a massive network failure is both an indispensable and challenging task. In this paper, we propose a novel fully 3GPP and 5G compatible emergency call protocol named 5G StandalOne Service (5G-SOS). A 5G-SOS-enabled emergency service [...] Read more.
Reliable and efficient transmission of emergency calls during a massive network failure is both an indispensable and challenging task. In this paper, we propose a novel fully 3GPP and 5G compatible emergency call protocol named 5G StandalOne Service (5G-SOS). A 5G-SOS-enabled emergency service provides potential out-of-coverage victims’ devices with a way to contact the 4G/5G core network through D2D multi-hop relaying protocol. The objective of 5G-SOS is to maintain this connection even when a large fraction of the network infrastructure is destroyed. 5G-SOS is a fully distributed protocol designed to generate zero additional control traffic and to adapt its parameters based on the local emergency call congestion. Therefore, devices behave as an ad-hoc network with the common purpose to ensure the best chances for emergency call transfer within a reasonable delay. A densely populated Traverse city of Michigan, USA, with a 15,000 population, is used to evaluate 5G-SOS under extreme emergency scenarios. The performance of 5G-SOS is shown to be significant when compared with existing protocols, namely, M-HELP and FINDER, in terms of transmission success rate, end-to-end latency, network traffic control, and energy management. 5G-SOS provides satisfactory performance (success rate of 50%) even when the number of simultaneous emergency calls is very high (5000 calls over 10 min). On average, 5G-SOS performs 24.9% better than M-HELP and 73.9% than FINDER in terms of success rate. Additionally, 5G-SOS reduces the average end-end latency of the emergency calls transfer by 20.8% compared to M-HELP and 61.7% compared to FINDER. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Journal of Sensor and Actuator Networks: 10th Year Anniversary)
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10 pages, 1611 KiB  
Article
Peer–Peer Communication Using Novel Slice Handover Algorithm for 5G Wireless Networks
by Azhagu Jaisudhan Pazhani.A, P. Gunasekaran, Vimal Shanmuganathan, Sangsoon Lim, Kaliappan Madasamy, Rajesh Manoharan and Amit Verma
J. Sens. Actuator Netw. 2022, 11(4), 82; https://doi.org/10.3390/jsan11040082 - 29 Nov 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1861
Abstract
The goal of 5G wireless networks is to address the growing need for network services among users. User equipment has progressed to the point where users now expect diverse services from the network. The latency, reliability, and bandwidth requirements of users can all [...] Read more.
The goal of 5G wireless networks is to address the growing need for network services among users. User equipment has progressed to the point where users now expect diverse services from the network. The latency, reliability, and bandwidth requirements of users can all be classified. To fulfil the different needs of users in an economical manner, while guaranteeing network resources are resourcefully assigned to consumers, 5G systems plan to leverage technologies like Software Defined Networks, Network Function Virtualization, and Network Slicing. For the purpose of ensuring continuous handover among network slices, while catering to the advent of varied 5G application scenarios, new mobility management techniques must be adopted in Sliced 5G networks. Users want to travel from one region of coverage to another region without any fading in their network connection. Different network slices can coexist in 5G networks, with every slice offering services customized to various QoS demands. As a result, when customers travel from one region of coverage to another, the call can be transferred to a slice that caters to similar or slightly different requirements. The goal of this study was to develop an intra- and inter-slice algorithm for determining handover decisions in sliced 5G networks and to assess performance by comparing intra- and inter-slice handovers. The proposed work shows that an inter-slice handover algorithm offers superior quality of service when compared to an intra-slice algorithm. Full article
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19 pages, 4687 KiB  
Article
Body Motion Sensor Analysis of Human-Induced Dynamic Load Factor (DLF) for Normal Walks on Slender Transparent Floors
by Chiara Bedon, Marco Fasan and Salvatore Noè
J. Sens. Actuator Netw. 2022, 11(4), 81; https://doi.org/10.3390/jsan11040081 - 28 Nov 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1948
Abstract
Modern constructions are often characterized by the presence of slender and aesthetically fascinating components and assemblies. For pedestrian systems in particular, such constructions are notoriously associated with possible vibration issues, and thus require special calculations. When these slender systems are made of structural [...] Read more.
Modern constructions are often characterized by the presence of slender and aesthetically fascinating components and assemblies. For pedestrian systems in particular, such constructions are notoriously associated with possible vibration issues, and thus require special calculations. When these slender systems are made of structural glass, additional effects due to transparency may also affect human behaviours and motions. In this paper, based on a single body motion, a microelectromechanical system (MEMS) sensor in the body’s centre of mass (CoM) is introduced, an extended, original experimental investigation is presented, and human-induced effects on slender transparent floors are discussed. Major attention is given to the well-known dynamic load factor (DLF) induced by a single pedestrian’s normal walk; a fixed walking rate is assigned, and different substructures (with major variations in their structural dynamic parameters) are taken into account. A discussion of experimental results is proposed for rigid reinforced concrete (RC), and a laboratory contrast system (SLAB#1), which is used as a reference for the analysis of DLF trends on relatively light and flexible transparent glass flooring systems (SLAB#2 and SLAB#3). It is shown that structural frequency and mass, but also possibly transparency, can affect human motion and result in a quantitative modification of measured DLF values, especially for the first and second harmonics of vertical force components. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Journal of Sensor and Actuator Networks: 10th Year Anniversary)
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20 pages, 2750 KiB  
Article
IPChain: Blockchain-Based Security Protocol for IoT Address Management Servers in Smart Homes
by Bello Musa Yakubu, Majid Iqbal Khan and Pattarasinee Bhattarakosol
J. Sens. Actuator Netw. 2022, 11(4), 80; https://doi.org/10.3390/jsan11040080 - 24 Nov 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2488
Abstract
The dynamic host configuration protocol (DHCP) servers are forms of an Internet of Things (IoT) address management server (IoTAMS) that gives network configuration settings to newly connected hosts. Administrators of a network may save time by setting DHCP servers instead of every network [...] Read more.
The dynamic host configuration protocol (DHCP) servers are forms of an Internet of Things (IoT) address management server (IoTAMS) that gives network configuration settings to newly connected hosts. Administrators of a network may save time by setting DHCP servers instead of every network node. However, the absence of a more robust authentication method for DHCP servers makes hosts susceptible to attacks since neither the server nor the users are able to check the other’s authenticity during DHCP connections. These concerns result in both internal and external threats to the system that have the potential to impair network services. Among these threats are malicious DHCP servers and DHCP starvation. This paper aims to provide a novel approach for tackling these issues and protect the DHCP protocol. The proposed model uses the Diffie–Hellman key exchange mechanism, the elliptic curve discrete logarithm problem (ECDLP), a one-way hash function, blockchain technology, and a smart contract. In addition, registration and validation processes provide support for the proposed model in combating DHCP risks for both internal and external system threats. Results from this study show that the proposed model has an average of 21.1% more resistance to a growing number of adversaries than the benchmark models, thus revealing that the model is better suited for the security of IoT address management servers in smart homes, thereby enhancing resilience against related threats and the success of IP address management. Full article
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2 pages, 173 KiB  
Editorial
Modern Forms and New Challenges in Medical Sensors and Body Area Networks
by Yudong Zhang, Juan Manuel Gorriz and Shuihua Wang
J. Sens. Actuator Netw. 2022, 11(4), 79; https://doi.org/10.3390/jsan11040079 - 23 Nov 2022
Viewed by 1318
Abstract
Traditional medical sensors/monitors can measure pressure, airflow, force, oxygen, pulse, temperature, etc [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Actuators, Sensors and Devices)
26 pages, 869 KiB  
Review
An Overview of Knowledge Graph Reasoning: Key Technologies and Applications
by Yonghong Chen, Hao Li, Han Li, Wenhao Liu, Yirui Wu, Qian Huang and Shaohua Wan
J. Sens. Actuator Netw. 2022, 11(4), 78; https://doi.org/10.3390/jsan11040078 - 22 Nov 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 6300
Abstract
In recent years, with the rapid development of Internet technology and applications, the scale of Internet data has exploded, which contains a significant amount of valuable knowledge. The best methods for the organization, expression, calculation, and deep analysis of this knowledge have attracted [...] Read more.
In recent years, with the rapid development of Internet technology and applications, the scale of Internet data has exploded, which contains a significant amount of valuable knowledge. The best methods for the organization, expression, calculation, and deep analysis of this knowledge have attracted a great deal of attention. The knowledge graph has emerged as a rich and intuitive way to express knowledge. Knowledge reasoning based on knowledge graphs is one of the current research hot spots in knowledge graphs and has played an important role in wireless communication networks, intelligent question answering, and other applications. Knowledge graph-oriented knowledge reasoning aims to deduce new knowledge or identify wrong knowledge from existing knowledge. Different from traditional knowledge reasoning, knowledge reasoning methods oriented to knowledge graphs are more diversified due to the concise, intuitive, flexible, and rich knowledge expression forms in knowledge graphs. Based on the basic concepts of knowledge graphs and knowledge graph reasoning, this paper introduces the latest research progress in knowledge graph-oriented knowledge reasoning methods in recent years. Specifically, according to different reasoning methods, knowledge graph reasoning includes rule-based reasoning, distributed representation-based reasoning, neural network-based reasoning, and mixed reasoning. These methods are summarized in detail, and the future research directions and prospects of knowledge reasoning based on knowledge graphs are discussed and prospected. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Journal of Sensor and Actuator Networks: 10th Year Anniversary)
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12 pages, 331 KiB  
Article
Optimization of Switch Allocation Problems in Power Distribution Networks
by Ricardo R. Lângaro, Marcelo Teixeira, Richardson Ribeiro, Jefferson T. Oliva and Marco A. C. Barbosa
J. Sens. Actuator Netw. 2022, 11(4), 77; https://doi.org/10.3390/jsan11040077 - 22 Nov 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1492
Abstract
This paper presents the implementation of the mono-objective Switch Allocation Problem (SAP) optimization model for electric power distribution networks, considering the equivalent interruption duration per consumer unit EIDCU and non-distributed energy END reliability indexes. We use the current summation algorithm to solve the [...] Read more.
This paper presents the implementation of the mono-objective Switch Allocation Problem (SAP) optimization model for electric power distribution networks, considering the equivalent interruption duration per consumer unit EIDCU and non-distributed energy END reliability indexes. We use the current summation algorithm to solve the power flow, and we employ an intelligent bee colony algorithm to solve the model. Two network topologies, one with 43 and another with 136 bars, adapted from the literature, are used to illustrate the solution. Results show a significant reduction in the financial cost of planning a power distribution network. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart Grids: Sensing and Monitoring)
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21 pages, 2829 KiB  
Article
A Knowledge-Based Battery Controller for IoT Devices
by Joaquin Canada-Bago and Jose-Angel Fernandez-Prieto
J. Sens. Actuator Netw. 2022, 11(4), 76; https://doi.org/10.3390/jsan11040076 - 21 Nov 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1835
Abstract
Internet of things (IoT) devices are often located in difficult-to-access places without connection to the electrical grid. For this reason, some IoT devices usually incorporate a small stand-alone photovoltaic (PV) system to power only the IoT device. However, several IoT applications involve using [...] Read more.
Internet of things (IoT) devices are often located in difficult-to-access places without connection to the electrical grid. For this reason, some IoT devices usually incorporate a small stand-alone photovoltaic (PV) system to power only the IoT device. However, several IoT applications involve using other components, such as instrumentation, electrical motors, lighting bulbs, etc., which require additional electrical power. The objective of this study was to design and implement a battery controller integrated into a constrained resource device that allows powering not only other components of the IoT application but also the IoT device. In this way, the IoT device controls and monitors the PV system and executes other IoT applications such as lighting. Results show that the designed controller exhibits efficient behavior when compared with other regulators and can be integrated into resource-constrained devices, improving the life of batteries and reducing cost. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart Grids: Sensing and Monitoring)
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18 pages, 4935 KiB  
Article
Blossom: Cluster-Based Routing for Preserving Privacy in Opportunistic Networks
by Benedikt Kluss, Samaneh Rashidibajgan and Thomas Hupperich
J. Sens. Actuator Netw. 2022, 11(4), 75; https://doi.org/10.3390/jsan11040075 - 16 Nov 2022
Viewed by 1596
Abstract
Opportunistic networks are an enabler technology for typologies without centralized infrastructure. Portable devices, such as wearable and embedded mobile systems, send relay messages to the communication range devices. One of the most critical challenges is to find the optimal route in these networks [...] Read more.
Opportunistic networks are an enabler technology for typologies without centralized infrastructure. Portable devices, such as wearable and embedded mobile systems, send relay messages to the communication range devices. One of the most critical challenges is to find the optimal route in these networks while at the same time preserving privacy for the participants of the network. Addressing this challenge, we presented a novel routing algorithm based on device clusters, reducing the overall message load and increasing network performance. At the same time, possibly identifying information of network nodes is eliminated by cloaking to meet privacy requirements. We evaluated our routing algorithm in terms of efficiency and privacy in opportunistic networks of traditional and structured cities, i.e., Venice and San Francisco by comparing our approach against the PRoPHET, First Contact, and Epidemic routing algorithms. In the San Francisco and Venice scenarios, Blossom improves messages delivery probability and outperforms PRoPHET, First Contact, and Epidemic by 46%, 100%, and 160% and by 67%, 78%, and 204%, respectively. In addition, the dropped messages probability in Blossom decreased 83% compared to PRoPHET and Epidemic in San Francisco and 91% compared to PRoPHET and Epidemic in Venice. Due to the small number of messages generated, the network overhead in this algorithm is close to zero. The network overhead can be significantly reduced by clustering while maintaining a reliable message delivery. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Wireless Sensor Networks)
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22 pages, 4609 KiB  
Article
Open-Source Internet of Things Gateways for Building Automation Applications
by Markus Hans Schraven, Kai Droste, Carlo Guarnieri Calò Carducci, Dirk Müller and Antonello Monti
J. Sens. Actuator Netw. 2022, 11(4), 74; https://doi.org/10.3390/jsan11040074 - 08 Nov 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3312
Abstract
Due to its potential benefits in data transparency, maintenance, and optimization of operation, the Internet of Things (IoT) has recently emerged in the building automation system (BAS) domain. However, while various IoT devices have been developed, the integration into BAS remains a challenging [...] Read more.
Due to its potential benefits in data transparency, maintenance, and optimization of operation, the Internet of Things (IoT) has recently emerged in the building automation system (BAS) domain. However, while various IoT devices have been developed, the integration into BAS remains a challenging task due to the variety of conventional interfaces used in existing BAS. From an objective point of view, integrating IoT connectivity on existing devices’ printed circuit boards (PCBs) would be the most efficient option in terms of cost and resources, but requires adaptation of product lines, and vendors would often couple this with their own services and without an option for customization. By contrast, the majority of research activities focus on developing alternative or additional measurement systems, rather than connecting with legacy system components. Furthermore, most research applications cover very simple and individual use-cases with a do-it-yourself character and limited applicability in industrial applications. In this study, we present a scalable, industrial-like embedded solution to connect to common interfaces in BAS applications and share all the hardware and software design as an open-source platform for public use, customization, and further enhancement. Moreover, a thorough measurement performance analysis was conducted, suggesting an acceptable trade-off among accuracy, flexibility, and costs, e.g., achieving a performance increase by over 75% and a cost reduction by roughly 34% compared to a previous design. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Wireless Control Networks)
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19 pages, 4484 KiB  
Article
Improved Performance on Wireless Sensors Network Using Multi-Channel Clustering Hierarchy
by Robby Rizky, Mustafid and Teddy Mantoro
J. Sens. Actuator Netw. 2022, 11(4), 73; https://doi.org/10.3390/jsan11040073 - 02 Nov 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1780
Abstract
Wireless sensor network is a network consisting of many sensor nodes that function to scan certain phenomena around it. WSN has quite a large problem in the form of delay and data loss which results in low WSN performance. This study aims to [...] Read more.
Wireless sensor network is a network consisting of many sensor nodes that function to scan certain phenomena around it. WSN has quite a large problem in the form of delay and data loss which results in low WSN performance. This study aims to improve WSN performance by developing a cluster-based routing protocol. The cluster formation is carried out in several stages. The first is the formation of the cluster head which is the channel reference to be used by node members by means of probability calculations. The second determines the closest node using the Euclidean approach when looking for the closest member of the node to the cluster head. The third is determination of the node members by means of single linkage grouping by looking for proximity to CH. The performance of the proposed MCCH method is then tested and evaluated using QoS parameters. The results of this research evaluation use QoS parameters for testing the MCCH method, channel 1 throughput 508.165, channel 2 throughput 255.5661, channel 3 throughput 479.8289, channel 4 throughput 646.5618. Full article
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21 pages, 10485 KiB  
Article
Cognitive Risk-Assessment and Decision-Making Framework for Increasing in-Vehicle Intelligence
by George Dimitrakopoulos, Elena Politi, Konstantina Karathanasopoulou, Elias Panagiotopoulos and Theodore Zographos
J. Sens. Actuator Netw. 2022, 11(4), 72; https://doi.org/10.3390/jsan11040072 - 31 Oct 2022
Viewed by 1732
Abstract
The key challenge for future automated driving systems is the need to imitate the intelligence and ability of human drivers, both in terms of driving agility, as well as in their intuitive understanding of the surroundings and dynamics of the vehicle. In this [...] Read more.
The key challenge for future automated driving systems is the need to imitate the intelligence and ability of human drivers, both in terms of driving agility, as well as in their intuitive understanding of the surroundings and dynamics of the vehicle. In this paper a model that utilizes data from different sources coming from vehicular sensor networks is presented. The data is processed in an intelligent manner while integrating knowledge and experience associated with potential and any decision. Moreover, the appropriate directives for the safety of the vehicle as well as alerts in case of upcoming emergencies are provided to the driver. The innovation lies in attributing human-like cognitive capabilities—non-causal reasoning, predictive decision-making, and learning—integrated into the processes for perception and decision-making in safety-critical autonomous use cases. The overall approach is described and formulated, while a heuristic function is proposed for assisting the driver in reaching the appropriate decisions. Comprehensive results from our experiments showcase its efficiency, simplicity, and scalability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS))
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12 pages, 1102 KiB  
Article
A Blockchain-Based Intrusion Detection System Using Viterbi Algorithm and Indirect Trust for IIoT Systems
by Geetanjali Rathee, Chaker Abdelaziz Kerrache and Mohamed Amine Ferrag
J. Sens. Actuator Netw. 2022, 11(4), 71; https://doi.org/10.3390/jsan11040071 - 27 Oct 2022
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 2505
Abstract
The industrial internet of things (IIoT) is considered a new paradigm in the era of wireless communication for performing automatic communication in the network. However, automatic computation and data recognition may invite several security and privacy threats into the system during the sharing [...] Read more.
The industrial internet of things (IIoT) is considered a new paradigm in the era of wireless communication for performing automatic communication in the network. However, automatic computation and data recognition may invite several security and privacy threats into the system during the sharing of information. There exist several intrusion detection systems (IDS) that have been proposed by several researchers. However, none of them is able to maintain accuracy while identifying the threats and give a high false-positive rate in the network. Further, the existing IDS are not able to recognize the new patterns or anomalies in the network. Therefore, it is necessary to propose a new IDS. The aim of this paper is to propose an IDS using the Viterbi algorithm, indirect trust, and blockchain mechanism for IIoT to ensure the required security levels. The Viterbi algorithm and indirect trust mechanism are used to measure the probability of malicious activities occurring in the network while generating, recording, and shipping products in an IIoT environment. Further, the transparency of the system is maintained by integrating blockchain mechanisms with Viterbi and indirect methods. The proposed framework is validated and analyzed against various security measures by comparing it with the existing approaches. Full article
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29 pages, 584 KiB  
Article
A Survey on Integrated Sensing, Communication, and Computing Networks for Smart Oceans
by Minghui Dai, Yang Li, Peichun Li, Yuan Wu, Liping Qian, Bin Lin and Zhou Su
J. Sens. Actuator Netw. 2022, 11(4), 70; https://doi.org/10.3390/jsan11040070 - 26 Oct 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3055
Abstract
The smart ocean has been regarded as an integrated sensing, communication, and computing ecosystem developed for connecting marine objects in surface and underwater environments. The development of the smart ocean is expected to support a variety of marine applications and services such as [...] Read more.
The smart ocean has been regarded as an integrated sensing, communication, and computing ecosystem developed for connecting marine objects in surface and underwater environments. The development of the smart ocean is expected to support a variety of marine applications and services such as resource exploration, marine disaster rescuing, and environment monitoring. However, the complex and dynamic marine environments and the limited network resources raise new challenges in marine communication and computing, especially for these computing-intensive and delay-sensitive tasks. Recently, the space–air–ground–sea integrated networks have been envisioned as a promising network framework to enhance the communication and computing performance. In this paper, we conduct a comprehensive survey on the integrated sensing, communication, and computing networks (ISCCNs) for smart oceans based on the collaboration of space–air–ground–sea networks from four domains (i.e., space layer, aerial layer, sea surface layer, and underwater layer), and five aspects (i.e., sensing-related, communication-related, computation-related, security-related, and application-related). Specifically, we provide the key technologies for the ISCCNs in smart oceans, and introduce the state-of-the-art marine sensing, communication, and computing paradigms. The emerging challenges with the potential solutions of the ISCCNs for smart oceans are illustrated to enable the intelligent services. Moreover, the new applications for the ISCCNs in smart oceans are discussed, and potential research directions in smart oceans are provided for future works. Full article
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17 pages, 4499 KiB  
Article
Development of a Multisensor-Based Non-Contact Anthropometric System for Early Stunting Detection
by Umiatin Umiatin, Widyaningrum Indrasari, Taryudi Taryudi and Abdul Fatah Dendi
J. Sens. Actuator Netw. 2022, 11(4), 69; https://doi.org/10.3390/jsan11040069 - 24 Oct 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2445
Abstract
The stunting prevalence in Indonesia is still above the WHO minimum standard of 20%. An important aspect of early detection of stunting is to monitor the nutritional status of children under five periodically. In daily practice, nutritional status is obtained through anthropometry. The [...] Read more.
The stunting prevalence in Indonesia is still above the WHO minimum standard of 20%. An important aspect of early detection of stunting is to monitor the nutritional status of children under five periodically. In daily practice, nutritional status is obtained through anthropometry. The main anthropometric parameters are body mass, height, and head circumference. This research entails the development of an integrated and non-contact anthropometric system for measuring body mass, height, and head circumference for children aged 12–60 months. This non-contact method can prevent the transmission of infectious diseases, especially during the COVID-19 pandemic. For the development of a prototype, three types of sensors are used: load, proximity, and temperature sensor. In addition, a load cell sensor is used to measure body mass, an infrared sensor to measure height and head circumference, ultrasonic sensor to measure height. In addition, the anthropometric system developed is equipped with an MLX90614-DCI sensor to measure temperature, a thermal printer to print measurement results, and sound output. The results of the tests showed that this anthropometric system had an average error less than 5%. Therefore, it is suitable to measure the body mass, height, and head circumference of children under five. Full article
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29 pages, 856 KiB  
Review
The Definitive Guide to Actual Sensor Network Deployments in Research Studies from 2013–2017: A Systematic Review
by Janis Judvaitis, Valters Abolins, Artis Mednis, Rihards Balass and Krisjanis Nesenbergs
J. Sens. Actuator Netw. 2022, 11(4), 68; https://doi.org/10.3390/jsan11040068 - 21 Oct 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1351
Abstract
The research community has been working on sensor networks for more that seven decades and altogether more than a million research articles on sensor networks have been published, with this number growing every day. In this article, we try to provide a thorough [...] Read more.
The research community has been working on sensor networks for more that seven decades and altogether more than a million research articles on sensor networks have been published, with this number growing every day. In this article, we try to provide a thorough and complete systematic review on the sensor network field resulting from representative subset of more than 3000 articles which include actual sensor network deployments. After a thorough analysis of these data, we provide a definitive overview of the trends in sensor network deployment described in published research articles. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Journal of Sensor and Actuator Networks: 10th Year Anniversary)
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34 pages, 6494 KiB  
Review
Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN): A Survey on Architecture, Technologies, Energy Consumption, and Security Challenges
by Mohammad Yaghoubi, Khandakar Ahmed and Yuan Miao
J. Sens. Actuator Netw. 2022, 11(4), 67; https://doi.org/10.3390/jsan11040067 - 18 Oct 2022
Cited by 32 | Viewed by 14951
Abstract
Wireless body area networks (WBANs) are a new advance utilized in recent years to increase the quality of human life by monitoring the conditions of patients inside and outside hospitals, the activities of athletes, military applications, and multimedia. WBANs consist of intelligent micro- [...] Read more.
Wireless body area networks (WBANs) are a new advance utilized in recent years to increase the quality of human life by monitoring the conditions of patients inside and outside hospitals, the activities of athletes, military applications, and multimedia. WBANs consist of intelligent micro- or nano-sensors capable of processing and sending information to the base station (BS). Sensors embedded in the bodies of individuals can enable vital information exchange over wireless communication. Network forming of these sensors envisages long-term medical care without restricting patients’ normal daily activities as part of diagnosing or caring for a patient with a chronic illness or monitoring the patient after surgery to manage emergencies. This paper reviews WBAN, its security challenges, body sensor network architecture and functions, and communication technologies. The work reported in this paper investigates a significant security-level challenge existing in WBAN. Lastly, it highlights various mechanisms for increasing security and decreasing energy consumption. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Actuators, Sensors and Devices)
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25 pages, 6086 KiB  
Article
A Lightweight Hybrid Scheme for Hiding Text Messages in Colour Images Using LSB, Lah Transform and Chaotic Techniques
by Iman Qays Abduljaleel, Zaid Ameen Abduljabbar, Mustafa A. Al Sibahee, Mudhafar Jalil Jassim Ghrabat, Junchao Ma and Vincent Omollo Nyangaresi
J. Sens. Actuator Netw. 2022, 11(4), 66; https://doi.org/10.3390/jsan11040066 - 17 Oct 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2259
Abstract
Data security can involve embedding hidden images, text, audio, or video files within other media to prevent hackers from stealing encrypted data. Existing mechanisms suffer from a high risk of security breaches or large computational costs, however. The method proposed in this work [...] Read more.
Data security can involve embedding hidden images, text, audio, or video files within other media to prevent hackers from stealing encrypted data. Existing mechanisms suffer from a high risk of security breaches or large computational costs, however. The method proposed in this work incorporates low-complexity encryption and steganography mechanisms to enhance security during transmission while lowering computational complexity. In message encryption, it is recommended that text file data slicing in binary representation, to achieve different lengths of string, be conducted before text file data masking based on the lightweight Lucas series and mod function to ensure the retrieval of text messages is impossible. The steganography algorithm starts by generating a random key stream using a hybrid of two low-complexity chaotic maps, the Tent map and the Ikeda map. By finding a position vector parallel to the input image vector, these keys are used based on the previously generated position vector to randomly select input image data and create four vectors that can be later used as input for the Lah transform. In this paper, we present an approach for hiding encrypted text files using LSB colour image steganography by applying a low-complexity XOR operation to the most significant bits in 24-bit colour cover images. It is necessary to perform inverse Lah transformation to recover the image pixels and ensure that invisible data cannot be retrieved in a particular sequence. Evaluation of the quality of the resulting stego-images and comparison with other ways of performing encryption and message concealment shows that the stego-image has a higher PSNR, a lower MSE, and an SSIM value close to one, illustrating the suitability of the proposed method. It is also considered lightweight in terms of having lower computational overhead. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers on Computer and Electrical Engineering 2022)
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18 pages, 2885 KiB  
Article
A Fuzzy-Logic Based Adaptive Data Rate Scheme for Energy-Efficient LoRaWAN Communication
by Rachel Kufakunesu, Gerhard Hancke and Adnan Abu-Mahfouz
J. Sens. Actuator Netw. 2022, 11(4), 65; https://doi.org/10.3390/jsan11040065 - 11 Oct 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2043
Abstract
Long Range Wide Area Network (LoRaWAN) technology is rapidly expanding as a technology with long distance connectivity, low power consumption, low data rates and a large number of end devices (EDs) that connect to the Internet of Things (IoT) network. Due to the [...] Read more.
Long Range Wide Area Network (LoRaWAN) technology is rapidly expanding as a technology with long distance connectivity, low power consumption, low data rates and a large number of end devices (EDs) that connect to the Internet of Things (IoT) network. Due to the heterogeneity of several applications with varying Quality of Service (QoS) requirements, energy is expended as the EDs communicate with applications. The LoRaWAN Adaptive Data Rate (ADR) manages the resource allocation to optimize energy efficiency. The performance of the ADR algorithm gradually deteriorates in dense networks and efforts have been made in various studies to improve the algorithm’s performance. In this paper, we propose a fuzzy-logic based adaptive data rate (FL-ADR) scheme for energy efficient LoRaWAN communication. The scheme is implemented on the network server (NS), which receives sensor data from the EDs via the gateway (GW) node and computes network parameters (such as the spreading factor and transmission power) to optimize the energy consumption of the EDs in the network. The performance of the algorithm is evaluated in ns-3 using a multi-gateway LoRa network with EDs sending data packets at various intervals. Our simulation results are analyzed and compared to the traditional ADR and the ns-3 ADR. The proposed FL-ADR outperforms the traditional ADR algorithm and the ns-3 ADR minimizing the interference rate and energy consumption. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Big Data, Computing and Artificial Intelligence)
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19 pages, 13780 KiB  
Article
Underwater Wireless Sensor Network Performance Analysis Using Diverse Routing Protocols
by Kaveripaka Sathish, Chinthaginjala Venkata Ravikumar, Anbazhagan Rajesh and Giovanni Pau
J. Sens. Actuator Netw. 2022, 11(4), 64; https://doi.org/10.3390/jsan11040064 - 09 Oct 2022
Cited by 29 | Viewed by 2863
Abstract
The planet is the most water-rich place because the oceans cover more than 75% of its land area. Because of the unique activities that occur in the depths, we know very little about oceans. Underwater wireless sensors are tools that can continuously transmit [...] Read more.
The planet is the most water-rich place because the oceans cover more than 75% of its land area. Because of the unique activities that occur in the depths, we know very little about oceans. Underwater wireless sensors are tools that can continuously transmit data to one of the source sensors while monitoring and recording their surroundings’ physical and environmental parameters. An Underwater Wireless Sensor Network (UWSN) is the name given to the network created by collecting these underwater wireless sensors. This particular technology has a random path loss model due to the time-varying nature of channel parameters. Data transmission between underwater wireless sensor nodes requires a careful selection of routing protocols. By changing the number of nodes in the model and the maximum speed of each node, performance parameters, such as average transmission delay, average jitter, percentage of utilization, and power used in transmit and receive modes, are explored. This paper focuses on UWSN performance analysis, comparing various routing protocols. A network path using the source-tree adaptive routing-least overhead routing approach (STAR-LORA) Protocol exhibits 85.3% lower jitter than conventional routing protocols. Interestingly, the fisheye routing protocol achieves a 91.4% higher utilization percentage than its counterparts. The results obtained using the QualNet 7.1 simulator suggest the suitability of routing protocols in UWSN. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Optimization within Sensor Networks and Telecommunications)
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20 pages, 6002 KiB  
Article
Enhancing Optical Character Recognition on Images with Mixed Text Using Semantic Segmentation
by Shruti Patil, Vijayakumar Varadarajan, Supriya Mahadevkar, Rohan Athawade, Lakhan Maheshwari, Shrushti Kumbhare, Yash Garg, Deepak Dharrao, Pooja Kamat and Ketan Kotecha
J. Sens. Actuator Netw. 2022, 11(4), 63; https://doi.org/10.3390/jsan11040063 - 03 Oct 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 3706
Abstract
Optical Character Recognition has made large strides in the field of recognizing printed and properly formatted text. However, the effort attributed to developing systems that are able to reliably apply OCR to both printed as well as handwritten text simultaneously, such as hand-filled [...] Read more.
Optical Character Recognition has made large strides in the field of recognizing printed and properly formatted text. However, the effort attributed to developing systems that are able to reliably apply OCR to both printed as well as handwritten text simultaneously, such as hand-filled forms, is lackadaisical. As Machine printed/typed text follows specific formats and fonts while handwritten texts are variable and non-uniform, it is very hard to classify and recognize using traditional OCR only. A pre-processing methodology employing semantic segmentation to identify, segment and crop boxes containing relevant text on a given image in order to improve the results of conventional online-available OCR engines is proposed here. In this paper, the authors have also provided a comparison of popular OCR engines like Microsoft Cognitive Services, Google Cloud Vision and AWS recognitions. We have proposed a pixel-wise classification technique to accurately identify the area of an image containing relevant text, to feed them to a conventional OCR engine in the hopes of improving the quality of the output. The proposed methodology also supports the digitization of mixed typed text documents with amended performance. The experimental study shows that the proposed pipeline architecture provides reliable and quality inputs through complex image preprocessing to Conventional OCR, which results in better accuracy and improved performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Journal of Sensor and Actuator Networks: 10th Year Anniversary)
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19 pages, 2765 KiB  
Review
A Systematic Review of Radio Frequency Threats in IoMT
by Irrai Anbu Jayaraj, Bharanidharan Shanmugam, Sami Azam and Ganthan Narayana Samy
J. Sens. Actuator Netw. 2022, 11(4), 62; https://doi.org/10.3390/jsan11040062 - 28 Sep 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2702
Abstract
In evolving technology, attacks on medical devices are optimized due to the driving force of AI, computer vision, mixed reality, and the internet of things (IoT). Optimizing cybersecurity on the internet of medical things (IoMT) and building cyber resiliency against crime-as-a-service (CaaS) in [...] Read more.
In evolving technology, attacks on medical devices are optimized due to the driving force of AI, computer vision, mixed reality, and the internet of things (IoT). Optimizing cybersecurity on the internet of medical things (IoMT) and building cyber resiliency against crime-as-a-service (CaaS) in the healthcare ecosystem are challenging due to various attacks, including spectrum-level threats at the physical layer. Therefore, we conducted a systematic literature review to identify the research gaps and propose potential solutions to spectrum threats on IoMT devices. The purpose of this study is to provide an overview of the literature on wireless spectrum attacks. The papers we reviewed covered cyber impacts, layered attacks, attacks on protocols, sniffing attacks, field experimentation with cybersecurity testbeds, radiofrequency machine learning, and data collection. In the final section, we discuss future directions, including the sniffing attack mitigation framework in IoMT devices operating under a machine implantable communication system (MICS). To analyze the research papers about physical attacks against IoT in health care, we followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews (PRISMA) guidelines. Scopus, PubMed, and Web of Science were searched for peer-reviewed articles, and we conducted a thorough search using these resources. The search on Scopus containing the terms “jamming attack” and “health” yielded 330 rows, and the investigation on WoS yielded 17 rows. The search terms “replay attack” and “health” yielded 372 rows in Scopus, while PubMed yielded 23 rows, and WoS yielded 50 articles. The search terms “side-channel attack” and “health” yielded 447 rows in Scopus, WoS yielded 30 articles, and the search terms “sniffing attack” and “health” yielded 18 rows in Scopus, while PubMed yielded 1 row, and WoS yielded 0 articles. The terms “spoofing attack” and “health” yielded 316 rows in Scopus, while PubMed yielded 5 rows, and WoS yielded 23 articles. Finally, the search terms “tampering attack” and “health” yielded 25 rows in Scopus, PubMed yielded 14 rows, and WoS yielded 46 rows. The search time frame was from 2003 to June 2022. The findings show a research gap in sniffing, tampering, and replay attacks on the IoMT. We have listed the items that were included and excluded and provided a detailed summary of SLR. A thorough analysis of potential gaps has been identified, and the results are visualized for ease of understanding. Full article
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30 pages, 1038 KiB  
Article
Improving the Performance of Opportunistic Networks in Real-World Applications Using Machine Learning Techniques
by Samaneh Rashidibajgan and Thomas Hupperich
J. Sens. Actuator Netw. 2022, 11(4), 61; https://doi.org/10.3390/jsan11040061 - 26 Sep 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2235
Abstract
In Opportunistic Networks, portable devices such as smartphones, tablets, and wearables carried by individuals, can communicate and save-carry-forward their messages. The message transmission is often in the short range supported by communication protocols, such as Bluetooth, Bluetooth Low Energy, and Zigbee. These devices [...] Read more.
In Opportunistic Networks, portable devices such as smartphones, tablets, and wearables carried by individuals, can communicate and save-carry-forward their messages. The message transmission is often in the short range supported by communication protocols, such as Bluetooth, Bluetooth Low Energy, and Zigbee. These devices carried by individuals along with a city’s taxis and buses represent network nodes. The mobility, buffer size, message interval, number of nodes, and number of messages copied in such a network influence the network’s performance. Extending these factors can improve the delivery of the messages and, consequently, network performance; however, due to the limited network resources, it increases the cost and appends the network overhead. The network delivers the maximized performance when supported by the optimal factors. In this paper, we measured, predicted, and analyzed the impact of these factors on network performance using the Opportunistic Network Environment simulator and machine learning techniques. We calculated the optimal factors depending on the network features. We have used three datasets, each with features and characteristics reflecting different network structures. We collected the real-time GPS coordinates of 500 taxis in San Francisco, 320 taxis in Rome, and 196 public transportation buses in Münster, Germany, within 48 h. We also compared the network performance without selfish nodes and with 5%, 10%, 20%, and 50% selfish nodes. We suggested the optimized configuration under real-world conditions when resources are limited. In addition, we compared the performance of Epidemic, Prophet, and PPHB++ routing algorithms fed with the optimized factors. The results show how to consider the best settings for the network according to the needs and how self-sustaining nodes will affect network performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Wireless Sensor Networks)
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15 pages, 3022 KiB  
Article
Photonic Sensor for Multiple Targets Detection under Adverse Weather Conditions in Autonomous Vehicles
by Abhishek Sharma, Sushank Chaudhary, Jyoteesh Malhotra, Sunita Khichar and Lunchakorn Wuttisittikulkij
J. Sens. Actuator Netw. 2022, 11(4), 60; https://doi.org/10.3390/jsan11040060 - 24 Sep 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2145
Abstract
Detection and tracing of multiple targets in a real-time scenario, particularly in the urban setup under adverse atmospheric conditions, has become a major challenge for autonomous vehicles (AVs). Photonic radars have emerged as promising candidates for Avs to realize via the recognition of [...] Read more.
Detection and tracing of multiple targets in a real-time scenario, particularly in the urban setup under adverse atmospheric conditions, has become a major challenge for autonomous vehicles (AVs). Photonic radars have emerged as promising candidates for Avs to realize via the recognition of traffic patterns, navigation, lane detection, self-parking, etc. In this work we developed a direct detection-based, frequency-modulated photonic radar to detect multiple stationary targets using four different transmission channels multiplexed over a single free space channel via wavelength division multiplexing (WDM). Additionally, the performance of the proposed photonic radar was examined under the impact of adverse weather conditions, such as rain and fog. The reported results in terms of received power and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) showed successful detection of all the targets with bandwidths of 1 GHz and 4 GHz. The proposed system was also tested for range resolution of targets at 150 m and 6.75 cm resolution with 4 GHz bandwidth was reported, while resolution of 50 cm was reported with 1 GHz of bandwidth. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS))
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15 pages, 4125 KiB  
Article
Design, Analysis, and Simulation of 60 GHz Millimeter Wave MIMO Microstrip Antennas
by Juan Carlos Martínez Quintero, Edith Paola Estupiñán Cuesta and Gabriel Leonardo Escobar Quiroga
J. Sens. Actuator Netw. 2022, 11(4), 59; https://doi.org/10.3390/jsan11040059 - 24 Sep 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2737
Abstract
This article comparatively shows the evolution of parameters of three types of arrays for MIMO microstrip antennas, to which the number of ports is gradually incremented until reaching 32. The three arrays have a 1 × 2 configuration in each port and present [...] Read more.
This article comparatively shows the evolution of parameters of three types of arrays for MIMO microstrip antennas, to which the number of ports is gradually incremented until reaching 32. The three arrays have a 1 × 2 configuration in each port and present different geometry or type of coupling in the next way: square patch with quarter-wave coupling (Antenna I), square patch with inset feed (Antenna II) and circular patch with quarter-wave coupling (Antenna III). The arrays were designed and simulated to operate on the millimetric wave band, specifically in the 60 GHz frequency to be used in wireless technologies such as IEEE 802.11 ad. A method of rapid prototyping was formulated to increase the number of elements in the array obtaining dimensions and coordinates of location in the layout in short periods of time. The simulation was conducted through ADS software, and the results of gain, directivity, return loss, bandwidth, beamwidth, and efficiency were evaluated. In terms of array results of 32 ports, Antenna III obtained the lowest return loss with −42.988 dB, being more than 19 dB lower than the others. The highest gain is also obtained by Antenna III with 24.541 dBi and an efficiency of 66%. Antenna II obtained better efficiency, reaching 71.03%, but with a gain of more than 2dB below the Antenna III. Antenna I obtained the best bandwidth. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Electronic Communications, IOT and Big Data)
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3 pages, 179 KiB  
Editorial
Smart City: The Different Uses of IoT Sensors
by Giovanni Pau and Fabio Arena
J. Sens. Actuator Netw. 2022, 11(4), 58; https://doi.org/10.3390/jsan11040058 - 22 Sep 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2998
Abstract
We refer to an interconnected city with shared intelligence when discussing Smart City and Internet of Things (IoT) sensors—a city governed in real time thanks to the recently gained ability to gather data through thousands of deployed sensors [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Network Services and Applications)
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