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Plants, Volume 12, Issue 7 (April-1 2023) – 160 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Several recent collections of the liverwort genus Marsupella from the summit of Mt Fóia in southern Portugal have attracted the attention of researchers with respect to their superficial similarities to the European endemic M. profunda, from which they differ in the wider angle between the leaf lobes, which are often obtuse, and the dioicy of the plants. They were subsequently found to be molecularly distinct from M. profunda and all other analysed members of the genus in both nuclear (ITS) and chloroplast (trnFtrnT) markers. Additional specimens were later found among collections from northern Portugal, misnamed as other species of the section Ustulatae, in which the new species was proven to belong. Additional discoveries are expected in European southern oceanic mountain regions. View this paper
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14 pages, 6590 KiB  
Article
Simplified Genomic Data Revealing the Decline of Aleuritopteris grevilleoides Population Accompanied by the Uplift of Dry-Hot Valley in Yunnan, China
by Xue-Ying Wei, Ting Wang, Jin Zhou, Wei-Yue Sun, Dong-Mei Jin, Jian-Ying Xiang, Jian-Wen Shao and Yue-Hong Yan
Plants 2023, 12(7), 1579; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants12071579 - 06 Apr 2023
Viewed by 1379
Abstract
Understanding the evolutionary history of endangered species is crucial for identifying the main reasons for species endangerment in the past and predicting the changing trends and evolutionary directions of their future distribution. In order to study the impact of environmental changes caused by [...] Read more.
Understanding the evolutionary history of endangered species is crucial for identifying the main reasons for species endangerment in the past and predicting the changing trends and evolutionary directions of their future distribution. In order to study the impact of environmental changes caused by deep valley incision after the uplift of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau on endangered species, we collected 23 samples belonging to four populations of Aleuritopteris grevilleoides, an endangered fern endemic to the dry-hot valleys (DHV) of Yunnan. Single-nucleotide variation sites (SNPs) were obtained by the genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) method, and approximately 8085 SNP loci were identified. Through the reconstruction and analysis of genetic diversity, population structure, population dynamics, evolution time, and ancestral geographical distribution, combined with geological historical events such as the formation of dry-hot valleys, this study explores the formation history, current situation, reasons for endangerment and scientifically sound measures for the protection of A. grevilleoides. In our study, A. grevilleoides had low genetic diversity (Obs_Het = 0.16, Exp_Het = 0.32, Pi = 0.33) and a high inbreeding coefficient (Fis = 0.45). The differentiation events were 0.18 Mya, 0.16 Mya, and 0.11 Mya in the A. grevilleoides and may have been related to the formation of terraces within the dry-hot valleys. The history of population dynamics results shows that the diversion of the river resulted in a small amount of gene flow between the two clades, accompanied by a rapid increase in the population at 0.8 Mya. After that, the effective population sizes of A. grevilleoides began to contract continuously due to topographic changes resulting from the continuous expansion of dry-hot valleys. In conclusion, we found that the environmental changes caused by geological events might be the main reason for the changing population size of A. grevilleoides. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mapping Asia Plants)
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18 pages, 5807 KiB  
Article
Biogenic Synthesis, Characterization, and In Vitro Biological Evaluation of Silver Nanoparticles Using Cleome brachycarpa
by Ayesha Ahmed Sumra, Maryam Zain, Tahira Saleem, Ghulam Yasin, Muhammad Farooq Azhar, Qamar Uz Zaman, Vishwanie Budhram-Mahadeo and Hayssam M. Ali
Plants 2023, 12(7), 1578; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants12071578 - 06 Apr 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1693
Abstract
The therapeutical attributes of silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) in both conditions (in vitro and in vivo) have been investigated using different plants. This study focused on the green chemistry approach that was employed to optimize the synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using Cleome brachycarpa [...] Read more.
The therapeutical attributes of silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) in both conditions (in vitro and in vivo) have been investigated using different plants. This study focused on the green chemistry approach that was employed to optimize the synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using Cleome brachycarpa aqueous extract as a reducing and stabilizing agent. The characterization of obtained CB-AgNPs was undertaken using UV-visible spectroscopy, Atomic-force microscopy (AFM), Fourier-Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and Energy-Dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis. Results suggest that CB-AgNPs synthesized via stirring produced small-sized particles with more even distribution. The synthesized silver nanoparticles were spherical with a 20 to 80 nm size range. In vitro studies were used to analyze antioxidant, antidiabetic, and cytotoxic potential under different conditions. The results also indicated that CB-AgNPs may have significant potential as an antidiabetic in low concentrations, but also exhibited potential antioxidant activity at different concentrations. Moreover, the anticancer activity against the breast cell line (MCF-7) with IC50 reached up to 18 μg/mL. These results suggest that green synthesized silver nanoparticles provide a promising phytomedicine for the management of diabetes and cancer therapeutics. Full article
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12 pages, 1747 KiB  
Article
Isolation and Identification of Plant-Growth Inhibitory Constituents from Polygonum chinense Linn and Evaluation of Their Bioherbicidal Potential
by Thang Lam Lun, Arihiro Iwasaki, Kiyotake Suenaga and Hisashi Kato-Noguchi
Plants 2023, 12(7), 1577; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants12071577 - 06 Apr 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1389
Abstract
Polygonum chinense Linn. is a medicinal and invasive plant that belongs to the family Polygonaceae. The pharmacological activities and phytochemical constituents of Polygonum chinense are well reported, but the allelopathic effects and potent allelopathic substances of P. chinense remain to be investigated. Hence, [...] Read more.
Polygonum chinense Linn. is a medicinal and invasive plant that belongs to the family Polygonaceae. The pharmacological activities and phytochemical constituents of Polygonum chinense are well reported, but the allelopathic effects and potent allelopathic substances of P. chinense remain to be investigated. Hence, this experiment was conducted to separate and characterize potentially allelopathic substances from an extract of the Polygonum chinense plant. The Polygonum chinense plant extracts highly suppressed the growth of cress (Lepidium sativum L.), lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.), barnyard grass (Echinochloa crusgalli (L.) P. Beauv.), and timothy grass (Phleum pratense L.) seedlings in a species- and concentration-dependent way. Two active substances were separated using a series of purification procedures and determined through spectral analysis as (−)-3-hydroxy-β-ionone and (−)-3-hydroxy-7,8-dihydro-β-ionone. These two compounds significantly suppressed the seedling growth of Lepidium sativum (cress) at concentrations of 0.01 and 1 mM, respectively. The extract concentrations necessary for 50% growth inhibition (I50 values) of the cress hypocotyls and roots were 0.05 and 0.07 mM for (−)-3-hydroxy-β-ionone, respectively, and 0.42 and 1.29 mM for (−)-3-hydroxy-7,8-β-ionone, respectively. These findings suggest that these two compounds are in charge of the inhibitory effects of the Polygonum chinense extract and may serve as weed control agents. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Allelopathy and Allelochemicals II)
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17 pages, 4133 KiB  
Article
In Vitro Pro-Apoptotic and Anti-Migratory Effects of Marantodes pumilum (syn. Labisia pumila) Extracts on Human Prostate Cancer Cell Lines: Bioguided Isolation of 5-Henicosene-1-yl-resorcinol
by Mohd Mukrish Mohd Hanafi, Harisun Yaakob, Simon Gibbons and Jose M. Prieto
Plants 2023, 12(7), 1576; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants12071576 - 06 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1721
Abstract
This study aims to evaluate the in vitro cytotoxic and anti-migratory effects of Marantodes pumilum Blume Kuntze plant extracts on prostate cancer cells, identify the active compound/s, and characterize their mechanism of action. The crude methanolic extract was partitioned into n-hexane (MPh), [...] Read more.
This study aims to evaluate the in vitro cytotoxic and anti-migratory effects of Marantodes pumilum Blume Kuntze plant extracts on prostate cancer cells, identify the active compound/s, and characterize their mechanism of action. The crude methanolic extract was partitioned into n-hexane (MPh), chloroform (MPc), and aqueous (MPa) extracts. Antiproliferative fractions (IC50 < 30 μg/mL based on SRB staining of LNCaP and PC3 cell lines) were further fractionated. Active compound/s were identified using spectroscopic methods. In vitro mechanistic studies on PC3 cells included: annexin V-FITC staining, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) depolarization measurements, the activity of caspases 3 and 7, nuclear DNA fragmentation, cell cycle analysis, modulation of Bax, Bcl-2, Smac/Diablo, Alox-5, VEGF-A, CXCR4, and CXCL12 mRNA gene expression via RT-PCR, 2D migration (scratch assay), and 3D invasion (Boyden chamber). MPc extract was the most active, inducing cell death (p < 0.05) via apoptosis, as evidenced by nuclear DNA fragmentation and an increase in MMP depolarization (p < 0.05) as well as the activation of caspases 3/7 (MPc p < 0.01) in both PC3 and LNCaP cell lines. In addition, MPc upregulated Bax and Smac/DIABLO, downregulated Bcl-2 (p < 0.05), and inhibited ALOX-5 mRNA gene expression (p < 0.001). MPc was not cytotoxic against normal human fibroblast cells (HDFa) at the tested concentrations. Moreover, MPc inhibited migration and invasion of PC3 cells (p < 0.01). These effects were accompanied by the downregulation of both VEGF-A and CXCL-12 gene expressions (p < 0.001). A monounsaturated 5-alkyl resorcinol was isolated as the active compound in the MPc extract and identified as 5-henicosene-1-yl-resorcinol. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Medicinal Plants: Advances in Phytochemistry and Ethnobotany)
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28 pages, 3729 KiB  
Article
Keeping Healthy in Your Skin—Plants and Fungi Used by Indigenous Himalayan Communities to Treat Dermatological Ailments
by Shiekh Marifatul Haq, Aadil Abdullah Khoja, Fayaz A. Lone, Muhammad Waheed, Rainer W. Bussmann, Ryan Casini, Eman A. Mahmoud and Hosam O. Elansary
Plants 2023, 12(7), 1575; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants12071575 - 06 Apr 2023
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2382
Abstract
Dermatological ailments are a major health problem, especially when related to human immune deficiency syndrome and acquired immune deficiency. The goal of this study was to identify the medicinal plants used by the indigenous peoples of the Northwestern Himalayas to treat dermatological diseases. [...] Read more.
Dermatological ailments are a major health problem, especially when related to human immune deficiency syndrome and acquired immune deficiency. The goal of this study was to identify the medicinal plants used by the indigenous peoples of the Northwestern Himalayas to treat dermatological diseases. Several field trips were conducted in the spring and summer seasons of 2020–2021 to collect the plants of dermatological value and information about their use through open-ended semi-structured interviews (n = 53) and group discussions (n = 33). The current investigation found 64 ethnomedicinal plants belonging to 34 families commonly used to treat a variety of dermatological ailments. The main growth form was herbs (80%), followed by trees (8%) and ferns (6%). It was found that leaves (51%) were the most commonly used plant part, followed by roots and the whole plant. Wound healing was the most dominant application, with 18 plant species used, followed by skin burns cured by 11 plant species and skin boils by eight plant species. Out of the total (18%) of medicinal plants with cosmetic uses, i.e., roots of Jurinea dolomiaea, Rheum webbianum, and Rheum spiciforme were crushed into powder and mixed with turmeric, and the paste is applied topically for glowing skin. Among the various preparation methods, paste (38%) was the most common way of preparation, followed by poultice (29%) and infusion (9%). Between ethnic groups, the maximum homogeneity was between Gujjar and Bakarwal ethnic groups (23 species, 36%), followed by Gujjars and Kashmiri (14 species, 22%). Bakarwals and Gujjar people live in the same geographical location, and they graze their animals in pastures, practice extensive transhumance pastoralism, and pass through different ecological landscapes, thus having sufficient experiences with certain plants and retaining more knowledge. The species identified with the highest utilization based on the number of citations and use value included Ficus carica, Cichorium intybus, Euphorbia wallichii, Pinus wallichiana, Plantago major, Jurinea dolomiaea, and Artemisia absinthium. The findings of this study demonstrate that people who reside in the Northwestern Himalayas region still rely on medicinal plants. Full article
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20 pages, 6265 KiB  
Article
Influence of Temperature on Seed Germination of Five Wild-Growing Tulipa Species of Greece Associated with Their Ecological Profiles: Implications for Conservation and Cultivation
by Stefanos Hatzilazarou, Elias Pipinis, Stefanos Kostas, Rafaela Stagiopoulou, Konstantina Gitsa, Eleftherios Dariotis, Manolis Avramakis, Ioulietta Samartza, Ioannis Plastiras, Eleni Kriemadi, Pepy Bareka, Christos Lykas, Georgios Tsoktouridis and Nikos Krigas
Plants 2023, 12(7), 1574; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants12071574 - 06 Apr 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1738
Abstract
Although tulips are famous worldwide as ornamental plants, the knowledge about the seed germination of wild-growing species remains limited. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of temperature on seed germination of the local, wild-growing Greek endemics Tulipa bakeri [...] Read more.
Although tulips are famous worldwide as ornamental plants, the knowledge about the seed germination of wild-growing species remains limited. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of temperature on seed germination of the local, wild-growing Greek endemics Tulipa bakeri and T. goulimyi and the sub-Balkan endemic T. undulatifolia, which are threatened with extinction, as well as the Mediterranean T. australis and the Asiatic T. clusiana naturalized on Chios Island (Greece). The germination responses at five constant temperatures (5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 °C) were assessed for all studied species in growth chambers under a 12:12 light–dark photoperiod. The ecological profile for each species was developed in R using open-source bioclimatic data; this was built to illustrate the abiotic environmental conditions of their wild habitats, to facilitate the examination of temperature effects on seed germination, and to facilitate their cultivation in artificial environments. The results indicated that the seed germination requirements of the studied species had a range-specific temperature dependence, reflecting their natural adaptation to local ecological conditions. Seed germination of T. bakeri, T. australis, and T. clusiana was observed only in a narrow range of very low temperatures (5–10 °C), whereas germination of T. undulatifolia and T. goulimyi occurred at temperatures between 5 and 15 °C. A temperature increase to 20 or 25 °C resulted in the absence of seed germination for all five Greek tulip species. The germinated seeds were planted in pots and bulblets were developed under greenhouse conditions. Seeds and bulblets constitute valuable genetic materials for the cultivation and ex situ conservation of these five Greek tulip species, three of which are threatened with extinction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Conserving and Utilizing the Genetic Resources of Crop Wild Relatives)
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18 pages, 2548 KiB  
Article
NPK Accumulation, Physiology, and Production of Sour Passion Fruit under Salt Stress Irrigated with Brackish Water in the Phenological Stages and K Fertilization
by Geovani Soares de Lima, André Alisson Rodrigues da Silva, Rafaela Aparecida Frazão Torres, Lauriane Almeida dos Anjos Soares, Hans Raj Gheyi, Francisco Alves da Silva, Reginaldo Gomes Nobre, Carlos Alberto Vieira de Azevedo, Kilson Pinheiro Lopes, Lúcia Helena Garófalo Chaves and Vera Lúcia Antunes de Lima
Plants 2023, 12(7), 1573; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants12071573 - 06 Apr 2023
Viewed by 1481
Abstract
This research aimed to evaluate the effects of salt stress, varying the phenological stages, and K fertilization on NPK concentrations, physiology, and production of Passiflora edulis Sims. The research was carried out at the University Farm of São Domingos, Paraíba, Brazil, using a [...] Read more.
This research aimed to evaluate the effects of salt stress, varying the phenological stages, and K fertilization on NPK concentrations, physiology, and production of Passiflora edulis Sims. The research was carried out at the University Farm of São Domingos, Paraíba, Brazil, using a randomized block design with a 6 × 2 factorial arrangement. Six irrigation strategies were evaluated (use of low electrical conductivity water (0.3 dS m−1) during all stages of development and application of high-salinity water (4.0 dS m−1) in the following stages: vegetative, flowering, fruiting, successively in the vegetative/flowering, and vegetative/fruiting stages) and two potassium levels (207 and 345 g K2O per plant), with four replications and three plants per plot. The leaf concentrations of N, P, and K in the sour passion fruit plants found in the present study were below the optimal levels reported in the literature, regardless of the development stage and the cultivation cycle. The relative water content, stomatal conductance, and photosynthesis were reduced by salt stress in the first cycle. However, in the second cycle, irrigation with 4.0 dS m−1 in the vegetative/flowering stages increased the CO2 assimilation rate. Passion fruit is sensitive to salt stress in the vegetative/flowering stages of the first cycle. In the second cycle, salt stress in the fruiting stage resulted in higher production per plant. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Horticultural Crops under Stresses)
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15 pages, 4521 KiB  
Article
Rosa davurica Inhibited Allergic Mediators by Regulating Calcium and Histamine Signaling Pathways
by Seojun Lim, Sarang Oh, Quynh T. N. Nguyen, Myeongju Kim, Shengdao Zheng, Minzhe Fang and Tae-Hoo Yi
Plants 2023, 12(7), 1572; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants12071572 - 06 Apr 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1504
Abstract
Rosa davurica Pall. exhibits antioxidant, antiviral, and anti-inflammatory properties; however, its pharmacological mechanism in allergy is yet to be understood. This study confirmed the effects of R. davurica Pall. leaf extract (RLE) on allergy as a new promising material. To evaluate the therapeutic [...] Read more.
Rosa davurica Pall. exhibits antioxidant, antiviral, and anti-inflammatory properties; however, its pharmacological mechanism in allergy is yet to be understood. This study confirmed the effects of R. davurica Pall. leaf extract (RLE) on allergy as a new promising material. To evaluate the therapeutic potential of RLE against allergy, we investigated the effects of RLE on the regulatory β-hexosaminidase, histamine, histidine decarboxylase (HDC), Ca2+ influx, nitric oxide (NO), and cytokines induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and DNP-IgE/BSA in Raw 264.7 and RBL-2H3 cells. Furthermore, we examined the effects of RLE on the signaling pathways of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and Ca2+ pathways. After stimulating Raw 264.7 cells with LPS, RLE reduced the release of inflammatory mediators, such as NO, cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, inducible nitric oxygen synthase (iNOS), interleukin (IL)-1β, -6, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α. Also, RLE reduced the β-hexosaminidase, histamine, HDC, Ca2+ influx, Ca2+ pathways, and phosphorylation of MAPK in DNP-IgE/BSA-stimulated RBL-2H3 cells. Our studies indicated that RLE is a valuable ingredient for treating allergic diseases by regulating cytokine release from macrophages and mast cell degranulation. Consequently, these results suggested that RLE may serve as a possible alternative promising material for treating allergies. Full article
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16 pages, 2432 KiB  
Article
Essential Oil of Lavandula officinalis: Chemical Composition and Antibacterial Activities
by Khaoula Diass, Mohammed Merzouki, Kaoutar Elfazazi, Hanane Azzouzi, Allal Challioui, Khalil Azzaoui, Belkheir Hammouti, Rachid Touzani, Flore Depeint, Alicia Ayerdi Gotor and Larbi Rhazi
Plants 2023, 12(7), 1571; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants12071571 - 06 Apr 2023
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 4009
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to determine the chemical composition of the essential oil of Lavandula officinalis from Morocco using the GC-MS technique and assess the antibacterial effects against seven pathogenic bacteria strains isolated from the food origins of Salmonella infantis, [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study was to determine the chemical composition of the essential oil of Lavandula officinalis from Morocco using the GC-MS technique and assess the antibacterial effects against seven pathogenic bacteria strains isolated from the food origins of Salmonella infantis, Salmonella kentucky, Salmonella newport, three serotypes of Escherichia coli (O114H8K11, O127K88ac, O127H40K11) and Klebsiella. Tests of sensitivity were carried out on a solid surface using the Disc Diffusion Method. Results showed that E. coli and S.newport were sensitive to Lavandula officinalis essential oil. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) were determined using the method of agar dilution. The antibacterial results showed that four strains (three serotypes of E. coli, and S. newport) were remarkedly sensitive to Lavandula officinalis essential oil, giving MIC values of 88.7 µg/mL and 177.5 µg/mL. The molecular docking of the main oil products with the E. coli target protein 1VLY, showed that eucalyptol and linalyl acetate bind efficiently with the active site of the target protein. In particular, eucalyptol showed a higher activity than gentamicin used as positive control with a binding energy of −5.72 kcal/mol and −5.55 kcal/mol, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Activity of Natural Compounds)
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19 pages, 3264 KiB  
Article
Identification of Candidate Genes Involved in the Determinism of Pollen Grain Aperture Morphology by Comparative Transcriptome Analysis in Papaveraceae
by Ismael Mazuecos-Aguilera and Víctor N. Suárez-Santiago
Plants 2023, 12(7), 1570; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants12071570 - 06 Apr 2023
Viewed by 1166
Abstract
In the last decade, certain genes involved in pollen aperture formation have been discovered. However, those involved in pollen aperture shape remain largely unknown. In Arabidopsis, the interaction during the tetrad development stage of one member of the ELMOD protein family, ELMOD_E, [...] Read more.
In the last decade, certain genes involved in pollen aperture formation have been discovered. However, those involved in pollen aperture shape remain largely unknown. In Arabidopsis, the interaction during the tetrad development stage of one member of the ELMOD protein family, ELMOD_E, with two others, MCR/ELMOD_B and ELMOD_A, can change the morphology of apertures from colpus (elongated) to pore (round). Here, comparative transcriptome analysis is used to identify candidate genes involved in the determination of pollen aperture morphology in Papaveraceae (order Ranunculales). Furthermore, the role of ELMOD genes in the genetic determinism of aperture shape was tested by comparative analysis of their expression levels using RNA-seq data and RT-qPCR. Two pairs of species belonging to two different subfamilies were used. Within each pair, one species has colpate pollen and the other porate (Fumarioideae—Dactylicapnos torulosa, 6-colpate, and Fumaria bracteosa, pantoporate; Papaveroideae—Eschsholzia californica, 5–7 colpate, and Roemeria refracta, 6-porate). The transcriptomes were obtained at the tetrad stage of pollen development. A total of 531 DEGs were found between the colpate and porate pollen species groups. The results from RNA-seq and RT-qPCR indicate that pollen aperture shape is not determined by the relative expression levels of ELMOD family genes in Papaveraceae. However, genes related to callose wall formation or cytoskeleton organisation were found, these processes being involved in pollen aperture formation. In addition, transcriptomes from anthers with pollen during the tetrad stage of three species (D. torulosa, R. refracta, and F. bracteosa) were obtained for the first time. These data will be available for further studies in the field of floral evolution and development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Plant Genetics, Genomics and Biotechnology)
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39 pages, 4587 KiB  
Review
Adapting from Low to High: An Update to CO2-Concentrating Mechanisms of Cyanobacteria and Microalgae
by Elena V. Kupriyanova, Natalia A. Pronina and Dmitry A. Los
Plants 2023, 12(7), 1569; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants12071569 - 06 Apr 2023
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2701
Abstract
The intracellular accumulation of inorganic carbon (Ci) by microalgae and cyanobacteria under ambient atmospheric CO2 levels was first documented in the 80s of the 20th Century. Hence, a third variety of the CO2-concentrating mechanism (CCM), acting in aquatic [...] Read more.
The intracellular accumulation of inorganic carbon (Ci) by microalgae and cyanobacteria under ambient atmospheric CO2 levels was first documented in the 80s of the 20th Century. Hence, a third variety of the CO2-concentrating mechanism (CCM), acting in aquatic photoautotrophs with the C3 photosynthetic pathway, was revealed in addition to the then-known schemes of CCM, functioning in CAM and C4 higher plants. Despite the low affinity of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) of microalgae and cyanobacteria for the CO2 substrate and low CO2/O2 specificity, CCM allows them to perform efficient CO2 fixation in the reductive pentose phosphate (RPP) cycle. CCM is based on the coordinated operation of strategically located carbonic anhydrases and CO2/HCO3 uptake systems. This cooperation enables the intracellular accumulation of HCO3, which is then employed to generate a high concentration of CO2 molecules in the vicinity of Rubisco’s active centers compensating up for the shortcomings of enzyme features. CCM functions as an add-on to the RPP cycle while also acting as an important regulatory link in the interaction of dark and light reactions of photosynthesis. This review summarizes recent advances in the study of CCM molecular and cellular organization in microalgae and cyanobacteria, as well as the fundamental principles of its functioning and regulation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbonic Anhydrases and Carbon Metabolism in Plants)
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15 pages, 3896 KiB  
Article
Labellum Features and Chemical Composition of Floral Scent in Bulbophyllum carunculatum Garay, Hamer & Siegrist (Section Lepidorhiza Schltr., Bulbophyllinae Schltr., Orchidaceae Juss.)
by Natalia Wiśniewska, Marek Gołębiowski and Agnieszka K. Kowalkowska
Plants 2023, 12(7), 1568; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants12071568 - 06 Apr 2023
Viewed by 1422
Abstract
The vast majority of fly-pollinated Bulbophyllum species use a combination of visual and olfactory clues to mimic food sources and brood/oviposition sites of pollinators. The aims of the present work were to characterize the floral secretory tissue and the floral scent and compare [...] Read more.
The vast majority of fly-pollinated Bulbophyllum species use a combination of visual and olfactory clues to mimic food sources and brood/oviposition sites of pollinators. The aims of the present work were to characterize the floral secretory tissue and the floral scent and compare them with those previously described in B. echinolabium. Based on the histochemical results, the labellar secretion in B. carunculatum is the protein-rich mucilage. The adaxial epidermal cells of the labellum showed typical features of secretory activity. Plastids contained plastoglobuli, which are thought to be the places for scent production in osmophores. Juxtaposed with FeCl3 staining, the presence of dihydroxyphenolic globules in the cytoplasm of the epidermis and sub-epidermis was confirmed. Phenolic derivatives were also described with GC/MS analysis of the floral scent. The number of aromatic compounds and hydrocarbons was indicated in the floral scent of B. carunculatum. Moreover, pregnane-3,20-dione, occurring in the highest percentage in the floral fragrance of B. carunculatum, is a biologically active, 5-alpha-reduced metabolite of plasma progesterone. Progesterone is a mammalian gonadal hormone, but, like other steroid hormones, has been found in plants as intermediates in different biosynthetic pathways. The research on biosynthesis and functions of progesterone and its derivatives in flowers is still lacking. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Floral Secretory Tissue: Nectaries and Osmophores)
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20 pages, 2363 KiB  
Article
Genotyping by Sequencing for SNP-Based Linkage Analysis and the Development of KASPar Markers for Male Sterility and Polyembryony in Citrus
by Rafael Montalt, José Cuenca, María Carmen Vives, Pierre Mournet, Luis Navarro, Patrick Ollitrault and Pablo Aleza
Plants 2023, 12(7), 1567; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants12071567 - 06 Apr 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1550
Abstract
Polyembryony and male sterility (MS) are essential characters for citrus breeding. MS, coupled with parthenocarpy, allows for addressing the diversification of diploid seedless mandarin varieties, and nucleocytoplasmic MS is the most prevalent system. Polyembryony limits the use of seed parents in scion breeding [...] Read more.
Polyembryony and male sterility (MS) are essential characters for citrus breeding. MS, coupled with parthenocarpy, allows for addressing the diversification of diploid seedless mandarin varieties, and nucleocytoplasmic MS is the most prevalent system. Polyembryony limits the use of seed parents in scion breeding programs, and the recovery of monoembryonic hybrids to be used as female parents is a crucial pre-breeding component. The objectives of this work were the identification of SNPs closely linked with the genes implied in these traits for marker-assisted selection. Genotyping by sequencing was used to genotype 61 diploid hybrids from an F1 progeny recovered from crossing ‘Kiyomi’ and ‘Murcott’ tangors. A total of 6444 segregating markers were identified and used to establish the two parental genetic maps. They consisted of 1374 and 697 markers encompassing 1416.287 and 1339.735 cM for ‘Kiyomi’ and ‘Murcott’, respectively. Phenotyping for MS and polyembryony was performed. The genotype–trait association study identified a genomic region on LG8 which was significantly associated with MS, and a genomic region on LG1 which was significantly associated with polyembryony. Annotation of the identified region for MS revealed 19 candidate genes. One SNP KASPar marker was developed and fully validated for each trait. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Breeding, Genetics, and Genomics of Citrus)
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19 pages, 3684 KiB  
Article
Nomenclature Survey of the Genus Amaranthus (Amaranthaceae): 12 Questions about Amaranthus caudatus
by Duilio Iamonico
Plants 2023, 12(7), 1566; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants12071566 - 05 Apr 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1529
Abstract
Nomenclatural and taxonomic issues concerning Amaranthus caudatus and the related taxa are presented. Types are designated for names A. caudatus var. albiflorus (neotype at RO), A. caudatus var. atropurpureus (neotype at GH), A. caudatus var. gibbosus (neotype at RO), A. dussi (neotype at [...] Read more.
Nomenclatural and taxonomic issues concerning Amaranthus caudatus and the related taxa are presented. Types are designated for names A. caudatus var. albiflorus (neotype at RO), A. caudatus var. atropurpureus (neotype at GH), A. caudatus var. gibbosus (neotype at RO), A. dussi (neotype at NAP), and A. edulis (lectotype at LP). Holotypes are indicated for the names A. caudatus var. pseudopaniculatus f. oblongipetalus (EA), A. caudatus var. pseudopaniculatus f. pseudopaniculatus (EA), A. caudatus subsp. saueri (PR), and Amaranthus edulis var. spadiceus (CORD). The names A. caudatus var. albiflorus, A. caudatus var. atropurpureus, A. caudatus subsp. saueri, A. dussi, and Amaranthus edulis var. spadiceus are considered as hererotypic synonyms of A. caudatus. On the basis of morphological, cytological, and molecular data, the taxa caudatus, mantegazzianus, and gibbosus are here proposed to be treated as different species. A new name—Amaranthus baileyanus—is proposed for A. caudatus var. gibbosus because of a previous and validly published Amaranthus gibbosus. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Taxonomy and Nomenclature of Caryophyllales)
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14 pages, 7315 KiB  
Article
The Impact of Carbohydrate Management on Coleoptile Elongation in Anaerobically Germinating Seeds of Rice (Oryza sativa L.) under Light and Dark Cycles
by Haru Hirano, Takeru Watanabe, Mika Fukuda and Takeshi Fukao
Plants 2023, 12(7), 1565; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants12071565 - 05 Apr 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1633
Abstract
The ability of rice to elongate coleoptiles under oxygen deprivation is a determinant of anaerobic germination tolerance, critical for successful direct seeding. Most studies on anaerobic coleoptile elongation have been performed under constant darkness or in flooded soils because a drilling method was [...] Read more.
The ability of rice to elongate coleoptiles under oxygen deprivation is a determinant of anaerobic germination tolerance, critical for successful direct seeding. Most studies on anaerobic coleoptile elongation have been performed under constant darkness or in flooded soils because a drilling method was the primary approach for direct seeding of rice. However, aerial seeding is becoming popular, in which seeds which land on flooded soils are exposed to light during the daytime. Here, we investigated physiological mechanisms underlying anaerobic elongation of coleoptiles under light and dark cycles. This study identified two novel varieties, LG and L202, enabling the development of long coleoptiles under oxygen limitation, comparable to well-characterized varieties with strong anaerobic germination tolerance. Germination experiments using these two tolerant and two intolerant varieties, including Takanari and IR64, revealed that light and dark cycles increased coleoptile length in LG, Takanari, and IR64 relative to constant darkness. Interestingly, even in intolerant lines, dramatic starch breakdown and soluble carbohydrate accumulation occurred under oxygen limitation. However, intolerant lines were more susceptible to a representative soluble sugar, glucose, than tolerant lines under oxygen deprivation, suggesting that coleoptile growth can be inhibited in intolerant lines due to hypersensitivity to soluble sugars accumulated in anaerobically germinating seeds. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Genetic and Environmental Factors Affecting Seed Germination)
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23 pages, 25992 KiB  
Article
Nuclear DNA Amounts in Chinese Bryophytes Estimated by Flow Cytometry: Variation Patterns and Biological Significances
by Dandan Li, Guangyu Luo, Shuiliang Guo, Ruoling Huang, Jun Yang, Tong Cao and Jing Yu
Plants 2023, 12(7), 1564; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants12071564 - 05 Apr 2023
Viewed by 1206
Abstract
There exists an obvious gap in our knowledge of the nuclear DNA amount of bryophytes, not only in terms of the low number of species represented, but also in systematic and geographic representation. In order to increase our knowledge of nuclear DNA amounts [...] Read more.
There exists an obvious gap in our knowledge of the nuclear DNA amount of bryophytes, not only in terms of the low number of species represented, but also in systematic and geographic representation. In order to increase our knowledge of nuclear DNA amounts and variation patterns in bryophytes, and their potential phylogenetic significances and influences on phenotypes, we used flow cytometry to determine the DNA 1C values of 209 bryophyte accessions, which belong to 145 mosses and 18 liverworts collected from China, by using Physcomitrella patens as a standard. We quantified the differences in DNA 1C values among different orders and families and constructed a phylogenetic tree of 112 mosses with four gene sequences (nad5, rbcL, trnL-F, and 18S-ITS1-5.8S-ITS2-26S). DNA 1C values were mapped onto the phylogenetic tree to test a potential phylogenetic signal. We also evaluated the correlations of the DNA 1C value with the sizes of individuals, leaves, cells, and spores by using a phylogenetically controlled analysis. New estimates of nuclear DNA amounts were reported for 145 species. The DNA 1C values of 209 bryophyte accessions ranged from 0.422 pg to 0.860 pg, with an average value of 0.561 pg, and a 2.04-fold variation covered the extremes of all the accessions. Although the values are not significantly different (p = 0.355) between mosses (0.528 pg) and liverworts (0.542 pg), there are variations to varying extents between some families and orders. The DNA 1C value size exerts a positive effect on the sizes of plants, leaves, and cells, but a negative effect on spore size. A weak phylogenetic signal is detected across most moss species. Phylogenetic signals are comparatively strong for some lineages. Our findings show that bryophytes have very small and highly constrained nuclear DNA amounts. There are nucleotype effects of nuclear DNA amounts for bryophytes at the individual, organ, and cell levels. We speculate that smaller nuclear DNA amounts are advantageous for bryophytes in dry environments. Significant differences in the DNA 1C values among some moss families and orders, as well as phylogenetic signals for some lineages, imply that nuclear DNA amount evolution in mosses seems to be unidirectional. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Knowledge in Bryology 2.0)
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12 pages, 3074 KiB  
Article
Effective Induction of Fertile Gametes in Oriental × Trumpet (OT) Lily by High Temperatures
by Yi-Xuan Huang, Peng-Cheng Yu, Qian Zhang, Zhi-Yi Yue, Mei-Ling Piao, Xue Gao and Gui-Xia Jia
Plants 2023, 12(7), 1563; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants12071563 - 05 Apr 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1550
Abstract
Lily is a very important bulb crop, and interspecific distant hybridization is a crucial method of lily breeding. However, F1 interspecific hybrids tend to be highly sterile due to low levels of genetic homozygosity. This can be addressed by meiotic polyploidization, which [...] Read more.
Lily is a very important bulb crop, and interspecific distant hybridization is a crucial method of lily breeding. However, F1 interspecific hybrids tend to be highly sterile due to low levels of genetic homozygosity. This can be addressed by meiotic polyploidization, which has the advantage of reducing breeding time and being able to promote genetic recombination resulting in many variant progenies. High temperatures have been proven to induce 2n gametes via hindering a spindle formation in several plants, but little has been reported in lilies. In the present study, after observing the correlation between the development of the pollen mother cells (PMCs) and the length of the buds, 28–31 mm long buds were selected as the experimental material, which were at the stage of prophase I–metaphase I. Individual buds were induced at different temperatures (40 °C, 42 °C, and 44 °C) and durations (4 h and 6 h) using self-made multiwire heating equipment, and successfully induced fertile male gametes.. The best results were achieved with treatment of 42 °C for 4 h, reaching a maximum fertile pollen induction rate of 36.64%, while bud mortality was 40%. Two chemicals, colchicine and oryzalin, were also used by injection, and only the treatment with oryzalin obtained fertile gametes, with the highest fertile gamete rate of 15.39% at a concentration of 0.005%, while the bud mortality was 36.67%. This suggests that high temperatures have a superior effect on lily 2n gamete induction. In addition, the pollen obtained from the 6 h induction of high temperature was significantly larger than that from the 4 h induction, with an average diameter of 138.64 μm and 107.88 μm, respectively, 2.35 and 1.84 times wider than haploid pollen. The fertile pollen was crossed with four cultivars and two species, and a total of 267 embryonic seeds were obtained, with the highest embryonic rate of 4.52% in OT lily ‘Mister Cas’ as the parent, which had a germination rate of 26.27%. This suggests that the method of high-temperature induction for fertile gametes probably has important significance for ploidy and distant hybrid breeding in lilies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Plant Development and Morphogenesis)
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11 pages, 2862 KiB  
Article
The Effect of Stress Hormones, Ultraviolet C, and Stilbene Precursors on Expression of Calcineurin B-like Protein (CBL) and CBL-Interacting Protein Kinase (CIPK) Genes in Cell Cultures and Leaves of Vitis amurensis Rupr
by Konstantin V. Kiselev, Olga A. Aleynova, Zlata V. Ogneva, Andrey R. Suprun, Alexey A. Ananev, Nikolay N. Nityagovsky, Alina A. Dneprovskaya, Alina A. Beresh and Alexandra S. Dubrovina
Plants 2023, 12(7), 1562; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants12071562 - 05 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1290
Abstract
Calcium serves as a crucial messenger in plant stress adaptation and developmental processes. Plants encode several multigene families of calcium sensor proteins with diverse functions in plant growth and stress responses. Several studies indicated that some calcium sensors may be involved in the [...] Read more.
Calcium serves as a crucial messenger in plant stress adaptation and developmental processes. Plants encode several multigene families of calcium sensor proteins with diverse functions in plant growth and stress responses. Several studies indicated that some calcium sensors may be involved in the regulation of secondary metabolite production in plant cells. The present study aimed to investigate expression of calcineurin B-like proteins (CBL) and CBL-interacting protein kinase (CIPK) in response to conditions inducting biosynthesis of stilbenes in grapevine. We investigated CBL and CIPK gene expression in wild-growing grapevine Vitis amurensis Rupr., known as a rich stilbene source, in response to the application of stilbene biosynthesis-inducing conditions, including application of stress hormones (salicylic acid or SA, methyl jasmonate or MeJA), phenolic precursors (p-coumaric acids or CA), and ultraviolet irradiation (UV-C). The influence of these effectors on the levels of 13 VaCBL and 27 VaCIPK mRNA transcripts as well as on stilbene production was analyzed by quantitative real-time RT-PCR in the leaves and cell cultures of V. amurensis. The data revealed that VaCBL4-1 expression considerably increased after UV-C treatment in both grapevine cell cultures and leaves. The expression of VaCIPK31, 41-1, and 41-2 also increased, but this increase was mostly detected in cell cultures of V. amurensis. At the same time, expression of most VaCBL and VaCIPK genes was markedly down-regulated both in leaves and cell cultures of V. amurensis, which may indicate that the CBLs and CIPKs are involved in negative regulation of stilbene accumulation (VaCBL8, 10a-2, 10a-4, 11, 12, VaCIPK3, 9-1, 9-2, 12, 21-1, 21-2, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 39, 40, 41-3, 41-4). The results obtained provide new information of CBL and CIPK implication in the regulation of plant secondary metabolism in response to stress hormones, metabolite precursors, and UV-C irradiation. Full article
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13 pages, 1913 KiB  
Article
Impact of Prosopis velutina Wooton on the Composition and Diversity of Native Woody Species in a Semi-Arid Zone along the Molopo River, South Africa
by Makuété A. P. Tiawoun, Pieter W. Malan, Alvino A. Comole and Moleseng C. Moshobane
Plants 2023, 12(7), 1561; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants12071561 - 05 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1230
Abstract
Invasive alien species represent one of the main threats to biodiversity and species extinction. This is the case for the genus Prosopis, among which Prosopis velutina is the most invasive and common tree species along the Molopo River in the North-West Province, impacting [...] Read more.
Invasive alien species represent one of the main threats to biodiversity and species extinction. This is the case for the genus Prosopis, among which Prosopis velutina is the most invasive and common tree species along the Molopo River in the North-West Province, impacting native plant communities. However, its impact on the composition and diversity of native woody species remains poorly investigated in the area. Thus, this study aimed to assess the impact of P. velutina on native woody plant composition and diversity across three sites along the Molopo River. At each site, five quadrats of 20 × 20 m2 were randomly established in invaded and adjacent uninvaded stands. A comparative methodological approach was adopted, and the woody plants in invaded and uninvaded stands with similar site conditions were sampled. The results showed that native woody species density differed significantly (p < 0.05) between invaded and uninvaded stands, except for Bray sites, where there was a marginal difference (p = 0.6). The overall native woody species density decreased by 79.7% in the invaded stand. However, non-metric multidimensional scaling (nMDS) and analysis of similarity (ANOSIM) indicated significant differences in native tree composition between invaded and uninvaded stands at all sites. In all three sites, all ecological indices had significantly lower values in invaded stands compared to uninvaded stands. The decrease in all ecological indices in invaded over uninvaded stands indicated that P. velutina invasion reduced the diversity of native woody plant species. Due to the incessant spread of P. velutina, it may become a long-term dominant species with an increasing impact on the native vegetation. Therefore, the findings of this study call for urgent management and appropriate control measures against the ongoing spread of this invader within the riparian zones of the Molopo River in North-West Province. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Invasion Ecology)
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15 pages, 2104 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of Miscanthus × giganteus Tolerance to Trace Element Stress: Field Experiment with Soils Possessing Gradient Cd, Pb, and Zn Concentrations
by Giulia Bastia, Karim Suhail Al Souki and Bertrand Pourrut
Plants 2023, 12(7), 1560; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants12071560 - 05 Apr 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1067
Abstract
Miscanthus × giganteus demonstrated good phytostabilization potentials by decreasing the trace elements (T.E.s) mobility and enhancing the degraded soil quality. Nevertheless, most of the published work was performed under controlled conditions in ex situ pot experiments and/or with soils being spiked. Hence, data [...] Read more.
Miscanthus × giganteus demonstrated good phytostabilization potentials by decreasing the trace elements (T.E.s) mobility and enhancing the degraded soil quality. Nevertheless, most of the published work was performed under controlled conditions in ex situ pot experiments and/or with soils being spiked. Hence, data about the plant’s tolerance to increased T.E. concentrations in real conditions is still scarce and requires further investigation. For this sake, a field experiment was established by cultivating miscanthus plants in three different agricultural plots representing gradient trace element (Cd, Pb and Zn) concentrations. Another uncontaminated plot was also introduced. Results showed that T.E. concentrations in the leaves were tolerable to the plant. In addition, no variations were detected between the miscanthus cultivated in the contaminated and uncontaminated soils at the level of antioxidant enzymatic activities (ascorbate peroxidase and superoxide dismutase), photosynthetic pigments (chlorophyll a and b and carotenoids), and secondary metabolites (phenolic compounds, flavonoids, anthocyanins, and tannins). These outcomes validate the high capacity of miscanthus to resist and tolerate contaminated conditions. Such results may contribute to further understanding of the miscanthus tolerance mechanisms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Insight into Cadmium Phytoremediation)
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16 pages, 3283 KiB  
Article
Spatial Distribution Characteristics of Suitable Planting Areas for Pyrus Species under Climate Change in China
by Mi Wang, Zhuowei Hu, Yongcai Wang and Wenji Zhao
Plants 2023, 12(7), 1559; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants12071559 - 05 Apr 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1527
Abstract
Planting suitability determines the distribution and yield of crops in a given region which can be greatly affected by climate change. In recent years, many studies have shown that carbon dioxide fertilization effects increase the productivity of temperate deciduous fruit trees under a [...] Read more.
Planting suitability determines the distribution and yield of crops in a given region which can be greatly affected by climate change. In recent years, many studies have shown that carbon dioxide fertilization effects increase the productivity of temperate deciduous fruit trees under a changing climate, but the potential risks to fruit tree planting caused by a reduction in suitable planting areas are rarely reported. In this study, Maxent was first used to investigate the spatial distribution of five Pyrus species in China, and the consistency between the actual production area and the modeled climatically suitable area under the current climatic conditions were determined. In addition, based on Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 6, three climate models were used to simulate the change in suitable area and the migration trend for different species under different emission scenarios (SSP1-2.6, SSP2-4.5, SSP3-7.0 and SSP5-8.5). The results showed that the suitable area for pear was highly consistent with the actual main production area under current climate conditions. The potential planting areas of P. ussuriensis showed a downward trend under all emission paths from 2020 to 2100; other species showed a trend of increasing first and then decreasing or slowing down and this growth effect was the most obvious in 2020–2040. Except for P. pashia, other species showed a migration trend toward a high latitude, and the trend was more prominent under the high emission path. Our results emphasize the response difference between species to climate change, and the method of consistency analysis between suitable planting area and actual production regions cannot only evaluate the potential planting risk but also provide a reasonable idea for the accuracy test of the modeled results. This work has certain guiding and reference significance for the protection of pear germplasm resources and the prediction of yield. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Responses of Vegetation to Global Climate Change)
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18 pages, 4134 KiB  
Article
The Contribution of Epigenetics to Evolutionary Adaptation in Zingiber kawagoii Hayata (Zingiberaceae) Endemic to Taiwan
by Yi-Shao Li, Pei-Chun Liao, Chung-Te Chang and Shih-Ying Hwang
Plants 2023, 12(7), 1558; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants12071558 - 04 Apr 2023
Viewed by 1276
Abstract
We epigenotyped 211 individuals from 17 Zingiber kawagoii populations using methylation-sensitive amplification polymorphism (MSAP) and investigated the associations of methylated (mMSAP) and unmethylated (uMSAP) loci with 16 environmental variables. Data regarding genetic variation based on amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) were obtained from [...] Read more.
We epigenotyped 211 individuals from 17 Zingiber kawagoii populations using methylation-sensitive amplification polymorphism (MSAP) and investigated the associations of methylated (mMSAP) and unmethylated (uMSAP) loci with 16 environmental variables. Data regarding genetic variation based on amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) were obtained from an earlier study. We found a significant positive correlation between genetic and epigenetic variation. Significantly higher mean mMSAP and uMSAP uHE (unbiased expected heterozygosity: 0.223 and 0.131, respectively, p < 0.001) per locus than that estimated based on AFLP (uHE = 0.104) were found. Genome scans detected 10 mMSAP and 9 uMSAP FST outliers associated with various environmental variables. A significant linear fit for 11 and 12 environmental variables with outlier mMSAP and uMSAP ordination, respectively, generated using full model redundancy analysis (RDA) was found. When conditioned on geography, partial RDA revealed that five and six environmental variables, respectively, were the most important variables influencing outlier mMSAP and uMSAP variation. We found higher genetic (average FST = 0.298) than epigenetic (mMSAP and uMSAP average FST = 0.044 and 0.106, respectively) differentiation and higher genetic isolation-by-distance (IBD) than epigenetic IBD. Strong epigenetic isolation-by-environment (IBE) was found, particularly based on the outlier data, controlling either for geography (mMSAP and uMSAP βE = 0.128 and 0.132, respectively, p = 0.001) or for genetic structure (mMSAP and uMSAP βE = 0.105 and 0.136, respectively, p = 0.001). Our results suggest that epigenetic variants can be substrates for natural selection linked to environmental variables and complement genetic changes in the adaptive evolution of Z. kawagoii populations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Epigenetics and Genome Evolution in Plants)
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13 pages, 2464 KiB  
Article
The Identification of a Yield-Related Gene Controlling Multiple Traits Using GWAS in Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.)
by Yizhong Zhang, Xinqi Fan, Du Liang, Qi Guo, Xiaojuan Zhang, Mengen Nie, Chunhong Li, Shan Meng, Xianggui Zhang, Peng Xu, Wenqi Guo, Huiyan Wang, Qingshan Liu and Yuxiang Wu
Plants 2023, 12(7), 1557; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants12071557 - 04 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1489
Abstract
Sorghum bicolor (L.) is one of the oldest crops cultivated by human beings which has been used in food and wine making. To understand the genetic diversity of sorghum breeding resources and further guide molecular-marker-assisted breeding, six yield-related traits were analyzed for 214 [...] Read more.
Sorghum bicolor (L.) is one of the oldest crops cultivated by human beings which has been used in food and wine making. To understand the genetic diversity of sorghum breeding resources and further guide molecular-marker-assisted breeding, six yield-related traits were analyzed for 214 sorghum germplasm from all over the world, and 2,811,016 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) markers were produced by resequencing these germplasms. After controlling Q and K, QTLs were found to be related to the traits using three algorisms. Interestingly, an important QTL was found which may affect multiple traits in this study. It was the most likely candidate gene for the gene SORBI_3008G116500, which was a homolog of Arabidopsis thaliana gene-VIP5 found by analyzing the annotation of the gene in the LD block. The haplotype analysis showed that the SORBI_3008G116500hap3 was the elite haplotype, and it only existed in Chinese germplasms. The traits were proven to be more associated with the SNPs of the SORBI_3008G116500 promoter through gene association studies. Overall, the QTLs and the genes identified in this study would benefit molecular-assisted yield breeding in sorghum. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cereal Crop Breeding)
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24 pages, 2775 KiB  
Article
Seed Priming with the Selenium Nanoparticles Maintains the Redox Status in the Water Stressed Tomato Plants by Modulating the Antioxidant Defense Enzymes
by Muhammad Ishtiaq, Muhammad Waqas Mazhar, Mehwish Maqbool, Tanveer Hussain, Syed Atiq Hussain, Ryan Casini, Ahmed M. Abd-ElGawad and Hosam O. Elansary
Plants 2023, 12(7), 1556; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants12071556 - 04 Apr 2023
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2177
Abstract
In the present research, selenium nanoparticles (SeNPs) were tested for their use as seed priming agents under field trials on tomatoes (Solanum lycopersicum L.) for their efficacy in conferring drought tolerance. Four different seed priming regimes of SeNPs were created, comprising 25, [...] Read more.
In the present research, selenium nanoparticles (SeNPs) were tested for their use as seed priming agents under field trials on tomatoes (Solanum lycopersicum L.) for their efficacy in conferring drought tolerance. Four different seed priming regimes of SeNPs were created, comprising 25, 50, 75, and 100 ppm, along with a control treatment of 0 ppm. Seeds were planted in split plots under two irrigation regimes comprising water and water stress. The results suggest that seed priming with SeNPs can improve tomato crop performance under drought stress. Plants grown with 75 ppm SeNPs-primed seeds had lower hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels by 39.3% and 28.9%, respectively. Seed priming with 75 ppm SeNPs further increased the superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) functions by 34.9 and 25.4%, respectively. The same treatment increased the total carotenoids content by 13.5%, α-tocopherols content by 22.8%, total flavonoids content by 25.2%, total anthocyanins content by 19.6%, ascorbic acid content by 26.4%, reduced glutathione (GSH) content by 14.8%, and oxidized glutathione (GSSG) content by 13.12%. Furthermore, seed priming with SeNPs upregulated the functions of enzymes of ascorbate glutathione cycle. Seed priming with SeNPs is a smart application to sustain tomato production in arid lands. Full article
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19 pages, 3266 KiB  
Article
Transcriptional Profile of Soybean Seeds with Contrasting Seed Coat Color
by João M. Kafer, Mayla D. C. Molinari, Fernando A. Henning, Alessandra Koltun, Viviani V. Marques, Silvana R. R. Marin, Alexandre L. Nepomuceno and Liliane M. Mertz-Henning
Plants 2023, 12(7), 1555; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants12071555 - 04 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1757
Abstract
Soybean is the primary source of vegetable protein and is used for various purposes, mainly to feed animals. This crop can have diverse seed coat colors, varying from yellow, black, brown, and green to bicolor. Black seed coat cultivars have already been assigned [...] Read more.
Soybean is the primary source of vegetable protein and is used for various purposes, mainly to feed animals. This crop can have diverse seed coat colors, varying from yellow, black, brown, and green to bicolor. Black seed coat cultivars have already been assigned as favorable for both seed and grain production. Thus, this work aimed to identify genes associated with soybean seed quality by comparing the transcriptomes of soybean seeds with contrasting seed coat colors. The results from RNA-seq analyses were validated with real-time PCR using the cultivar BRS 715A (black seed coat) and the cultivars BRS 413 RR and DM 6563 IPRO (yellow seed coat). We found 318 genes differentially expressed in all cultivars (freshly harvested seeds and seeds stored in cold chamber). From the in silico analysis of the transcriptomes, the following genes were selected and validated with RT-qPCR: ACS1, ACSF3, CYP90A1, CYP710A1, HCT, CBL, and SAHH. These genes are genes induced in the black seed coat cultivar and are part of pathways responsible for ethylene, lipid, brassinosteroid, lignin, and sulfur amino acid biosynthesis. The BRSMG 715A gene has almost 4times more lignin than the yellow seed coat cultivars. These attributes are related to the BRSMG 715A cultivar’s higher seed quality, which translates to more longevity and resistance to moisture and mechanical damage. Future silencing studies may evaluate the knockout of these genes to better understand the biology of soybean seeds with black seed coat. Full article
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19 pages, 2953 KiB  
Article
Morphological Characterization of Nicotiana tabacum Inflorescences and Chemical-Functional Analysis of Extracts Obtained from Its Powder by Using Green Solvents (NaDESs)
by Mariana Leal, María Alejandra Moreno, Patricia Liliana Albornoz, María Inés Mercado, Iris Catiana Zampini and María Inés Isla
Plants 2023, 12(7), 1554; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants12071554 - 04 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2226
Abstract
The production of smokeable tobacco for use in cigarettes is characterized by the production of pre-harvest and post-harvest waste, with ensuing undesirable effects on the environment. The inflorescences of tobacco after blunting, deflowering, or topping are considered pre-harvest waste and left in the [...] Read more.
The production of smokeable tobacco for use in cigarettes is characterized by the production of pre-harvest and post-harvest waste, with ensuing undesirable effects on the environment. The inflorescences of tobacco after blunting, deflowering, or topping are considered pre-harvest waste and left in the field. Using green and ecofriendly solvents such as Natural deep eutectic solvents (NaDESs), these wastes could be used to obtain antioxidant molecules of interest in cosmetics. Taking into account its potential as plant matrix to obtain metabolites of commercial interest, tobacco inflorescences and inflorescence powders of different particle sizes were characterized by optic and electronic microscopy. Thus, the powdered inflorescences were extracted with four conventional solvents, i.e., distilled water (DW), acetone: distilled water (AW), ethanol 70° (EW), methanol (Me), and five NaDESs, i.e., lactic acid: sucrose (LAS), lactic acid: sucrose: distilled water (SALA), fructose: glucose: sucrose: distilled water (FGS), choline chloride: urea: distilled water (CU), and citric acid: propylene glycol (CAP). Among the tested NADESs, SALA was the most promising solvent; higher extraction yields of total phenolic compound (3420.0 ± 9.4 µg GAE/mL) than conventional solvents were attained and it was the only selective solvent to phenolics. CU was the best solvent for flavonoids and alkaloids extraction (215.3 ± 3.2 µg QE/mL and 392.3 ± 8.0 µg ACE/mL, respectively). All extracts showed antioxidant activity. A heatmap with dendrogram and main component analysis showed that acid-based NaDESs are grouped together, this group being the one with the best performance in H2O2 scavenging. The extracts obtained with green solvents could be used directly in cosmetic formulations as antioxidant ingredients because both tobacco flower oil and flower extracts are listed in the cosmetic ingredients database as non-toxic products. Additionally, the demand for sustainable ecological cosmetics is growing. In this sense, NaDESs represent an opportunity to develop innovative extracts with unique phytochemical fingerprints and biological activities. Full article
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17 pages, 2237 KiB  
Article
Nitrogen Application Can Be Reduced without Affecting Carotenoid Content, Maturation, Shelf Life and Yield of Greenhouse Tomatoes
by Dimitra Chormova, Victor Kavvadias, Edward Okello, Robert Shiel and Kirsten Brandt
Plants 2023, 12(7), 1553; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants12071553 - 04 Apr 2023
Viewed by 1239
Abstract
Tomatoes (Solanum lycopersicum L.) of the variety Elpida were grown under standard Mediterranean greenhouse conditions during the spring season at three different nitrogen levels (low 6.4, standard 12.8, high 25.9 mM/plant), which were replicated during two consecutive years. Application of high nitrogen [...] Read more.
Tomatoes (Solanum lycopersicum L.) of the variety Elpida were grown under standard Mediterranean greenhouse conditions during the spring season at three different nitrogen levels (low 6.4, standard 12.8, high 25.9 mM/plant), which were replicated during two consecutive years. Application of high nitrogen significantly increased the colour index a* (p < 0.001) but did not significantly affect yield or quality. The variety exhibited prolonged postharvest storage at room temperature (median survival time of 93 days). The maturation process was delayed by harvest at the breaker stage (2.5 days, p ≤ 0.001) or by super-optimal temperatures in the second year of experimentation (10 days, p ≤ 0.001). The colour indices L* and a* and the hue angle (a/b*) were positively correlated with the sum of total carotenoids, while differences in b* depended on the year of cultivation. The sustainability of this type of tomato production can be improved by reducing the nitrogen supply to less than the current standard practice, with minimal risk or negative effects on yield and quality of tomatoes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Crop Physiology and Crop Production)
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18 pages, 5523 KiB  
Article
The Invasive Plant Impatiens glandulifera Manipulates Microbial Associates of Competing Native Species
by Nadia Ab Razak, Alan C. Gange, Brian C. Sutton and Asyraf Mansor
Plants 2023, 12(7), 1552; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants12071552 - 04 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1685
Abstract
Impatiens glandulifera or Himalayan balsam is one of the most invasive weeds across Europe and can seriously reduce native plant diversity. It often forms continuous monocultures along river banks, but the mechanisms of this arrested succession are largely unknown. Here, we investigated the [...] Read more.
Impatiens glandulifera or Himalayan balsam is one of the most invasive weeds across Europe and can seriously reduce native plant diversity. It often forms continuous monocultures along river banks, but the mechanisms of this arrested succession are largely unknown. Here, we investigated the effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi on balsam competitive ability with two native plant species, Plantago lanceolata and Holcus lanatus. We also studied how competition with Impatiens affects colonisation by foliar endophytes and mycorrhizas of two other co-occurring native species, Urtica dioica and Cirsium arvense. Mycorrhizal colonisation reduced balsam growth when the plants were grown singly, but appeared to have little effect when balsam experienced intra- or interspecific competition. Competition with balsam together with the addition of mycorrhizas had no effect on P. lanceolata biomass, suggesting that the fungi were beneficial to the latter, enabling it to compete effectively with balsam. However, this was not so with H. lanatus. Meanwhile, competition with Impatiens reduced endophyte numbers and mycorrhizal colonisation in U. dioica and C. arvense, leading to enhanced susceptibility of these plants to insect attack. Himalayan balsam is known to degrade soil fungal populations and can also reduce foliar beneficial fungi in neighbouring plants. This allows the plant to compete effectively with itself and other native species, thereby leading to the continuous monocultures. Full article
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17 pages, 4974 KiB  
Article
Addressing the Relationship between Leaf Nitrogen and Carbon Isotope Discrimination from the Three Levels of Community, Population and Individual
by Shuhan Wang, Yaowen Han, Yufu Jia, Zixun Chen and Guoan Wang
Plants 2023, 12(7), 1551; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants12071551 - 04 Apr 2023
Viewed by 1087
Abstract
The carbon, nitrogen and water cycles of terrestrial ecosystems are important biogeochemical cycles. Addressing the relationship of leaf nitrogen (N) and carbon isotope discrimination (Δ) will enhance the understanding of the links between these three cycles in plant leaves because Δ can reflect [...] Read more.
The carbon, nitrogen and water cycles of terrestrial ecosystems are important biogeochemical cycles. Addressing the relationship of leaf nitrogen (N) and carbon isotope discrimination (Δ) will enhance the understanding of the links between these three cycles in plant leaves because Δ can reflect time-integrated leaf-level water-use efficiency (WUE) over the period when the leaf material is produced. Previous studies have paid considerable attention to the relationship. However, these studies have not effectively eliminated the interference of environmental factors, inter-species, and inter-individual differences in this relationship, so new research is necessary. To minimize these interferences, the present work explored the relationship at the three levels of community, population, and plant individual. Three patterns of positive, negative and no relationship were observed across communities, populations, and individuals, which is dependent on environmental conditions, species, and plant individuals. The results strongly suggested that there is no general pattern for the relationship between leaf N and Δ. Furthermore, the results indicated that there is often no coupling between leaf-level long-term WUE and leaf N in the metabolic process of carbon, N and water in leaves. The main reason for the lack of this relationship is that most plants do not invest large amounts of nitrogen into photosynthesis. In addition, the present study also observed that, for most plant species, leaf N was not related to photosynthetic rate, and that variations in photosynthetic rates are mainly driven by stomatal conductance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water and Nitrogen Management in Soil-Crop System II)
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17 pages, 1082 KiB  
Review
Shade-Induced Leaf Senescence in Plants
by Zhuang Li, Tao Zhao, Jun Liu, Hongyu Li and Bin Liu
Plants 2023, 12(7), 1550; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants12071550 - 04 Apr 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2420
Abstract
Leaf senescence is a vital developmental process that involves the orderly breakdown of macromolecules to transfer nutrients from mature leaves to emerging and reproductive organs. This process is essential for a plant’s overall fitness. Multiple internal and external factors, such as leaf age, [...] Read more.
Leaf senescence is a vital developmental process that involves the orderly breakdown of macromolecules to transfer nutrients from mature leaves to emerging and reproductive organs. This process is essential for a plant’s overall fitness. Multiple internal and external factors, such as leaf age, plant hormones, stresses, and light environment, regulate the onset and progression of leaf senescence. When plants grow close to each other or are shaded, it results in significant alterations in light quantity and quality, such as a decrease in photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), a drop in red/far-red light ratios, and a reduction in blue light fluence rate, which triggers premature leaf senescence. Recently, studies have identified various components involved in light, phytohormone, and other signaling pathways that regulate the leaf senescence process in response to shade. This review summarizes the current knowledge on the molecular mechanisms that control leaf senescence induced by shade. Full article
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