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Plants, Volume 11, Issue 9 (May-1 2022) – 176 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): The tree bark periderm protects the xylem from the environment. When this normal periderm is damaged, the internal tissues become susceptible to infections and to water and solute loss. The ability of a plant to restore the integrity of the bark periderm upon physical injury is thus critical to its survival. Upon mechanical damage, a wound periderm is formed that, similarly to the native periderm, contains suberized cells (cork). Suberin is a cell-wall-specific lipid biopolymer that confers barrier properties to the periderm. Here, we investigated a time course of wound-induced suberization in poplar bark by monitoring changes in histochemistry, wax and polymer chemistry, and candidate gene expression, providing novel insight into this important tree defense process. View this paper.
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12 pages, 1843 KiB  
Article
Genome-Wide Association Study of Phenylalanine Derived Glucosinolates in Brassica rapa
by Guoxia Shang, Huiyan Zhao, Linhui Tong, Nengwen Yin, Ran Hu, Haiyan Jiang, Farah Kamal, Zhi Zhao, Liang Xu, Kun Lu, Jiana Li, Cunmin Qu and Dezhi Du
Plants 2022, 11(9), 1274; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11091274 - 9 May 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2143
Abstract
Glucosinolates (GSLs) are sulfur-containing bioactive compounds usually present in Brassicaceae plants and are usually responsible for a pungent flavor and reduction of the nutritional values of seeds. Therefore, breeding rapeseed varieties with low GSL levels is an important breeding objective. Most GSLs in [...] Read more.
Glucosinolates (GSLs) are sulfur-containing bioactive compounds usually present in Brassicaceae plants and are usually responsible for a pungent flavor and reduction of the nutritional values of seeds. Therefore, breeding rapeseed varieties with low GSL levels is an important breeding objective. Most GSLs in Brassica rapa are derived from methionine or tryptophan, but two are derived from phenylalanine, one directly (benzylGSL) and one after a round of chain elongation (phenethylGSL). In the present study, two phenylalanine (Phe)-derived GSLs (benzylGSL and phenethylGSL) were identified and quantified in seeds by liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry (LC-MS) analysis. Levels of benzylGSL were low but differed among investigated low and high GSL genotypes. Levels of phenethylGSL (also known as 2-phenylethylGSL) were high but did not differ among GSL genotypes. Subsequently, a genome-wide association study (GWAS) was conducted using 159 B. rapa accessions to demarcate candidate regions underlying 43 and 59 QTNs associated with benzylGSL and phenethylGSL that were distributed on 10 chromosomes and 9 scaffolds, explaining 0.56% to 70.86% of phenotypic variations, respectively. Furthermore, we find that 15 and 18 known or novel candidate genes were identified for the biosynthesis of benzylGSL and phenethylGSL, including known regulators of GSL biosynthesis, such as BrMYB34, BrMYB51, BrMYB28, BrMYB29 and BrMYB122, and novel regulators or structural genes, such as BrMYB44/BrMYB77 and BrMYB60 for benzylGSL and BrCYP79B2 for phenethylGSL. Finally, we investigate the expression profiles of the biosynthetic genes for two Phe-derived GSLs by transcriptomic analysis. Our findings provide new insight into the complex machinery of Phe-derived GSLs in seeds of B. rapa and help to improve the quality of Brassicaceae plant breeding. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Development and Genetic Improvement in Brassica Crops)
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17 pages, 4339 KiB  
Article
Genome-Wide Characterization, Evolutionary Analysis of ARF Gene Family, and the Role of SaARF4 in Cd Accumulation of Sedum alfredii Hance
by Dong Xu, Chunyu Yang, Huijin Fan, Wenmin Qiu, Biyun Huang, Renying Zhuo, Zhengquan He, Haiying Li and Xiaojiao Han
Plants 2022, 11(9), 1273; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11091273 - 9 May 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1883
Abstract
Auxin response factors (ARFs) play important roles in plant development and environmental adaption. However, the function of ARFs in cadmium (Cd) accumulation are still unknown. Here, 23 SaARFs were detected in the genome of hyperaccumulating ecotype of Sedum alfredii Hance (HE), [...] Read more.
Auxin response factors (ARFs) play important roles in plant development and environmental adaption. However, the function of ARFs in cadmium (Cd) accumulation are still unknown. Here, 23 SaARFs were detected in the genome of hyperaccumulating ecotype of Sedum alfredii Hance (HE), and they were not evenly distributed on the chromosomes. Their protein domains remained highly conservative. SaARFs in the phylogenetic tree can be divided into three groups. Genes in the group Ⅰ contained three introns at most. However, over ten introns were found in other two groups. Collinearity relationships were exhibited among ten SaARFs. The reasons for generating SaARFs may be segmental duplication and rearrangements. Collinearity analysis among different species revealed that more collinear genes of SaARFs can be found in the species with close relationships of HE. A total of eight elements in SaARFs promoters were related with abiotic stress. The qRT-PCR results indicated that four SaARFs can respond to Cd stress. Moreover, that there may be functional redundancy among six SaARFs. The adaptive selection and functional divergence analysis indicated that SaARF4 may undergo positive selection pressure and an adaptive-evolution process. Overexpressing SaARF4 effectively declined Cd accumulation. Eleven single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) sites relevant to Cd accumulation can be detected in SaARF4. Among them, only one SNP site can alter the sequence of the SaARF4 protein, but the SaARF4 mutant of this site did not cause a significant difference in cadmium content, compared with wild-type plants. SaARFs may be involved in Cd-stress responses, and SaARF4 may be applied for decreasing Cd accumulation of plants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Plant-Soil Interactions)
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13 pages, 1298 KiB  
Article
Low Light Conditions Alter Genome-Wide Profiles of Circular RNAs in Rice Grains during Grain Filling
by Hong Chen, Tao Wang, Zhiyou Gong, Hui Lu, Yong Chen, Fei Deng and Wanjun Ren
Plants 2022, 11(9), 1272; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11091272 - 9 May 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1762
Abstract
In animals and plants, circRNAs regulate gene expression and act as sponges that inhibit the activity of microRNAs. This study aimed to determine how specific circRNAs are expressed in rice grains at different stages of grain filling, under normal and low light conditions. [...] Read more.
In animals and plants, circRNAs regulate gene expression and act as sponges that inhibit the activity of microRNAs. This study aimed to determine how specific circRNAs are expressed in rice grains at different stages of grain filling, under normal and low light conditions. We extracted total RNA from rice grains under low and sufficient light conditions. Deep sequencing was performed using circRNA libraries, and bioinformatics tools were used to identify the circRNAs. In addition, we analyzed targeted messenger RNA functions using two databases to predict the processes involved in rice grain development, and we conducted real-time PCR on 15 of the circRNAs as well as Sanger sequencing. During the grain development process, 8015 candidate circRNAs were isolated, among which the number of known circRNAs was 1661. We also found that the number of circRNAs changed with the time of development. Among them, six circRNAs acted as sponges that targeted more than two microRNAs at different stages of development, and these circRNAs showed a regulatory pattern consistent with the transcriptome sequencing results. More circRNA diversity was found under low light treatment compared to normal light. These findings reveal a possible link between circRNA regulation and the expression of the functional genes associated with photosignal-mediated rice grain development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physiology of Rice Yield and Quality)
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26 pages, 17363 KiB  
Article
Selenium, Sulfur, and Methyl Jasmonate Treatments Improve the Accumulation of Lutein and Glucosinolates in Kale Sprouts
by Erika Ortega-Hernández, Marilena Antunes-Ricardo, Luis Cisneros-Zevallos and Daniel A. Jacobo-Velázquez
Plants 2022, 11(9), 1271; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11091271 - 9 May 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2009
Abstract
Kale sprouts contain health-promoting compounds that could be increased by applying plant nutrients or exogenous phytohormones during pre-harvest. The effects of selenium (Se), sulfur (S), and methyl jasmonate (MeJA) on lutein, glucosinolate, and phenolic accumulation were assessed in kale sprouts. Red Russian and [...] Read more.
Kale sprouts contain health-promoting compounds that could be increased by applying plant nutrients or exogenous phytohormones during pre-harvest. The effects of selenium (Se), sulfur (S), and methyl jasmonate (MeJA) on lutein, glucosinolate, and phenolic accumulation were assessed in kale sprouts. Red Russian and Dwarf Green kale were chamber-grown using different treatment concentrations of Se (10, 20, 40 mg/L), S (30, 60, 120 mg/L), and MeJA (25, 50, 100 µM). Sprouts were harvested every 24 h for 7 days to identify and quantify phytochemicals. The highest lutein accumulation occurred 7 days after S 120 mg/L (178%) and Se 40 mg/L (199%) treatments in Red Russian and Dwarf Green kale sprouts, respectively. MeJA treatment decreased the level of most phenolic levels, except for kaempferol and quercetin, where increases were higher than 70% for both varieties when treated with MeJA 25 µM. The most effective treatment for glucosinolate accumulation was S 120 mg/L in the Red Russian kale variety at 7 days of germination, increasing glucoraphanin (262.4%), glucoerucin (510.8%), 4-methoxy-glucobrassicin (430.7%), and glucoiberin (1150%). Results show that kales treated with Se, S, and MeJA could be used as a functional food for fresh consumption or as raw materials for different industrial applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Secondary Metabolism in Plant Foods)
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15 pages, 2611 KiB  
Article
Unlocking the Nexus between Leaf-Level Water Use Efficiency and Root Traits Together with Gas Exchange Measurements in Rice (Oryza sativa L.)
by Ramasamy Gobu, Goutam Kumar Dash, Jai Prakash Lal, Padmini Swain, Anumalla Mahender, Annamalai Anandan and Jauhar Ali
Plants 2022, 11(9), 1270; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11091270 - 9 May 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2091
Abstract
Drought stress severely affects plant growth and development, causing significant yield loss in rice. This study demonstrates the relevance of water use efficiency with deeper rooting along with other root traits and gas exchange parameters. Forty-nine rice genotypes were evaluated in the basket [...] Read more.
Drought stress severely affects plant growth and development, causing significant yield loss in rice. This study demonstrates the relevance of water use efficiency with deeper rooting along with other root traits and gas exchange parameters. Forty-nine rice genotypes were evaluated in the basket method to examine leaf-level water use efficiency (WUEi) variation and its relation to root traits. Significant variation in WUEi was observed (from 2.29 to 7.39 µmol CO2 mmol−1 H2O) under drought stress. Regression analysis revealed that high WUEi was associated with higher biomass accumulation, low transpiration rate, and deep rooting ratio. The ratio of deep rooting was also associated with low internal CO2 concentration. The association of deep rooting with lower root number and root dry weight suggests that an ideal drought-tolerant genotype with higher water use efficiency should have deeper rooting (>30% RDR) with moderate root number and root dry weight to be sustained under drought for a longer period. The study also revealed that, under drought stress conditions, landraces are more water-use efficient with superior root traits than improved genotypes. Full article
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21 pages, 8246 KiB  
Article
Genome-Wide Identification and Expression Analysis of Chitinase-like Genes in Petunia axillaris
by Zhuoyi Liu, Wenfei Yu, Xiaowen Zhang, Jinfeng Huang, Wei Wang, Miao Miao, Li Hu, Chao Wan, Yuan Yuan, Binghua Wu and Meiling Lyu
Plants 2022, 11(9), 1269; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11091269 - 9 May 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1932
Abstract
Chitinase (EC 3.2.1.14) is a kind of chitin-degrading glycosidase, which plays important roles in the abiotic and biotic defense of plants. In this study, we conducted whole-genome annotation, molecular evolution, and gene expression analyses on the chitinase-like (CTL) gene family members [...] Read more.
Chitinase (EC 3.2.1.14) is a kind of chitin-degrading glycosidase, which plays important roles in the abiotic and biotic defense of plants. In this study, we conducted whole-genome annotation, molecular evolution, and gene expression analyses on the chitinase-like (CTL) gene family members of Petunia axillaris. Thirty-three Petunia axillarischitinase-like genes (PaCTLs) were identified from the latest Petunia genome database. According to the phylogenetic analyses, these genes were divided into GH18 and GH19 subgroups and further subdivided into five classes (Class I to Class V). Conserved motif arrangements indicated their functional relevance within each group. The expansion and homeology analyses showed that gene replication events played an important role in the evolution of PaCTLs and the increase of the GH18 subgroup members was the main reason for the expansion of the PaCTL gene family in the evolution progress. By qRT-PCR analysis, we found that most of the PaCTLs showed a very low expression level in the normal growing plants. But lots of PaCTLs showed upregulated expression profiles when the plants suffered different abiotic stress conditions. Among them, five PaCTLs responded to high temperature and exhibited significantly upregulate expression level. Correspondingly, many hormone responses, as well as biotic and abiotic stress elements were found in the promoters of PaCTLs by using cis-acting element analysis. These results provide a foundation for the exploration of PaCTLs’ function and enrich the evolutionary process of the CTL gene family. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Plant Genetics, Genomics and Biotechnology)
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18 pages, 3676 KiB  
Article
GC/MS Analyses of the Essential Oils Obtained from Different Jatropha Species, Their Discrimination Using Chemometric Analysis and Assessment of Their Antibacterial and Anti-Biofilm Activities
by Mariam I. Gamal El-Din, Fadia S. Youssef, Ahmed E. Altyar and Mohamed L. Ashour
Plants 2022, 11(9), 1268; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11091268 - 9 May 2022
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 2302
Abstract
The essential oils of Jatropha intigrimma, J. roseae and J. gossypifolia (Euphorbiaceae) were analyzed employing GC/MS (Gas Chromatography coupled with Mass Spectrometry) analyses. A total of 95 volatile constituents were identified from J. intigrimma, J. gossypifolia and J. roseae essential oils, accounting [...] Read more.
The essential oils of Jatropha intigrimma, J. roseae and J. gossypifolia (Euphorbiaceae) were analyzed employing GC/MS (Gas Chromatography coupled with Mass Spectrometry) analyses. A total of 95 volatile constituents were identified from J. intigrimma, J. gossypifolia and J. roseae essential oils, accounting for 91.61, 90.12, and 86.24%, respectively. Chemometric analysis using principal component analysis (PCA) based on the obtained GC data revealed the formation of three discriminant clusters due to the placement of the three Jatropha species in three different quadrants, highlighting the dissimilarity between them. Heneicosane, phytol, nonacosane, silphiperfol-6-ene, copaborneol, hexatriacontane, octadecamethyl-cyclononasiloxane, 9,12,15-Octadecatrienoic acid, methyl ester and methyl linoleate constitute the key markers for their differentiation. In vitro antibacterial activities of the essential oils were investigated at doses of 10 mg/mL against the Gram-negative anaerobe Escherichia coli using the agar well diffusion method and broth microdilution test. J. gossypifolia essential oil showed the most potent antimicrobial activity, demonstrating the largest inhibition zone (11.90 mm) and the least minimum inhibitory concentration (2.50 mg/mL), followed by the essential oil of J. intigrimma. The essential oils were evaluated for their anti-adhesion properties against the Gram-negative E. coli biofilm using a modified method of biofilm inhibition spectrophotometric assay. J. intigrimma essential oil showed the most potent biofilm inhibitory activity, demonstrating the least minimum biofilm inhibitory concentration (MBIC) of 31.25 µg/mL. In silico molecular docking performed within the active center of E. coli adhesion protein FimH showed that heneicosane, followed by cubebol and methyl linoleate, displayed the best fitting score. Thus, it can be concluded that the essential oils of J. gossypifolia and J. intigrimma leaves represent promising sources for antibacterial drugs with antibiofilm potential. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Essential Oil with Biological Activity II)
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15 pages, 3847 KiB  
Article
Target Mechanism of Iturinic Lipopeptide on Differential Expression Patterns of Defense-Related Genes against Colletotrichum acutatum in Pepper
by Joon Seong Park, Gwang Rok Ryu and Beom Ryong Kang
Plants 2022, 11(9), 1267; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11091267 - 9 May 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1947
Abstract
Bacillus subtilis KB21 is an isolate with broad spectrum antifungal activity against plant pathogenic fungi. Our aim was to produce and purify antifungal lipopeptides via fermentation using B. subtilis KB21 and verify their antifungal mechanism against pepper anthracnose. When the KB21 strain was [...] Read more.
Bacillus subtilis KB21 is an isolate with broad spectrum antifungal activity against plant pathogenic fungi. Our aim was to produce and purify antifungal lipopeptides via fermentation using B. subtilis KB21 and verify their antifungal mechanism against pepper anthracnose. When the KB21 strain was cultured in tryptic soy broth medium, the antifungal activity against pepper anthracnose correlated with biosurfactant production. However, there was no antifungal activity when cultured in Luria-Bertani medium. KB21 filtrates showed the highest degree of inhibition of mycelia (91.1%) and spore germination (98.9%) of Colletotrichum acutatum via increases in the biosurfactant levels. Using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and LC-tandem MS (LC-MS/MS) analyses, the component with antifungal activity in the fermentation medium of the KB21 strain was determined to be the cyclic lipopeptide (CLP) antibiotic, iturin A. When the iturin fractions were applied to pepper fruits inoculated with conidia of C. acutatum, the lesion diameter and hyphal growth on the fruit were significantly suppressed. In addition, iturin CLP elevated the gene expression of PAL, LOX, and GLU in the treatments both with and without following fungal pathogens. Overall, the results of this study show that iturin CLPs from B. subtilis KB21 may be potential biological control agents for plant fungal diseases. Full article
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16 pages, 1208 KiB  
Article
Cryopreservation of Holm Oak Embryogenic Cultures for Long-Term Conservation and Assessment of Polyploid Stability
by Maria Teresa Martínez, Sonia Suárez, Paloma Moncaleán and Elena Corredoira
Plants 2022, 11(9), 1266; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11091266 - 8 May 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1975
Abstract
Holm oak populations are severely affected by oak decline syndrome, and reliable methods of conserving the plant material are required. A vitrification-based cryopreservation method was used for the first time for the long-term conservation of holm oak embryogenic cultures. Successful cryopreservation was achieved [...] Read more.
Holm oak populations are severely affected by oak decline syndrome, and reliable methods of conserving the plant material are required. A vitrification-based cryopreservation method was used for the first time for the long-term conservation of holm oak embryogenic cultures. Successful cryopreservation was achieved after determining the best developmental stage of the somatic embryos used and the optimal incubation period in plant vitrification solution 2 (PVS2). Embryos were recovered from individual nodular embryogenic structures (NES) derived from four embryogenic lines after preculture on a medium containing 0.3 M sucrose, incubation in PVS2 vitrification solution for 15 min at 25 °C and direct immersion in liquid nitrogen (LN). Embryo recovery rates of 16.7–63.3% were obtained after cryostorage for four years in LN. In addition to the embryo developmental stage and the PVS2 treatment time, the genotype can also significantly affect embryo recovery after LN storage. There were no significant differences in plant regeneration or polyploid stability between somatic embryos and plants derived from control embryos (not cryopreserved) and cryopreserved embryos. The findings indicate that embryo proliferation, plant conversion and polyploid stability are maintained in material recovered from the vitrification solution and subsequently cryopreserved. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Cryobiotechnology: Progress and Prospects)
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18 pages, 1826 KiB  
Review
Phytochemicals and Nano-Phytopharmaceuticals Use in Skin, Urogenital and Locomotor Disorders: Are We There?
by Mogana Rajagopal, Alok K. Paul, Ming-Tatt Lee, Anabelle Rose Joykin, Choo-Shiuan Por, Tooba Mahboob, Cristina C. Salibay, Mario S. Torres, Maria Melanie M. Guiang, Mohammed Rahmatullah, Rownak Jahan, Khoshnur Jannat, Polrat Wilairatana, Maria de Lourdes Pereira, Chooi Ling Lim and Veeranoot Nissapatorn
Plants 2022, 11(9), 1265; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11091265 - 8 May 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3524
Abstract
Nanomedicines emerged from nanotechnology and have been introduced to bring advancements in treating multiple diseases. Nano-phytomedicines are synthesized from active phytoconstituents or plant extracts. Advancements in nanotechnology also help in the diagnosis, monitoring, control, and prevention of various diseases. The field of nanomedicine [...] Read more.
Nanomedicines emerged from nanotechnology and have been introduced to bring advancements in treating multiple diseases. Nano-phytomedicines are synthesized from active phytoconstituents or plant extracts. Advancements in nanotechnology also help in the diagnosis, monitoring, control, and prevention of various diseases. The field of nanomedicine and the improvements of nanoparticles has been of keen interest in multiple industries, including pharmaceutics, diagnostics, electronics, communications, and cosmetics. In herbal medicines, these nanoparticles have several attractive properties that have brought them to the forefront in searching for novel drug delivery systems by enhancing efficacy, bioavailability, and target specificity. The current review investigated various therapeutic applications of different nano-phytopharmaceuticals in locomotor, dermal, reproductive, and urinary tract disorders to enhance bioavailability and efficacy of phytochemicals and herbal extracts in preclinical and in vitro studies. There is a lack of clinical and extensive preclinical studies. The research in this field is expanding but strong evidence on the efficacy of these nano-phytopharmaceuticals for human use is still limited. The long-term efficacy and safety of nano-phytopharmaceuticals must be ensured with priority before these materials emerge as common human therapeutics. Overall, this review provides up-to-date information on related contemporary research on nano-phytopharmaceuticals and nano-extracts in the fields of dermatological, urogenital, and locomotor disorders. Full article
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21 pages, 1333 KiB  
Article
Foliar Diseases and the Associated Fungi in Rice Cultivated in Kenya
by Everlyne M. Nganga, Martina Kyallo, Philemon Orwa, Felix Rotich, Emily Gichuhi, John M. Kimani, David Mwongera, Bernice Waweru, Phoebe Sikuku, David M. Musyimi, Samuel K. Mutiga, Cathrine Ziyomo, Rosemary Murori, Lusike Wasilwa, James C. Correll and Nicholas J. Talbot
Plants 2022, 11(9), 1264; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11091264 - 7 May 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3159
Abstract
We conducted a survey to assess the occurrence and severity of rice blast and brown spot diseases on popular cultivars grown in the Busia, Kirinyaga, and Kisumu counties of Kenya in 2019. Working with agricultural extension workers within rice production areas, we interviewed [...] Read more.
We conducted a survey to assess the occurrence and severity of rice blast and brown spot diseases on popular cultivars grown in the Busia, Kirinyaga, and Kisumu counties of Kenya in 2019. Working with agricultural extension workers within rice production areas, we interviewed farmers (n = 89) regarding their preferred cultivars and their awareness of blast disease, as this was the major focus of our research. We scored the symptoms of blast and brown spot and assessed the lodging, plant height, and maturity of the crops (days after planting). Furthermore, we collected leaf and neck tissues for the assessment of the prevailing fungal populations. We used specific DNA primers to screen for the prevalence of the causal pathogens of blast, Magnaporthe oryzae, and brown spot, Cochliobolus miyabeanus, on asymptomatic and symptomatic leaf samples. We also conducted fungal isolations and PCR-sequencing to identify the fungal species in these tissues. Busia and Kisumu had a higher diversity of cultivars compared to Kirinyaga. The aromatic Pishori (NIBAM 11) was preferred and widely grown for commercial purposes in Kirinyaga, where 86% of Kenyan rice is produced. NIBAM108 (IR2793-80-1) and BW196 (NIBAM 109) were moderately resistant to blast, while NIBAM110 (ITA310) and Vietnam were susceptible. All the cultivars were susceptible to brown spot except for KEH10005 (Arize Tej Gold), a commercial hybrid cultivar. We also identified diverse pathogenic and non-pathogenic fungi, with a high incidence of Nigrospora oryzae, in the rice fields of Kirinyaga. There was a marginal correlation between disease severity/incidence and the occurrence of causal pathogens. This study provides evidence of the need to strengthen pathogen surveillance through retraining agricultural extension agents and to breed for blast and brown spot resistance in popular rice cultivars in Kenya. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Feature Papers in Plant Protection)
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23 pages, 9167 KiB  
Review
Tissue Culture and Somatic Embryogenesis in Warm-Season Grasses—Current Status and Its Applications: A Review
by Melody Ballitoc Muguerza, Takahiro Gondo, Genki Ishigaki, Yasuyo Shimamoto, Nafiatul Umami, Pattama Nitthaisong, Mohammad Mijanur Rahman and Ryo Akashi
Plants 2022, 11(9), 1263; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11091263 - 7 May 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3644
Abstract
Warm-season grasses are C4 plants and have a high capacity for biomass productivity. These grasses are utilized in many agricultural production systems with their greatest value as feeds for livestock, bioethanol, and turf. However, many important warm-season perennial grasses multiply either by [...] Read more.
Warm-season grasses are C4 plants and have a high capacity for biomass productivity. These grasses are utilized in many agricultural production systems with their greatest value as feeds for livestock, bioethanol, and turf. However, many important warm-season perennial grasses multiply either by vegetative propagation or form their seeds by an asexual mode of reproduction called apomixis. Therefore, the improvement of these grasses by conventional breeding is difficult and is dependent on the availability of natural genetic variation and its manipulation through breeding and selection. Recent studies have indicated that plant tissue culture system through somatic embryogenesis complements and could further develop conventional breeding programs by micropropagation, somaclonal variation, somatic hybridization, genetic transformation, and genome editing. This review summarizes the tissue culture and somatic embryogenesis in warm-season grasses and focus on current status and above applications including the author’s progress. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Embryogenesis)
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20 pages, 1816 KiB  
Article
Bryophyte Spores Tolerate High Desiccation Levels and Exposure to Cryogenic Temperatures but Contain Storage Lipids and Chlorophyll: Understanding the Essential Traits Needed for the Creation of Bryophyte Spore Banks
by Giuseppe Tiloca, Giuseppe Brundu and Daniel Ballesteros
Plants 2022, 11(9), 1262; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11091262 - 7 May 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2330
Abstract
Understanding the desiccation and freezing tolerance of bryophyte spores is vital to explain how plants conquered land and current species distribution patterns and help to develop efficient ex situ conservation methods. However, knowledge of these traits is scarce. We investigated tolerance to drying [...] Read more.
Understanding the desiccation and freezing tolerance of bryophyte spores is vital to explain how plants conquered land and current species distribution patterns and help to develop efficient ex situ conservation methods. However, knowledge of these traits is scarce. We investigated tolerance to drying (at 15% relative humidity [RH] for two weeks) and freezing (1 h exposure to liquid nitrogen) on the spores of 12 bryophyte species (23 accessions) from the UK. The presence of storage lipids and their thermal fingerprint, and the levels of unfrozen water content, were determined by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The presence of chlorophyll in dry spores was detected by fluorescence microscopy. All species and accessions tested tolerated the drying and freezing levels studied. DSC suggested that 4.1–29.3% of the dry mass is storage lipids, with crystallization and melting temperatures peaking at around −30 °C. Unfrozen water content was determined <0.147 g H2O g−1 dry weight (DW). Most of the spores investigated showed the presence of chlorophyll in the cytoplasm by red autofluorescence. Bryophyte spores can be stored dry at low temperatures, such as orthodox seeds, supporting the creation of bryophyte spore banks. However, the presence of storage lipids and chlorophyll in the cytoplasm may reduce spore longevity during conventional storage at −20 °C. Alternatively, cryogenic spore storage is possible. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Cryobiotechnology: Progress and Prospects)
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14 pages, 2962 KiB  
Article
Changes in Carbon and Nitrogen Metabolites before, at, and after Anthesis for Wheat Cultivars in Response to Reduced Soil Water and Zinc Foliar Application
by Rasha E. Mahdy, Sameera A. Alghamdi, Ahmed Amro and Suzan A. Tammam
Plants 2022, 11(9), 1261; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11091261 - 6 May 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1527
Abstract
Water deficit stress is one of the major constraints for commercial agriculture, as it disturbs the metabolic processes in plant. Identification of carbon and nitrogen receptors that act on drought resistance helps in breeding for drought resistance varieties. Zn fertilizer can regulate multiple [...] Read more.
Water deficit stress is one of the major constraints for commercial agriculture, as it disturbs the metabolic processes in plant. Identification of carbon and nitrogen receptors that act on drought resistance helps in breeding for drought resistance varieties. Zn fertilizer can regulate multiple antioxidant defense systems at the transcriptional level in response to drought. Two field experiments were conducted in 2018–2019 and 2019–2020 seasons to explore the effectiveness of foliar application of zinc oxide on soluble sugar, soluble proteins, and free amino acids under normal irrigation and drought-stressed environments. Three Egyptian wheat cultivars (Triticum aestivum L.) were used. The experimental design was split-plot in RCBD with three replications, applying zinc oxide levels to the whole plot and the split plots. Leaf samples were taken for analysis before anthesis, at anthesis, and after anthesis. Application of Zn increased soluble sugars. However, the free amino acids were higher under irrigation, reached the maximum at anthesis, and decreased sharply after 2 weeks from anthesis. The ranking of cultivars for the three metabolites differed according to plant stage, reflecting the response to Zn and years. Correlations between metabolites according to Zn were positive. The findings suggest the potential of foliar application of Zn to alleviate drought stress. Full article
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18 pages, 1658 KiB  
Article
Nutrients Uptake and Accumulation in Plant Parts of Fragrant Rosa Species Irrigated with Treated and Untreated Wastewater
by Muhammad Ahsan, Muhammad Nafees, Muhammad Amin, Fahim Nawaz, Aasma Tufail, Hasan Sardar, Shadi Shokralla, Eman A. Mahmoud, Ahmed M. El-Sabrout and Hosam O. Elansary
Plants 2022, 11(9), 1260; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11091260 - 6 May 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1959
Abstract
Water scarcity has critically augmented the need for the exploration of alternative irrigation sources mainly in water-scarce regions. This water scarcity has put tremendous pressure on the agri-based economy of countries such as Pakistan. The reuse of sewage wastewater has been appearing as [...] Read more.
Water scarcity has critically augmented the need for the exploration of alternative irrigation sources mainly in water-scarce regions. This water scarcity has put tremendous pressure on the agri-based economy of countries such as Pakistan. The reuse of sewage wastewater has been appearing as the only alternative water source, which can lessen our dependence upon freshwater (FW). The current study aimed to scrutinize the influence of treated wastewater (TWW) and untreated wastewater (UTWW) irrigation on the nutrient (N, P, K, Ca, and Na) concentration in different plant parts, i.e., roots, stems, leaves, and flowers, of four scented Rosa species (R. bourboniana, R. centifolia, R. Gruss-an-telpitz, and R. damascena) during the first week of 2018 to the last week of 2019. The experiment was arranged according to the two-factor factorial arrangement i.e., factor I was the irrigation source, while factor II was the Rosa species. The experimental water analysis showed that mineral and chemical concentrations in FW and TWW were within permissible limits of national environmental quality standards (NEQSs) for wastewater. The UTWW of this study possessed a higher electrical conductivity (EC), chemical oxygen demand (COD), biological oxygen demand (BOD), total nitrogen (TN), and metals (Cd, Co, and Pb) than recommended levels. The results revealed that P, K, Ca, and Na contents significantly increased in all studied plant parts of Rosa species as the duration of irrigation with TWW and UTWW increased and vice versa in the case of N contents, while the ratio of N content elevation by applying TWW and UTWW were also not increased compared to other studied nutrients. The nutrients (except Ca) were found as maximum in all plant parts with UTWW compared to FW and TWW irrigation in roses. These stimulations were accredited to the presence of higher essential nutrients and some metals in UTWW. This experiment confirmed the disparities in nutrient contents of scented Rosa species due to the different absorbability of each element in every plant part. Regarding the nutrient accumulation in rose plant tissues, the results of the present study confirm that untreated wastewater must be treated to some extent to grow scented roses where water is scarce. Full article
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18 pages, 1714 KiB  
Article
Presence of the Herbaceous Marsh Species Schoenoplectus americanus Enhances Surface Elevation Gain in Transitional Coastal Wetland Communities Exposed to Elevated CO2 and Sediment Deposition Events
by Camille LaFosse Stagg, Claudia Laurenzano, William C. Vervaeke, Ken W. Krauss and Karen L. McKee
Plants 2022, 11(9), 1259; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11091259 - 6 May 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1659
Abstract
Coastal wetlands are dynamic ecosystems that exist along a landscape continuum that can range from freshwater forested wetlands to tidal marsh to mudflat communities. Climate-driven stressors, such as sea-level rise, can cause shifts among these communities, resulting in changes to ecological functions and [...] Read more.
Coastal wetlands are dynamic ecosystems that exist along a landscape continuum that can range from freshwater forested wetlands to tidal marsh to mudflat communities. Climate-driven stressors, such as sea-level rise, can cause shifts among these communities, resulting in changes to ecological functions and services. While a growing body of research has characterized the landscape-scale impacts of individual climate-driven stressors, little is known about how multiple stressors and their potential interactions will affect ecological functioning of these ecosystems. How will coastal wetlands respond to discrete climate disturbances, such as hurricane sediment deposition events, under future conditions of elevated atmospheric CO2? Will these responses vary among the different wetland communities? We conducted experimental greenhouse manipulations to simulate sediment deposition from a land-falling hurricane under future elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations (720 ppm CO2). We measured responses of net primary production, decomposition, and elevation change in mesocosms representing four communities along a coastal wetland landscape gradient: freshwater forested wetland, forest/marsh mix, marsh, and mudflat. When Schoenoplectus americanus was present, above- and belowground biomass production was highest, decomposition rates were lowest, and wetland elevation gain was greatest, regardless of CO2 and sediment deposition treatments. Sediment addition initially increased elevation capital in all communities, but post-deposition rates of elevation gain were lower than in mesocosms without added sediment. Together these results indicate that encroachment of oligohaline marshes into freshwater forested wetlands can enhance belowground biomass accumulation and resilience to sea-level rise, and these plant-mediated ecosystem services will be augmented by periodic sediment pulses from storms and restoration efforts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wetland Ecology: Plant Adaptations to Changing Wetland Environments)
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18 pages, 2388 KiB  
Article
QTL and Candidate Genes for Seed Tocopherol Content in ‘Forrest’ by ‘Williams 82’ Recombinant Inbred Line (RIL) Population of Soybean
by Dounya Knizia, Jiazheng Yuan, Naoufal Lakhssassi, Abdelhalim El Baze, Mallory Cullen, Tri Vuong, Hamid Mazouz, Henry T. Nguyen, My Abdelmajid Kassem and Khalid Meksem
Plants 2022, 11(9), 1258; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11091258 - 6 May 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1864
Abstract
Soybean seeds are rich in secondary metabolites which are beneficial for human health, including tocopherols. Tocopherols play an important role in human and animal nutrition thanks to their antioxidant activity. In this study, the ‘Forrest’ by ‘Williams 82’ (F×W82) recombinant inbred line (RIL) [...] Read more.
Soybean seeds are rich in secondary metabolites which are beneficial for human health, including tocopherols. Tocopherols play an important role in human and animal nutrition thanks to their antioxidant activity. In this study, the ‘Forrest’ by ‘Williams 82’ (F×W82) recombinant inbred line (RIL) population (n = 306) was used to map quantitative trait loci (QTL) for seed α-tocopherol, β-tocopherol, δ -tocopherol, γ-tocopherol, and total tocopherol contents in Carbondale, IL over two years. Also, the identification of the candidate genes involved in soybean tocopherols biosynthetic pathway was performed. A total of 32 QTL controlling various seed tocopherol contents have been identified and mapped on Chrs. 1, 2, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 12, 13, 16, 17, and 20. One major and novel QTL was identified on Chr. 6 with an R2 of 27.8, 9.9, and 6.9 for δ-tocopherol, α-tocopherol, and total tocopherol content, respectively. Reverse BLAST analysis of the genes that were identified in Arabidopsis allowed the identification of 37 genes involved in soybean tocopherol pathway, among which 11 were located close to the identified QTLs. The tocopherol cyclase gene (TC) Glyma.06G084100 is located close to the QTLs controlling δ-tocopherol (R2 = 27.8), α-tocopherol (R2 = 9.96), and total-tocopherol (R2 = 6.95). The geranylgeranyl diphosphate reductase (GGDR) Glyma.05G026200 gene is located close to a QTL controlling total tocopherol content in soybean (R2 = 4.42). The two methylphytylbenzoquinol methyltransferase (MPBQ-MT) candidate genes Glyma.02G002000 and Glyma.02G143700 are located close to a QTL controlling δ-tocopherol content (R2 = 3.57). The two γ-tocopherol methyltransferase (γ-TMT) genes, Glyma.12G014200 and Glyma.12G014300, are located close to QTLs controlling (γ+ß) tocopherol content (R2 = 8.86) and total tocopherol (R2 = 5.94). The identified tocopherol seed QTLs and candidate genes will be beneficial in breeding programs to develop soybean cultivars with high tocopherol contents. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue QTL Mapping of Seed Quality Traits in Crops)
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16 pages, 1587 KiB  
Article
Characterization of the Spanish Pomegranate Germplasm Collection Maintained at the Agricultural Experiment Station of Elche to Identify Promising Breeding Materials
by Elena Zuriaga, Jitka Pintová, Julián Bartual and María Luisa Badenes
Plants 2022, 11(9), 1257; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11091257 - 6 May 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1754
Abstract
Pomegranates were one of the first domesticated fruit crops, and their long history resulted in the development of local cultivars all over the world. Spain is one of the main producers and exporters of this crop in the Mediterranean Basin, but in order [...] Read more.
Pomegranates were one of the first domesticated fruit crops, and their long history resulted in the development of local cultivars all over the world. Spain is one of the main producers and exporters of this crop in the Mediterranean Basin, but in order to maintain the competitiveness of this crop, new varieties should be developed. For this purpose, the pomegranate germplasm collection hold at the Agricultural Experiment Station of Elche, a public institution dependent on the Valencian regional government, is an interesting tool. However, the detailed characterization of any germplasm collection is a fundamental requirement to be able to make the most of these resources, allowing to identify putative promising accessions and to optimize the design of the future crosses. In this work, the genetic diversity of 94 accessions of this collection was analyzed using 19 microsatellite markers. As a result, 85 different genotypes were identified. These genetic profiles could be useful for varietal identification. Despite this genetic diversity, no clear substructure was observed, except for the ornamental accessions, that could be related to the vegetative propagation of the species. Additionally, the morphological characterization of this collection has made it possible to identify some materials that may be of interest as a source of traits for breeding. Results presented here pave the way for further genetic analyses, allowing the selection of parents to obtain segregating populations, as well as their descendants by the use of molecular assisted selection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Genetic Resources and Breeding of Clonally Propagated Crops)
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11 pages, 747 KiB  
Article
Selected Physico-Chemical, Nutritional, Antioxidant and Sensory Properties of Wheat Bread Supplemented with Apple Pomace Powder as a By-Product from Juice Production
by Veronika Valková, Hana Ďúranová, Michaela Havrlentová, Eva Ivanišová, Ján Mezey, Zuzana Tóthová, Lucia Gabríny and Miroslava Kačániová
Plants 2022, 11(9), 1256; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11091256 - 6 May 2022
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2568
Abstract
The present article aimed to study the effects of four selected concentrations (1%, 2%, 5%, and 10%) of apple pomace powder (APP), obtained from juice production, on the nutritional value and selected physico-chemical, antioxidant, and sensory properties of wheat bread. We have found [...] Read more.
The present article aimed to study the effects of four selected concentrations (1%, 2%, 5%, and 10%) of apple pomace powder (APP), obtained from juice production, on the nutritional value and selected physico-chemical, antioxidant, and sensory properties of wheat bread. We have found that the ash and total carbohydrate contents, total polyphenols content, and antioxidant activity of the supplemented bread loaves were markedly higher (p < 0.05) as compared to the control ones. On the other hand, values for protein and fat contents and loaf volume in APP-containing bread samples were statistically lower (p < 0.05). Finally, sensory evaluation revealed no significant differences in all tested attributes between the investigated groups of bread samples. The current results suggest that 10% APP addition appears to be an attractive ingredient applied to bread formulation to obtain a bakery product with high nutritional value and required qualitative and sensory properties. In such a manner, apple pomace as by-products from apple juice processing can be efficiently utilized in an eco-friendly way by the food industry to decrease unnecessary waste and environmental pollution. Full article
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28 pages, 1677 KiB  
Review
Phytoremediation of Heavy Metals: An Indispensable Contrivance in Green Remediation Technology
by Sabreena, Shahnawaz Hassan, Sartaj Ahmad Bhat, Vineet Kumar, Bashir Ahmad Ganai and Fuad Ameen
Plants 2022, 11(9), 1255; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11091255 - 6 May 2022
Cited by 48 | Viewed by 8149
Abstract
Environmental contamination is triggered by various anthropogenic activities, such as using pesticides, toxic chemicals, industrial effluents, and metals. Pollution not only affects both lotic and lentic environments but also terrestrial habitats, substantially endangering plants, animals, and human wellbeing. The traditional techniques used to [...] Read more.
Environmental contamination is triggered by various anthropogenic activities, such as using pesticides, toxic chemicals, industrial effluents, and metals. Pollution not only affects both lotic and lentic environments but also terrestrial habitats, substantially endangering plants, animals, and human wellbeing. The traditional techniques used to eradicate the pollutants from soil and water are considered expensive, environmentally harmful and, typically, inefficacious. Thus, to abate the detrimental consequences of heavy metals, phytoremediation is one of the sustainable options for pollution remediation. The process involved is simple, effective, and economically efficient with large-scale extensive applicability. This green technology and its byproducts have several other essential utilities. Phytoremediation, in principle, utilizes solar energy and has an extraordinary perspective for abating and assembling heavy metals. The technique of phytoremediation has developed in contemporary times as an efficient method and its success depends on plant species selection. Here in this synthesis, we are presenting a scoping review of phytoremediation, its basic principles, techniques, and potential anticipated prospects. Furthermore, a detailed overview pertaining to biochemical aspects, progression of genetic engineering, and the exertion of macrophytes in phytoremediation has been provided. Such a promising technique is economically effective as well as eco-friendly, decontaminating and remediating the pollutants from the biosphere. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Phytoremediation: New Approaches and Perspectives)
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13 pages, 3327 KiB  
Article
The Influence of the Partitioning of Sugars, Starch, and Free Proline in Various Organs of Cyclamen graecum on the Biology of the Species and Its Resistance to Abiotic Stressors
by John Pouris, Efi Levizou, Maria Karatassiou, Maria-Sonia Meletiou-Christou and Sophia Rhizopoulou
Plants 2022, 11(9), 1254; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11091254 - 5 May 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1940
Abstract
The geophyte Cyclamen graecum is native to the eastern Mediterranean. Its beautiful flowers with upswept pink petals appear during early autumn, after the summer drought period and before leaf expansion in late autumn. The floral and leaf development alternates with their cessation in [...] Read more.
The geophyte Cyclamen graecum is native to the eastern Mediterranean. Its beautiful flowers with upswept pink petals appear during early autumn, after the summer drought period and before leaf expansion in late autumn. The floral and leaf development alternates with their cessation in early winter and late spring, respectively. Ecophysiological parameters and processes underlining the life-cycle of C. graecum have not previously been published. Seasonal fluctuations of sugars, starch, and free proline have been investigated in tubers, leaves, pedicels, and petals, as well as petal and leaf water status. At the whole plant level, the seasonal co-existence of leaves and flowers is marked by an elevated soluble sugar content, which was gradually reduced as the above-ground plant parts shed. The sugar content of petals and pedicels was lower than that of leaves and tubers. Leaf starch content increased from late autumn to spring and was comparable to that of tubers. The starch content in petals and pedicels was substantially lower than that of tubers and leaves. In tubers, monthly proline accumulation was sustained at relatively constant values. Although the partitioning of proline in various organs did not show a considerable seasonal variation, resulting in an unchanged profile of the trends between tubers, leaves, and flowers, the seasonal differences in proline accumulation were remarkable at the whole plant level. The pronounced petal proline content during the flowering period seems to be associated with the maintenance of floral turgor. Leaf proline content increased with the advance of the growth season. The values of leaf relative water content were sustained fairly constant before the senescence stage, but lower than the typical values of turgid and transpiring leaves. Relationships of the studied parameters with rainfall indicate the responsiveness of C. graecum to water availability in its habitat in the Mediterranean ecosystem. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mediterranean Plants)
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15 pages, 1309 KiB  
Article
Exploration of Soil Functional Microbiomes—A Concept Proposal for Long-Term Fertilized Grasslands
by Vlad Stoian, Roxana Vidican, Păcurar Florin, Larisa Corcoz, Victoria Pop-Moldovan, Ioana Vaida, Sorin-Daniel Vâtcă, Valentina Ancuța Stoian and Anca Pleșa
Plants 2022, 11(9), 1253; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11091253 - 5 May 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2101
Abstract
Exploring grassland microbiomes is a challenge in the current context of linking soil microorganism activity with the balance of these ecosystems. Microbiologists are constantly attempting to develop faster and lower-cost methods, and propose new and best-fitted indicators that will provide a more complex [...] Read more.
Exploring grassland microbiomes is a challenge in the current context of linking soil microorganism activity with the balance of these ecosystems. Microbiologists are constantly attempting to develop faster and lower-cost methods, and propose new and best-fitted indicators that will provide a more complex data analysis. A different concept was proposed for assessing functional microbiomes by splitting the functional ecological niche into complementary segments. The comparison with the upper and lower limits of the ecological niche provides a clearer image of community alterations due to long-term applied treatments. The method allows the extraction of the most sensitive and stable functional guilds, with the extraction of the most critical dominant–codominant functional groups in every segment of the functional niche. The resulting microbial functional–sociological model is ready to use on community-level physiological profile databases and also can be applied backward for vegetation analysis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biodiversity in the Grassland Biome)
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16 pages, 3762 KiB  
Review
Xylosma G. Forst. Genus: Medicinal and Veterinary Use, Phytochemical Composition, and Biological Activity
by Rodrigo Duarte-Casar and Juan Carlos Romero-Benavides
Plants 2022, 11(9), 1252; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11091252 - 5 May 2022
Viewed by 2349
Abstract
Xylosma G. Forst. is a genus of plants belonging to the Salicaceae family with intertropical distribution in America, Asia, and Oceania. Of the 100 accepted species, 22 are under some level of conservation risk. In this review, around 13 species of the genus [...] Read more.
Xylosma G. Forst. is a genus of plants belonging to the Salicaceae family with intertropical distribution in America, Asia, and Oceania. Of the 100 accepted species, 22 are under some level of conservation risk. In this review, around 13 species of the genus used as medicinal plants were found, mainly in Central and South America, with a variety of uses, among which antimicrobial is the most common. There is published research in chemistry and pharmacological activity on around 15 of the genus species, centering in their antibacterial and fungicidal activity. Additionally, a variety of active phytochemicals have been isolated, the most representative of which are atraric acid, xylosmine and its derivatives, and velutinic acid. There is still ample field for the validation and evaluation of the activity of Xylosma extracts, particularly in species not yet studied, and concerning uses other than antimicrobial and for the identification and evaluation of their active compounds. Full article
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3 pages, 195 KiB  
Editorial
Natural Resources of Medicinal and Cosmetic Plants
by Adam Stebel
Plants 2022, 11(9), 1251; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11091251 - 5 May 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1605
Abstract
This Special Issue (SI) of Plants is devoted to medicinal and cosmetic plants [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Resources of Medicinal and Cosmetic Plants)
15 pages, 4668 KiB  
Article
Characterization of Triterpene Saponin Glycyrrhizin Transport by Glycyrrhiza glabra
by Kakuki Kato, Asako Horiba, Hiroaki Hayashi, Hajime Mizukami and Kazuyoshi Terasaka
Plants 2022, 11(9), 1250; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11091250 - 5 May 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2098
Abstract
Glycyrrhizin (GL), a triterpene compound produced by Glycyrrhiza species, is a crucial pharmacologically active component of crude drugs. In contrast to the biosynthesis of GL in plants, little is known about GL transport and accumulation in plants. The transport mechanism of GL was [...] Read more.
Glycyrrhizin (GL), a triterpene compound produced by Glycyrrhiza species, is a crucial pharmacologically active component of crude drugs. In contrast to the biosynthesis of GL in plants, little is known about GL transport and accumulation in plants. The transport mechanism of GL was characterized using cultured cells of Glycyrrhiza glabra. Cultured cells of G. glabra efficiently incorporated exogenously supplied GL. Proton pump inhibitors, such as probenecid and niflumic acid, as well as a protonophore (carbonylcyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone), markedly inhibited GL uptake by cultured cells, whereas vanadate exhibited a moderate inhibition. Furthermore, GL transport by G. glabra tonoplast vesicles is dependent not on a H+-electrochemical gradient but MgATP and is markedly inhibited by vanadate. These results suggest that GL uptake by cultured cells is mediated by a H+-symporter in the plasma membrane and an ATP-binding cassette transporter, which has high specificity for the aglycone structure of GL on the tonoplast. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Transport of Specialized Metabolites)
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18 pages, 537 KiB  
Review
Cyano-Phycocyanin: Mechanisms of Action on Human Skin and Future Perspectives in Medicine
by Daiva Dranseikienė, Gabrielė Balčiūnaitė-Murzienė, Jūratė Karosienė, Dmitrij Morudov, Nomeda Juodžiukynienė, Nataliia Hudz, Rima Jūratė Gerbutavičienė and Nijolė Savickienė
Plants 2022, 11(9), 1249; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11091249 - 5 May 2022
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 3973
Abstract
Cyano-phycocyanin is one of the active pigments of the blue-green algae and is usually isolated from the filamentous cyanobacteria Arthrospira platensis Gomont (Spirulina). Due to its multiple physiological functions and non-toxicity, cyano-phycocyanin may be a potential substance for the topical treatment of various [...] Read more.
Cyano-phycocyanin is one of the active pigments of the blue-green algae and is usually isolated from the filamentous cyanobacteria Arthrospira platensis Gomont (Spirulina). Due to its multiple physiological functions and non-toxicity, cyano-phycocyanin may be a potential substance for the topical treatment of various skin diseases. Considering that the conventional medicine faces drug resistance, insufficient efficacy and side effects, the plant origin compounds can act as an alternative option. Thus, the aim of this paper was to review the wound healing, antimicrobial, antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, antimelanogenic and anticancer properties and mechanisms of cyano-phycocyanin topical activities on human skin. Moreover, possible applications and biotechnological requirements for pharmaceutical forms of cyano-phycocyanin for the treatment of various skin diseases are discussed in this review. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Trends in Plants Phytochemistry and Bioactivity Analysis)
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16 pages, 1922 KiB  
Article
Effect of Irrigation Dose on Powdery Mildew Incidence and Root Biomass of Sessile Oaks (Quercus petraea (Matt.) Liebl.)
by Winicjusz Kasprzyk, Marlena Baranowska, Robert Korzeniewicz, Jolanta Behnke-Borowczyk and Wojciech Kowalkowski
Plants 2022, 11(9), 1248; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11091248 - 5 May 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1939
Abstract
The sessile oak is one of the most significant forest tree species in Europe. This species is vulnerable to various stresses, among which drought and powdery mildew have been the most serious threats. The aim of this study was to determine the influence [...] Read more.
The sessile oak is one of the most significant forest tree species in Europe. This species is vulnerable to various stresses, among which drought and powdery mildew have been the most serious threats. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of irrigation levels (overhead sprinklers) on the damage caused by powdery mildew to Quercus petraea growing in a nursery setting. Four irrigation rates were used: 100%, 75%, 50% and 25% of the full rate. The area of the leaves was measured and the ratio between the dry mass of the roots and the dry mass of the entire plant was calculated after the growing season in years’ 2015 and 2016. Limiting the total amount of water provided to a level between 53.6 mm × m−2 and 83.6 mm × m−2, particularly in the months when total precipitation was low (VII and VIII 2015), a supplemental irrigation rate between 3 and 9 mm × m−2 resulted in a lower severity of oak powdery mildew on leaves and lead to a favorable allocation of the biomass of the sessile oak seedlings to the root system. The severity of infection on oak leaf blades was lower when irrigation rates were reduced. The greatest mean degree of infestation in 2015 was noted in the 100% irrigation rate (14.6%), 75% (6.25%), 50% (4.35%) and 25% (5.47%). In 2016, there was no significant difference between the mean area of leaves infected by powdery mildew depending on the applied irrigation rate. The shoot-root biomass rate showed greater variation under limited irrigation rates. Controlling the irrigation rate can become an effective component of integrated protection strategies against this pathogen. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Alternative Measures in Plant Protection)
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14 pages, 2774 KiB  
Article
Triterpene Content in Flesh and Peel of Apples Grown on Different Rootstocks
by Aurita Butkevičiūtė, Valdimaras Janulis and Darius Kviklys
Plants 2022, 11(9), 1247; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11091247 - 5 May 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2106
Abstract
Advancements in rootstock breeding and selection have revolutionized the manner in which apples are grown throughout the world. Fruit tree breeding has typically focused on key horticultural characteristics. Even though agents with health benefits have been investigated more frequently during the recent years, [...] Read more.
Advancements in rootstock breeding and selection have revolutionized the manner in which apples are grown throughout the world. Fruit tree breeding has typically focused on key horticultural characteristics. Even though agents with health benefits have been investigated more frequently during the recent years, information about the effect of different cultivation factors, such as the rootstock, on triterpene concentration is still lacking. The present study aimed to evaluate triterpene profiles and the quantitative composition of different parts of apple fruit that was grown on 17 various origin and vigor rootstocks. HPLC analyses of triterpenes in apple samples were performed. The highest total content of triterpenes (7.72 ± 0.39 mg/g) was found in peel samples of apples grown on the dwarf rootstock 62-396-B10®. Depending on the rootstock, apple peel samples accumulated 3.52 to 4.74 times more triterpene compounds than apple flesh samples. Ursolic acid was the predominant triterpene compound in apple peel and flesh samples. The highest content of ursolic acid (5.84 ± 0.29 mg/g) was found in peel samples of apples grown on the dwarf rootstock 62-396-B10®. Meanwhile, the lowest amount of ursolic acid (3.25 ± 0.16 mg/g) was found in apple peel samples grown on the dwarf rootstock Cepiland-Pajam®2. A proper match of a cultivar and a rootstock can program a fruit tree to grow larger amounts of higher quality, antioxidant-rich, and high-nutrition-value fruit. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from Conference of CYSENI 2022)
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18 pages, 2377 KiB  
Article
Lipo-Chitooligosaccharides (LCOs) as Elicitors of the Enzymatic Activities Related to ROS Scavenging to Alleviate Oxidative Stress Generated in Tomato Plants under Stress by UV-B Radiation
by José A. Lucas, Ana García-Villaraco, Beatriz Ramos-Solano, Khalid Akdi and Francisco Javier Gutierrez-Mañero
Plants 2022, 11(9), 1246; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11091246 - 5 May 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2970
Abstract
Exposure to ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation can lead to oxidative damage in plants, increasing reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. To overcome ROS burst, plants have antioxidant mechanisms related to ROS scavenging which can be improved by elicitation with biological agents or derived molecules (elicitors), [...] Read more.
Exposure to ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation can lead to oxidative damage in plants, increasing reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. To overcome ROS burst, plants have antioxidant mechanisms related to ROS scavenging which can be improved by elicitation with biological agents or derived molecules (elicitors), as they can trigger a physiological alert state called “priming”. This work describes the effects of lipo-chitooligosaccharides (LCOs) treatment applied to tomato plants under UV-B stress. The LCOs used in the study are produced by three species of the genus Ensifer (formerly Sinorhizobium) (SinCEU-1, SinCEU-2, and SinCEU-3) were assayed on tomato plants under UV-B stress. LCOs were able to significantly increase most of the enzymatic activities related to ROS scavenging while non-enzymatic antioxidants were not modified. This response was associated with a lower oxidative stress, according to malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and the higher antioxidant capacity of the plants. Furthermore, the photosynthetic efficiency of LCOs-treated plants indicated a better physiological state than the control plants. Therefore, although more studies and deepening of certain aspects are necessary, LCOs have shown great potential to protect plants from high UV-B radiation conditions. Full article
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8 pages, 524 KiB  
Article
Jasmonic Acid Activates the Fruit-Pedicel Abscission Zone of ‘Thompson Seedless’ Grapes, Especially with Co-Application of 1-Aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic Acid
by Matthew W. Fidelibus, Peter Petracek and Steven McArtney
Plants 2022, 11(9), 1245; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11091245 - 5 May 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2390
Abstract
Two studies were conducted to determine how methyl jasmonate (MeJA), jasmonic acid (JA), and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) affect grape berry abscission in the initial days after treatment. The overarching goal was to determine whether JA, with or without ACC, may hold the potential [...] Read more.
Two studies were conducted to determine how methyl jasmonate (MeJA), jasmonic acid (JA), and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) affect grape berry abscission in the initial days after treatment. The overarching goal was to determine whether JA, with or without ACC, may hold the potential to sufficiently reduce fruit detachment force (FDF) and increase the proportion of berries with dry stem scars while minimizing preharvest abscission, effects that could be useful in the production of stemless table grapes. On Thompson Seedless grapes, JA was at least as effective as MeJA for stimulating berry abscission based on reduced fruit detachment force (FDF) and yielding detached berries with dry stem scars. Further, since previous studies showed that ACC improved MeJA-induced grape abscission, we tested ACC effects on JA activity. We found that JA rapidly induced preharvest berry abscission, confirming previous results. ACC alone did not induce preharvest berry abscission, but ACC improved the effectiveness of JA on reducing FDF and increasing dry stem scar development. These studies also demonstrated that JA-induced abscission occurs within the first day after treatment. Commercial use of JA plus ACC as an abscission agent requires that FDF sufficiently declines, and the incidence of dry stem scars increases, prior to a significant increase in fruit abscission. However, the rapid progression of fruit abscission may require harvest either within 24 and 48 h after treatment or the use of a passive catch system. Full article
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