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Plants, Volume 11, Issue 8 (April-2 2022) – 97 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): The grain development period in wheat is characterized by an intense transfer of carbon and other nutrients, including phosphorus (P), to the developing grain. A better understanding of the processes involved in P accumulation in grains is needed to improve wheat P nutrition and grain quality. Here, we investigated the dynamics of P uptake and distribution to the grains of durum wheat grown under high and low P supplies using the 32P-labeling technique. The results show that low and high P supplies significantly affected the distribution of the newly acquired P after anthesis at the whole plant level. They also underline the role of vegetative organs as a temporary storage compartment of P before its reallocation to the developing grains. View this paper
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16 pages, 3413 KiB  
Article
Nutrient Concentrations Induced Abiotic Stresses to Sweet Pepper Seedlings in Hydroponic Culture
by Xiaotao Ding, Hongmei Zhang, Tingting Qian, Lizhong He, Haijun Jin, Qiang Zhou and Jizhu Yu
Plants 2022, 11(8), 1098; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11081098 - 18 Apr 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2612
Abstract
The primary goal of this experiment was to investigate the effects of nutrient electrical conductivity (EC) on the growth and physiological responses of sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) in hydroponic culture in a greenhouse. The plant growth parameters, leaf photosynthesis, root activity, [...] Read more.
The primary goal of this experiment was to investigate the effects of nutrient electrical conductivity (EC) on the growth and physiological responses of sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) in hydroponic culture in a greenhouse. The plant growth parameters, leaf photosynthesis, root activity, soluble protein, malondialdehyde (MDA), proline, activities of antioxidant enzymes (AE), and the contents of plant mineral elements (PME) were measured in six different EC treatments. The results showed that very high or low EC treatments clearly decreased the plant height, stem diameter, shoot dry weight, and leaf net photosynthetic rate, while increasing the content of MDA and the activities of ascorbate peroxidase and guaiacol peroxidase. The contents of proline and soluble protein increased gradually from the low to high EC treatments. The root activities decreased significantly, and the main PME clearly did not increase or even decreased at high EC levels. Very high EC treatments suppressed growth even more than those of very low EC. Treatments that were too low or high EC suppressed plant growth, owing to abiotic stress (either nutrient deficiency or salinity), since the plants had to regulate the activities of AE and increase the accumulation of osmolytes to adjust to the abiotic stresses. Full article
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16 pages, 4068 KiB  
Article
Plantlet Anatomy of Silver Birch (Betula pendula Roth.) and Hybrid Aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx. × Populus tremula L.) Shows Intraspecific Reactions to Illumination In Vitro
by Mārtiņš Zeps, Toms Kondratovičs, Elva Grigžde, Āris Jansons, Pauls Zeltiņš, Ineta Samsone and Roberts Matisons
Plants 2022, 11(8), 1097; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11081097 - 18 Apr 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1774
Abstract
Micropropagation of forest reproductive material is becoming an increasingly important tool of climate-smart forest management, whose efficiency is depending on artificial illumination, which in turn can have species-specific effects. To improve the energy-efficiency of micropropagation, light emitting diodes (LED) are becoming more popular; [...] Read more.
Micropropagation of forest reproductive material is becoming an increasingly important tool of climate-smart forest management, whose efficiency is depending on artificial illumination, which in turn can have species-specific effects. To improve the energy-efficiency of micropropagation, light emitting diodes (LED) are becoming more popular; however, they emit light of narrow spectral composition, synergic effects of which can alter plantlet development. Regarding the in vitro cultures of trees, such effects have been scarcely studied. In this study, three clones of silver birch (Betula pendula Roth.) and three clones of hybrid aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx. × Populus tremula L.) from the eastern Baltic region were tested. The responses of leaf and stem anatomy of in vitro cultures to three LED light illumination treatments differing by spectral composition and to illumination by fluorescent tubes were estimated by linear (mixed) models. The studied light treatments had non-interacted effects on stomata density and on the secondary xylem cell wall in the stem of silver birch and in the stomata length, stem radius, and phloem width of hybrid aspen. Furthermore, clone-specific responses to illumination were observed for number of chloroplasts and phloem width of silver birch and for leaf thickness and xylem cell wall thickness of hybrid aspen, implying different mechanisms of shade avoidance. In general, the responses of plantlet anatomy differed according to the width of the light spectrum in case of LED, as well as for fluorescent tubes. Considering the legacy effects of early development of plantlets, adaptability of illumination in terms of spectral composition according to the requirements of genotypes appear highly beneficial for micropropagation of sustainable forest reproductive material. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Plant Development and Morphogenesis)
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15 pages, 3352 KiB  
Article
Angelica purpurascens (Avé-Lall.) Gilli. Essential Oil Improved Brain Function via Cholinergic Modulation and Antioxidant Effects in the Scopolamine-Induced Zebrafish (Danio rerio) Model
by Razvan Stefan Boiangiu, Eyup Bagci, Gabriela Dumitru, Lucian Hritcu and Elena Todirascu-Ciornea
Plants 2022, 11(8), 1096; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11081096 - 18 Apr 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2568
Abstract
Angelica purpurascens (Avé-Lall.) Gilli. is a medicinal plant that displays antioxidant, anticholinesterase, and neuroprotective properties. The effect of A. purpurascens essential oil (APO) on memory impairments and brain oxidative stress in zebrafish (Danio rerio) treated with scopolamine (Sco), as well as [...] Read more.
Angelica purpurascens (Avé-Lall.) Gilli. is a medicinal plant that displays antioxidant, anticholinesterase, and neuroprotective properties. The effect of A. purpurascens essential oil (APO) on memory impairments and brain oxidative stress in zebrafish (Danio rerio) treated with scopolamine (Sco), as well as the underlying mechanism involved, were investigated in this study. Exposure to Sco (100 μM) resulted in anxiety in zebrafish, as assessed by the novel tank diving test (NTT), whereas spatial memory and novelty response dysfunctions, as evidenced by the Y-maze test and novel object recognition test (NOR), were noticed. When zebrafish were given Sco and simultaneously given APO (25 and 150 μL/L, once daily for 13 days), the deficits were averted. An increase in brain antioxidant enzymes, a reduction of lipid peroxidation, and protein oxidation were linked to this impact. Furthermore, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity was significantly reduced in the brains of APO-treated zebrafish. The main detected components in the APO composition were β-phellandrene (33.80%), sabinene (6.80%), α-pinene (5.30%), germacrene-D (4.50%), α-phellandrene (4.20%), and p-cymene (3.80%) based on gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS) investigations. Our findings show that APO’s beneficial effect in a zebrafish model of Sco-induced memory impairment is mediated through multiple mechanisms, including the restoration of cholinergic system function and the improvement of the brain antioxidant state. As a result, APO could be employed as a potential source of bioactive molecules with useful biological properties and medicinal uses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidant Activity of Plant Extracts)
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13 pages, 1688 KiB  
Article
Cryo-Technologies for Ex Situ Conservation of Rosa Germplasm
by Adela Halmagyi, Sergiu Vălimăreanu, Gabriela Șovărel and Ana Coste
Plants 2022, 11(8), 1095; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11081095 - 18 Apr 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1703
Abstract
In this study, we compare two rapid cryopreservation (−196 °C) procedures, droplet-vitrification and encapsulation-dehydration for rose (Rosa × hybrida L., cultivars ‘Ioana’, ‘Mariana’, ‘Vulcan’). Significant factors for cryopreservation, such as sucrose concentration during osmoprotection, treatment duration with plant vitrification solution 2 (PVS2) [...] Read more.
In this study, we compare two rapid cryopreservation (−196 °C) procedures, droplet-vitrification and encapsulation-dehydration for rose (Rosa × hybrida L., cultivars ‘Ioana’, ‘Mariana’, ‘Vulcan’). Significant factors for cryopreservation, such as sucrose concentration during osmoprotection, treatment duration with plant vitrification solution 2 (PVS2) in droplet-vitrification, duration of air desiccation and moisture content of alginate beads in encapsulation-dehydration, were investigated. In addition, the morphogenetic response to in vitro culture and to liquid nitrogen storage and the content in photosynthetic pigments have been assessed. The in vitro cultures were initiated from plant material originating from field collection. The highest regeneration frequencies were obtained for cv. ‘Vulcan’ in both of the cryopreservation procedures tested, 72% in droplet-vitrification and 65% following encapsulation-dehydration. The morphogenetic response (multiplication index and height of shoots) to liquid nitrogen storage was direct multiple shoot formation per initial shoot tip for all genotypes. The content in chlorophyll a and b was statistically comparable in plant material resulting from cryopreserved and non-cryopreserved shoot tips in all cultivars. The findings expand the information on Rosa‘s response to in vitro culture conditions and cryopreservation, providing protocols with a high regeneration capacity for the storage of genotypes with high ornamental value. Full article
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14 pages, 1602 KiB  
Article
Screening and Evaluation for Antixenosis Resistance in Wheat Accessions and Varieties to Grain Aphid, Sitobion miscanthi (Takahashi) (Hemiptera: Aphididae)
by Kifle Gebreegziabiher Gebretsadik, Yong Zhang and Julian Chen
Plants 2022, 11(8), 1094; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11081094 - 18 Apr 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2125
Abstract
The grain aphid, Sitobion miscanthi causes serious damage by removing nutritional content from wheat plants and transmitting viral diseases. The use of resistant wheat cultivars is an effective method of aphid management. To identify S. miscanthi resistant cultivars, preliminary antixenosis resistance screening was [...] Read more.
The grain aphid, Sitobion miscanthi causes serious damage by removing nutritional content from wheat plants and transmitting viral diseases. The use of resistant wheat cultivars is an effective method of aphid management. To identify S. miscanthi resistant cultivars, preliminary antixenosis resistance screening was conducted on 112 Ethiopian and 21 Chinese wheat accessions and varieties along with bioassay to test for further antixenosis resistance, identification of aphid feeding behavior using electrical penetration graph (EPG), and imaging of leaf trichome densities using a 3D microscope. According to antixenosis resistance screening, one highly-resistant, 25 moderately-resistant, and 38 slightly-resistant wheat cultivars to S. miscanthi were identified. Aphid choice tests showed that Luxuan266, 243726, and 213312 were the least preferred after 12, 24, 48, and 72 h of S. miscanthi release. Longer duration of Np, longer time to first probe, and shorter duration of E2 waveforms were recorded in Lunxuan266, 243726, and 213312 than in Beijing 837. The trichome density on adaxial and abaxial leaf surfaces of Lunxuan266, 243726 and 213312 was significantly higher than on those of Beijing 837. We concluded that Lunxuan266, 243726, and 213312 were antixenosis resistant to S. miscanthi based on the choice test, EPG results, and leaf trichome densities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wheat–Pest Interaction: From Biology to Integrated Management)
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16 pages, 1846 KiB  
Review
Transient Expression of Glycosylated SARS-CoV-2 Antigens in Nicotiana benthamiana
by Valentina Ruocco and Richard Strasser
Plants 2022, 11(8), 1093; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11081093 - 18 Apr 2022
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 3501
Abstract
The current COVID-19 pandemic very dramatically shows that the world lacks preparedness for novel viral diseases. In addition to newly emerging viruses, many known pathogenic viruses such as influenza are constantly evolving, leading to frequent outbreaks with severe diseases and deaths. Hence, infectious [...] Read more.
The current COVID-19 pandemic very dramatically shows that the world lacks preparedness for novel viral diseases. In addition to newly emerging viruses, many known pathogenic viruses such as influenza are constantly evolving, leading to frequent outbreaks with severe diseases and deaths. Hence, infectious viruses are a recurrent burden to our daily life, and powerful strategies to stop the spread of human pathogens and disease progression are of utmost importance. Transient plant-based protein expression is a technology that allows fast and highly flexible manufacturing of recombinant viral proteins and, thus, can contribute to infectious disease detection and prevention. This review highlights recent progress in the transient production of viral glycoproteins in N. benthamiana with a focus on SARS-CoV-2-derived viral antigens. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant-Based Expression System)
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15 pages, 3490 KiB  
Article
Negligible Impact of Drought-Resistant Genetically Modified Maize on Arthropod Community Structure Observed in a 2-Year Field Investigation
by Jun-Qi Yin, Da-Ming Wang, Jin-Gang Liang and Xin-Yuan Song
Plants 2022, 11(8), 1092; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11081092 - 18 Apr 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2102
Abstract
Dehydration-responsive element-binding (DREB) transcription factors regulate diverse processes during plant development. Here, a 2-year field study was conducted to assess the potential effects of DREB-genetically modified maize (GM1) on arthropod species and ecological communities. Arthropod abundance, diversity, and community composition in GM1 and [...] Read more.
Dehydration-responsive element-binding (DREB) transcription factors regulate diverse processes during plant development. Here, a 2-year field study was conducted to assess the potential effects of DREB-genetically modified maize (GM1) on arthropod species and ecological communities. Arthropod abundance, diversity, and community composition in GM1 and its non-transformed counterpart maize variety, Chang 7-2, were compared using whole plant inspection, pitfall trap, and suction sampler methods. Based on Shannon–Wiener diversity, Simpson’s diversity, Pielou’s indexes, number of species, and total number of individuals, GM1 had a negligible effect on arthropod abundance and diversity. Redundancy analysis indicated that the composition of arthropod community was not associated with maize type in the three investigation methods, while it exhibited significant correlation with year and sampling time in whole plant inspection and suction sample methods, and distinctly correlated with sampling time in the pitfall trap method. Nonmetric multidimensional scaling analysis of variable factors in the three investigation methods showed that sampling time, rather than maize type or year, was closely related to the composition of arthropod community in the field. Our results provide direct evidence to support that DREB-GM maize had negligible effects on arthropods in the Jilin Province under natural conditions. Full article
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19 pages, 3260 KiB  
Article
Improved Medicago sativa Nodulation under Stress Assisted by Variovorax sp. Endophytes
by Noris J. Flores-Duarte, Julia Pérez-Pérez, Salvadora Navarro-Torre, Enrique Mateos-Naranjo, Susana Redondo-Gómez, Eloísa Pajuelo and Ignacio D. Rodríguez-Llorente
Plants 2022, 11(8), 1091; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11081091 - 17 Apr 2022
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 2449
Abstract
Legumes are the recommended crops to fight against soil degradation and loss of fertility because of their known positive impacts on soils. Our interest is focused on the identification of plant-growth-promoting endophytes inhabiting nodules able to enhance legume growth in poor and/or degraded [...] Read more.
Legumes are the recommended crops to fight against soil degradation and loss of fertility because of their known positive impacts on soils. Our interest is focused on the identification of plant-growth-promoting endophytes inhabiting nodules able to enhance legume growth in poor and/or degraded soils. The ability of Variovorax paradoxus S110T and Variovorax gossypii JM-310T to promote alfalfa growth in nutrient-poor and metal-contaminated estuarine soils was studied. Both strains behaved as nodule endophytes and improved in vitro seed germination and plant growth, as well as nodulation in co-inoculation with Ensifer medicae MA11. Variovorax ameliorated the physiological status of the plant, increased nodulation, chlorophyll and nitrogen content, and the response to stress and metal accumulation in the roots of alfalfa growing in degraded soils with moderate to high levels of contamination. The presence of plant-growth-promoting traits in Variovorax, particularly ACC deaminase activity, could be under the observed in planta effects. Although the couple V. gossypii-MA11 reported a great benefit to plant growth and nodulation, the best result was observed in plants inoculated with the combination of the three bacteria. These results suggest that Variovorax strains could be used as biofertilizers to improve the adaptation of legumes to degraded soils in soil-recovery programs. Full article
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15 pages, 512 KiB  
Article
Volatile Constituent Analysis of Wintergreen Essential Oil and Comparison with Synthetic Methyl Salicylate for Authentication
by Pawan Kumar Ojha, Darbin Kumar Poudel, Sabita Dangol, Anil Rokaya, Sujan Timsina, Prabodh Satyal and William N. Setzer
Plants 2022, 11(8), 1090; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11081090 - 17 Apr 2022
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 4226
Abstract
A comparative analysis of Gaultheria fragrantissima (Ericaceae) essential oils based on geographical location, distillation time, and varying distillation conditions was carried out, and their compositions were evaluated by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS), chiral GC–MS, and gas chromatography–flame ionization detection (GC–FID). In addition, each [...] Read more.
A comparative analysis of Gaultheria fragrantissima (Ericaceae) essential oils based on geographical location, distillation time, and varying distillation conditions was carried out, and their compositions were evaluated by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS), chiral GC–MS, and gas chromatography–flame ionization detection (GC–FID). In addition, each of seven commercial wintergreen essential oil samples from Nepal and China were analyzed. The highest extraction yield was 1.48% and the maximum number of compounds identified in natural wintergreen oil was twenty-two. Based on distillation time, the maximum numbers of identified compounds are present in 120 min. Linalool, phenol, vetispirane, and ethyl salicylate were present in commercial wintergreen oils both from Nepal and China. The presence of compounds such as elsholtzia ketone and β-dehydroelsholtzia ketone in the China samples represented a significant difference in wintergreen oil between the two geographical sources. Dimethyl 2-hydroxyterephthalate is a well-known synthetic marker for wintergreen oil when synthesis is carried out using salicylic acid, but the synthetic marker was absent while using acetylsalicylic acid as a precursor during synthesis. Adulteration analysis of wintergreen oil showed an increase in the concentration of dimethyl 2-hydroxyterephthalate, whereas the concentrations of minor components decreased and methyl salicylate remained unchanged. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of the enantioselective analysis of wintergreen essential oil. Furthermore, three samples showed notable antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus epidermidis, with an MIC value of 156.3 μg/mL. Similarly, one sample showed effectiveness against Aspergillus niger (MIC = 78.1 μg/mL). Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Natural Compounds in Plants)
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14 pages, 1491 KiB  
Article
Discovering Plum, Watermelon and Grape Cultivars Founded in a Middle Age Site of Sassari (Sardinia, Italy) through a Computer Image Analysis Approach
by Marco Sarigu, Diego Sabato, Mariano Ucchesu, Maria Cecilia Loi, Giovanna Bosi, Oscar Grillo, Salvador Barros Torres and Gianluigi Bacchetta
Plants 2022, 11(8), 1089; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11081089 - 16 Apr 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2537
Abstract
The discovery of several waterlogged plant remains in a Middle Ages context (1330–1360 AD) in Sassari (NS, Sardinia, Italy) enabled the characterisation of archaeological plum fruit stones and watermelon and grape seeds through computer image analysis. Digital seed/endocarp images were acquired by a [...] Read more.
The discovery of several waterlogged plant remains in a Middle Ages context (1330–1360 AD) in Sassari (NS, Sardinia, Italy) enabled the characterisation of archaeological plum fruit stones and watermelon and grape seeds through computer image analysis. Digital seed/endocarp images were acquired by a flatbed scanner and processed and analysed by applying computerised image analysis techniques. The morphometric data were statistically elaborated using stepwise linear discriminant analysis (LDA), allowing comparisons among archaeological remains, wild populations and autochthonous cultivars. Archaeological samples of plum were compared with 21 autochthonous cultivars of Prunus domestica from Sardinia, while archaeological watermelon seeds were compared with 36 seed lots of Citrullus from Europe, Africa and Asia. Moreover, archaeological grape seeds were compared with 51 autochthonous traditional cultivars of Vitis vinifera subsp. vinifera from Sardinia, 16 cultivars from Tuscany, six cultivars from Liguria, and eight cultivars from Catalonia (Spain). Archaeological plum remains showed morphological affinity with five cultivars of Sardinia. Seed features of the archaeological watermelon remains demonstrated affiliation with a proper sweet dessert watermelon, Citrullus lanatus, and similarity with some Sardinian cultivars. Regarding the archaeological remains of grape, morphometric comparisons showed a high similarity with autochthonous cultivars from Catalonia and Liguria. This study provides new information about ancient fruit cultivated and consumed during the Middle Ages in Sardinia. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Crops and Agriculture in Medieval Age in Europe)
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19 pages, 1731 KiB  
Article
Genetic Characterization by SSR Markers of a Comprehensive Wine Grape Collection Conserved at Rancho de la Merced (Andalusia, Spain)
by Enrico Cretazzo, Paula Moreno Sanz, Silvia Lorenzi, Miguel Lara Benítez, Leonardo Velasco and Francesco Emanuelli
Plants 2022, 11(8), 1088; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11081088 - 16 Apr 2022
Cited by 19 | Viewed by 2629
Abstract
The IFAPA research center “Rancho de la Merced” (Jerez, Spain) hosts one of the oldest and most diverse grapevine germplasm repositories in Europe, and is aimed at providing feasible solutions to deal with any agronomic trait by exploring its genetic variability and by [...] Read more.
The IFAPA research center “Rancho de la Merced” (Jerez, Spain) hosts one of the oldest and most diverse grapevine germplasm repositories in Europe, and is aimed at providing feasible solutions to deal with any agronomic trait by exploring its genetic variability and by means of association and Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA) editing studies. In this work, we focused on a wine and dual-use grapevine subcollection that consists of 930 accessions. Genetic analysis allowed to identify 521 unique genotypes. After comparing them with several databases, matches were found for 476 genetic profiles while the remaining 45 have not been previously described. Combination with clustering analysis suggested a total pool of 481 Vitis vinifera accessions that included some table cultivars. Several synonymies, homonymies and mislabeling have also been detected. Structure analysis allowed identifying six clusters according to eco-geographic cultivation areas and one additional group including non-vinifera accessions. Diversity analysis pointed out that Spanish Mediterranean varieties are genetically closer to oriental genotypes than to European varieties typical of oceanic and continental climates. The origin of Spanish varieties is discussed in depth considering our data and previous studies. Analysis of molecular variance partition confirmed a well-structured germplasm, although differentiation among groups had a much lower effect on genetic variability than differences within groups, which are strongly related to a very high heterozygosity. A core collection that covers all allele richness is proposed. It is constituted of about 13% of total accessions, and each cluster inferred by structure analysis is represented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Plant Genetics, Genomics and Biotechnology)
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25 pages, 2262 KiB  
Article
Secondary Metabolites in Basil, Bio-Insecticide, Inhibition Effect, and In Silico Molecular Docking against Proteolytic Enzymes of the Red Palm Weevil (Rhynchophorus ferrugineus)
by Hossam Moustafa Darrag, Hani Taher Almuhanna and Emadaldeen Hamad Hakami
Plants 2022, 11(8), 1087; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11081087 - 16 Apr 2022
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 3015
Abstract
The purpose of this work was to determine the secondary metabolites generated by O. basilicum cell suspensions, as well as their insecticide and inhibitory activity against R. ferrugineus. The growth kinetics with inoculation Verticillium dahliae were determined and identified using LC-MS. Determination [...] Read more.
The purpose of this work was to determine the secondary metabolites generated by O. basilicum cell suspensions, as well as their insecticide and inhibitory activity against R. ferrugineus. The growth kinetics with inoculation Verticillium dahliae were determined and identified using LC-MS. Determination of total phenolic components (TFC), flavonoids (TF), and condensed tannins (TCT) were measured. Insecticidal activity of O. basilicum extract against R. ferrugineus (larva and adult) and proteolytic enzymes activity were assessed (in vitro and in vivo). The O.basilicum extract had an LC50 of 1238 µg/mL and an LD50 of 13.4 µg/larva. The LC50 of chicoric acid, ursolic acid, salvigenin, quercetin-3-O-rutinoside, rosmarinyl glucoside, and nepetoidin B demonstrated activity at an LC50 of 1132, 1167, 1189, 1214, 1275, and 1317 µg/mL, respectively. Chicoric acid, salvigenin, nepetoidin B, and rosmarinic acid demonstrated an LD50 activity of 10.23, 11.4, 11.9, and 12.4 µg/larva, respectively. The active extract of O. basilicum inhibited total protease, trypsin-like serine proteinases, elastase, cysteine, and metalloprotease activity with an IC50 (in vitro) of 119.4, 91, 102.4, 76.4, and 52.4 µg/mL, respectively. In silico studies of compounds were conducted, such as molecular docking and ADMET analysis. The study proposes using an efficient cell suspension technique to produce O. basilicum extract containing active secondary metabolites and accessible using as bio-insecticide. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Insecticidal Activity of Plant Secondary Metabolites)
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19 pages, 2850 KiB  
Article
Growth Characteristics of Chlorella sorokiniana in a Photobioreactor during the Utilization of Different Forms of Nitrogen at Various Temperatures
by Elvira E. Ziganshina, Svetlana S. Bulynina and Ayrat M. Ziganshin
Plants 2022, 11(8), 1086; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11081086 - 16 Apr 2022
Cited by 19 | Viewed by 3540
Abstract
The cultivation of microalgae requires the selection of optimal parameters. In this work, the effect of various forms of nitrogen on the growth and productivity of Chlorella sorokiniana AM-02 when cultivated at different temperatures was evaluated. Regardless of the temperature conditions, the highest [...] Read more.
The cultivation of microalgae requires the selection of optimal parameters. In this work, the effect of various forms of nitrogen on the growth and productivity of Chlorella sorokiniana AM-02 when cultivated at different temperatures was evaluated. Regardless of the temperature conditions, the highest specific growth rate of 1.26 day−1 was observed in modified Bold’s basal medium (BBM) with NH4+ as a nitrogen source, while the highest specific growth rate in BBM with NO3 as a nitrogen source achieved only 1.07 day−1. Moreover, C. sorokiniana grew well in medium based on anaerobic digester effluent (ADE; after anaerobic digestion of chicken/cow manure) with the highest growth rate being 0.92 day−1. The accumulation of proteins in algal cells was comparable in all experiments and reached a maximum of 42% of dry weight. The biomass productivity reached 0.41–0.50 g L−1 day−1 when cultivated in BBM, whereas biomass productivity of 0.32–0.35 g L−1 day−1 was obtained in ADE-based medium. The results, based on a bacterial 16S rRNA gene sequencing approach, revealed the growth of various bacterial species in ADE-based medium in the presence of algal cells (their abundance varied depending on the temperature regimen). The results indicate that biomass from C. sorokiniana AM-02 may be sustainable for animal feed production considering the high protein yields. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cyanobacteria, Algae, and Plants; from Biology to Biotechnology)
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16 pages, 2996 KiB  
Article
Eucalyptus globulus and Salvia officinalis Extracts Mediated Green Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles and Their Application as an Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Agent
by Aistė Balčiūnaitienė, Mindaugas Liaudanskas, Viktorija Puzerytė, Jonas Viškelis, Valdimaras Janulis, Pranas Viškelis, Egidijus Griškonis and Virginija Jankauskaitė
Plants 2022, 11(8), 1085; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11081085 - 15 Apr 2022
Cited by 25 | Viewed by 3666
Abstract
Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) biosynthesized using plant extracts as reducing and capping agents show multiple possibilities for solving various biological problems. The aim of this study was to expand the boundaries of AgNPs using a novel low toxicity and production cost phytochemical method for [...] Read more.
Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) biosynthesized using plant extracts as reducing and capping agents show multiple possibilities for solving various biological problems. The aim of this study was to expand the boundaries of AgNPs using a novel low toxicity and production cost phytochemical method for the biosynthesis of nanoparticles from Eucalyptus globulus and Salvia officinalis aqueous leaf extracts. Biosynthesized AgNPs were characterized by various methods (ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-vis), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy with horizontal attenuated total reflectance (HART), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS)). The determined antioxidative and antimicrobial activity of plant extracts was compared with the activity of the AgNPs. The UV-vis spectral analysis demonstrated the absorption peaks at 408 and 438 nm, which confirmed the synthesis of stable AgNPs from E. globulus and S. officinalis, respectively. FTIR-HART results suggested strong capping of phytochemicals on AgNPs. TEM results show mainly spherical-shaped AgNPs, whose size distribution depends on the plant leaf extract type; the smaller AgNPs were obtained with E. globulus extract (with size range of 17.5 ± 5.89 nm compared to 34.3 ± 7.76 nm from S. officinalis AgNPs). The in vitro antioxidant activity evaluated by radical scavenging assays and the reduction activity method clearly demonstrated that both the plant extracts and AgNPs showed prominent antioxidant properties. In addition, AgNPs show much stronger antimicrobial activity against broad spectrum of Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria strains than the plant extracts used for their synthesis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Resources of Berry and Medicinal Plants Volume II)
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23 pages, 6523 KiB  
Article
Differential Impact of Nitric Oxide and Abscisic Acid on the Cellular and Physiological Functioning of sub1A QTL Bearing Rice Genotype under Salt Stress
by Indraneel Saha, Arijit Ghosh, Debabrata Dolui, Masayuki Fujita, Mirza Hasanuzzaman and Malay Kumar Adak
Plants 2022, 11(8), 1084; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11081084 - 15 Apr 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2021
Abstract
Hydroponic culture containing 200 mM NaCl was used to induce oxidative stress in seedlings of cultivars initially primed with 1 mM SNP and 10 µM ABA. Exogenous application of sodium nitroprusside (SNP – a nitric oxide donor) and abscisic acid (ABA) was well [...] Read more.
Hydroponic culture containing 200 mM NaCl was used to induce oxidative stress in seedlings of cultivars initially primed with 1 mM SNP and 10 µM ABA. Exogenous application of sodium nitroprusside (SNP – a nitric oxide donor) and abscisic acid (ABA) was well sensitized more in cv. Swarna Sub1 than cv. Swarna and also reflected in different cellular responses. The major effects of salinity, irrespective of the cultivar, were lowering the water relation, including relative water content and osmotic potential, and decreasing the compatible solutes like alanine, gamma-aminobutyric acid, and glycine betaine. The accumulated polyamines were reduced more in cv. Swarna with a concomitant decrease in photosynthetic reserves. NADP-malic enzyme activity, sucrose accumulation, ascorbate peroxidase, and glutathione S-transferase activities gradually declined under NaCl stress and the catabolizing enzymes like invertase (both wall and cytosolic forms) also declined. On the contrary, plants suffered from oxidative stress through superoxide, hydrogen peroxide, and their biosynthetic enzymes like NADP(H) oxidase. Moderation of Na+/K+ by both SNP and ABA were correlated with other salt sensitivities in the plants. The maximum effects of SNP and ABA were found in the recovery of antioxidation pathways, osmotic tolerance, and carbohydrate metabolism. Findings predict the efficacy of SNP and ABA either independently or cumulatively in overcoming NaCl toxicity in rice. Full article
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13 pages, 1613 KiB  
Article
Cytotoxicity Evaluation and Antioxidant Activity of a Novel Drink Based on Roasted Avocado Seed Powder
by Andreea Pușcaș, Anda E. Tanislav, Romina A. Marc, Vlad Mureșan, Andruța E. Mureșan, Emoke Pall and Constantin Cerbu
Plants 2022, 11(8), 1083; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11081083 - 15 Apr 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 3497
Abstract
The avocado seed is an underused waste resulting from the processing of pulp. Polyphenols, fibers, and carotenoids are present in the seed, which also exhibits prophylactic, fungicidal, and larvicidal effects. Developing food products with avocado seed as an ingredient or spice is highly [...] Read more.
The avocado seed is an underused waste resulting from the processing of pulp. Polyphenols, fibers, and carotenoids are present in the seed, which also exhibits prophylactic, fungicidal, and larvicidal effects. Developing food products with avocado seed as an ingredient or spice is highly desired for nutritional, environmental, and economic reasons. The present study proposed its valorization in a hot drink, similar to already existing coffee alternatives, obtained by infusing the roasted and grinded avocado seed. The proximate composition of the raw or conditioned avocado seed and that of the novel drink were determined. The total phenolic content was assessed using the Folin-Ciocâlteu method. The total carotenoids were extracted and assessed spectrophotometrically. Starch determination was performed by the Ewers Polarimetric method. The highest content of polyphenols, 772.90 mg GAE/100 g, was determined in the crude seed, while in the drink was as low as 17.55 mg GAE/100 g. However, the proposed drink demonstrated high antioxidant capacity, evaluated through the DPPH method. This might be due to the high content of the total carotenoid compounds determined in the roasted seed (6534.48 µg/100 g). The proposed drink demonstrated high antiproliferative activity on Hs27 and DLD-1 cell lines. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Spicy and Aromatic Plants)
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14 pages, 2678 KiB  
Article
Low Concentration of Anti-Auxin and Anti-Fungal Agent Accelerates the PLB Regeneration of Dendrobium okinawense under Green LED
by Hasan Mehbub, Kazuhiko Shimasaki and Hasan Mehraj
Plants 2022, 11(8), 1082; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11081082 - 15 Apr 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2245
Abstract
Dendrobium okinawense is an endangered epiphytic orchid, and there has been no scientific report so far on its propagation. Protocorm is a mass of cells, and protocorm-like bodies (PLBs) are lookalike protocorms produced by vegetative explants in vitro. Regeneration of PLBs is a [...] Read more.
Dendrobium okinawense is an endangered epiphytic orchid, and there has been no scientific report so far on its propagation. Protocorm is a mass of cells, and protocorm-like bodies (PLBs) are lookalike protocorms produced by vegetative explants in vitro. Regeneration of PLBs is a widely used technique for orchid micropropagation. We used different light-emitting diodes (LEDs) for the PLB regeneration of D. okinawense. The number of PLBs and fresh weight were increased by 81.1% and 80.8%, respectively, under green LED over the white fluorescent (WF) light. We added different concentrations of PCIB (p-Chlorophenoxyisobutyric acid, an anti-auxin) and HMI (3-Hydroxy-5-methyl isoxazole, an anti-fungal agent) in culture media. The number of PLBs was increased in media having 0.01 mg/L of PCIB (35.9%) compared to control (no PCIB), whereas 19.3% increased in media having 0.01 mL/L of HMI compared to control (no HMI). Green LED in combination with 0.01 mg/L of PCIB significantly increased the number of PLBs (69.0%) compared to the WF–without PCIB combination. In LEDs-PCIB and LED-HMI combinations, HMI did not show better PLBs regeneration compared with PCIB. The results suggested that a combination of low concentrations of PCIB and green LED have the potential to accelerate PLB regeneration of D. okinawense. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Insight into Research in In Vitro Plants Propagation)
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15 pages, 1619 KiB  
Article
Halophyte Artemisia caerulescens L.: Metabolites from In Vitro Shoots and Wild Plants
by Ylenia Pieracci, Martina Vento, Luisa Pistelli, Tiziana Lombardi and Laura Pistelli
Plants 2022, 11(8), 1081; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11081081 - 15 Apr 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1962
Abstract
Halophyte plants are potential resources to deal with the increasing soil salinity determined by climatic change. In this context, the present study aimed to investigate the germplasm conservation of Artemisia caerulescens collected in the San Rossore Estate (Pisa, Italy) through in vitro culture, [...] Read more.
Halophyte plants are potential resources to deal with the increasing soil salinity determined by climatic change. In this context, the present study aimed to investigate the germplasm conservation of Artemisia caerulescens collected in the San Rossore Estate (Pisa, Italy) through in vitro culture, biochemical properties, and the phytochemical composition of the volatile fraction of both in vitro shoots and different organs of wild plants (leaves, young and ripe inflorescences). The best medium tested for the shoot proliferation was MS, with the addition of 1 μM BA. Total polyphenol content and antioxidant activity were noticeable in both the inflorescences, while leaves and in vitro shoots showed lower amounts. Concerning the phytochemical investigation, the headspaces (HSs) and the essential oils (EOs) were characterized by oxygenated monoterpenes as the main chemical class of compounds in all samples, and with α- and β-thujone as the major constituents. However, the EOs were characterized by noticeable percentages of phenylpropanoids (23.6–28.8%), with brevifolin as the unique compound, which was not detected in the spontaneous volatile emissions of the same parts of the wild plant. Good amounts of EOs were obtained from different organs of the wild plant, comprising between 0.17% and 0.41% of the young and ripe inflorescences, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Tissue Culture and Secondary Metabolites Production)
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20 pages, 11023 KiB  
Article
Dynamics of Bioactive Compounds during Spontaneous Fermentation of Paste Obtained from Capsicum ssp.—Stage towards a Product with Technological Application
by Csaba Balázs Kádár, Adriana Păucean, Elemér Simon, Dan Cristian Vodnar, Floricuța Ranga, Iulian Eugen Rusu, Vasile-Gheorghe Vișan, Simona Man, Maria Simona Chiș and Georgiana Drețcanu
Plants 2022, 11(8), 1080; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11081080 - 15 Apr 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2214
Abstract
Six cultivars of chili (Cherry, Bulgarian Chilli, Cayenne, Fatalii, Habanero, and Carolina Reaper) from two species (Capsicum annuum and Capsicum chinense) have been studied. Anaerobic, spontaneous fermentation of pure chili paste was conducted for 21 days at 20 °C. The unfermented [...] Read more.
Six cultivars of chili (Cherry, Bulgarian Chilli, Cayenne, Fatalii, Habanero, and Carolina Reaper) from two species (Capsicum annuum and Capsicum chinense) have been studied. Anaerobic, spontaneous fermentation of pure chili paste was conducted for 21 days at 20 °C. The unfermented (UCP) and fermented chili pastes (FCP) were both subjected to physicochemical and microbiological characterization consisting of capsaicinoid, ascorbic acid, short-chain organic acids, phenolic compounds, and simple sugars analysis. Cell viability for Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) and Leuconostoc was determined before and after fermentation. Results indicate that capsaicinoids are very stable compounds, as notable differences between unfermented and fermented samples could not be seen. Carolina Reaper and Fatalii cultivars were amongst the most pungent, whereas Cherry, Cayenne, and Bulgarian types were low to moderate in pungency. Average loss of total ascorbic acid was 19.01%. Total phenolic compounds ranged between 36.89–195.43 mg/100 g for the fresh fruits and 35.60–180.40 mg/100 g for the fermented product. Losses through fermentation were not significant (p < 0.05). Plate counts indicated low initial numbers for LAB in the fresh samples, values ranging between 50–3700 CFU/g (colony-forming units). After fermentation, day 21, concentration of LAB (3.8 × 106–6.2 × 108 CFU/g) was high in all samples. Fermented chilies paste with enhanced biochemical and bacterial properties might further be used in the technology of vegetable (brining) or meat (curing) products, processes that generally involve the fermenting activity of different microorganisms, especially (LAB). Thus, the purpose of this research was the investigation of biochemical and microbial transformations that naturally occur in fermented chilies with a future perspective towards technological applications in cured meat products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Functional Food Products Derived from Plant)
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18 pages, 5233 KiB  
Article
Genome-Wide Identification of Cotton (Gossypium spp.) Trehalose-6-Phosphate Phosphatase (TPP) Gene Family Members and the Role of GhTPP22 in the Response to Drought Stress
by Weipeng Wang, Hua Cui, Xiangfen Xiao, Bingjie Wu, Jialiang Sun, Yaxin Zhang, Qiuyue Yang, Yuping Zhao, Guoxiang Liu and Tengfei Qin
Plants 2022, 11(8), 1079; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11081079 - 15 Apr 2022
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2369
Abstract
Trehalose-6-phosphate phosphatase (TPP) is a key enzyme involved in trehalose synthesis in higher plants. Previous studies have shown that TPP family genes increase yields without affecting plant growth under drought conditions, but their functions in cotton have not been reported. In this study, [...] Read more.
Trehalose-6-phosphate phosphatase (TPP) is a key enzyme involved in trehalose synthesis in higher plants. Previous studies have shown that TPP family genes increase yields without affecting plant growth under drought conditions, but their functions in cotton have not been reported. In this study, 17, 12, 26 and 24 TPP family genes were identified in Gossypium arboreum, Gossypium raimondii, Gossypium barbadense and Gossypium hirsutum, respectively. The 79 TPP family genes were divided into three subgroups by phylogenetic analysis. Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) of GhTPP22 produced TRV::GhTPP22 plants that were more sensitive to drought stress than the control plants, and the relative expression of GhTPP22 was decreased, as shown by qRT–PCR. Moreover, we analysed the gene structure, targeted small RNAs, and gene expression patterns of TPP family members and the physicochemical properties of their encoded proteins. Overall, members of the TPP gene family in cotton were systematically identified, and the function of GhTPP22 under drought stress conditions was preliminarily verified. These findings provide new information for improving drought resistance for cotton breeding in the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Mechanism of Resistance to Stress in Cotton)
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13 pages, 988 KiB  
Article
Assessment of ITS2 Region Relevance for Taxa Discrimination and Phylogenetic Inference among Pinaceae
by Joanna Sokołowska, Hanna Fuchs and Konrad Celiński
Plants 2022, 11(8), 1078; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11081078 - 15 Apr 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2349
Abstract
The internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) is one of the best-known universal DNA barcode regions. This short nuclear region is commonly used not only to discriminate taxa, but also to reconstruct phylogenetic relationships. However, the efficiency of using ITS2 in these applications depends [...] Read more.
The internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) is one of the best-known universal DNA barcode regions. This short nuclear region is commonly used not only to discriminate taxa, but also to reconstruct phylogenetic relationships. However, the efficiency of using ITS2 in these applications depends on many factors, including the family under study. Pinaceae represents the largest family of extant gymnosperms, with many species of great ecological, economic, and medical importance. Moreover, many members of this family are representatives of rare, protected, or endangered species. A simple method for the identification of Pinaceae species based on DNA is necessary for their effective protection, authentication of products containing Pinaceae representatives, or phylogenetic inference. In this study, for the first time, we conducted a comprehensive study summarizing the legitimacy of using the ITS2 region for these purposes. A total of 368 sequences representing 71 closely and distantly related taxa of the seven genera and three subfamilies of Pinaceae were characterized for genetic variability and divergence. Intra- and interspecies distances of ITS2 sequences as well as rates of sequence identification and taxa discrimination among Pinaceae at various taxonomic levels, i.e., the species complex, genus, subfamily, and family, were also determined. Our study provides a critical assessment of the suitability of the ITS2 nuclear DNA region for taxa discrimination among Pinaceae. The obtained results clearly show that its usefulness for this purpose is limited. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue DNA Barcoding for Herbal Medicines)
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14 pages, 1551 KiB  
Article
A Comparative Study of Isolated Secondary Metabolites from Lichens and Their Antioxidative Properties
by Ján Elečko, Mária Vilková, Richard Frenák, Deepti Routray, Dajana Ručová, Martin Bačkor and Michal Goga
Plants 2022, 11(8), 1077; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11081077 - 15 Apr 2022
Cited by 19 | Viewed by 2178
Abstract
Free radicals play a critical role in the chemical processes that occur in all cells. Pharmaceutical companies manufacture a variety of synthetically prepared antioxidants, but it is known that many of these can be carcinogenic. As a result, efforts are being made to [...] Read more.
Free radicals play a critical role in the chemical processes that occur in all cells. Pharmaceutical companies manufacture a variety of synthetically prepared antioxidants, but it is known that many of these can be carcinogenic. As a result, efforts are being made to find natural antioxidants that do not have these side effects. Lichens may be suitable candidates because they contain secondary metabolites with proven antioxidant properties. This could be explained by the presence of compounds with phenolic groups in lichens. The radical scavenging reaction is a chemical reaction governed by stoichiometry, and our aim is to determine the efficacy of these reactions. The aim of this study is to compare metabolite activity based on the same amount of substance involved in radical scavenging, calculated in micromoles rather than weight concentration. This provides an accurate way of comparing radical scavenging activity. We tested superoxide anion scavenging activity and free radical scavenging activity of isolated lichen secondary metabolites and their mixtures in different ratios. The following compounds were isolated and tested for antioxidant activity: gyrophoric acid (Umbilicaria hirsuta), evernic acid (Evernia prunastri), physodic acid, 3-hydroxyphysodic acid, physodalic acid and atranorin (Hypogymnia physodes), and usnic acid (as a synthetic compound). Of all the tested compounds, 3-hydroxyphysodic acid, as well as mixtures containing this metabolite, showed the strongest scavenging activity. The results also demonstrated that calculation by amount of substance leads to a new consideration of antioxidant activity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Secondary Metabolites from Lichens and Biological Activity)
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12 pages, 4084 KiB  
Article
Adnate Leaf-Base and the Origin of Ribs in Succulent Stems of Euphorbia L.
by Gustavo Arévalo-Rodrigues, Fernanda Hurbath, Erika Prado, Isabella Galvão, Inês Cordeiro and Diego Demarco
Plants 2022, 11(8), 1076; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11081076 - 15 Apr 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2463
Abstract
Stem succulence evolved independently in many plant lineages as an adaptation to arid environments. One of the most interesting cases is the convergence between Cactaceae and Euphorbia, which have anatomical adaptations mostly to increase photosynthetic capability and water storage. Our goal was [...] Read more.
Stem succulence evolved independently in many plant lineages as an adaptation to arid environments. One of the most interesting cases is the convergence between Cactaceae and Euphorbia, which have anatomical adaptations mostly to increase photosynthetic capability and water storage. Our goal was to describe the shoot development in two succulent species of Euphorbia using light microscopy coupled with high-resolution X-ray-computed tomography. Collateral cortical bundles were observed associated with the stem ribs in both species. The analysis of vasculature demonstrated that these bundles are, in fact, leaf traces that run axially along a portion of the internode. That structural pattern is due to an ontogenetic alteration. During shoot development, the leaf-bases remain adnate to the stem near the SAM, forming an axial component. When the internode elongates, the leaf bundles stretch as cortical bundles. The meristematic activity associated with the bundles forms the stem ribs, as leaf veins near the node, and induce rib formation along the entire internode even in the portion where the leaf traces join the stele. In addition, heterochronic shifts are also involved in the evolution of the shoot system in these Euphorbia, being related to early deciduous reduced leaves and the transference of the main photosynthetic function to the stem. This study demonstrates for the first time the influence of leaf developmental shifts and stem rib formation in Euphorbia and sheds new light on the evolution of stem succulence. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 10th Anniversary of Plants—Recent Advances and Perspectives)
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10 pages, 838 KiB  
Communication
Vernalization Requirement, but Not Post-Vernalization Day Length, Conditions Flowering in Carrot (Daucus carota L.)
by Josefina Wohlfeiler, María Soledad Alessandro, Andrés Morales, Pablo Federico Cavagnaro and Claudio Rómulo Galmarini
Plants 2022, 11(8), 1075; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11081075 - 15 Apr 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1991
Abstract
Carrots require a certain number of cold hours to become vernalized and proceed to the reproductive stage, and this phenomenon is genotype-dependent. Annual carrots require less cold than biennials to flower; however, quantitative variation within annuals and biennials also exists, defining a gradient [...] Read more.
Carrots require a certain number of cold hours to become vernalized and proceed to the reproductive stage, and this phenomenon is genotype-dependent. Annual carrots require less cold than biennials to flower; however, quantitative variation within annuals and biennials also exists, defining a gradient for vernalization requirement (VR). The flowering response of carrots to day length, after vernalization has occurred, is controversial. This vegetable has been described both as a long-day and a neutral-day species. The objective of this study was to evaluate flowering time and frequency in response to different cold treatments and photoperiod regimes in various carrot genotypes. To this end, three annual genotypes from India, Brazil, and Pakistan, and a biennial carrot from Japan, were exposed to 7.5 °C during 30, 60, 90, or 120 days, and then transferred to either long day (LD) or short day (SD) conditions. Significant variation (p < 0.05) among the carrot genotypes and among cold treatments were found, with increased flowering rates and earlier onset of flowering being associated with longer cold exposures. No significant differences in response to photoperiod were found, suggesting that post-vernalization day length does not influence carrot flowering. These findings will likely impact carrot breeding and production of both root and seed, helping in the selection of adequate genotypes and sowing dates to manage cold exposure and day-length for different production purposes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Control of Flowering Time and Their Environmental Regulation in Crops)
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17 pages, 2923 KiB  
Article
Cadmium Stabilization and Redox Transformation Mechanism in Maize Using Nanoscale Zerovalent-Iron-Enriched Biochar in Cadmium-Contaminated Soil
by Sehar Razzaq, Beibei Zhou, Muhammad Zia-ur-Rehman, Muhammad Aamer Maqsood, Saddam Hussain, Ghous Bakhsh, Zhenshi Zhang, Qiang Yang and Adnan Raza Altaf
Plants 2022, 11(8), 1074; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11081074 - 14 Apr 2022
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2451
Abstract
Cadmium (Cd) is a readily available metal in the soil matrix, which obnoxiously affects plants and microbiota; thus, its removal has become a global concern. For this purpose, a multifunctional nanoscale zerovalent—iron enriched biochar (nZVI/BC) was used to alleviate the Cd—toxicity in maize. [...] Read more.
Cadmium (Cd) is a readily available metal in the soil matrix, which obnoxiously affects plants and microbiota; thus, its removal has become a global concern. For this purpose, a multifunctional nanoscale zerovalent—iron enriched biochar (nZVI/BC) was used to alleviate the Cd—toxicity in maize. Results revealed that the nZVI/BC application significantly enhanced the plant growth (57%), chlorophyll contents (65%), intracellular permeability (61%), and biomass production index (76%) by restraining Cd uptake relative to Cd control. A Cd stabilization mechanism was proposed, suggesting that high dispersion of organic functional groups (C–O, C–N, Fe–O) over the surface of nZVI/BC might induce complex formations with cadmium by the ion exchange process. Besides this, the regular distribution and deep insertion of Fe particles in nZVI/BC prevent self-oxidation and over-accumulation of free radicals, which regulate the redox transformation by alleviating Cd/Fe+ translations in the plant. Current findings have exposed the diverse functions of nanoscale zerovalent-iron-enriched biochar on plant health and suggest that nZVI/BC is a competent material, feasible to control Cd hazards and improve crop growth and productivity in Cd-contaminated soil. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Responses and Tolerance to Metal/Metalloid Toxicity Ⅱ)
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19 pages, 5262 KiB  
Article
In Vitro Study of the Biological Potential of Wastewater Obtained after the Distillation of Four Bulgarian Oil-Bearing Roses
by Yana Ilieva, Lyudmila Dimitrova, Almira Georgieva, Neli Vilhelmova-Ilieva, Maya Margaritova Zaharieva, Zlatina Kokanova-Nedialkova, Ana Dobreva, Paraskev Nedialkov, Vesselin Kussovski, Alexander D. Kroumov, Hristo Najdenski and Milka Mileva
Plants 2022, 11(8), 1073; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11081073 - 14 Apr 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2026
Abstract
The wastewater after rose oil distillation is usually discharged into the drainage systems and it represents a serious environmental problem. While being rich in polyphenols, which have beneficial biological activity and application in the pharmaceutical industry, limited research has been carried out about [...] Read more.
The wastewater after rose oil distillation is usually discharged into the drainage systems and it represents a serious environmental problem. While being rich in polyphenols, which have beneficial biological activity and application in the pharmaceutical industry, limited research has been carried out about the biological activity of the specific wastewaters per se. Wastewaters after distillation of the four Bulgarian oil-bearing roses Rosa damascena Mill., R. alba L., R. centifolia L., and R. gallica L. exerted significant antioxidant activity and good antiherpes simplex virus type-1 (HSV-1) activity while maintaining a good toxicological safety profile (low cytotoxic effect) towards normal cell lines. More precisely, the non-tumorigenic cells were a human (HEK-293 embryonic kidney cells) and a mouse cell line (CCL-1 fibroblasts, which are recommended as a standard for cytotoxicity evaluation in Annex C of ISO 10993-5). The concentrations that achieved antioxidant and radical scavenging effects (0.04–0.92% v/v) were much lower than most of the maximum tolerated concentrations for the tissue culture cells (0.2–3.4% v/v). The wastewaters had a weak antiproliferative effect against Staphylococcus aureus. None of the wastewaters had activity against Gram-negative bacteria or a bactericidal or antifungal effect. We can conclude that these four species, which are the most preferred species worldwide for producing high-quality rose oil, have the potential to be developed as promising antioxidant and antiherpesvirus nutraceuticals. Full article
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25 pages, 6367 KiB  
Article
GC-MS Profiling, Vibriocidal, Antioxidant, Antibiofilm, and Anti-Quorum Sensing Properties of Carum carvi L. Essential Oil: In Vitro and In Silico Approaches
by Siwar Ghannay, Kaïss Aouadi, Adel Kadri and Mejdi Snoussi
Plants 2022, 11(8), 1072; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11081072 - 14 Apr 2022
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 2686
Abstract
The main objectives of the present study were to investigate anti-Vibrio spp., antibiofilms, and anti-quorum-sensing (anti-QS) properties of caraway essential oil in relation to their phytochemical composition. The results obtained show the identification of twelve compounds, with carvone (58.2%) and limonene (38.5%) [...] Read more.
The main objectives of the present study were to investigate anti-Vibrio spp., antibiofilms, and anti-quorum-sensing (anti-QS) properties of caraway essential oil in relation to their phytochemical composition. The results obtained show the identification of twelve compounds, with carvone (58.2%) and limonene (38.5%) being the main ones. The obtained essential oil (EO) is particularly active against all Vibrio spp. species, with bacteriostatic action against all tested strains (MBC/MIC ratio ≥ 4) and with inhibition zones with high diameters of growth, ranging from 8.66 ± 0.58 mm for V. furnisii ATCC 35016 to 37.33 ± 0.58 mm for V. alginolyticus ATCC 17749. Caraway essential oil (Carvone/limonene chemotype) exhibits antioxidant activities by using four tests (DPPH = 15 ± 0.23 mg/mL; reducing power = 7.8 ± 0.01 mg/mL; β-carotene = 3.9 ± 0.025 mg/mL; chelating power = 6.8 ± 0.05 mg/mL). This oil is particularly able to prevent cell-to-cell communication by inhibiting swarming motility, production of elastase and protease in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1, and violacein production in C. violaceum in a concentration-dependent manner. A molecular docking approach shows good interaction of the identified bioactive molecules in caraway EO, with known target enzymes involved in antioxidant, antibacterial, and anti-QS activities having high binding energy. Overall, the obtained results highlight the possible use of caraway essential oil against pathogenic Vibrio species and to attenuate the secretion of virulence-related factors controlled by QS systems in Gram-negative bacteria. Therefore, this oil can be used by food industries to prevent biofilm formation on abiotic surfaces by Vibrio strains. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pharmacological and Toxicological Study of Medicinal Plants)
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23 pages, 1881 KiB  
Article
Weed Management and Crop Establishment Methods in Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Influence the Soil Microbial and Enzymatic Activity in Sub-Tropical Environment
by Sarthak Pattanayak, Satyananda Jena, Priyanka Das, Sagar Maitra, Tanmoy Shankar, Subhashisa Praharaj, Prasannajit Mishra, Santanu Mohanty, Madhusmita Pradhan, Deepak Kumar Swain, Biswajit Pramanick, Ahmed Gaber and Akbar Hossain
Plants 2022, 11(8), 1071; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11081071 - 14 Apr 2022
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 2934
Abstract
Weed management has become the most important and inevitable aspect of crop management for achieving a higher rice yield. Nowadays, chemical herbicide application has become a popular practice for managing weeds in different rice cultures. However, herbicide application can have qualitative and quantitative [...] Read more.
Weed management has become the most important and inevitable aspect of crop management for achieving a higher rice yield. Nowadays, chemical herbicide application has become a popular practice for managing weeds in different rice cultures. However, herbicide application can have qualitative and quantitative impacts on soil microorganisms and soil enzymes, particularly in the case of new herbicide molecules and their indiscriminate use for a longer period. Further, different rice establishment methods also play a significant role in soil microbial population dynamics as well as soil biological properties. Keeping these in view, a field experiment was conducted at the Agronomy Main Research Farm, Orissa University of Agriculture and Technology (OUAT), India, during the kharif season of 2016 and 2017, on the impact of crop establishment methods and weed management practices on soil microbial and enzymatic status. The field experiment was laid out in a split-plot design with three replications with four crop establishment methods in the main plot, viz., M1, Direct Seeded Rice (DSR); M2, Wet Seeded Rice (WSR); M3,Unpuddled Transplanted Rice (NPTR); M4, Puddled Transplanted Rice (PTR), and six weed management practices in the sub-plot, viz., W1, Weedy check; W2, Bensulfuron methyl 0.6% + Pretilachlor 6% (pre-emergence (PE)) 0.660 kg ha−1 + Hand weeding (HW) at 30 days after sowing/transplanting (days after sowing/transplanting (DAS/T)); W3, Bensulfuron methyl 0.6% + Pretilachlor 6% (PE) 0.495 kg ha−1 + HW at 30 DAS/T; W4, Bensulfuron methyl 0.6% + Pretilachlor 6% (PE) 0.495 kg ha−1 + Bispyribac-Sodium (post-emergence(POE)) 0.025 kg ha−1 at 15 DAS/T; W5, Cono weeding (CW) at 15 DAS/T + hand weeding 30 DAS/T, and W6, Brown manuring/Green manuring. The initial decline in the microbial population was observed due to herbicide application in NPTR and PTR up to 7 DAS/T and then it increased up to 28 DAS/T. There was a reduction in soil microbial and enzymatic status after the application of herbicides Bensulfuron methyl 0.6% + Pretilachlor 6% (PE) and Bispyribac-Sodium (POE) that again followed an upward graph with crop age. Significant variation in enzymatic activity and the microbial count was also observed among treatments involving crop establishment methods. The study revealed that improved microbial population and enzyme activity were noted in unpuddled transplanted rice under organic weed management due to favorable conditions, and chemical weed control initially affected microbial population and activities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Weed Management)
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15 pages, 2318 KiB  
Article
Endophytic Fungus from Opuntia ficus-indica: A Source of Potential Bioactive Antimicrobial Compounds against Multidrug-Resistant Bacteria
by Wafaa M. Elkady, Marwa M. Raafat, Marwa M. Abdel-Aziz, Arwa A. AL-Huqail, Mohamed L. Ashour and Noha Fathallah
Plants 2022, 11(8), 1070; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11081070 - 14 Apr 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2317
Abstract
Endophytic Aspergillus species represent an inexhaustible source for many medicinally important secondary metabolites. The current study isolated the endophytic Aspergillus niger (OL519514) fungus from Opuntia ficus-indica fruit peels. The antibacterial activities were reported for both Aspergillus species and Opuntia ficus-indica fruit peel extract. [...] Read more.
Endophytic Aspergillus species represent an inexhaustible source for many medicinally important secondary metabolites. The current study isolated the endophytic Aspergillus niger (OL519514) fungus from Opuntia ficus-indica fruit peels. The antibacterial activities were reported for both Aspergillus species and Opuntia ficus-indica fruit peel extract. Extraction of the endophytic fungal metabolites using ethyl acetate and fractionation was performed, yielding dihydroauroglaucin (C1), isotetrahydroauroglaucin (C2), and cristatumin B (C3). Resistant bacterial strains were used to investigate the efficiency of the total fungal ethyl acetate extract (FEA) and the isolated compounds. FEA showed promising wide spectrum activity. (C3) showed excellent activity against selected Gram-negative resistant bacteria; However, (C2) exhibited tremendous activity against the tested Gram-positive resistant strains; conversely, (C1) possessed the lowest antibacterial activity compared to the two other compounds. An in silico virtual molecular docking demonstrated that cristatumin B was the most active antimicrobial compound against the selected protein targets. In conclusion, the active metabolites newly isolated from the endophytic fungus Aspergillus niger (OL519514) and present in plants’ waste can be a promising antimicrobial agent against multidrug-resistant bacteria. Full article
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24 pages, 1333 KiB  
Article
Genetic Control of Reproductive Traits under Different Temperature Regimes in Inbred Line Populations Derived from Crosses between S. pimpinellifolium and S. lycopersicum Accessions
by Maria Jose Gonzalo, Luciano Carlos da Maia, Inmaculada Nájera, Carlos Baixauli, Giovanni Giuliano, Paola Ferrante, Antonio Granell, Maria Jose Asins and Antonio Jose Monforte
Plants 2022, 11(8), 1069; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11081069 - 14 Apr 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1926
Abstract
In the present work, we study the genetic control of reproductive traits under different heat stress conditions in two populations of inbred lines derived from crosses between two S. pimpinellifolium accessions and two tomato cultivars (E9×L5 and E6203×LA1589). The temperature increase affected the [...] Read more.
In the present work, we study the genetic control of reproductive traits under different heat stress conditions in two populations of inbred lines derived from crosses between two S. pimpinellifolium accessions and two tomato cultivars (E9×L5 and E6203×LA1589). The temperature increase affected the reproductive traits, especially at extremely high temperatures, where only a few lines were able to set fruits. Even though a relative modest number of QTLs was identified, two clusters of QTLs involved in the responses of reproductive traits to heat stress were detected in both populations on chromosomes 1 and 2. Interestingly, several epistatic interactions were detected in the E9×L5 population, which were classified into three classes based on the allelic interaction: dominant (one locus suppressed the allelic effects of a second locus), co-adaptive (the double-homozygous alleles from the same parent alleles showed a higher phenotypic value than the combination of homozygous alleles from alternative parents) and transgressive (the combination of double-homozygous alleles from different parents showed better performance than double-homozygous alleles from the same parents). These results reinforce the important role of non-additive genetic variance in the response to heat stress and the potential of the new allelic combinations that arise after wide crosses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Response of Tomato Genotypes to High Temperature)
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