Next Issue
Volume 11, April-1
Previous Issue
Volume 11, March-1
 
 

Plants, Volume 11, Issue 6 (March-2 2022) – 122 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Camelina sativa (L.) Crantz. has received increasing attention in recent years as a climate-resilient oilseed that is valued for its oil, which is high in polyunsaturated fatty acids, seed meal, and coproducts. In the review by Neupane et al. (2022), the authors summarize the major production barriers and uses of C. sativa as well as strategies for improving this important and versatile crop in the face of a rapidly changing climate. The images show C. sativa growing in a field (top, ©BanksPhotos), C. sativa seed meal used for animal feed (bottom left, ©monticelllo), C. sativa seeds used for human foods and medicines (bottom center, ©marilyna), and its oil, which is converted into biofuels, including jet fuel (bottom right, ©Scharfsinn86). View this paper
  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Reader to open them.
Order results
Result details
Section
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:
13 pages, 3086 KiB  
Article
Production and Secretion of Isowighteone in Hairy Root Cultures of Pigeon Pea (Cajanus cajan) Co-Treated with Multiple Elicitors
by Gaurav Gajurel, Luis Nopo-Olazabal, Emily Hendrix and Fabricio Medina-Bolivar
Plants 2022, 11(6), 834; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11060834 - 21 Mar 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 4144 | Correction
Abstract
Isowighteone (3’-isoprenyl genistein) is a prenylated flavonoid derivative that exhibits antibacterial, pro-apoptotic and anti-inflammatory properties. To establish a bioproduction system for this bioactive compound, hairy root cultures of pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.) were developed via Agrobacterium rhizogenes-mediated transformation. The [...] Read more.
Isowighteone (3’-isoprenyl genistein) is a prenylated flavonoid derivative that exhibits antibacterial, pro-apoptotic and anti-inflammatory properties. To establish a bioproduction system for this bioactive compound, hairy root cultures of pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.) were developed via Agrobacterium rhizogenes-mediated transformation. The cultures were co-treated with methyl jasmonate, cyclodextrin, hydrogen peroxide, and magnesium chloride to enhance the production of isowighteone. The amount of isowighteone that accumulated in the culture medium upon elicitation varied with the period of elicitation. Isowighteone was purified from extracts of the culture medium by semi-preparative HPLC, and its identity was confirmed by tandem mass spectrometry. After 144 h of elicitation in 12-day-old hairy root culture, the total yield of isowighteone was 8058.618 ± 445.78 μg/g DW, of which approximately 96% was found in the culture medium. The yield of isowighteone in the elicited hairy root culture was approximately 277-fold higher than in the non-elicited root culture. The difference between the phenotypes of the elicited and non-elicited pigeon pea hairy roots was studied using scanning electron microscopy. The non-elicited hairy roots had uniform surfaces whereas the elicited roots had non-uniform shapes. Pigeon pea hairy roots provide a sustainable platform for producing and studying the biosynthesis of isowighteone. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Specialized Metabolites in Root cultures)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

16 pages, 2735 KiB  
Article
Niche Variation in Endemic Lilium pomponium on a Wide Altitudinal Gradient in the Maritime Alps
by Ninon Fontaine, Perrine Gauthier, Gabriele Casazza and John D. Thompson
Plants 2022, 11(6), 833; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11060833 - 21 Mar 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1920
Abstract
The relationship between altitudinal and ecological gradients has long been a dominant theme in plant ecology; moreover, how species respond to climate change has renewed this interest. Mediterranean mountains are often hotspots of endemism, and some endemic species have local distributions that span [...] Read more.
The relationship between altitudinal and ecological gradients has long been a dominant theme in plant ecology; moreover, how species respond to climate change has renewed this interest. Mediterranean mountains are often hotspots of endemism, and some endemic species have local distributions that span different climatic belts; hence, local variations in topography and fine-scaled niche conditions may play crucial roles in their persistence along such gradients. Studies of the fine-scaled niche are, however, very rare; most studies involve broad-scale variations in climatic parameters. The Turban lily, Lilium pomponium L. is endemic to the Maritime and Ligurian Alps, where it occurs across a wide altitudinal gradient. Previous work has shown no link between climatic marginality and geographic range limits on morphological traits and genetic variability; however, possible variations of local topographic and ecological parameters have not yet been examined. The objective of this paper is to characterise local ecological niche conditions of L. pomponium populations in the different bioclimatic zones it occupies along the altitudinal gradient. The species occurs in four main types of microecological niches. One of these niche types, with a high mineral cover, is the most abundant—type 2: it was detected in 39% of sampled quadrats and occurs across the whole bioclimatic gradient. Other niche types are more limited to subsections of the gradient: type 3 (in 19% of sampled quadrats) is restricted to high-altitude sites (>1070 m.a.s.l.) and is characterised by high vegetation and litter cover; type 4 (26%) corresponds to more forested habitats on substrates with low water retention capacities, in more inland zones close to the centre of L. pomponium distribution and across a range of altitudes; and type 1 (16% of quadrat) only occurs in the Mediterranean part of the gradient, close to distribution limits in pockets of soil among large blocks of rocks, mainly found at mid-altitudes. Despite heterogeneity in the spatial locations of niche types, there is no correspondence between ecological gradients and the distribution limits of this species. Knowledge of the fine-scaled ecological conditions that determine niche types is thus essential for conservation management of the habitats of this species and for the exploration of its possible response to ongoing climate change. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

18 pages, 12680 KiB  
Article
Enduring Effect of Antibiotic Timentin Treatment on Tobacco In Vitro Shoot Growth and Microbiome Diversity
by Inga Tamošiūnė, Elena Andriūnaitė, Jurgita Vinskienė, Vidmantas Stanys, Rytis Rugienius and Danas Baniulis
Plants 2022, 11(6), 832; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11060832 - 21 Mar 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2656
Abstract
Plant in vitro cultures initiated from surface-sterilized explants often harbor complex microbial communities. Antibiotics are commonly used to decontaminate plant tissue culture or during genetic transformation; however, the effect of antibiotic treatment on the diversity of indigenous microbial populations and the consequences on [...] Read more.
Plant in vitro cultures initiated from surface-sterilized explants often harbor complex microbial communities. Antibiotics are commonly used to decontaminate plant tissue culture or during genetic transformation; however, the effect of antibiotic treatment on the diversity of indigenous microbial populations and the consequences on the performance of tissue culture is not completely understood. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the effect of antibiotic treatment on the growth and stress level of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) shoots in vitro as well as the composition of the plant-associated microbiome. The study revealed that shoot cultivation on a medium supplemented with 250 mg L−1 timentin resulted in 29 ± 4% reduced biomass accumulation and a 1.2–1.6-fold higher level of oxidative stress injury compared to the control samples. Moreover, the growth properties of shoots were only partially restored after transfer to a medium without the antibiotic. Microbiome analysis of the shoot samples using multivariable region-based 16S rRNA gene sequencing revealed a diverse microbial community in the control tobacco shoots, including 59 bacterial families; however, it was largely dominated by Mycobacteriaceae. Antibiotic treatment resulted in a decline in microbial diversity (the number of families was reduced 4.5-fold) and increased domination by the Mycobacteriaceae family. These results imply that the diversity of the plant-associated microbiome might represent a significant factor contributing to the efficient propagation of in vitro tissue culture. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Tissue Culture III)
Show Figures

Figure 1

14 pages, 2034 KiB  
Communication
Effects Induced by the Agricultural Application of Probiotics on Antioxidant Potential of Strawberries
by Rima Mockevičiūtė, Sigita Jurkonienė, Virgilija Gavelienė, Elžbieta Jankovska-Bortkevič, Božena Šocik, Gabija Armalytė and Rimas Budrys
Plants 2022, 11(6), 831; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11060831 - 21 Mar 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2554
Abstract
With the recent rapid development of the functional food sector, agriculture is looking for alternatives to improve the quality of food grown by limiting chemical fertilizers. This study evaluated the effects of two commercial plant probiotics, ProbioHumus and NaturGel, on the growth and [...] Read more.
With the recent rapid development of the functional food sector, agriculture is looking for alternatives to improve the quality of food grown by limiting chemical fertilizers. This study evaluated the effects of two commercial plant probiotics, ProbioHumus and NaturGel, on the growth and quality of strawberry fruits. Strawberry plants were sprayed with microbial probiotics twice a year: after harvesting at the beginning of dormancy and at the stage of leaf development. Spray applications of ProbioHumus, NaturGel, and NaturGel + ProbioHumus in the organic farm fields significantly increased the fresh fruit weight up to 42%, 35%, and 37%, respectively, compared to the non-treated control. An increase in the weight of fresh strawberry fruits may be associated with an increase in dry matter accumulation. The probiotics had a positive effect on the total content of phenols, anthocyanins, and especially ascorbic acid in strawberry fruits. The increase in ascorbic acid in strawberry fruits was up to 97% compared to the non-treated control. The fruits from plants inoculated with probiotics showed significantly higher antioxidant activity. In summary, ProbioHumus and NaturGel are effective tools for improving the quality of strawberries and can be exploited in sustainable agriculture as a tool for adding value to functional food. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biostimulants as Growth Promoting and Stress Protecting Compounds)
Show Figures

Figure 1

25 pages, 3929 KiB  
Article
Quality Control, Anti-Hyperglycemic, and Anti-Inflammatory Assessment of Colvillea racemosa Leaves Using In Vitro, In Vivo Investigations and Its Correlation with the Phytoconstituents Identified via LC-QTOF-MS and MS/MS
by Mohamed S. Abd El Hafeez, Omayma El Gindi, Mona H. Hetta, Hanan F. Aly and Safwat A. Ahmed
Plants 2022, 11(6), 830; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11060830 - 21 Mar 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2068
Abstract
Colvillea racemosa is a cultivated ornamental plant that is a monotypic genus of Fabaceae. It is native to Madagascar, with limited studies. For the first time, the leaf quality control parameters, the anti-hyperglycemic and anti-inflammatory in vitro activity of Colvillea racemosa ethanol extract [...] Read more.
Colvillea racemosa is a cultivated ornamental plant that is a monotypic genus of Fabaceae. It is native to Madagascar, with limited studies. For the first time, the leaf quality control parameters, the anti-hyperglycemic and anti-inflammatory in vitro activity of Colvillea racemosa ethanol extract (CRE) and its fractions of petroleum ether (CRP), methylene chloride (CRMC), ethyl acetate (CREA), n-butanol (CRB), and methanol (CRME) were evaluated. It exhibited significant inhibition against α-amylase, α-glucosidase and membrane stabilization. CRB was the most active fraction, and in vivo studies revealed that oral treatment with CRB of STZ-induced diabetic rats efficiently lowered blood glucose by 67.78%, reduced serum nitric oxide and lipid peroxide levels by 41.23% and 38.45%, respectively, and increased the GSH level by 90.48%. In addition, compared with the diabetic group, there was a 52.2% decrease in serum VCAM, a 55.5% increase in paraoxonase, an improved lipid profile, and improved liver and kidney functions for a treated diabetic group with CRB. Metabolite profiling of CRB was determined by UPLC-ESI-QTOF-MS and tandem MS/MS. Twenty-three chromatographic peaks were identified, which were classified into phenolic compounds and amino acids. The characterized flavonoids were apigenin and luteolin derivatives. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

28 pages, 3666 KiB  
Article
A Case Study in Saudi Arabia: Biodiversity of Maize Seed-Borne Pathogenic Fungi in Relation to Biochemical, Physiological, and Molecular Characteristics
by Abdulaziz A. Al-Askar, Khalid M. Ghoneem, Elsayed E. Hafez and WesamEldin I. A. Saber
Plants 2022, 11(6), 829; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11060829 - 21 Mar 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3062
Abstract
Microbiodiversity is usually correlated with environmental conditions. This investigation is a case study to cover the lack of knowledge on the correlation of biochemical, physiological, and molecular attributes with the distribution of seed-borne pathogenic fungi of maize under the environmental conditions of the [...] Read more.
Microbiodiversity is usually correlated with environmental conditions. This investigation is a case study to cover the lack of knowledge on the correlation of biochemical, physiological, and molecular attributes with the distribution of seed-borne pathogenic fungi of maize under the environmental conditions of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia to help forecast any destructive epidemics. Forty-one fungal species belonging to 24 genera were detected using standard moist blotter (SMB), deep freezing blotter (DFB), and agar plate (AP) techniques. SMB was superior in detecting the maximum numbers (36 species) of seed-borne mycoflora. The pathogenicity assay revealed that, among 18 seed-borne fungal pathogens used, 12 isolates caused high percentages of rotted seeds and seedling mortality symptoms, which were identified molecularly using an internal transcribed spacer sequence. Two Curvularia spp. and Sarocladium zeae were reported for the first time in KSA. The strains showed various enzymatic activities and amino acid profiles under different environmental setups. Temperature and humidity were the environmental variables influencing the fungal pathogenicity. The highest pathogenicity was correlated with the presence and concentration of threonine, alanine, glutamic, aspartic acids, and protein. The study concluded with the discovery of four new phytopathogens in KSA and, further, evidenced a marked correlation among the investigated variables. Nevertheless, more studies are encouraged to include additional physiological properties of the phytopathogens, such as toxigenic activity, as well as extend the fungal biodiversity study to other plants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Agricultural Microbiology)
Show Figures

Figure 1

18 pages, 3723 KiB  
Article
The Reactions of Photosynthetic Capacity and Plant Metabolites of Sedum hybridum L. in Response to Mild and Moderate Abiotic Stresses
by Nina V. Terletskaya, Gulnaz A. Seitimova, Nataliya O. Kudrina, Nataliya D. Meduntseva and Kazhybek Ashimuly
Plants 2022, 11(6), 828; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11060828 - 21 Mar 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2286
Abstract
In this article, for the first time, an experimental study of the effect of mild and moderate osmotic stress, NaCl content and the effect of low positive temperature on photosynthetic activity and composition of metabolites of immature plants Sedum hybridum L. is reported. [...] Read more.
In this article, for the first time, an experimental study of the effect of mild and moderate osmotic stress, NaCl content and the effect of low positive temperature on photosynthetic activity and composition of metabolites of immature plants Sedum hybridum L. is reported. In this representative of the genus Sedum adapted to arid conditions and having the properties of a succulent, a change in photosynthetic activity and an increase in the level of protective metabolites in the shoots were revealed when exposed to mild and moderate stress factors. The results of this study can be used in work on the adaptation of succulent plants to arid conditions, environmental monitoring and work on the directed induction of valuable secondary metabolites in succulents to obtain new herbal medicines. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

21 pages, 3322 KiB  
Article
Developmental Regulation of Transcription in Touriga Nacional Berries under Deficit Irrigation
by Luísa C. Carvalho, Miguel J. N. Ramos, David Faísca-Silva, David van der Kellen, João C. Fernandes, Ricardo Egipto, Carlos M. Lopes and Sara Amâncio
Plants 2022, 11(6), 827; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11060827 - 21 Mar 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2282
Abstract
Grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) is one of the most economically important crops worldwide, especially due to the economic relevance of wine production. Abiotic stress, such as drought, may contribute to low yield, shifts in quality, and important economic loss. The predicted climate [...] Read more.
Grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) is one of the most economically important crops worldwide, especially due to the economic relevance of wine production. Abiotic stress, such as drought, may contribute to low yield, shifts in quality, and important economic loss. The predicted climate change phenomena point to warmer and dryer Mediterranean environmental conditions; as such, it is paramount to study the effects of abiotic stress on grapevine performance. Deficit irrigation systems are applied to optimize water use efficiency without compromising berry quality. In this research, the effect of two deficit irrigation strategies, sustained deficit irrigation (SDI) and regulated deficit irrigation (RDI), in the grape berry were assessed. The effects of different levels of drought were monitored in Touriga Nacional at key stages of berry development (pea size, véraison, and full maturation) through RNA-Seq transcriptome analysis and by specific differentially expressed genes (DEGs) monitoring through RT-qPCR. Handy datasets were obtained by bioinformatics analysis of raw RNA-Seq results. The dominant proportion of transcripts was mostly regulated by development, with véraison showing more upregulated transcripts. Results showed that primary metabolism is the functional category more severely affected under water stress. Almost all DEGs selected for RT-qPCR were significantly upregulated in full maturation and showed the highest variability at véraison and the lowest gene expression values in the pea size stage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Grapevine Responses to Environmental Challenges, Volume II)
Show Figures

Figure 1

11 pages, 1411 KiB  
Article
Chemical Composition of Essential Oil from Four Sympatric Orchids in NW-Italy
by Francesco Saverio Robustelli della Cuna, Pierluigi Cortis, Fabiana Esposito, Antonio De Agostini, Cristina Sottani and Cinzia Sanna
Plants 2022, 11(6), 826; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11060826 - 20 Mar 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2500
Abstract
Orchidaceae is a flowering plant family worldwide distributed known for producing volatile organic compounds (VOCs) which can act as olfactory signals for pollinators. Despite the importance of VOCs in the different reproductive strategies, in the literature there are only a few publications on [...] Read more.
Orchidaceae is a flowering plant family worldwide distributed known for producing volatile organic compounds (VOCs) which can act as olfactory signals for pollinators. Despite the importance of VOCs in the different reproductive strategies, in the literature there are only a few publications on the characterization of orchids’ volatile profiles. In this study, the essential oils from fresh inflorescences of sympatric orchids Anacamptis morio, Himantoglossum robertianum, Ophrys sphegodes and Orchis purpurea, naturally growing in Piedmont (Italy) were isolated by steam distillation and characterized by GC/FID and GC/MS. A number of compounds were identified, with a peculiar distribution in the species: alcohols (range 16.93–50.60%), from which p-cresol (range 12.75–38.10%) was the most representative compound; saturated hydrocarbons (range 5.81–59.29%), represented by pentacosane (range 2.22–40.17%) and tricosane (range 0.78–27.48%); long-chain monounsaturated hydrocarbons (range 0.29–5.20%) represented by 9-pentacosene, 11-tricosene, and 1-heneicosene. The structure of positional isomers in linear alkenes was elucidated by derivatization with dimethyl disulfide and MS fragmentation patterns. Coumarin (68.84%) was the dominant compound in O. purpurea and was detected in lower concentrations (range 0.21–0.26%) in the other taxa. These volatile compounds may represent a particular feature of these plant species and play an essential role in pollinator interaction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Phytochemistry)
Show Figures

Figure 1

14 pages, 2137 KiB  
Article
Do Genetic Drift and Gene Flow Affect the Geographic Distribution of Female Plants in Gynodioecious Lobelia siphilitica?
by Hannah J. Appiah-Madson, Eric B. Knox, Christina M. Caruso and Andrea L. Case
Plants 2022, 11(6), 825; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11060825 - 20 Mar 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2076
Abstract
Variation in population sex ratio is particularly pronounced in gynodioecious angiosperms. Extremely high female frequencies in gynodioecious populations cannot be readily explained by selective forces alone. To assess the contributions of drift and gene flow to extreme sex-ratio variation, we documented sex ratio [...] Read more.
Variation in population sex ratio is particularly pronounced in gynodioecious angiosperms. Extremely high female frequencies in gynodioecious populations cannot be readily explained by selective forces alone. To assess the contributions of drift and gene flow to extreme sex-ratio variation, we documented sex ratio and population size in 92 populations of Lobelia siphilitica across its range and genotyped plants using plastid and nuclear genetic markers. Similarity in spatial patterns of genetic and demographic variables may suggest that drift and/or gene flow have contributed to population sex-ratio variation in L. siphilitica. We found strong spatial structuring of extremely high female frequencies: populations with >50% female plants are restricted to the south–central portion of the range. However, we did not detect any spatial structuring in population size nor metrics of genetic diversity, suggesting that extreme variation in female frequency is not strongly affected by drift or gene flow. Extreme sex-ratio variation is frequently observed in gynodioecious plants, but its causes are difficult to identify. Further investigation into mechanisms that create or maintain the spatial structure of sex ratios in gynodioecious species will provide much needed insight. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Plant Genetics, Genomics and Biotechnology)
Show Figures

Figure 1

11 pages, 1214 KiB  
Article
Effects of Four Cropping Patterns of Lilium brownii on Rhizosphere Microbiome Structure and Replant Disease
by Wenyue Ma, Xiaolan Liao, Chong Wang and Ya Zhang
Plants 2022, 11(6), 824; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11060824 - 20 Mar 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1887
Abstract
Replant disease caused by continuous cropping obstacles commonly occurs in a Lilium brownii consecutive monoculture. To reveal the mechanisms contributing to the continuous cropping obstacles of L. brownii, four cropping patterns (fallow, L. brownii-rice rotation, newly planted L. brownii, and [...] Read more.
Replant disease caused by continuous cropping obstacles commonly occurs in a Lilium brownii consecutive monoculture. To reveal the mechanisms contributing to the continuous cropping obstacles of L. brownii, four cropping patterns (fallow, L. brownii-rice rotation, newly planted L. brownii, and 2-year L. brownii consecutive monoculture) were designed, and Illumina MiSeq (16S rDNA and ITS) was utilized to detect shifts in the microbial community in the rhizosphere. Our result showed that planting of L. brownii significantly reduced soil pH. Consecutive monoculture of L. brownii can significantly decrease the diversity and abundance of soil bacteria, but markedly increase the diversity and abundance of soil fungi. Under the four planting pattern treatments, the changes in soil pH were consistent with the changes in the Shannon diversity index of soil bacterial communities, whereas we observed a negative correlation between soil pH and Shannon diversity index for fungi. The relative abundance of Lactobacillales significantly increased in soils of L. brownii consecutive monoculture, while Acidobacteriales, Solibacterales, and Xanthomonadales increased in soils of L. brownii-rice rotation and newly planted L. brownii. Collectively, this work aimed to elucidate the relationship between the L. brownii planting patterns and soil microbiome, thereby providing a theoretical basis for screening new biological agents that may contribute to resolving continuous cropping obstacles of L. brownii. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Plant-Soil Interactions)
Show Figures

Figure 1

13 pages, 2396 KiB  
Article
Construction of Sensory/Mass Spectrometry Feedback Platform for Seeking Aroma Contributors during the Aroma Enhancement of Congou Black Tea
by Sifan Mei, Yanyan Cao, Gang Zhang, Su Zhou, Yi Wang, Shuying Gong, Qiang Chu and Ping Chen
Plants 2022, 11(6), 823; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11060823 - 20 Mar 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2225
Abstract
Baking is widely accepted for aroma enhancement of black tea, and studies have mainly focused on the aroma or chemical substances under a specified baking condition. Understanding of the feedback between aroma substances and characteristics is urgently needed. Therefore, a mutual feedback platform [...] Read more.
Baking is widely accepted for aroma enhancement of black tea, and studies have mainly focused on the aroma or chemical substances under a specified baking condition. Understanding of the feedback between aroma substances and characteristics is urgently needed. Therefore, a mutual feedback platform (SES/MS) combined sensory evaluation system (SES) with gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was established. Based on this platform, we found that baking at 90 °C for 4 h or 5 h could maintain the primary aroma attributes and increase characteristic aroma attributes—these were considered to be the best baking conditions for Yunnan congou black tea. Meanwhile, 47 volatiles were identified, among which, pyrrole and benzaldehyde appeared to have a caramel aroma, and 2-furanmethanol and α-terpineol presented a baked aroma. This study reveals the dynamic change of aroma profiles and compounds during the aroma enhancement, and provides an optional template for researchers, focused on the relationship between quality and aroma attributes of teas. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Botany of Food Plants)
Show Figures

Figure 1

17 pages, 2598 KiB  
Article
Exogenously Applied Trehalose Augments Cadmium Stress Tolerance and Yield of Mung Bean (Vigna radiata L.) Grown in Soil and Hydroponic Systems through Reducing Cd Uptake and Enhancing Photosynthetic Efficiency and Antioxidant Defense Systems
by Sadia Rehman, Muhammad Umer Chattha, Imran Khan, Athar Mahmood, Muhammad Umair Hassan, Asma A. Al-Huqail, Mohamed Z. M. Salem, Hayssam M. Ali, Christophe Hano and Mohamed A. El-Esawi
Plants 2022, 11(6), 822; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11060822 - 19 Mar 2022
Cited by 28 | Viewed by 3419
Abstract
Cadmium (Cd) toxicity is a serious environmental issue causing a significant reduction in crop growth and productivity globally. Trehalose (Tre) has emerged as an important reducing sugar that can reduce the adverse impacts of different abiotic stresses. Therefore, the present investigation was performed [...] Read more.
Cadmium (Cd) toxicity is a serious environmental issue causing a significant reduction in crop growth and productivity globally. Trehalose (Tre) has emerged as an important reducing sugar that can reduce the adverse impacts of different abiotic stresses. Therefore, the present investigation was performed to determine the key role of Tre in alleviating Cd stress in the mung bean (Vigna radiata L.) crop. The study was comprised of different treatments of cadmium (0, 10, 20 mg kg−1 soil) and Tre (0, 15 and 30 mM). Cd stress significantly restricted the growth and yield of mung bean. However, Tre supplementation markedly improved growth and yield due to pronounced reductions in Cd uptake and Cd-induced oxidative stress as shown by the lower production of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), electrolyte leakage (EL) and malondialdehyde (MDA) in Cd-stressed plants as well as by the enhanced activities of antioxidant enzymes (CAT, POD, APX and AsA). Moreover, the ameliorative role of Tre to Cd toxicity was also demonstrated by its ability to enhance chlorophyll contents, total soluble protein (TSP) and free amino acids (FAA). Taken together, Tre supplementation played a key beneficial role in improving Cd stress tolerance and yield traits of mung bean through restricting Cd uptake and enhancing photosynthetic capacity, osmolytes biosynthesis and antioxidant activities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Abiotic Stress Tolerance in Crop and Medical Plants Volume II)
Show Figures

Figure 1

17 pages, 3211 KiB  
Article
Isolation and Molecular Characterisation of TtDro1A and TtDro1B Genes from Triticum turgidum Subspecies durum and turgidum, Study of Their Influences on Seedling Root Angles
by Yolanda Loarce, Alejandra Cabeza, Rodrigo Cañas and Juan M. González
Plants 2022, 11(6), 821; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11060821 - 19 Mar 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1810
Abstract
Durum wheat (Triticum turgidum, 2n = 4x = AABB) includes several subspecies with differential characteristics in their root system architecture (RSA). Subspecies durum has longer and more vertical roots, while subspecies turgidum has smaller and shallower roots. The homeologous genes TtDro1A and [...] Read more.
Durum wheat (Triticum turgidum, 2n = 4x = AABB) includes several subspecies with differential characteristics in their root system architecture (RSA). Subspecies durum has longer and more vertical roots, while subspecies turgidum has smaller and shallower roots. The homeologous genes TtDro1A and TtDro1B of both subspecies have been identified and found to differ in their sizes, sequences and the proteins they encode. To determine whether there is a relationship between the level of expression of these two genes and the angle adopted by the roots of durum wheat seedlings, their expressions has been studied by RT-qPCR, both in the primary seminal root and in the other seminal roots. The results of the analyses showed that the TtDro1A gene is expressed 1.4 times more in the primary seminal root than in the other seminal roots. Furthermore, this gene is expressed 2.49 to 8.76 times more than TtDro1B depending on root type (primary or seminal) and subspecies. There are positive correlations between the expression ratio of both genes (TtDro1A/TtDro1B) and the mean of all root angles, the most vertical root angle and the most horizontal root angle of the seedlings. The higher the expression of TtDro1B gene, the lower the root growth angles. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Plant Genetics, Genomics and Biotechnology)
Show Figures

Figure 1

13 pages, 8200 KiB  
Article
Chili Pepper AN2 (CaAN2): A Visible Selection Marker for Nondestructive Monitoring of Transgenic Plants
by Sun-Hyung Lim, Da-Hye Kim, Myeong-Cheoul Cho and Jong-Yeol Lee
Plants 2022, 11(6), 820; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11060820 - 19 Mar 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2845
Abstract
Selecting transformed plants is generally time consuming and laborious. To develop a method for transgenic plant selection without the need for antibiotics or herbicides, we evaluated the suitability of the R2R3 MYB transcription factor gene CaAN2 from purple chili pepper (Capsicum annuum [...] Read more.
Selecting transformed plants is generally time consuming and laborious. To develop a method for transgenic plant selection without the need for antibiotics or herbicides, we evaluated the suitability of the R2R3 MYB transcription factor gene CaAN2 from purple chili pepper (Capsicum annuum) for use as a visible selection marker. CaAN2 positively regulates anthocyanin biosynthesis. Transient expression assays in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) leaves revealed that CaAN2 actively induced sufficient pigment accumulation for easy detection without the need for a basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) protein as a cofactor; similar results were obtained for tobacco leaves transiently co-expressing the anthocyanin biosynthesis regulators bHLH B-Peru from maize and R2R3 MYB mPAP1D from Arabidopsis. Tobacco plants harboring CaAN2 were readily selected based on their red color at the shoot regeneration stage due to anthocyanin accumulation without the need to impose selective pressure from herbicides. Transgenic tobacco plants harboring CaAN2 showed strong pigment accumulation throughout the plant body. The ectopic expression of CaAN2 dramatically promoted the transcription of anthocyanin biosynthetic genes as well as regulators of this process. The red coloration of tobacco plants harboring CaAN2 was stably transferred to the next generation. Therefore, anthocyanin accumulation due to CaAN2 expression is a useful visible trait for stable transformation, representing an excellent alternative selection system for transgenic plants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Biotechnology and Crop Improvement)
Show Figures

Figure 1

23 pages, 3052 KiB  
Article
Wild-Grown and Cultivated Glechoma hederacea L.: Chemical Composition and Potential for Cultivation in Organic Farming Conditions
by Inga Sile, Valerija Krizhanovska, Ilva Nakurte, Ieva Mezaka, Laura Kalane, Jevgenijs Filipovs, Alekss Vecvanags, Osvalds Pugovics, Solveiga Grinberga, Maija Dambrova and Arta Kronberga
Plants 2022, 11(6), 819; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11060819 - 18 Mar 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2323
Abstract
Glechoma hederacea L. is a medicinal plant that is known in traditional medicine for its anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antiviral, and anticancer properties. This study evaluated the potential for commercial production of G. hederacea and compared the chemical composition and activity of 70% ethanol extracts [...] Read more.
Glechoma hederacea L. is a medicinal plant that is known in traditional medicine for its anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antiviral, and anticancer properties. This study evaluated the potential for commercial production of G. hederacea and compared the chemical composition and activity of 70% ethanol extracts and steam-distilled essential oils from wild-grown and cultivated G. hederacea collected in different harvesting periods. The main compounds identified in the 70% ethanol extracts were phenolic acids (chlorogenic and rosmarinic acids) and flavonoid O-glycosides. The essential oil varied in the three accessions in the range of 0.32–2.98 mL/kg−1 of dry weight. The extracts possessed potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties in LPS-treated bone-marrow-derived macrophages. The results of flow cytometry show that extracts from different vegetation periods reduced the conversion of macrophages to the proinflammatory phenotype M1. The chemical composition varied the most with the different harvesting periods, and the most suitable periods were the flowering and vegetative phases for the polyphenolic compounds and essential oils, respectively. G. hederacea can be successfully grown under organic farming conditions, and cultivation does not significantly affect the chemical composition and biological activity compared to wild-grown plants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Structural and Functional Analysis of Extracts in Plants II)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

24 pages, 2586 KiB  
Review
Nephroprotective Plants: A Review on the Use in Pre-Renal and Post-Renal Diseases
by Mario Adrián Tienda-Vázquez, Zoé P. Morreeuw, Juan Eduardo Sosa-Hernández, Anaberta Cardador-Martínez, Ernesto Sabath, Elda M. Melchor-Martínez, Hafiz M. N. Iqbal and Roberto Parra-Saldívar
Plants 2022, 11(6), 818; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11060818 - 18 Mar 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 7874
Abstract
Kidney diseases are expected to become the fifth leading cause of death by 2040. Several physiological failures classified as pre-, intra-, and post-renal factors induce kidney damage. Diabetes, liver pathologies, rhabdomyolysis, and intestinal microbiota have been identified as pre-renal factors, and lithiasis or [...] Read more.
Kidney diseases are expected to become the fifth leading cause of death by 2040. Several physiological failures classified as pre-, intra-, and post-renal factors induce kidney damage. Diabetes, liver pathologies, rhabdomyolysis, and intestinal microbiota have been identified as pre-renal factors, and lithiasis or blood clots in the ureters, prostate cancer, urethral obstructions, prostate elongation, and urinary tract infections are post-renal factors. Additionally, the nephrotoxicity of drugs has been highlighted as a crucial factor inducing kidney injuries. Due to the adverse effects of drugs, it is necessary to point to other alternatives to complement the treatment of these diseases, such as nephroprotective agents. Plants are a wide source of nephroprotective substances and can have beneficial effects in different levels of the physiological pathways which lead to kidney damage. In traditional medicines, plants are used as antioxidants, anti-inflammatories, diuretics, and anticancer agents, among other benefits. However, the mechanism of action of some plants empirically used remains unknown and scientific data are required to support their nephroprotective effects. The present work reviewed the plants with a beneficial effect on kidney diseases. The classification of nephroprotective plants according to the clinical definition of pre-renal, intrinsic, and post-renal factors is proposed to orient their use as complementary treatments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Molecules from Mexican Flora)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

11 pages, 3163 KiB  
Article
“Live-Autoradiography” Technique Reveals Genetic Variation in the Rate of Fe Uptake by Barley Cultivars
by Kyoko Higuchi, Keisuke Kurita, Takuro Sakai, Nobuo Suzui, Minori Sasaki, Maya Katori, Yuna Wakabayashi, Yuta Majima, Akihiro Saito, Takuji Ohyama and Naoki Kawachi
Plants 2022, 11(6), 817; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11060817 - 18 Mar 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2958
Abstract
Iron (Fe) is an essential trace element in plants; however, the available Fe in soil solution does not always satisfy the demand of plants. Genetic diversity in the rate of Fe uptake by plants has not been broadly surveyed among plant species or [...] Read more.
Iron (Fe) is an essential trace element in plants; however, the available Fe in soil solution does not always satisfy the demand of plants. Genetic diversity in the rate of Fe uptake by plants has not been broadly surveyed among plant species or genotypes, although plants have developed various Fe acquisition mechanisms. The “live-autoradiography” technique with radioactive 59Fe was adopted to directly evaluate the uptake rate of Fe by barley cultivars from a nutrient solution containing a very low concentration of Fe. The uptake rate of Fe measured by live autoradiography was consistent with the accumulation of Fe-containing proteins on the thylakoid membrane. The results revealed that the ability to acquire Fe from the low-Fe solution was not always the sole determinant of tolerance to Fe deficiency among barley genotypes. The live-autoradiography system visualizes the distribution of β-ray-emitting nuclides and has flexibility in the shape of the field of view. This technique will strongly support phenotyping with regard to the long-distance transport of nutrient elements in the plant body. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

12 pages, 1277 KiB  
Article
Bacterial-Assisted Extraction of Bioactive Compounds from Cauliflower
by Enrico Doria, Daniela Buonocore, Antonio Marra, Valeria Bontà, Andrea Gazzola, Maurizia Dossena, Manuela Verri and Cinzia Calvio
Plants 2022, 11(6), 816; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11060816 - 18 Mar 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2409
Abstract
The market for nutraceutical molecules is growing at an impressive pace in all Western countries. A convenient source of bioactive compounds is found in vegetable waste products, and their re-use for the recovery of healthy biomolecules would increase the sustainability of the food [...] Read more.
The market for nutraceutical molecules is growing at an impressive pace in all Western countries. A convenient source of bioactive compounds is found in vegetable waste products, and their re-use for the recovery of healthy biomolecules would increase the sustainability of the food production system. However, safe, cheap, and sustainable technologies should be applied for the recovery of these beneficial molecules, avoiding the use of toxic organic solvents or expensive equipment. The soil bacterium Bacillus subtilis is naturally endowed with several enzymes targeting complex vegetable polymers. In this work, a raw bacterial culture supernatant was used to assist in the extraction of bioactives using isothermal pressurization cycles. Besides a wild-type Bacillus subtilis strain, a new strain showing increased secretion of cellulases and xylanases, pivotal enzymes for the digestion of the plant cell wall, was also used. Results indicate that the recovery of compounds correlates with the amount of cellulolytic enzymes applied, demonstrating that the pretreatment with non-purified culture broth effectively promotes the release of bioactives from the vegetable matrix. Therefore, this approach is a valid and sustainable procedure for the recovery of bioactive compounds from food waste. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Recovery of Bio-Active Compounds from Fruit and Vegetable)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

14 pages, 6337 KiB  
Article
Non-Expresser of PR-Genes 1 Positively Regulates Abscisic Acid Signaling in Arabidopsis thaliana
by Irfan Ullah Khan, Akhtar Ali, Shah Zareen, Haris Ali Khan, Chae Jin Lim, Junghoon Park, Jose M. Pardo and Dae-Jin Yun
Plants 2022, 11(6), 815; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11060815 - 18 Mar 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2921
Abstract
The plant hormone, abscisic acid (ABA), is not only important for promoting abiotic stress responses but also plays a versatile and crucial role in plant immunity. The pathogen infection-induced dynamic accumulation of ABA mediates the degradation of non-expresser of PR genes 1 (NPR1) [...] Read more.
The plant hormone, abscisic acid (ABA), is not only important for promoting abiotic stress responses but also plays a versatile and crucial role in plant immunity. The pathogen infection-induced dynamic accumulation of ABA mediates the degradation of non-expresser of PR genes 1 (NPR1) through the CUL3NPR3NPR4 proteasome pathway. However, the functional significance of NPR1 degradation by other E3 ligases in response to ABA remains unclear. Here, we report that NPR1 is induced transcriptionally by ABA and that npr1-1 mutation results in ABA insensitivity during seed germination and seedling growth. Mutants lacking NPR1 downregulate the expression of ABA-responsive transcription factors ABA INSENSITIVE4 (ABI4) and ABA INSENSITIVE5 (ABI5), and that of their downstream targets EM6, RAB18, RD26, and RD29B. The npr1-1 mutation also affects the transcriptional activity of WRKY18, which activates WRKY60 in the presence of ABA. Furthermore, NPR1 directly interacts with and is degraded by HOS15, a substrate receptor for the DDB1-CUL4 ubiquitin E3 ligase complex. Collectively, our findings demonstrate that NPR1 acts as a positive regulator of ABA-responsive genes, whereas HOS15 promotes NPR1 degradation in a proteasome-dependent manner. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Implications of Abscisic Acid in the Drought Stress Tolerance)
Show Figures

Figure 1

14 pages, 1620 KiB  
Article
Biochar Addition Alters C: N: P Stoichiometry in Moss Crust-Soil Continuum in Gurbantünggüt Desert
by Yaobao Chang, Weiguo Liu, Yuqing Mao, Tao Yang and Yinguang Chen
Plants 2022, 11(6), 814; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11060814 - 18 Mar 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2150
Abstract
The biogeochemical cycling of soil elements in ecosystems has changed under global changes, including nutrients essential for plant growth. The application of biochar can improve the utilization of soil nutrients by plants and change the stoichiometry of carbon (C), nitrogen (N), and phosphorus [...] Read more.
The biogeochemical cycling of soil elements in ecosystems has changed under global changes, including nutrients essential for plant growth. The application of biochar can improve the utilization of soil nutrients by plants and change the stoichiometry of carbon (C), nitrogen (N), and phosphorus (P) in plants and soil. However, the response of ecological stoichiometry in a moss crust-soil continuum to local plant biochar addition in a desert ecosystem has not been comprehensively explored. Here, we conducted a four-level Seriphidium terrae-albae biochar addition experiment (CK, 0 t ha−1; T1, 3.185 t ha−1; T2, 6.37 t ha−1; T3, 12.74 t ha−1) to elucidate the influence of biochar input on C: N: P stoichiometry in moss crusts (surface) and their underlying soil (subsurface). The results showed that biochar addition significantly affected the C, N, and P both of moss crusts and their underlying soil (p < 0.001). Biochar addition increased soil C, N, and P concentrations, and the soil N content showed a monthly trend in T3. The C, N, and P concentrations of moss crusts increased with the addition levels of biochar, and the moss crust P concentrations showed an overall increasing trend by the month. Moreover, the soil and moss crust C: P and N: P ratios both increased. There was a significant correlation between moss crust C, N, and P and soil C and N. Additionally, nitrate nitrogen (NO3−N), N: P, C: P, EC, pH, soil moisture content (SMC), and N have significant effects on the C, N, and P of moss crusts in turn. This study revealed the contribution of biochar to the nutrient cycle of desert system plants and their underlying soil from the perspective of stoichiometric characteristics, which is a supplement to the theory of plant soil nutrition in desert ecosystems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Plant Ecology)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

20 pages, 3028 KiB  
Article
Utilization of Biomasses from Landscape Conservation Growths Dominated by Common Ragwort (Jacobaea vulgaris Gaertn.) for Biomethanization
by Jürgen Müller, Denny Wiedow, Mohammad Said Chmit and Till Beuerle
Plants 2022, 11(6), 813; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11060813 - 18 Mar 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2128
Abstract
The highly toxic species common ragwort (Jacobaea vulgaris Gaertn.) prefers to migrate into protected dry grassland biotopes and limits the use of the resulting biomass as animal feed. There is an urgent need for a safe alternative use of the contaminated biomass [...] Read more.
The highly toxic species common ragwort (Jacobaea vulgaris Gaertn.) prefers to migrate into protected dry grassland biotopes and limits the use of the resulting biomass as animal feed. There is an urgent need for a safe alternative use of the contaminated biomass apart from landfill disposal. We investigated the optional utilization of biomethanization of fresh and ensiled common ragwort biomasses and evaluated their energetic potentials by estimation models based on biochemical characteristics and by standardized batch experiments. The fresh and ensiled substrates yielded 174 LN∙kg−1 oDM methane and 185 LN∙kg−1 oDM, respectively. Ensiling reduced the toxic pyrrolizidine alkaloid content by 76.6%; a subsequent wet fermentation for an additional reduction is recommended. In comparison with other biomasses from landscape cultivation, ragwort biomass can be ensiled readily but has a limited energy potential if harvested at its peak flowering stage. Considering these properties and limitations, the energetic utilization is a promising option for a sustainable handling of Senecio-contaminated biomasses in landscape conservation practice and represents a safe alternative for reducing pyrrolizidine alkaloid entry into the agri-food sector. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection The Use and Management of Invasive Plants)
Show Figures

Figure 1

16 pages, 628 KiB  
Review
Molecular Insights into Freezing Stress in Peach Based on Multi-Omics and Biotechnology: An Overview
by Pandiyan Muthuramalingam, Hyunsuk Shin, Sivakumar Adarshan, Rajendran Jeyasri, Arumugam Priya, Jen-Tsung Chen and Manikandan Ramesh
Plants 2022, 11(6), 812; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11060812 - 18 Mar 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2663
Abstract
In nature or field conditions, plants are frequently exposed to diverse environmental stressors. Among abiotic stresses, the low temperature of freezing conditions is a critical factor that influences plants, including horticultural crops, decreasing their growth, development, and eventually quality and productivity. Fortunately, plants [...] Read more.
In nature or field conditions, plants are frequently exposed to diverse environmental stressors. Among abiotic stresses, the low temperature of freezing conditions is a critical factor that influences plants, including horticultural crops, decreasing their growth, development, and eventually quality and productivity. Fortunately, plants have developed a mechanism to improve the tolerance to freezing during exposure to a range of low temperatures. In this present review, current findings on freezing stress physiology and genetics in peach (Prunus persica) were refined with an emphasis on adaptive mechanisms for cold acclimation, deacclimation, and reacclimation. In addition, advancements using multi-omics and genetic engineering approaches unravel the molecular physiological mechanisms, including hormonal regulations and their general perceptions of freezing tolerance in peach were comprehensively described. This review might pave the way for future research to the horticulturalists and research scientists to overcome the challenges of freezing temperature and improvement of crop management in these conditions. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

8 pages, 892 KiB  
Article
Euphocactoside, a New Megastigmane Glycoside from Euphorbia cactus Growing in Saudi Arabia
by Hanan Y. Aati, Shagufta Perveen, Jawaher Al-Qahtani, Jiangnan Peng, Areej Al-Taweel, Ali S. Alqahtani, Ali ElGamal, Giuseppina Chianese, Fahd A. Nasr, Orazio Taglialatela-Scafati and Mohammad K. Parvez
Plants 2022, 11(6), 811; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11060811 - 18 Mar 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2547
Abstract
A phytochemical investigation of the aerial parts of Euphorbia cactus Ehrenb. ex Boiss. revealed a new megastigmane, euphocactoside (5), along with eleven known metabolites. Euphocactoside (5) is the 3-O-glucoside derivative of a polyhydroxylated megastigmane showing unprecedented structural [...] Read more.
A phytochemical investigation of the aerial parts of Euphorbia cactus Ehrenb. ex Boiss. revealed a new megastigmane, euphocactoside (5), along with eleven known metabolites. Euphocactoside (5) is the 3-O-glucoside derivative of a polyhydroxylated megastigmane showing unprecedented structural features. The structure of euphocactoside, including stereochemical details, was elucidated by extensive spectroscopic analysis based on 1D and 2D nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and high-resolution mass spectrometry (HR-ESIMS). The isolated compounds were evaluated for their cytotoxic activity against three different human cancer cell lines, namely, A549 (lung), LoVo (colon), and MCF-7 (breast), using MTT assay, and moderate to marginal activities were observed for compounds 13, 8 and 9 against all three cell lines. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Identification and Analysis of Bioactive Components from Plants)
Show Figures

Figure 1

9 pages, 1217 KiB  
Article
Identification and Characterization of Two Regiospecific Tricetin UDP-Dependent Glycosyltransferases from Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.)
by Sheng Wu, Lijing Chang and Li Tian
Plants 2022, 11(6), 810; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11060810 - 18 Mar 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1916
Abstract
Tricetin (5,7,3′,4′,5′-pentahydroxyflavone) is a dietary flavone from flowers of Myrtales plants with demonstrated functions in promoting human health. By contrast, the bioactivity of its glucosylated derivative tricetin 4′-O-glucoside has not been extensively explored. We conducted metabolite profiling analysis of pomegranate (a [...] Read more.
Tricetin (5,7,3′,4′,5′-pentahydroxyflavone) is a dietary flavone from flowers of Myrtales plants with demonstrated functions in promoting human health. By contrast, the bioactivity of its glucosylated derivative tricetin 4′-O-glucoside has not been extensively explored. We conducted metabolite profiling analysis of pomegranate (a Myrtales plant) floral tissues and revealed that tricetin and tricetin 4′-O-glucoside accumulate in anthers, but not petals. In addition, the comparative analysis of anther and petal transcriptomes identified 10 UGTs that are more highly expressed in anthers than petals. Of the 10 UGTs, PgUGT76Z1 and PgUGT73AL1 glucosylated specifically at the 4′-O position of tricetin to form tricetin 4′-O-glucoside. The phylogenetic analysis indicated that PgUGT76Z1 and PgUGT73AL1 belong to different plant UGT groups, suggesting a convergent evolution of these tricetin UGTs. Overall, identification and characterization of PgUGT76Z1 and PgUGT73AL1 not only provides evolutionary insights into tricetin glucosylation, but also offers an opportunity to produce tricetin 4′-O-glucoside in large quantities through microbial biotransformation or plant metabolic engineering, thus facilitating the investigation of tricetin 4′-O-glucoside bioactivities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Roles of Secondary Metabolites in Plants)
Show Figures

Figure 1

26 pages, 2761 KiB  
Review
Chemical Diversity of Flavan-3-Ols in Grape Seeds: Modulating Factors and Quality Requirements
by Guillermo F. Padilla-González, Esther Grosskopf, Nicholas J. Sadgrove and Monique S. J. Simmonds
Plants 2022, 11(6), 809; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11060809 - 18 Mar 2022
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 2676
Abstract
Grape seeds are a rich source of flavan-3-ol monomers, oligomers, and polymers. The diverse profile of compounds includes mainly B-type procyanidins (especially C4→C8 linked molecules) and the key monomers, catechin, and epicatechin that are positively implicated in the ‘French Paradox’. Today grape seed [...] Read more.
Grape seeds are a rich source of flavan-3-ol monomers, oligomers, and polymers. The diverse profile of compounds includes mainly B-type procyanidins (especially C4→C8 linked molecules) and the key monomers, catechin, and epicatechin that are positively implicated in the ‘French Paradox’. Today grape seed nutraceuticals have become a multi-million-dollar industry. This has created incentives to elucidate the variations in chemistry across cultivars, to identify signs of adulteration, and to understand the intrinsic and extrinsic factors controlling the expression of metabolites in the seeds’ metabolome. This review provides a critical overview of the existing literature on grape seed chemistry. Although the biosynthetic pathways for polymeric procyanidins in seeds have not yet been explained, abiotic factors have been shown to modulate associated genes. Research of extrinsic factors has demonstrated that the control of procyanidin expression is strongly influenced, in order of importance, by genotype (species first, then variety) and environment, as claimed anecdotally. Unfortunately, research outcomes on the effects of abiotic factors have low certainty, because effects can be specific to genotype or variety, and there is limited control over physical metrics in the field. Thus, to gain a fuller understanding of the effects of abiotic factors and biosynthetic pathways, and realise potential for optimisation, a more fundamental research approach is needed. Nevertheless, the current synthesis offers insight into the selection of species or varieties according to the profile of polyphenols, as well as for optimisation of horticultural practices, with a view to produce products that contain the compounds that support health claims. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Plant Physiology and Metabolism)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

16 pages, 5858 KiB  
Article
A New Formulation for Strigolactone Suicidal Germination Agents, towards Successful Striga Management
by Muhammad Jamil, Jian You Wang, Djibril Yonli, Rohit H. Patil, Mohammed Riyazaddin, Prakash Gangashetty, Lamis Berqdar, Guan-Ting Erica Chen, Hamidou Traore, Ouedraogo Margueritte, Binne Zwanenburg, Satish Ekanath Bhoge and Salim Al-Babili
Plants 2022, 11(6), 808; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11060808 - 18 Mar 2022
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 2630
Abstract
Striga hermonthica, a member of the Orobanchaceae family, is an obligate root parasite of staple cereal crops, which poses a tremendous threat to food security, contributing to malnutrition and poverty in many African countries. Depleting Striga seed reservoirs from infested soils is [...] Read more.
Striga hermonthica, a member of the Orobanchaceae family, is an obligate root parasite of staple cereal crops, which poses a tremendous threat to food security, contributing to malnutrition and poverty in many African countries. Depleting Striga seed reservoirs from infested soils is one of the crucial approaches to minimize subterranean damage to crops. The dependency of Striga germination on the host-released strigolactones (SLs) has prompted the development of the “Suicidal Germination” strategy to reduce the accumulated seed bank of Striga. The success of aforementioned strategy depends not only on the activity of the applied SL analogs, but also requires suitable application protocol with simple, efficient, and handy formulation for rain-fed African agriculture. Here, we developed a new formulation “Emulsifiable Concentration (EC)” for the two previously field-assessed SL analogs Methyl phenlactonoate 3 (MP3) and Nijmegen-1. The new EC formulation was evaluated for biological activities under lab, greenhouse, mini-field, and field conditions in comparison to the previously used Atlas G-1086 formulation. The EC formulation of SL analogs showed better activities on Striga germination with lower EC50 and high stability under Lab conditions. Moreover, EC formulated SL analogs at 1.0 µM concentrations reduced 89–99% Striga emergence in greenhouse. The two EC formulated SL analogs showed also a considerable reduction in Striga emergence in mini-field and field experiments. In conclusion, we have successfully developed a desired formulation for applying SL analogs as suicidal agents for large-scale field application. The encouraging results presented in this study pave the way for integrating the suicidal germination approach in sustainable Striga management strategies for African agriculture. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Parasitic Weeds: Biology and Control)
Show Figures

Figure 1

8 pages, 1261 KiB  
Communication
Low Salt Treatment Results in Plant Growth Enhancement in Tomato Seedlings
by Paola Rivera, Cristian Moya and José A. O’Brien
Plants 2022, 11(6), 807; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11060807 - 18 Mar 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2182
Abstract
Climate change together with excessive fertilization and poor water quality can affect soil quality and salinization. In plants, high salinity causes osmotic stress, ionic toxicity, and oxidative stress. Consequently, salt stress limits plant development, growth, productivity, and yield. Tomatoes are a very common [...] Read more.
Climate change together with excessive fertilization and poor water quality can affect soil quality and salinization. In plants, high salinity causes osmotic stress, ionic toxicity, and oxidative stress. Consequently, salt stress limits plant development, growth, productivity, and yield. Tomatoes are a very common agricultural product, and some cultivars can partially tolerate salinity. However, most studies are focused on salt excess, which does not necessarily extrapolate on how plants develop in soils with low concentrations of salts. Thus, this study characterizes plant growth and the development of different salt concentrations from 25 to 200 mM in Solanum lycopersicum cv. Moneymaker. Tomato seedlings grown in Murashige and Skoog medium supplied with different NaCl concentrations (0, 25, 50, 75, 100, 125, 150, 175, and 200 mM) showed that low salt concentrations (25 and 50 mM) have a positive impact on lateral root development. This was further observed in physiological parameters such as shoot length, primary root length, and proliferation of lateral roots versus controls. Interestingly, no significant changes in Na+ concentration were observed in 25 mM NaCl in roots or shoots versus controls. Overall, our results suggest that non-toxic salt concentrations can have a positive impact on plant development. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

24 pages, 5231 KiB  
Article
Crop Model Parameterisation of Three Important Pearl Millet Varieties for Improved Water Use and Yield Estimation
by Petrus A. Ausiku, John G. Annandale, Joachim Martin Steyn and Andrew J. Sanewe
Plants 2022, 11(6), 806; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11060806 - 18 Mar 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2842
Abstract
Pearl millet is an important crop for food security in Asia and Africa’s arid and semi-arid regions. It is widely grown as a staple cereal grain for human consumption and livestock fodder. Mechanistic crop growth and water balance models are useful to forecast [...] Read more.
Pearl millet is an important crop for food security in Asia and Africa’s arid and semi-arid regions. It is widely grown as a staple cereal grain for human consumption and livestock fodder. Mechanistic crop growth and water balance models are useful to forecast crop production and water use. However, very few studies have been devoted to the development of the model parameters needed for such simulations for pearl millet. The objectives of the study were to determine crop-specific model parameters for each of three pearl millet varieties (landrace, hybrid, and improved), as well as to calibrate and validate the Soil Water Balance (SWB) model for predicting pearl millet production and water use based on weather data. The SWB was chosen because it is widely used in southern Africa; however, the developed parameters should benefit other models as well. The presented crop-specific parameter values were derived from field observations and literature. Varieties with different phenology, maturity dates and tillering habits were grown under well-watered and well-fertilised conditions for calibration purposes. The calibrated model was used to predict biomass production, grain yield and crop water use. The hybrid’s water use efficiency was higher than that of the landrace and improved variety. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

5 pages, 239 KiB  
Editorial
Plant Growth Regulators in Tree Rooting
by Federica Brunoni, Jesús Mª Vielba and Conchi Sánchez
Plants 2022, 11(6), 805; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11060805 - 17 Mar 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1932
Abstract
Trees are long-lived organisms with complex life cycles that provide enormous benefits both in natural and cultivated stands [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Growth Regulators in Tree Rooting)
Previous Issue
Next Issue
Back to TopTop