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Plants, Volume 11, Issue 21 (November-1 2022) – 204 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Certain plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) help plants withstand higher temperatures. While PGPR effects on shoots have been studied, the morphological responses of plant roots, particularly their spatial and temporal dynamics, are still unknown. We present a new non-invasive high-resolution plant phenotyping and imaging platform—GrowScreen-Agar II—that relies on custom-made agar plates. While roots grow in the dark, shoots are open to the environment. Consecutive imaging captures time-resolved root and shoot development. Arabidopsis thaliana, co-cultivated with Paraburkholderia phytofirmans PsJN at elevated and ambient temperatures, showed increased lengths, growth rates, and number of roots, with specific responses based on root type, temperature, and time from inoculation. View this paper
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17 pages, 3156 KiB  
Article
Unraveling the Physiological Mechanisms Underlying the Intracultivar Variability of Water Use Efficiency in Vitis vinifera “Grenache”
by Ignacio Buesa, Esther Hernández-Montes, Ignacio Tortosa, Gabriele Baraldi, Miquel Rosselló, Hipólito Medrano and Jose Mariano Escalona
Plants 2022, 11(21), 3008; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11213008 - 7 Nov 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1730
Abstract
Selecting genotypes with a better capacity to respond and adapt to soil water deficits is essential to achieve the sustainability of grapevine cultivation in the context of increasing water scarcity. However, cultivar changes are very poorly accepted, and therefore it is particularly interesting [...] Read more.
Selecting genotypes with a better capacity to respond and adapt to soil water deficits is essential to achieve the sustainability of grapevine cultivation in the context of increasing water scarcity. However, cultivar changes are very poorly accepted, and therefore it is particularly interesting to explore the intracultivar genetic diversity in water use efficiency (WUE). In previous studies, the cultivar “Grenache” has shown up to 30% variability in WUE. This research aimed to confirm the intracultivar variability and to elucidate the traits underlying this variability in the response to a water deficit by analyzing the growth rates, water relations, osmotic potential, leaf morphology, leaf gas exchange and carbon isotope discrimination in nine “Grenache” genotypes grown in pots during two seasons. The results showed lower differences in WUE and carbon isotope ratio than in previous field studies, but fairly good consistency in genotype ranking. Leaf mass area and osmotic potential did not underlie differences in stem water potential and in stomatal conductance. Overall, stomatal regulation and photosynthetic capacity seem to underlie differences in WUE among genotypes with an important environmental influence. These results confirm the ability to select clones with higher WUE and present an opportunity for the genetic improvement of WUE in grapevines. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Grapevine Response to Abiotic Stress)
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19 pages, 5904 KiB  
Article
Seedling-Stage Deficit Irrigation with Nitrogen Application in Three-Year Field Study Provides Guidance for Improving Maize Yield, Water and Nitrogen Use Efficiencies
by Yuxi Li, Jian Chen, Longbing Tian, Zhaoyin Shen, Daniel Buchvaldt Amby, Fulai Liu, Qiang Gao and Yin Wang
Plants 2022, 11(21), 3007; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11213007 - 7 Nov 2022
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 1531
Abstract
Deficit irrigation (DI) was acknowledged as an effective technique to improve water use efficiency (WUE) without significant yield reduction. In this study, a 3-year field experiment was conducted in Northeast China during 2017–2019 to investigate the combined effects of 3-week DI from 3-leaf [...] Read more.
Deficit irrigation (DI) was acknowledged as an effective technique to improve water use efficiency (WUE) without significant yield reduction. In this study, a 3-year field experiment was conducted in Northeast China during 2017–2019 to investigate the combined effects of 3-week DI from 3-leaf stage and N fertilization on maize seedling growth and determine the resulting impacts on silking growth and yield formation, N use efficiency (NUE) and WUE. Results showed that seedling-stage DI decreased leaf area and photosynthesis, thus significantly limited shoot and root dry biomass for maize seedling, compared to well-watered (WW) plants. In 2017 and 2019, seedling-stage DI positively improved seedling growth with higher root: shoot ratio and enhanced drought tolerance, under higher initial soil water contents (SWC) with sufficient precipitation before DI. The DI-primed plants showed similar or better performances on reproductive growth, grain yield, WUE and NUE compared to WW plants, even experiencing heavy rainfall or drought stresses around the silking stage. However, the contrasting results were observed in 2018 with negative DI effects on seedling and silking growth and final yield, probably due to less rainfall and lower SWC before DI. In all 3 years, N fertilization had significant compensatory effects on limited seedling growth under DI, and its effect was much less in 2018 than other years due to adverse early climate. The principal component and correlation analysis revealed maize silking growth, grain yield, NUE and WUE were strongly related to the seedling growth as affected by water and N managements under various climatic conditions. In conclusion, a short-term and moderate DI regime—adopted at the seedling stage under higher initial SWC and coupled with an appropriate N fertilization—is beneficial to control redundant vegetative growth while optimizing root development, therefore effectively improving drought tolerance for maize plants and achieving higher grain yield, WUE and NUE. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water and Nitrogen Management in Soil-Crop System)
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22 pages, 5353 KiB  
Article
A Morphometric and Karyological Study of the Anthemis macedonica Group (Asteraceae, Anthemideae) Reveals a New Species from Greece
by Katerina Goula, Konstantinos Touloumis, Panayotis Dimopoulos and Theophanis Constantinidis
Plants 2022, 11(21), 3006; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11213006 - 7 Nov 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1912
Abstract
A recent study of the Anthemis collections in the Balkans indicated that the taxa of the Anthemis macedonica group (A. macedonica subsp. macedonica, A. macedonica subsp. thracica, A. meteorica, A. orbelica) exhibit noteworthy morphological patterns not evaluated before. [...] Read more.
A recent study of the Anthemis collections in the Balkans indicated that the taxa of the Anthemis macedonica group (A. macedonica subsp. macedonica, A. macedonica subsp. thracica, A. meteorica, A. orbelica) exhibit noteworthy morphological patterns not evaluated before. We applied morphometric approaches (principal components analysis, PCA; factor analysis on mixed data, FAMD) by considering 19 qualitative and 20 quantitative morphological characters, together with three ratios, in 26 populations of this group. Furthermore, the chromosome numbers and karyotype morphology were investigated in eight populations of the group, covering the taxa participating in the study. Our results revealed that the southernmost populations of the group represent a hitherto unknown species confined to serpentine: it is described here as Anthemis serpentinica Goula & Constantinidis. The morphological evidence supports the proximity of A. macedonica and A. orbelica, which would be better considered as subspecific entities of the same species. On the contrary, A. meteorica and A. thracica are retained as independent entities at species level. All taxa share the same diploid chromosome number of 2n = 2x = 18 with similar but not identical karyotypes. A brief description of all taxa, based on recent new collections, and a dichotomous key are presented. Lectotypes are designated for Anthemis macedonica and A. meteorica. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Taxonomy and Plant Conservation, Volume II)
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14 pages, 1273 KiB  
Article
Phytochemical Composition and Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Ligularia fischeri Turcz: A Comparison between Leaf and Root Extracts
by Tae-Hyu Kim, Van-Long Truong and Woo-Sik Jeong
Plants 2022, 11(21), 3005; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11213005 - 7 Nov 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1883
Abstract
Ligularia fischeri Turcz leaves are widely consumed and have multiple health benefits. We aimed to evaluate the differences in the phytochemical composition and biological properties of the root and leaf extracts from L. fischeri. The root extract exhibited higher antioxidant capacity and [...] Read more.
Ligularia fischeri Turcz leaves are widely consumed and have multiple health benefits. We aimed to evaluate the differences in the phytochemical composition and biological properties of the root and leaf extracts from L. fischeri. The root extract exhibited higher antioxidant capacity and total flavonoid levels than the leaf extract. GC/MS analysis revealed the presence of various volatiles, diterpenoids, sesquiterpenes, and other non-polar compounds. Moreover, these extracts enhanced cellular antioxidant defense by reducing the level of reactive oxygen species and upregulating the expression of catalase and heme oxygenase-1 in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. The root and leaf extracts also exerted anti-inflammatory effects by suppressing nitric oxide production and diminishing the levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase, cyclooxygenase-2, and interleukin-1β in LPS-stimulated macrophages. Overall, these findings suggest that L. fischeri root extract contains diverse bioactive compounds for the development of nutraceuticals or functional foods with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidant Capacity of Plant Extracts)
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21 pages, 968 KiB  
Review
A Review of Cultural Practices for Botrytis Bunch Rot Management in New Zealand Vineyards
by Dion Charles Mundy, Philip Elmer, Peter Wood and Rob Agnew
Plants 2022, 11(21), 3004; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11213004 - 7 Nov 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 3817
Abstract
Botrytis bunch rot of grapes (BBR) causes substantial crop and wine quality issues globally. Past and present foundations for BBR control are based upon synthetic fungicides and varying forms of canopy management. Many authors regard the continued dependence on fungicides as unsustainable and [...] Read more.
Botrytis bunch rot of grapes (BBR) causes substantial crop and wine quality issues globally. Past and present foundations for BBR control are based upon synthetic fungicides and varying forms of canopy management. Many authors regard the continued dependence on fungicides as unsustainable and have urged greater deployment of cultural, biological and nutritional strategies. However, in contrast to organic wine production, the uptake of alternative strategies in conventional vineyards has been slow based on cost and perceived reliability issues. This review summarises research from many different wine growing regions in New Zealand with the aim of demonstrating how traditional and newly developed cultural control practices have cost-effectively reduced BBR. In addition to reviewing traditional cultural practices (e.g., leaf removal), mechanical tools are described that remove floral trash and mechanically shake the vines. Multi-omics has improved our knowledge of the underlying changes to grape berries after mechanical shaking. Exogenous applications of calcium may correct calcium deficiencies in the berry skin and reduce BBR but the outcome varies between cultivar and regions. Nitrogen aids in grapevine defence against BBR but remains a complex and difficult nutrient to manage. The sustainable growth of organics and The European Green Deal will stimulate researchers to evaluate new combinations of non-chemical BBR strategies in the next decade. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Integrated Disease Management in Fruit Crops)
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15 pages, 1897 KiB  
Article
Multiple-Traits Selection in White Guinea Yam (Dioscorea rotundata) Genotypes
by Prince Emmanuel Norman, Paterne A. Agre, Robert Asiedu and Asrat Asfaw
Plants 2022, 11(21), 3003; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11213003 - 7 Nov 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1430
Abstract
Choosing superior parents with complementary trait values for hybridization and selecting variants with desired product profiles to release as a new cultivar are important breeding activities to progress genetic improvement in crops. This study assessed the genetic potential of 36 parental lines of [...] Read more.
Choosing superior parents with complementary trait values for hybridization and selecting variants with desired product profiles to release as a new cultivar are important breeding activities to progress genetic improvement in crops. This study assessed the genetic potential of 36 parental lines of white Guinea yam (Dioscorea rotundata) genotypes using multi-trait index-based factor analysis and ideotype design (FAI-BLUP). The experiment utilized 36 white yam genotypes laid out in a 6 × 6 triple lattice design with three replications and phenotyped for 18 agronomic and food quality traits. Findings showed significant differences among genotypes for all assessed traits. Fifteen traits had desired genetic gains, whereas stem diameter (−1.34%), and two starch property traits ((holding strength (−26.31%) and final paste viscosity (−3.33%)) had undesired selection gain. The FAI-BLUP index provided total genetic gains of 148.91% for traits desired for increase and –29.26% for those desired for decrease. Genotypes TDr08-21-2, TDr9518544, TDr9501932, TDr8902665 and Pampars were identified as top best candidate for simultaneous improvement of the measured traits in white yam breeding. The findings indicate the effectiveness of the FAI-BLUP index in identifying and selecting genotypes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Plant Genetics, Genomics and Biotechnology)
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15 pages, 2450 KiB  
Article
Effect of Lippia alba (Mill.) N.E. Brown Essential Oil on the Human Umbilical Artery
by Alex S. Borges, Carla M. S. Bastos, Debora M. Dantas, Cícera G. B. Milfont, Guilherme M. H. Brito, Luís Pereira-de-Morais, Gyllyandeson A. Delmondes, Renata E. R. da Silva, Emanuel Kennedy-Feitosa, Francisco P. A. Maia, Clara M. G. Lima, Talha Bin Emran, Henrique Douglas M. Coutinho, Irwin Rose A. Menezes, Marta R. Kerntopf, Gianluca Caruso and Roseli Barbosa
Plants 2022, 11(21), 3002; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11213002 - 7 Nov 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1723
Abstract
Lippia alba is popularly known as lemon balm, with its essential oil (EO) cited for displaying antimicrobial, sedative, and vasorelaxant effects. Yet, its action on isolated human vessels has not been described in the literature. Thus, we evaluated the vasorelaxant effect of essential [...] Read more.
Lippia alba is popularly known as lemon balm, with its essential oil (EO) cited for displaying antimicrobial, sedative, and vasorelaxant effects. Yet, its action on isolated human vessels has not been described in the literature. Thus, we evaluated the vasorelaxant effect of essential oil of L. alba (EOLa) on human umbilical arteries (HUA) isolated in organ baths. HUA rings were isolated, subjected to contractions induced by potassium chloride (KCl), serotonin (5-HT), or histamine (HIST) to record the isometric tension, and then treated with EOLa (30–1000 µg/mL). The EOLa showed a more prominent inhibitory effect on the pharmacomechanical coupling contraction via HIST with an EC50 value of 277.1 ± 8.5 µg/mL and maximum relaxant effect at 600 µg/mL. The addition of tetraethylammonium (TEA) or 4-aminopyridine (4-AP) in HUA preparations did not inhibit EOLa total relaxant effect at 1000 µg/mL. In the presence of gliblenclamide (GLI), the oil relaxed the HUA rings by 90.8% at maximum concentration. The EOLa was also investigated for its effects on voltage-operated calcium channels (VOCCs), where the HUA preincubation with this oil at 1000 μg/mL inhibited BaCl2 (0.1–30 mM)-induced contractions. This study demonstrates for the first time that EOla has a vasorelaxant effect on HUA and its particular blockade of VOCCs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Essential Oil with Biological Activity II)
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18 pages, 4903 KiB  
Article
The Peach (Prunus persica) CBL and CIPK Family Genes: Protein Interaction Profiling and Expression Analysis in Response to Various Abiotic Stresses
by Keli Qiu, Haifa Pan, Yu Sheng, Yunyun Wang, Pei Shi, Qingmei Xie, Jinyun Zhang and Hui Zhou
Plants 2022, 11(21), 3001; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11213001 - 7 Nov 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1352
Abstract
The plant calcineurin B-like protein–CBL interacting protein kinase (CBL–CIPK) signaling pathway is a Ca2+-related signaling pathway that responds strongly to both biological and abiotic environmental stimuli. This study identified eight CBL and eighteen CIPK genes from peach for the first time. Their basic [...] Read more.
The plant calcineurin B-like protein–CBL interacting protein kinase (CBL–CIPK) signaling pathway is a Ca2+-related signaling pathway that responds strongly to both biological and abiotic environmental stimuli. This study identified eight CBL and eighteen CIPK genes from peach for the first time. Their basic properties and gene structure were analyzed, and the CBL and CIPK members from Arabidopsis and apple were combined to study their evolutionary relationships. Using RT-qPCR and RNA-seq data, we detected the expression patterns of PprCBLs and PprCIPKs in different tissues and fruit development stages of peach. Among them, the expression levels of PprCBL1 and PprCIPK18 were stable in various tissues and stages. The expression patterns of other members showed specificity between cultivars and developmental stages. By treating shoots with drought and salt stress simulated using PEG6000 and NaCl, it was found that PprCIPK3, PprCIPK6, PprCIPK15 and PprCIPK16 were strongly responsive to salt stress, and PprCIPK3, PprCIPK4, PprCIPK10, PprCIPK14, PprCIPK15, PprCIPK16 and PprCIPK18 were sensitive to drought stress. Three genes, PprCIPK3, PprCIPK15 and PprCIPK16, were sensitive to both salt and drought stress. We cloned four PprCBL and several PprCIPK genes and detected their interaction by yeast two-hybrid assay (Y2H). The results of Y2H show not only the evolutionary conservation of the interaction network of CBL–CIPK but also the specificity among different species. In conclusion, CBL and CIPK genes are important in peach and play an important role in the response to various abiotic stresses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Abiotic Stress Responses in Woody Plants)
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20 pages, 11424 KiB  
Article
The Effect of Humic Acid and Polystyrene Fluorescence Nanoplastics on Solanum lycopersicum Environmental Behavior and Phytotoxicity
by Dhivya Lakshmikanthan and Natarajan Chandrasekaran
Plants 2022, 11(21), 3000; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11213000 - 7 Nov 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1641
Abstract
The impacts of nanoplastics (100 nm) on terrestrial systems are unclear at this time. Due to the utilization of sewage sludge, plastic particles are likely to accumulate in these systems. The current research investigates how Solanum lycopersicum seed germination and growth are affected [...] Read more.
The impacts of nanoplastics (100 nm) on terrestrial systems are unclear at this time. Due to the utilization of sewage sludge, plastic particles are likely to accumulate in these systems. The current research investigates how Solanum lycopersicum seed germination and growth are affected by fluorescence polystyrene (Flu−PS), humic acid (HA), and a Flu−PS+HA combination (tomato). Following 24 h of interaction between Flu−PS and HA, our report details the development of an eco-corona with a significant increase in hydrodynamic size. Plant growth, seed germination, and chlorophyll content were all enhanced by the eco-coronated Flu−PS.Additionally, we discover that seeds treated with Flu−PS+HA demonstrated a germination rate of 90%, compared to just 65.8% for seeds treated with Flu−PS alone. Chlorophyll (a, b, and a + b) content measurements indicated that HA-treated groups and Flu−PS+HA-treated groups had considerably higher levels of chlorophyll (a, b, and a + b) than Flu−PS-treated groups (Flu−PS: 3.18 mg g−1, 2.12 mg g−1, and 3.89 mg g−1, HA: 5.96 mg g−1, 4.28 mg g−1, and 6.36 mg g−1, and Flu−PS+HA: 4.17 mg g−1, 3.01 mg g−1, and 6.08 mg g−1, respectively). In a similar manner, the HA and Flu−PS+HA treatment groups showed lower ROS levels than the Flu−PS treatment groups. In addition, we discovered that the activity of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase and catalase was lower in the groups treated with HA and Flu−PS+HA than in the groups solely treated with Flu−PS. The results demonstrated that HA significantly lessens the toxicity caused by Flu−PS, while also promoting the germination and growth of Solanum lycopersicum seeds. The related decrease in toxic effects may be ascribed to the establishment of an eco-corona on the Flu−PS. We think that the use of eco-coronas is a technique for safeguarding plants against xenobiotics such as nanoplastics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Seed Physiology)
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9 pages, 1191 KiB  
Article
A Genome-Wide Association Study of Senegalese Sorghum Seedlings Responding to Pathotype 5 of Sporisorium reilianum
by Ezekiel Ahn, Coumba Fall, Louis K. Prom and Clint Magill
Plants 2022, 11(21), 2999; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11212999 - 7 Nov 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1258
Abstract
Sporisorium reilianum is a fungal pathogen that causes head smut in sorghum. In addition to pathotypes (P) 1-4, P5 and P6 were identified recently. In this study, seedlings of Senegalese sorghum, comprising 163 accessions, were evaluated for response to Sporisorium reilianum. Teliospores [...] Read more.
Sporisorium reilianum is a fungal pathogen that causes head smut in sorghum. In addition to pathotypes (P) 1-4, P5 and P6 were identified recently. In this study, seedlings of Senegalese sorghum, comprising 163 accessions, were evaluated for response to Sporisorium reilianum. Teliospores of pathotype P5 of the pathogen in dilute agar were pipetted onto seedling shoots while still in soil, and inoculated seedlings were submerged under water at 4 days post-inoculation. Signs of infection (noticeable spots) on the first leaf were checked daily up to 6 days post submergence. A genome-wide association study (GWAS) was conducted using 193,727 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) throughout the genome based on two types of phenotypic data: whether noticeable spots were shown or not and the average time for an observation of the spots across 163 accessions. When mapped back to the reference sorghum genome, most of the top candidate SNP loci were associated with plant defense or plant stress response-related genes. The identified SNP loci were associated with spot appearance in sorghum seedlings under flooding following inoculation with P5 of Sporisorium reilianum. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Plant Protection and Biotic Interactions)
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16 pages, 1487 KiB  
Article
Foliar Application of Silicon in Vitis vinifera: Targeted Metabolomics Analysis as a Tool to Investigate the Chemical Variations in Berries of Four Grapevine Cultivars
by Stefania Sut, Mario Malagoli and Stefano Dall’Acqua
Plants 2022, 11(21), 2998; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11212998 - 7 Nov 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1523
Abstract
Silicon (Si) is a beneficial element for the growth of various crops, but its effect on plant metabolism is still not completely elucidated. Even if Si is not classified as an essential element for plants, the literature has reported its beneficial effects in [...] Read more.
Silicon (Si) is a beneficial element for the growth of various crops, but its effect on plant metabolism is still not completely elucidated. Even if Si is not classified as an essential element for plants, the literature has reported its beneficial effects in a variety of species. In this work, the influence of Si foliar application on berry composition was evaluated on four grapevine cultivars. The berries of Teroldego and Oseleta (red grapes) and Garganega and Chardonnay (white grapes) were analyzed after foliar application of silicon by comparing the treated and control groups. A targeted metabolomic approach was used that focused on secondary metabolites, amino acids, sugars, and tartaric acid. Measurements were performed using liquid chromatography coupled with a diode array detector and mass spectrometry (LC-DAD-MSn), a LC-evaporative light scattering detector (ELDS), and LC-MS/MS methods specific for the analysis of each class of constituents. After the data collection, multivariate models, PCA, PLS-DA, OPLS-DA, were elaborated to evaluate the effect of Si application in the treated vs. control samples. Results were different for each grape cultivar. A significant increase in anthocyanins was observed in the Oseleta cultivar, with 0.48 mg g−1 FW in the untreated samples vs. 1.25 mg g−1 FW in the Si-treated samples. In Garganega, Si treatment was correlated with increased proline levels. In Chardonnay, the Si application was related to decreased tartaric acid. The results of this work show for the first time that Si induces cultivar specific changes in the berry composition in plants cultivated without an evident abiotic or biotic stress. Full article
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22 pages, 3460 KiB  
Review
Unintended Genomic Outcomes in Current and Next Generation GM Techniques: A Systematic Review
by Philomena Chu and Sarah Zanon Agapito-Tenfen
Plants 2022, 11(21), 2997; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11212997 - 7 Nov 2022
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 3085
Abstract
Classical genetic engineering and new genome editing techniques, especially the CRISPR/Cas technology, increase the possibilities for modifying the genetic material in organisms. These technologies have the potential to provide novel agricultural traits, including modified microorganisms and environmental applications. However, legitimate safety concerns arise [...] Read more.
Classical genetic engineering and new genome editing techniques, especially the CRISPR/Cas technology, increase the possibilities for modifying the genetic material in organisms. These technologies have the potential to provide novel agricultural traits, including modified microorganisms and environmental applications. However, legitimate safety concerns arise from the unintended genetic modifications (GM) that have been reported as side-effects of such techniques. Here, we systematically review the scientific literature for studies that have investigated unintended genomic alterations in plants modified by the following GM techniques: Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated gene transfer, biolistic bombardment, and CRISPR-Cas9 delivered via Agrobacterium-mediated gene transfer (DNA-based), biolistic bombardment (DNA-based) and as ribonucleoprotein complexes (RNPs). The results of our literature review show that the impact of such techniques in host genomes varies from small nucleotide polymorphisms to large genomic variation, such as segmental duplication, chromosome truncation, trisomy, chromothripsis, breakage fusion bridge, including large rearrangements of DNA vector-backbone sequences. We have also reviewed the type of analytical method applied to investigate the genomic alterations and found that only five articles used whole genome sequencing in their analysis methods. In addition, larger structural variations detected in some studies would not be possible without long-read sequencing strategies, which shows a potential underestimation of such effects in the literature. As new technologies are constantly evolving, a more thorough examination of prospective analytical methods should be conducted in the future. This will provide regulators working in the field of genetically modified and gene-edited organisms with valuable information on the ability to detect and identify genomic interventions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Transformation and Genome Editing)
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15 pages, 2883 KiB  
Article
Effects of Phenolic Compounds on Walnut Bacterial Blight in the Green Husk of Hungarian-Bred Cultivars
by Géza Bujdosó, Éva Lengyel-Kónya, Mária Berki, Anita Végh, Attila Fodor and Nóra Adányi
Plants 2022, 11(21), 2996; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11212996 - 7 Nov 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1148
Abstract
The Persian walnut (Juglans regia L.) is the most grown nut tree crop in Central Europe. The aim was to study the full Hungarian walnut assortment with a distinct early spring phenology to detect the difference in phenolic profile in their green [...] Read more.
The Persian walnut (Juglans regia L.) is the most grown nut tree crop in Central Europe. The aim was to study the full Hungarian walnut assortment with a distinct early spring phenology to detect the difference in phenolic profile in their green husks. Furthermore, the relationship between the presence and concentration of phenolic compounds and the tolerance/resistance of the observed cultivars to walnut bacterial blight was investigated. Examining the samples, significant differences were found between the concentrations of the different groups of phenolic compounds. Walnut blight immunity tests were also performed to clarify the role of phenolic compounds in the nut derived from a non-irrigated orchard. The Hungarian-bred local cultivars contained phenolic compounds in higher concentrations than the domesticated ones. There was a significant correlation between the budburst, as well as the pistillate flowers’ receptivity and the concentration of juglone. Cultivars with a low concentration of phenolic compounds were the most susceptible to walnut bacterial blight, except ‘Bonifác’. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Multifunctionality of Phenolic Compounds in Plants)
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12 pages, 4383 KiB  
Article
Expression of Genes Involved in ABA and Auxin Metabolism and LEA Gene during Embryogenesis in Hemp
by Daniel Král, Josef Baltazar Šenkyřík and Vladan Ondřej
Plants 2022, 11(21), 2995; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11212995 - 7 Nov 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2352
Abstract
The level of phytohormones such as abscisic acid (ABA) and auxins (Aux) changes dynamically during embryogenesis. Knowledge of the transcriptional activity of the genes of their metabolic pathways is essential for a deeper understanding of embryogenesis itself; however, it could also help breeding [...] Read more.
The level of phytohormones such as abscisic acid (ABA) and auxins (Aux) changes dynamically during embryogenesis. Knowledge of the transcriptional activity of the genes of their metabolic pathways is essential for a deeper understanding of embryogenesis itself; however, it could also help breeding programs of important plants, such as Cannabis sativa, attractive for the pharmaceutical, textile, cosmetic, and food industries. This work aimed to find out how genes of metabolic pathways of Aux (IAA-1, IAA-2, X15-1, X15-2) and ABA (PP2C-1) alongside one member of the LEA gene family (CanLea34) are expressed in embryos depending on the developmental stage and the embryo cultivation in vitro. Walking stick (WS) and mature (M) cultivated and uncultivated embryos of C. sativa cultivars ‘KC Dora’ and ‘USO 31’ were analyzed. The RT-qPCR results indicated that for the development of immature (VH) embryos, the genes (IAA-1, IAA-2) are likely to be fundamental. Only an increased expression of the CanLea34 gene was characteristic of the fully maturated (M) embryos. In addition, this feature was significantly increased by cultivation. In conclusion, the cultivation led to the upsurge of expression of all studied genes. Full article
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15 pages, 2458 KiB  
Article
Exogenous Proline Improves Salt Tolerance of Alfalfa through Modulation of Antioxidant Capacity, Ion Homeostasis, and Proline Metabolism
by Shuaiqi Guo, Xuxia Ma, Wenqi Cai, Yuan Wang, Xueqin Gao, Bingzhe Fu and Shuxia Li
Plants 2022, 11(21), 2994; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11212994 - 7 Nov 2022
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2511
Abstract
Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is an important forage crop, and its productivity is severely affected by salt stress. Although proline is a compatible osmolyte that plays an important role in regulating plant abiotic stress resistance, the basic mechanism of proline requires further [...] Read more.
Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is an important forage crop, and its productivity is severely affected by salt stress. Although proline is a compatible osmolyte that plays an important role in regulating plant abiotic stress resistance, the basic mechanism of proline requires further clarification regarding the effect of proline in mitigating the harmful effects of salinity. Here, we investigate the protective effects and regulatory mechanisms of proline on salt tolerance of alfalfa. The results show that exogenous proline obviously promotes seed germination and seedling growth of salt-stressed alfalfa. Salt stress results in stunted plant growth, while proline application alleviates this phenomenon by increasing photosynthetic capacity and antioxidant enzyme activities and decreasing cell membrane damage and reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation. Plants with proline treatment maintain a better K+/Na+ ratio by reducing Na+ accumulation and increasing K+ content under salt stress. Additionally, proline induces the expression of genes related to antioxidant biosynthesis (Cu/Zn-SOD and APX) and ion homeostasis (SOS1, HKT1, and NHX1) under salt stress conditions. Proline metabolism is mainly regulated by ornithine-δ-aminotransferase (OAT) and proline dehydrogenase (ProDH) activities and their transcription levels, with the proline-treated plants displaying an increase in proline content under salt stress. In addition, OAT activity in the ornithine (Orn) pathway rather than Δ1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthetase (P5CS) activity in the glutamate (Glu) pathway is strongly increased under salt stress, made evident by the sharp increase in the expression level of the OAT gene compared to P5CS1 and P5CS2. Our study provides new insight into how exogenous proline improves salt tolerance in plants and that it might be used as a significant practical strategy for cultivating salt-tolerant alfalfa. Full article
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15 pages, 3633 KiB  
Article
Interspecific Gene Flow and Selective Sweeps in Picea wilsonii, P. neoveitchii and P. likiangensis
by Yifu Liu, Aili Qin, Ya Wang, Wen Nie, Cancan Tan, Sanping An, Junhui Wang, Ermei Chang, Zeping Jiang and Zirui Jia
Plants 2022, 11(21), 2993; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11212993 - 6 Nov 2022
Viewed by 1411
Abstract
Genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers were obtained by genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) technology to study the genetic relationships, population structure, gene flow and selective sweeps during species differentiation of Picea wilsonii, P. neoveitchii and P. likiangensis from a genome-wide perspective. We used P. [...] Read more.
Genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers were obtained by genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) technology to study the genetic relationships, population structure, gene flow and selective sweeps during species differentiation of Picea wilsonii, P. neoveitchii and P. likiangensis from a genome-wide perspective. We used P. jezoensis and P. pungens as outgroups, and three evolutionary branches were obtained: P. likiangensis was located on one branch, two P. wilsonii populations were grouped onto a second branch, and two P. neoveitchii populations were grouped onto a third branch. The relationship of P. wilsonii with P. likiangensis was closer than that with P. neoveitchii. ABBA-BABA analysis revealed that the gene flow between P. neoveitchii and P. wilsonii was greater than that between P. neoveitchii and P. likiangensis. Compared with the background population of P. neoveitchii, the genes that were selected in the P. wilsonii population were mainly related to plant stress resistance, stomatal regulation, plant morphology and flowering. The genes selected in the P. likiangensis population were mainly related to plant stress resistance, leaf morphology and flowering. Selective sweeps were beneficial for improving the adaptability of spruce species to different habitats as well as to accelerate species differentiation. The frequent gene flow between spruce species makes their evolutionary relationships complicated. Insight into gene flow and selection pressure in spruce species will help us further understand their phylogenetic relationships and provide a scientific basis for their introduction, domestication and genetic improvement. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Plant Genetics, Genomics and Biotechnology)
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21 pages, 3336 KiB  
Article
Endophytes from Halotolerant Plants Aimed to Overcome Salinity and Draught
by Vladimir K. Chebotar, Elena P. Chizhevskaya, Maria E. Baganova, Oksana V. Keleinikova, Oleg S. Yuzikhin, Alexander N. Zaplatkin, Olesya V. Khonina, Roman D. Kostitsin and Nina G. Lapenko
Plants 2022, 11(21), 2992; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11212992 - 6 Nov 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1732
Abstract
The aim of our research was to study the endosphere of four halophytic plants: Salicornia europaea L., Salsola australis (R.Br.), Bassia sedoides (Pall.) and Kochia prostrata (L.) Schrad. from arid and saline areas of the Stavropol Territory, Russia. In total, 28 endophyte strains [...] Read more.
The aim of our research was to study the endosphere of four halophytic plants: Salicornia europaea L., Salsola australis (R.Br.), Bassia sedoides (Pall.) and Kochia prostrata (L.) Schrad. from arid and saline areas of the Stavropol Territory, Russia. In total, 28 endophyte strains were isolated from the roots and stems of these halophytic plants. Most of the isolates (23 out of 28) were identified as Bacillus sp. while others belonged to the genera Oceanobacillus, Paenibacillus, Pantoea, Alcaligenes and Myroides. Three strains of Bacillus sp. (Se5R, Se1-1R, and Se1-3S), isolated from the S. europaea were capable of growth at 55 °C and in 10% of NaCl. Strains Se1-4S, Kp20-2S, and Bs11-2S Bacillus sp. (isolated from the S. australis, K. prostrata and B. sedoides, respectively) demonstrated strong plant growth promoting activity: 85–265% over control lettuce plants and a high degree of growth suppression (59.1–81.2%) of pathogenic fungi Fusarium oxysporum, Bipolaris sorokiniana and Rhizoctonia solani. Selected strains can be promising candidates for the development of bioinoculants to facilitate salt soil phytoremediation and be beneficial for mitigating the salt stress to the plants growing in salt-affected habitats. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adaptation of Mutualistic Plant-Microbe Systems to Abiotic Stresses)
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13 pages, 532 KiB  
Article
Phytochemicals and Inflammation: Is Bitter Better?
by Dorin Dragoș, Madalina Petran, Teodora-Cristiana Gradinaru and Marilena Gilca
Plants 2022, 11(21), 2991; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11212991 - 6 Nov 2022
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2594
Abstract
The taste of a herb influences its use in traditional medicine. A molecular basis for the taste-based patterns ruling the distribution of herbal (ethno) pharmacological activities may not be excluded. This study investigated the potential correlations between the anti-inflammatory activity (AIA) and the [...] Read more.
The taste of a herb influences its use in traditional medicine. A molecular basis for the taste-based patterns ruling the distribution of herbal (ethno) pharmacological activities may not be excluded. This study investigated the potential correlations between the anti-inflammatory activity (AIA) and the phytocompound taste and/or its chemical class. The study relies on information gathered by an extensive literature (articles, books, databases) search and made public as PlantMolecularTasteDB. Out of a total of 1527 phytotastants with reliably documented taste and structure available in PlantMolecularTasteDB, 592 (for each of which at least 40 hits were found on PubMed searches) were included in the statistical analysis. A list of 1836 putative molecular targets of these phytotastants was afterwards generated with SwissTargetPrediction tool. These targets were systematically evaluated for their potential role in inflammation using an international databases search. The correlations between phytochemical taste and AIA, between chemical class and AIA, and between the taste and the number of inflammation related targets were statistically analyzed. Phytochemical taste may be a better predictor of AIA than the chemical class. Bitter phytocompounds have a higher probability of exerting AIA when compared with otherwise phytotastants. Moreover, bitter phytotastants act upon more inflammation related targets than non-bitter tasting compounds. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Phytochemistry)
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14 pages, 1538 KiB  
Article
Effect of Germination and Illumination on Melatonin and Its Metabolites, Phenolic Content, and Antioxidant Activity in Mung Bean Sprouts
by Pimolwan Siriparu, Panyada Panyatip, Thanawat Pota, Juthamat Ratha, Chawalit Yongram, Tarapong Srisongkram, Bunleu Sungthong and Ploenthip Puthongking
Plants 2022, 11(21), 2990; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11212990 - 6 Nov 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 6830
Abstract
Mung bean (Vigna radiata L.) sprouts are increasingly consumed and have become part of a healthy diet. The sprouts are composed of proteins, carbohydrates, and biochemical compounds. During germination, the phytochemical compounds are significantly elevated, especially under stress conditions such as salinity, [...] Read more.
Mung bean (Vigna radiata L.) sprouts are increasingly consumed and have become part of a healthy diet. The sprouts are composed of proteins, carbohydrates, and biochemical compounds. During germination, the phytochemical compounds are significantly elevated, especially under stress conditions such as salinity, drought, extreme temperature, and illumination. The present study examined the effects of light and germination time on the bioactive compounds in mung bean sprout extracts. Mung bean seeds were sprouted under different light exposure conditions, and the phytochemical composition and antioxidant activity of sprout extracts were determined compared to seeds. The results show that tryptophan sharply decreased during germination. On the contrary, melatonin, polyphenols, and total phenolic content (TPC) were elevated with increased germination time, correlated with increased antioxidant activity. Sprouts germinated in the dark presented higher levels of melatonin and TPC compared with those germinated under 12 h light exposure (3.6- and 1.5-fold, respectively). In conclusion, germination can enhance valuable phytochemicals and antioxidant activity of mung bean sprouts. Mung bean sprouts may be a good alternative functional food for promoting human health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidant Capacity of Plant Extracts)
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24 pages, 1672 KiB  
Article
Using of Essential Oils and Plant Extracts against Pseudomonas savastanoi pv. glycinea and Curtobacterium flaccumfaciens pv. flaccumfaciens on Soybean
by Rashit I. Tarakanov and Fevzi S.-U. Dzhalilov
Plants 2022, 11(21), 2989; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11212989 - 5 Nov 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2487
Abstract
The bacteria Pseudomonas savastanoi pv. glycinea (Coerper, 1919; Gardan et al., 1992) (Psg) and Curtobacterium flaccumfaciens pv. flaccumfaciens (Hedges 1922) (Cff) are harmful pathogens of soybean (Glycine max). Presently, there are several strategies to control these bacteria, and the usage of [...] Read more.
The bacteria Pseudomonas savastanoi pv. glycinea (Coerper, 1919; Gardan et al., 1992) (Psg) and Curtobacterium flaccumfaciens pv. flaccumfaciens (Hedges 1922) (Cff) are harmful pathogens of soybean (Glycine max). Presently, there are several strategies to control these bacteria, and the usage of environmentally friendly approaches is encouraged. In this work, purified essential oils (EOs) from 19 plant species and total aqueous and ethanolic plant extracts (PEs) from 19 plant species were tested in vitro to observe their antimicrobial activity against Psg and Cff (by agar diffusion and broth microdilution method). Tested EOs and PEs produced significant bacterial growth inhibition with technologically acceptable MIC and MBC values. Non-phytotoxic concentrations for Chinese cinnamon and Oregano essential oils and leather bergenia ethanolic extract, which previously showed the lowest MBC values, were determined. Testing of these substances with artificial infection of soybean plants has shown that the essential oils of Chinese cinnamon and oregano have the maximum efficiency against Psg and Cff. Treatment of leaves and seeds previously infected with phytopathogens with these essential oils showed that the biological effectiveness of leaf treatments was 80.6–77.5% and 86.9–54.6%, respectively, for Psg and Cff. GC-MS and GC-FID analyzes showed that the major compounds were 5-Methyl-3-methylenedihydro-2(3H)-furanone (20.32%) in leather bergenia ethanolic extract, cinnamaldehyde (84.25%) in Chinese cinnamon essential oil and carvacrol (62.32%) in oregano essential oil. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Extracts as Biological Protective Agents)
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14 pages, 2077 KiB  
Article
Antifungal Potential of Canarian Plant Extracts against High-Risk Phytopathogens
by Carolina P. Reyes, Samuel Rodríguez Sabina, Rocío López-Cabeza, Cristina G. Montelongo, Cristina Giménez, Ignacio A. Jiménez, Raimundo Cabrera and Isabel L. Bazzochi
Plants 2022, 11(21), 2988; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11212988 - 5 Nov 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1798
Abstract
Phytopathogens are responsible for great losses in agriculture. In particular, Fusarium, Alternaria and Botrytis are fungal diseases that affect crops worldwide. In the search for eco-friendly solutions to pest control, plants and their chemo-biodiversity are promising sources of biopesticides for integrated pest [...] Read more.
Phytopathogens are responsible for great losses in agriculture. In particular, Fusarium, Alternaria and Botrytis are fungal diseases that affect crops worldwide. In the search for eco-friendly solutions to pest control, plants and their chemo-biodiversity are promising sources of biopesticides for integrated pest management. The aim of the present study is to report the evaluation of sixteen plant species from the Canary Islands Archipelago against the phytopathogenic fungi Botrytis cinerea, Fusarium oxysporum, and Alternaria alternata. The plants were selected on the basis of their traditional uses in medicine and/or pest control, as well as on scientific studies reporting their uses in crop protection. Their growth inhibition (% I), in an in vitro test-assay on mycelium, was used to identify six ethanolic plant extracts displaying activity (% I > 30% at 1 mg/mL) against at least one of the assayed fungi. The most effective plant extracts were further fractionated by liquid–liquid partition, using solvents of increasing polarity. This procedure led to an improvement of the bioactivity against the phytopathogens, even affecting the hexane fraction from S. canariensis and achieving an 83.93% of growth inhibition at 0.5 mg/mL on B. cinerea. These findings identified five plant-derived extracts as potential candidates for the future development of new biofungicides, which could be applied in integrated pest management. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Extracts as Biological Protective Agents)
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19 pages, 3886 KiB  
Article
New Genomic Regions Identified for Resistance to Spot Blotch and Terminal Heat Stress in an Interspecific Population of Triticum aestivum and T. spelta
by Sudhir Navathe, Ajeet Kumar Pandey, Sandeep Sharma, Ramesh Chand, Vinod Kumar Mishra, Dinesh Kumar, Sarika Jaiswal, Mir Asif Iquebal, Velu Govindan, Arun Kumar Joshi and Pawan Kumar Singh
Plants 2022, 11(21), 2987; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11212987 - 5 Nov 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1623
Abstract
Wheat is one of the most widely grown and consumed food crops in the world. Spot blotch and terminal heat stress are the two significant constraints mainly in the Indo–Gangetic plains of South Asia. The study was undertaken using 185 recombinant lines (RILs) [...] Read more.
Wheat is one of the most widely grown and consumed food crops in the world. Spot blotch and terminal heat stress are the two significant constraints mainly in the Indo–Gangetic plains of South Asia. The study was undertaken using 185 recombinant lines (RILs) derived from the interspecific hybridization of ‘Triticum aestivum (HUW234) × T. spelta (H+26)’ to reveal genomic regions associated with tolerance to combined stress to spot blotch and terminal heat. Different physiological (NDVI, canopy temperature, leaf chlorophyll) and grain traits (TGW, grain size) were observed under stressed (spot blotch, terminal heat) and non-stressed environments. The mean maturity duration of RILs under combined stress was reduced by 12 days, whereas the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) was 46.03%. Similarly, the grain size was depleted under combined stress by 32.23% and thousand kernel weight (TKW) by 27.56% due to spot blotch and terminal heat stress, respectively. The genetic analysis using 6734 SNP markers identified 37 significant loci for the area under the disease progress curve (AUDPC) and NDVI. The genome-wide functional annotation of the SNP markers revealed gene functions such as plant chitinases, NB-ARC and NBS-LRR, and the peroxidase superfamily Cytochrome P450 have a positive role in the resistance through a hypersensitive response. Zinc finger domains, cysteine protease coding gene, F-box protein, ubiquitin, and associated proteins, play a substantial role in the combined stress of spot blotch and terminal heat in bread wheat, according to genomic domains ascribed to them. The study also highlights T. speltoides as a source of resistance to spot blotch and terminal heat tolerance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Regulation of Crop Quality and Stress Responses)
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16 pages, 3363 KiB  
Article
Foliar P Application Cannot Fully Restore Photosynthetic Capacity, P Nutrient Status, and Growth of P Deficient Maize (Zea mays L.)
by Jon Niklas Henningsen, Bruno Maximilian Görlach, Victoria Fernández, Jasper Lauritz Dölger, Andreas Buhk and Karl Hermann Mühling
Plants 2022, 11(21), 2986; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11212986 - 5 Nov 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1641
Abstract
The essential plant nutrient phosphorus (P) is key for numerous structures and processes in crops and its deficiency can severely restrict yield and quality. As soil P availability for plant uptake is often limited, foliar P application can be an alternative means of [...] Read more.
The essential plant nutrient phosphorus (P) is key for numerous structures and processes in crops and its deficiency can severely restrict yield and quality. As soil P availability for plant uptake is often limited, foliar P application can be an alternative means of supplying P to the plants during the growth period. This study was aimed at investigating the effect of foliar P application on photosynthetic parameters, P nutritional status, and growth of P deficient maize over time. Plants of Zea mays L. cv. Keops were grown with deficient and sufficient amounts of P in hydroponics. Foliar P treatments were applied to P deficient plants and several physiological parameters were monitored for 21 days. The variables measured were leaf gas exchange parameters, SPAD values, foliar P absorption, re-translocation rates, and plant biomass production. Foliar P application significantly increased CO2-assimilation and SPAD values and additionally enhanced biomass production in all plant components. Elemental analysis revealed increased tissue P concentrations following foliar P application compared to P deficient plants. While increased growth of P-deficient plants was steadily promoted by foliar P spraying for the entire experimental period, the positive effect on CO2 assimilation and P concentration was transient and vanished some days after the foliar treatment. P deficiency markedly impaired the efficiency of physiological processes of maize plants. As a conclusion, foliar P fertilisation improved physiological and agronomical plant parameters over time, but failed to restore plant functionality of P deficient maize plants during a prolonged experimental period. Full article
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17 pages, 11309 KiB  
Article
Contribution of Fertilizer, Density and Row Spacing Practices for Maize Yield and Efficiency Enhancement in Northeast China
by Lin Piao, Shiyu Zhang, Junyao Yan, Tianxu Xiang, Yang Chen, Ming Li and Wanrong Gu
Plants 2022, 11(21), 2985; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11212985 - 4 Nov 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1886
Abstract
The research aimed to assess the contribution of fertilizer, density, and row spacing in integrated cultivation measures and identify their regulation mechanism on canopy architecture and factors in biomass accumulation in spring maize. Zhengdan 958 was used as the experimental material, and the [...] Read more.
The research aimed to assess the contribution of fertilizer, density, and row spacing in integrated cultivation measures and identify their regulation mechanism on canopy architecture and factors in biomass accumulation in spring maize. Zhengdan 958 was used as the experimental material, and the optimum mode (OM) was identified based on a preliminary experiment, including the optimal fertilizer management, suitable plant density and wide-narrow row spacing, and dramatic yield performance (11,445.16 kg ha−1 in 2017). Then, the effects of these practices on maize canopy structure performance were analyzed using the omission factors design experiment in optimum mode (OM). Treatments were set as follows: without fertilization (OM-F), without density (OM-D), and without wide-narrow plant spacing (OM-S). The results showed that the contribution of fertilization was maximum (23.85%), the second was intensive planting (16.05%), which promoted nitrogen accumulation and transport in leaves and stems via increased leaf area index and dry matter accumulation around the anthesis simultaneously, elevating the radiation utilization efficiency of the canopy and allowing a higher grain weight to be obtained. Wide-narrow row spacing yield contribution is minimum among the measures (8.649%), which could regulate the leaf and radiation transmittance in the middle and bottom layer of the canopy, while increasing the nitrogen accumulation of leaves and stalks in the silking stage, then significantly enhance the nitrogen transport and the matter accumulation of maize after anthesis. Our results showed that fertilizer management and density were the essential practices for integrated cultivation mode for northeast China. Moreover, wide-narrow row planting was advocated if permitted, which could elevate the utilization efficiency of radiation to 1%, and the yield of more than 11,000 kg ha−1 was obtained in Northeast China. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Frontiers in Maize Ecophysiology)
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15 pages, 2421 KiB  
Article
In planta Production and Validation of Neuraminidase Derived from Genotype 4 Reassortant Eurasian Avian-like H1N1 Virus as a Vaccine Candidate
by Da Been Kim, Sun Min Lee, Kyoung Rok Geem, Jitae Kim, Eui Ho Kim and Dong Wook Lee
Plants 2022, 11(21), 2984; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11212984 - 4 Nov 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1384
Abstract
Influenza viruses are a major public health threat that causes repetitive outbreaks. In recent years, genotype 4 (G4) reassortant Eurasian avian-like (EA) H1N1 (G4 EA H1N1) has garnered attention as a potential novel pandemic strain. The necessity of developing vaccines against G4 EA [...] Read more.
Influenza viruses are a major public health threat that causes repetitive outbreaks. In recent years, genotype 4 (G4) reassortant Eurasian avian-like (EA) H1N1 (G4 EA H1N1) has garnered attention as a potential novel pandemic strain. The necessity of developing vaccines against G4 EA H1N1 is growing because of the increasing cases of human infection and the low cross-reactivity of the strain with current immunity. In this study, we produced a G4 EA H1N1-derived neuraminidase (G4NA) as a vaccine candidate in Nicotiana benthamiana. The expressed G4NA was designed to be accumulated in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). The M-domain of the human receptor-type tyrosine-protein phosphatase C was incorporated into the expression cassette to enhance the translation of G4NA. In addition, the family 3 cellulose-binding module and Brachypodium distachyon small ubiquitin-like modifier sequences were used to enable the cost-effective purification and removal of unnecessary domains after purification, respectively. The G4NA produced in plants displayed high solubility and assembled as a tetramer, which is required for the efficacy of an NA-based vaccine. In a mouse immunization model, the G4NA produced in plants could induce significant humoral immune responses. The plant-produced G4NA also stimulated antigen-specific CD4 T cell activation. These G4NA vaccine-induced immune responses were intensified by the administration of the antigen with a vaccine adjuvant. These results suggest that G4NA produced in plants has great potential as a vaccine candidate against G4 EA H1N1. Full article
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22 pages, 4525 KiB  
Article
Time Course RNA-seq Reveals Soybean Responses against Root-Lesion Nematode and Resistance Players
by Valéria Stefania Lopes-Caitar, Rafael Bruno Guayato Nomura, Suellen Mika Hishinuma-Silva, Mayra Costa da Cruz Gallo de Carvalho, Ricardo Vilela Abdelnoor, Waldir Pereira Dias and Francismar Corrêa Marcelino-Guimarães
Plants 2022, 11(21), 2983; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11212983 - 4 Nov 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2030
Abstract
Pratylenchus brachyurus causes serious damage to soybean production and other crops worldwide. Plant molecular responses to RLN infection remain largely unknown and no resistance genes have been identified in soybean. In this study, we analyzed molecular responses to RLN infection in moderately resistant [...] Read more.
Pratylenchus brachyurus causes serious damage to soybean production and other crops worldwide. Plant molecular responses to RLN infection remain largely unknown and no resistance genes have been identified in soybean. In this study, we analyzed molecular responses to RLN infection in moderately resistant BRSGO (Chapadões—BRS) and susceptible TMG115 RR (TMG) Glycine max genotypes. Differential expression analysis revealed two stages of response to RLN infection and a set of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in the first stage suggested a pattern-triggered immunity (PTI) in both genotypes. The divergent time-point of DEGs between genotypes was observed four days post-infection, which included the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and plant–pathogen interaction genes in the BRS, suggesting the occurrence of an effector-triggered immunity response (ETI) in BRS. The co-expression analyses combined with single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) uncovered a key element, a transcription factor phytochrome-interacting factor (PIF7) that is a potential regulator of moderate resistance to RLN infection. Two genes for resistance-related leucine-rich repeat (LRR) proteins were found as BRS-specific expressed genes. In addition, alternative splicing analysis revealed an intron retention in a myo-inositol oxygenase (MIOX) transcript, a gene related to susceptibility, may cause a loss of function in BRS. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Defense-Related Proteins of Higher Plants)
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19 pages, 3039 KiB  
Article
Light Quality Impacts Vertical Growth Rate, Phytochemical Yield and Cannabinoid Production Efficiency in Cannabis sativa
by Victorio Morello, Vincent Desaulniers Brousseau, Natalie Wu, Bo-Sen Wu, Sarah MacPherson and Mark Lefsrud
Plants 2022, 11(21), 2982; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11212982 - 4 Nov 2022
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 6705
Abstract
Light is one of the most crucial parameters for enclosed cannabis (Cannabis sativa) production, as it highly influences growth, secondary metabolite production, and operational costs. The objective of this study was to investigate and evaluate the impact of six light spectra [...] Read more.
Light is one of the most crucial parameters for enclosed cannabis (Cannabis sativa) production, as it highly influences growth, secondary metabolite production, and operational costs. The objective of this study was to investigate and evaluate the impact of six light spectra on C. sativa (‘Babbas Erkle Cookies’ accession) growth traits and secondary metabolite (cannabinoid and terpene) profiles. The light spectra evaluated included blue (430 nm), red (630 nm), rose (430 + 630 nm, ratio 1:10), purple (430 + 630 nm, ratio 2:1), and amber (595 nm) LED treatments, in addition to a high-pressure sodium (HPS, amber-rich light) treatment as a control. All the LED light treatments had lower fresh mean inflorescence mass than the control (HPS, 133.59 g plant−1), and monochromatic blue light yielded the least fresh inflorescence mass (76.39 g plant−1). Measurement of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) concentration (%) and total yield (g plant−1) showed how inflorescence mass and THC concentration need to be analyzed conjointly. Blue treatment resulted in the highest THC concentration (10.17% m/m), yet the lowest THC concentration per plant (1.44 g plant−1). The highest THC concentration per plant was achieved with HPS (2.54 g plant−1). As with THC, blue light increased cannabigerol (CBG) and terpene concentration. Conversely, blue light had a lesser impact on cannabidiol (CBD) biosynthesis in this C. sativa chemotype. As the combined effects of the light spectrum on both growth traits and secondary metabolites have important ramifications for the industry, the inappropriate spectral design could cause a reduction in cannabinoid production (20–40%). These findings show promise in helping producers choose spectral designs that meet specific C. sativa production goals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Responses of Plants to Environmental Stresses Volume II)
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14 pages, 2451 KiB  
Article
Impact of Cadmium Stress on Growth and Physio-Biochemical Attributes of Eruca sativa Mill
by Abdul Waheed, Yakupjan Haxim, Waqar Islam, Mushtaq Ahmad, Sajjad Ali, Xuejing Wen, Khalid Ali Khan, Hamed A. Ghramh, Zhuqi Zhang and Daoyuan Zhang
Plants 2022, 11(21), 2981; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11212981 - 4 Nov 2022
Cited by 21 | Viewed by 2733
Abstract
Plants may experience adverse effects from Cadmium (Cd). As a result of its toxicity and mobility within the soil-plant continuum, it is attracting the attention of soil scientists and plant nutritionists. In this study, we subjected young Eruca sativa Mill. seedlings to different [...] Read more.
Plants may experience adverse effects from Cadmium (Cd). As a result of its toxicity and mobility within the soil-plant continuum, it is attracting the attention of soil scientists and plant nutritionists. In this study, we subjected young Eruca sativa Mill. seedlings to different levels of Cd applications (0, 1.5, 6 and 30 µmol/L) via pot experiment to explore its morpho-physio-biochemical adaptations. Our results revealed a significant Cd accumulation in leaves at high Cd stress. It was also demonstrated that Cd stress inhibited photosynthetic rate and pigment levels, ascorbate peroxidase (APX), guaiacol peroxidase (GPX), catalase (CAT), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) enzyme activities, and increased malondialdehyde (MDA) levels. Conversely, the concentration of total ascorbate (TAS) increased at all levels of Cd application, whereas that of ascorbic acid (ASA), and dehydroascorbate (DHA) increased at 1.5 (non-significant), 6, 30 and 6 µmol/L (significant), though their concentrations decreased non-significantly at 30 µmol/L application. In conclusion, Cd-subjected E. sativa seedlings diverted much energy from growth towards the synthesis of anti-oxidant metabolites and osmolytes. However, they did not seem to have protected the E. sativa seedlings from Cd-induced oxidative stress, causing a decrease in osmotic adjustment, and an increase in oxidative damage, which resulted in a reduction in photosynthesis and growth. Accordingly, we recommend that the cultivation of E. sativa should be avoided on soil with Cd contamination. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Responses and Tolerance to Metal/Metalloid Toxicity Ⅱ)
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24 pages, 5175 KiB  
Article
Longer Duration of Active Oil Biosynthesis during Seed Development Is Crucial for High Oil Yield—Lessons from Genome-Wide In Silico Mining and RNA-Seq Validation in Sesame
by Bhagwat Nawade, Ajay Kumar, Rasna Maurya, Rajkumar Subramani, Rashmi Yadav, Kuldeep Singh and Parimalan Rangan
Plants 2022, 11(21), 2980; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11212980 - 4 Nov 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2036
Abstract
Sesame, one of the ancient oil crops, is an important oilseed due to its nutritionally rich seeds with high protein content. Genomic scale information for sesame has become available in the public databases in recent years. The genes and their families involved in [...] Read more.
Sesame, one of the ancient oil crops, is an important oilseed due to its nutritionally rich seeds with high protein content. Genomic scale information for sesame has become available in the public databases in recent years. The genes and their families involved in oil biosynthesis in sesame are less studied than in other oilseed crops. Therefore, we retrieved a total of 69 genes and their translated amino acid sequences, associated with gene families linked to the oil biosynthetic pathway. Genome-wide in silico mining helped identify key regulatory genes for oil biosynthesis, though the findings require functional validation. Comparing sequences of the SiSAD (stearoyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP)-desaturase) coding genes with known SADs helped identify two SiSAD family members that may be palmitoyl-ACP-specific. Based on homology with lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase (LPAAT) sequences, an uncharacterized gene has been identified as SiLPAAT1. Identified key regulatory genes associated with high oil content were also validated using publicly available transcriptome datasets of genotypes contrasting for oil content at different developmental stages. Our study provides evidence that a longer duration of active oil biosynthesis is crucial for high oil accumulation during seed development. This underscores the importance of early onset of oil biosynthesis in developing seeds. Up-regulating, identified key regulatory genes of oil biosynthesis during early onset of seed development, should help increase oil yields. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Plants Lipid Metabolism)
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Article
S-Methylmethionine Effectively Alleviates Stress in Szarvasi-1 Energy Grass by Reducing Root-to-Shoot Cadmium Translocation
by Deepali Rana, Vitor Arcoverde Cerveira Sterner, Aravinda Kumar Potluri, Zoltán May, Brigitta Müller, Ádám Solti, Szabolcs Rudnóy, Gyula Sipos, Csaba Gyuricza and Ferenc Fodor
Plants 2022, 11(21), 2979; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11212979 - 4 Nov 2022
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Abstract
S-methylmethionine (SMM) is a universal metabolite of higher plants derived from L-methionine that has an approved priming effect under different types of abiotic and biotic stresses. Szarvasi-1 energy grass (Elymus elongatus subsp. ponticus cv. Szarvasi-1) is a biomass plant increasingly applied in [...] Read more.
S-methylmethionine (SMM) is a universal metabolite of higher plants derived from L-methionine that has an approved priming effect under different types of abiotic and biotic stresses. Szarvasi-1 energy grass (Elymus elongatus subsp. ponticus cv. Szarvasi-1) is a biomass plant increasingly applied in phytoremediation to stabilize or extract heavy metals. In this study, Szarvasi-1 was grown in a nutrient solution. As a priming agent, SMM was applied in 0.02, 0.05 and 0.1 mM concentrations prior to 0.01 mM Cd addition. The growth and physiological parameters, as well as the accumulation pattern of Cd and essential mineral nutrients, were investigated. Cd exposure decreased the root and shoot growth, chlorophyll concentration, stomatal conductance, photosystem II function and increased the carotenoid content. Except for stomatal conductance, SMM priming had a positive effect on these parameters compared to Cd treatment without priming. In addition, it decreased the translocation and accumulation of Cd. Cd treatment decreased K, Mg, Mn, Zn and P in the roots, and K, S, Cu and Zn in the shoots compared to the untreated control. SMM priming changed the pattern of nutrient uptake, of which Fe showed characteristic accumulation in the roots in response to increasing SMM concentrations. We have concluded that SMM priming exerts a positive effect on Cd-stressed Szarvasi-1 plants, which retained their physiological performance and growth. This ameliorative effect is suggested to be based on, at least partly, the lower root-to-shoot Cd translocation by the upregulated Fe uptake and transport. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Evaluation of Stress Factors in Crops’ Life)
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