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Plants, Volume 11, Issue 20 (October-2 2022) – 137 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Cannabis has gained interest due to its medically important secondary metabolites: cannabinoids and terpenes. Three morphologically different cannabis strains were grown under three different light spectra. Flowers were harvested at three flower positions. Light spectra significantly influenced CBDA and terpene concentrations. The accumulation of secondary metabolites was influenced by flower position, varied between strains, and indicated an interaction between morphology and light spectra. Each strain was characterized by a specific terpene profile, while our PCA revealed that individual terpenes were correlated irrespective of strain. Our results indicate that, besides strain selection, light spectra and flower position influence the medicinal potency. View this paper
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2 pages, 194 KiB  
Editorial
Insecticidal Activity of Plant Secondary Metabolites
by Giovanni Benelli and Filippo Maggi
Plants 2022, 11(20), 2804; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11202804 - 21 Oct 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1298
Abstract
Plant-insect interactions are one of the most fascinating fields of research attracting biologists, entomologists, botanists, as well as a wide range of multidisciplinary researchers [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Insecticidal Activity of Plant Secondary Metabolites)
29 pages, 5675 KiB  
Article
Application of MaxEnt Modeling and HRM Analysis to Support the Conservation and Domestication of Gevuina avellana Mol. in Central Chile
by Mario René Moya-Moraga and César Pérez-Ruíz
Plants 2022, 11(20), 2803; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11202803 - 21 Oct 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1745
Abstract
The Chilean hazelnut (Gevuina avellana Mol., Proteaceae) is a native tree of Chile and Argentina of edible fruit-type nut. We applied two approaches to contribute to the development of strategies for mitigation of the effects of climate change and anthropic activities [...] Read more.
The Chilean hazelnut (Gevuina avellana Mol., Proteaceae) is a native tree of Chile and Argentina of edible fruit-type nut. We applied two approaches to contribute to the development of strategies for mitigation of the effects of climate change and anthropic activities in G. avellana. It corresponds to the first report where both tools are integrated, the MaxEnt model to predict the current and future potential distribution coupled with High-Resolution Melting Analysis (HRM) to assess its genetic diversity and understand how the species would respond to these changes. Two global climate models: CNRM-CM6-1 and MIROC-ES2L for four Shared Socioeconomic Pathways: 126, 245, 370, and 585 (2021–2040; 2061–2080) were evaluated. The annual mean temperature (43.7%) and water steam (23.4%) were the key factors for the distribution current of G. avellana (AUC = 0.953). The future prediction model shows to the year 2040 those habitat range decreases at 50% (AUC = 0.918). The genetic structure was investigated in seven natural populations using eight EST-SSR markers, showing a percentage of polymorphic loci between 18.69 and 55.14% and low genetic differentiation between populations (Fst = 0.052; p < 0.001). According to the discriminant analysis of principal components (DAPC) we identified 10 genetic populations. We conclude that high-priority areas for protection correspond to Los Avellanos and Punta de Águila populations due to their greater genetic diversity and allelic richness. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Population Genetics and Biodiversity Conservation of Nut Trees)
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15 pages, 2501 KiB  
Article
Impacts of the Invasive Alien Carpobrotus spp. on Coastal Habitats on a Mediterranean Island (Giglio Island, Central Italy)
by Michele Mugnai, Renato Benesperi, Daniele Viciani, Giulio Ferretti, Michele Giunti, Francesca Giannini and Lorenzo Lazzaro
Plants 2022, 11(20), 2802; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11202802 - 21 Oct 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1683
Abstract
Carpobrotus acinaciformis and C. edulis are well-known invasive alien plants native to South Africa, whose detrimental effects on native communities are widely documented in the Mediterranean basin and thus largely managed in coastal ecosystems. Most of the literature on these species focuses on [...] Read more.
Carpobrotus acinaciformis and C. edulis are well-known invasive alien plants native to South Africa, whose detrimental effects on native communities are widely documented in the Mediterranean basin and thus largely managed in coastal ecosystems. Most of the literature on these species focuses on their impacts on habitats of sandy coastal dunes, while the effects of Carpobrotus spp. invasion on other habitats such as rocky cliffs and coastal scrubs and garrigues are almost neglected. We present a study case conducted on a small Mediterranean island where Carpobrotus spp. invaded three different natural habitats listed within the Habitat Directive 92/43/CEE (Natura 2000 codes 1240, 1430, and 5320). We surveyed the presence and abundance of native species and Carpobrotus spp. on 44 permanent square plots of 4 m2 in invaded and uninvaded areas in each of the three habitats. We found impacts on plant alpha diversity (intended as the species diversity within each sampled plot) in all the habitats investigated in terms of a decrease in species richness, Shannon index, and abundance. Invaded communities also showed a severe change in species composition with a strong homogenization of the floras of the three habitats. Finally, the negative effect of invasion emerged even through the analyses of beta diversity (expressing the species diversity among sampled plots of the same habitat type), with Carpobrotus spp. replacing a large set of native species. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Feature Papers in Plant Ecology)
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19 pages, 7240 KiB  
Article
Influence of Different Harvesting Stages and Cereals–Legume Mixture on Forage Biomass Yield, Nutritional Compositions, and Quality under Loess Plateau Region
by Poe Thinzar Bo, Yinping Bai, Yongli Dong, Hongxia Shi, Maw Ni Soe Htet, Hamz Ali Samoon, Ruifang Zhang, Sikander Khan Tanveer and Jiangbo Hai
Plants 2022, 11(20), 2801; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11202801 - 21 Oct 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1858
Abstract
One of the main problems in the animal industries currently is the constant provision of forage in sufficient amounts with acceptable nutritional content for large and small ruminants, as livestock is a significant source of income for rural people in the Loess Plateau [...] Read more.
One of the main problems in the animal industries currently is the constant provision of forage in sufficient amounts with acceptable nutritional content for large and small ruminants, as livestock is a significant source of income for rural people in the Loess Plateau region. Cereals and legumes are essential forage crops because of their nutritional significance, particularly the protein concentration in legumes and the fiber content in cereals. Therefore, combining cereal and legume crops may be a practical solution to the problems of inadequate forage nutrition, an insufficient amount of forage, unsustainable agricultural methods, and declining soil fertility. The current study predicts that mixed cropping of cereals and legumes at the harvesting stage of the soft dough stage and maturity stage based on the cereal growth stage will have different effects on forage biomass output, forage quality index, and nutritional value of the forage. In this study, wheat (Triticum aestivum) and ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum) are used as cereal crops and pea (Pisum sativum), and alfalfa (Medicago sativa) are used as legume crops. Three sample replicates and a split-plot design with a randomized block design are used. The study is conducted in the 2020–2021 and 2021–2022 cropping seasons. The experimental results show that cereal–legume mixed cropping, particularly the cereal–alfalfa combination, has a positive impact on the biomass yield and nutritional composition of the forage. However, adding peas to cereal has a negative impact on biomass yield, nutritional composition, mineral composition, and forage quality index. Among the treatments, ryegrass–alfalfa mixed cropping was shown to have higher values of WSC%, CP%, EE%, CF%, and ash% in both growing seasons. The values are WSC (15.82%), CP (10.78%), EE (2.30%), CF (32.06%), and ash (10.68%) for the 2020–2021 cropping seasons and WSC (15.03%), CP (11.68%), EE (3.30%), CF (32.92%), and ash (11.07%) for the 2021–2022 cropping seasons, respectively. On the other hand, the current study finds that cereal–alfalfa mixed cropping had a detrimental impact on NDF and ADF concentrations. All nutritional indices, including CP, WSC, EE, CF, ash, NDF, and ADF, have favorable correlations with one another. Furthermore, in both growing seasons, RA, ryegrass–alfalfa mixed cropping, has higher mineral compositions and forage quality indicators. Furthermore, harvesting times have a significant impact on the fresh biomass yield, dry matter yield, nutritional compositions, mineral compositions, and forage quality parameters (p < 0.001), with the highest values being shown when harvesting at the soft dough stage. The current study concludes that, based on chemical composition and quality analysis, the soft dough stage is the greatest harvesting period, and that the cereal–alfalfa mixed cropping is the most preferable due to its maximized quality forage production and nutritional content in livestock feedstuff in the Loess Plateau region. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Intercropping)
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18 pages, 1853 KiB  
Article
Dynamics of 2,4-D and Dicamba Applied to Corn Straw and Their Residual Action in Weeds
by Tiago Gazola, Renato Nunes Costa, Caio Antonio Carbonari and Edivaldo Domingues Velini
Plants 2022, 11(20), 2800; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11202800 - 21 Oct 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1607
Abstract
2,4-D and dicamba are used in the postemergence management of eudicotyledonous weeds in different crops, most of which are grown under no-tillage systems. Due to the application methods for these products, their dynamics in straw and their residual action in soil have rarely [...] Read more.
2,4-D and dicamba are used in the postemergence management of eudicotyledonous weeds in different crops, most of which are grown under no-tillage systems. Due to the application methods for these products, their dynamics in straw and their residual action in soil have rarely been explored. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate the dynamics of 2,4-D and dicamba that have been applied to corn straw and to verify their relationship with residual control action in weeds. In the dynamics experiments, the herbicides were applied to 5 t ha−1 of straw, and rainfall simulations were performed with variable amounts and at different periods after application to evaluate herbicide movement in the straw. In the residual action experiments, the species Digitaria insularis, Conyza spp., Bidens pilosa, Amaranthus hybridus, Euphorbia heterophylla, and Eleusine indica were sown in trays, and 2,4-D and dicamba were applied directly to the soil, to the soil with the subsequent addition of the straw, and to the straw; all of these applications were followed by a simulation of 10 mm of rain. The physical effect of the straw and the efficacy of the herbicides in terms of pre-emergence control of the weed species were evaluated. The leaching of 2,4-D and dicamba from the corn straw increased with a higher volume of rainfall, and the longer the drought period was, the lower the final amount of herbicide that leached. The presence of the corn straw on the soil exerted a physical control effect on Conyza spp.; significantly reduced the infestation of D. insularis, B. pilosa, A. hybridus, and E. indica; and broadened the control spectrum of 2,4-D and dicamba, assisting in its residual action and ensuring high levels of control of the evaluated weeds. In the absence of the straw, 2,4-D effectively controlled the pre-emergence of D. insularis, Conyza spp., and A. hybridus, and dicamba effectively controlled D. insularis, Conyza spp., B. pilosa, A. hybridus, E. heterophylla, and E. indica. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Plant Protection and Biotic Interactions)
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20 pages, 2484 KiB  
Article
More than Moths: Flower Visitors of a Night-Blooming Plant in South Florida Pine Rocklands, USA
by María Cleopatra Pimienta and Suzanne Koptur
Plants 2022, 11(20), 2799; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11202799 - 21 Oct 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2159
Abstract
Plants whose flowers open at night but remain open during the day also attract diurnal flower visitors, potentially boosting their pollination rates and providing resources that can support diverse arthropod communities. The rough-leaf velvetseed, Guettarda scabra (Rubiaceae), is an evergreen shrub that thrives [...] Read more.
Plants whose flowers open at night but remain open during the day also attract diurnal flower visitors, potentially boosting their pollination rates and providing resources that can support diverse arthropod communities. The rough-leaf velvetseed, Guettarda scabra (Rubiaceae), is an evergreen shrub that thrives only in the imperiled pine rockland habitat in south Florida. Its white, tubular, and fragrant flowers open during late afternoon, exhibiting traits strongly associated with the attraction of nocturnal hawkmoths (Sphingidae). Flowers of G. scabra remain open until the following morning, becoming available to a wider array of visitors, bringing into question the expectation that sphingophilous flowers are visited mainly by hawkmoths. To evaluate whether the flowers of G. scabra are mainly visited by nocturnal hawkmoths and understand the role of this plant in the pine rockland habitat, we characterized the arthropod fauna associated with its flowers during the morning, evening, and at night. We found that most flower visitors were diurnal insects of the orders Hymenoptera and Lepidoptera, although we observed other arthropod groups too. Visitation at night was dominated by two species of hawkmoths. Nectar was the main resource used by the arthropod community during this study. Legitimate visitation and nectar-robbing were the behaviors most frequently observed among the flower visitors. Our results suggest that flowers of the night-blooming G. scabra constitute an important food source for both diurnal and nocturnal arthropod fauna in the fire-dependent pine rocklands of southern Florida. Our study provides novel data to support efforts to conserve and protect pine rocklands and the plants and animals that inhabit them. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Plant Reproductive Ecology and Conservation Biology)
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14 pages, 1734 KiB  
Article
The Influence of End-of-Day Blue Light on the Growth, Photosynthetic, and Metabolic Parameters of Lettuce at Different Development Stages
by Viktorija Vaštakaitė-Kairienė, Giedrė Samuolienė, Vaidevutis Šveikauskas, Kristina Laužikė and Sigita Jurkonienė
Plants 2022, 11(20), 2798; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11202798 - 21 Oct 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1882
Abstract
This study evaluates the effect of end-of-day blue (EOD B) light on the physiological response of lettuce (Lactuca sativa, Lobjoits Green Cos) at different phenological development stages. Plants were grown in a controlled environment growth chamber (day/night temperature 21 ± 2 [...] Read more.
This study evaluates the effect of end-of-day blue (EOD B) light on the physiological response of lettuce (Lactuca sativa, Lobjoits Green Cos) at different phenological development stages. Plants were grown in a controlled environment growth chamber (day/night temperature 21 ± 2 °C; relative air humidity 60 ± 5%) under the light of light-emitting diodes (LEDs) consisting of 5% blue (B; 450 nm), 85% red (R; 660 nm), and 10% green (G; 530 nm) photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD) at 200 µmol m−2 s−1 for 16 h d−1 (BRG, control) for 8, 15, and 25 days (BBCH 12, BBCH 14, and BBCH 18, respectively). For the EOD B treatments, lettuce plants were additionally illuminated with 100% of B light at 30 and 60 µmol m−2 s−1 PPFD for 4 h d−1 (B30 and B60, respectively). The results show that EOD B light caused the elevated shoot elongation of lettuce plants regardless of their growth stages. However, leaf width increased only in more developed lettuce plants (BBCH 18). EOD B light negatively affected the development of new leaves and fresh weight, except for seedlings (BBCH 12). Most photosynthetic and spectral leaf indices also decreased when lettuce was treated with EOD B light, especially under the PPFD level of 60 µmol m−2 s−1. Moreover, the changes in metabolic parameters such as DPPH free radical activity, free proline content, and H+-ATPase activity in lettuce showed a plant response to unfavorable conditions to EOD B light. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Responses of Plants to Light Stress)
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15 pages, 3201 KiB  
Article
Effect of Mycotoxin Cytochalasin A on Photosystem II in Ageratina adenophora
by Mengyun Jiang, Qian Yang, He Wang, Zhi Luo, Yanjing Guo, Jiale Shi, Xiaoxiong Wang, Sheng Qiang, Reto Jörg Strasser and Shiguo Chen
Plants 2022, 11(20), 2797; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11202797 - 21 Oct 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1580
Abstract
Biological herbicides have received much attention due to their abundant resources, low development cost, unique targets and environmental friendliness. This study reveals some interesting effects of mycotoxin cytochalasin A (CA) on photosystem II (PSII). Our results suggested that CA causes leaf lesions on [...] Read more.
Biological herbicides have received much attention due to their abundant resources, low development cost, unique targets and environmental friendliness. This study reveals some interesting effects of mycotoxin cytochalasin A (CA) on photosystem II (PSII). Our results suggested that CA causes leaf lesions on Ageratina adenophora due to its multiple effects on PSII. At a half-inhibitory concentration of 58.5 μΜ (I50, 58.5 μΜ), the rate of O2 evolution of PSII was significantly inhibited by CA. This indicates that CA possesses excellent phytotoxicity and exhibits potential herbicidal activity. Based on the increase in the J-step of the chlorophyll fluorescence rise OJIP curve and the analysis of some JIP-test parameters, similar to the classical herbicide diuron, CA interrupted PSII electron transfer beyond QA at the acceptor side, leading to damage to the PSII antenna structure and inactivation of reaction centers. Molecular docking model of CA and D1 protein of A. adenophora further suggests that CA directly targets the QB site of D1 protein. The potential hydrogen bonds are formed between CA and residues D1-His215, D1-Ala263 and D1-Ser264, respectively. The binding of CA to residue D1-Ala263 is novel. Thus, CA is a new natural PSII inhibitor. These results clarify the mode of action of CA in photosynthesis, providing valuable information and potential implications for the design of novel bioherbicides. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioherbicide Development for Weed Control)
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30 pages, 19838 KiB  
Review
An Integrative Review on the Main Flavonoids Found in Some Species of the Myrtaceae Family: Phytochemical Characterization, Health Benefits and Development of Products
by Vinícius Tadeu da Veiga Correia, Pâmela Rocha da Silva, Carla Mariele Silva Ribeiro, Ana Luiza Coeli Cruz Ramos, Ana Carolina do Carmo Mazzinghy, Viviane Dias Medeiros Silva, Afonso Henrique Oliveira Júnior, Bruna Vieira Nunes, Ana Luiza Santos Vieira, Lucas Victor Ribeiro, Ana Cardoso Clemente Filha Ferreira de Paula, Júlio Onésio Ferreira Melo and Camila Argenta Fante
Plants 2022, 11(20), 2796; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11202796 - 21 Oct 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2578
Abstract
This integrative review aims to identify the main flavonoids present in some species of the Myrtaceae family. Studies published between 2016 and 2022 were selected, specifically those which were fully available and written in Portuguese, English, or Spanish, and which were related to [...] Read more.
This integrative review aims to identify the main flavonoids present in some species of the Myrtaceae family. Studies published between 2016 and 2022 were selected, specifically those which were fully available and written in Portuguese, English, or Spanish, and which were related to the fruits araçá (Psidium cattleianum), cambuí (Myrciaria floribunda), gabiroba (Campomanesia xanthocarpa), jabuticaba (Plinia cauliflora), and jambolan (Syzygium cumini). Scientific studies were gathered and selected in Google Scholar, Scielo, and Science Direct indexed databases, out of which 14 were about araçá, 7 concerned cambuí, 4 were about gabiroba, 29 were related to jabuticaba, and 33 concerned jambolan, when we observed the pre-established inclusion criteria. Results showed that the anthocyanins, such as cyanidin, petunidin, malvidin, and delphinidin, were the mostly identified class of flavonoids in plants of the Myrtaceae family, mainly relating to the purple/reddish color of the evaluated fruits. Other compounds, such as catechin, epicatechin, quercetin, and rutin were also identified in different constituent fractions, such as leaves, peel, pulp, seeds, and in developed products, such as jams, desserts, wines, teas, and other beverages. It is also worth noting the positive health effects verified in these studies, such as anti-inflammatory qualities for jambolan, antidiabetic qualities for gabiroba, antioxidant qualities for araçá, and cardioprotective actions for jabuticaba, which are related to the presence of these phytochemicals. Therefore, it is possible to point out that flavonoids are important compounds in the chemical constitution of the studied plants of the Myrtaceae family, with promising potential in the development of new products by the food, chemical, and pharmaceutical industries due to their bioactive properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Feature Review Papers in Phytochemistry)
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19 pages, 3087 KiB  
Article
The Interaction between Hydromulching and Arbuscular Mycorrhiza Improves Escarole Growth and Productivity by Regulating Nutrient Uptake and Hormonal Balance
by Miriam Romero-Muñoz, Amparo Gálvez, Purificación A. Martínez-Melgarejo, María Carmen Piñero, Francisco M. del Amor, Alfonso Albacete and Josefa López-Marín
Plants 2022, 11(20), 2795; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11202795 - 21 Oct 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1352
Abstract
To improve water and nutrient use efficiencies some strategies have been proposed, such as the use of mulching techniques or arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) inoculation. To gain insights into the interaction between the use of hydromulch and AMF inoculation on plant growth and [...] Read more.
To improve water and nutrient use efficiencies some strategies have been proposed, such as the use of mulching techniques or arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) inoculation. To gain insights into the interaction between the use of hydromulch and AMF inoculation on plant growth and productivity, escarole plants (Cichorium endivia, L.) were inoculated with the AMF Rhizophagus irregularis and grown with non-inoculated plants under different soil cover treatments: ecological hydromulching based on the substrate of mushroom cultivation (MS), low-density black polyethylene (PE), and non-covered soil (BS). AMF inoculation or the use of mulching alone, but especially their interaction, increased the plant growth. The growth improvement observed in AMF-inoculated escarole plants grown under hydromulching conditions was mainly associated with the upgrading of nitrogen and phosphorous use efficiency through the regulation of the hormonal balance. Both hydromulching and AMF inoculation were found to increase the active gibberellins (GAs) and cytokinins (CKs), resulting in a positive correlation between these hormones and the growth-related parameters. In contrast, the ethylene precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) and abscisic acid (ABA) decreased in AMF-inoculated plants and especially in those grown with the MS treatment. This study demonstrates that there exists a positive interaction between AMF and hydromulching which enhances the growth of escarole plants by improving nutrient use efficiency and hormonal balance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant-Microbe Interactions 2022)
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14 pages, 2665 KiB  
Article
Mitigating the Adverse Effects of Semi-Arid Climate on Capsicum Cultivation by Using the Retractable Roof Production System
by Giao N. Nguyen and Neil Lantzke
Plants 2022, 11(20), 2794; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11202794 - 21 Oct 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1725
Abstract
Capsicum (Capsicum annuum L.) belongs to the Solanaceae family and is an economically important vegetable crop. However, the crop is very sensitive to adverse weather conditions such as high temperatures and excessive sunlight, which cause flower and young fruit to drop and [...] Read more.
Capsicum (Capsicum annuum L.) belongs to the Solanaceae family and is an economically important vegetable crop. However, the crop is very sensitive to adverse weather conditions such as high temperatures and excessive sunlight, which cause flower and young fruit to drop and sunscald to mature fruits. Using protected cultivation such as shade covers or net houses is a feasible agronomic approach to protect the crop from high light intensity, which increases plant growth, reduces fruit damage, and increases marketable fruit yield and quality. Low-cost protected cropping options such as fixed-roof net houses have proved cost-effective and suitable for fruiting vegetable production in semi-arid climatic regions. However, this structure type is unable to protect the crops from rainfall, is prone to cyclone damage and is inflexible to accommodate various vegetable crops which have different requirements for healthy and productive growth. This study was conducted in Carnarvon, which has semi-arid climatic conditions and is a key horticultural district of Western Australia, to compare the Retractable Roof Production System (RRPS) and open field (OF) conditions in the production of capsicum. The data showed that the RRPS modified the internal light, temperature and humidity in favour of the capsicum crop. The RRPS-grown capsicum had higher plant height and lower canopy temperature on hot days than those in the OF. The mean marketable fruit yield of capsicum varieties grown in the RRPS was significantly higher than those in the OF with fruit yields of 97 t ha−1 and 39.1 t ha−1, respectively, but the fruit quality remained unchanged. Overall, the data suggest that the RRPS altered the internal microenvironment and enhanced capsicum crop growth, physiology and fruit yield by setting climatic parameters to automatically control the opening and closing of the roof, the insect net and side curtains, and activation of the fogging system. The future perspective of the deployment of RRPS for capsicum production under climatic conditions in Carnarvon was also discussed. Full article
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12 pages, 1139 KiB  
Article
Phytochemical Investigation and Biological Studies on Selected Searsia Species
by Mkhuseli Koki, Masande Yalo, Masixole Makhaba, Ndikho Nako, Fanie Rautenbach, Jelili A. Badmus, Jeanine Marnewick, Ahmed A. Hussein and Wilfred T. Mabusela
Plants 2022, 11(20), 2793; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11202793 - 21 Oct 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1764
Abstract
Searsia is the more recent name for the genus Rhus, which contains over 250 individual species of flowering plants in the family Anacardiaceae. Several Searsia species are used in folk medicine and have been reported to exhibit various biological activities. Although [...] Read more.
Searsia is the more recent name for the genus Rhus, which contains over 250 individual species of flowering plants in the family Anacardiaceae. Several Searsia species are used in folk medicine and have been reported to exhibit various biological activities. Although known to exhibit different terpenoids and flavonoids, the chemistry of the Searsia genus is not comprehensively studied due to the structural complexity of the compounds. In this study, the extraction, isolation, and identification of secondary metabolites from three Searsia species (Searsia glauca, S. lucida, and S. laevigata) were conducted using chromatographic and spectroscopic techniques and afforded five known terpenes, viz., moronic acid (1), 21β-hydroxylolean-12-en-3-one (2), lupeol (11), α-amyrin (9), and β-amyrin (10), in addition to six known flavonoids, myricetin-3-O-β-galactopyranoside (3), rutin (4), quercetin (5), apigenin (6), amentoflavone (7), and quercetin-3-O-β-glucoside (8). The structural elucidation of the isolated compounds was determined based on NMR (1D and 2D) and comparison with the data in the literature. Biological assays, such as antioxidant and enzyme inhibition activity assays, were conducted on the plant extracts and the isolated compounds. The antioxidant capacities of hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, methanol, and butanol main extracts were investigated using ferric ion reducing power (FRAP), oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), and Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) assays. The results showed high antioxidant activities for methanol and butanol extracts of the three plants. The isolated compounds were tested against alpha-glucosidase and alpha-amylase, and the results showed the potent activity of moronic acid (C1) (IC50 10.62 ± 0.89 and 20.08 ± 0.56 µg/mL, respectively) and amentoflavone (C7) (IC50 5.57 ± 1.12 µg/mL and 19.84 ± 1.33 µg/mL, respectively). Isolated compounds of and biological assays for S. glauca, S. lucida, and S. laevigata are reported for the first time. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Identification and Analysis of Bioactive Components from Plants)
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17 pages, 2101 KiB  
Article
Intraspecific Leaf Trait Variation across and within Five Common Wine Grape Varieties
by Samantha C. Macklin, Rachel O. Mariani, Emily N. Young, Rosalyn Kish, Kimberley A. Cathline, Gavin Robertson and Adam R. Martin
Plants 2022, 11(20), 2792; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11202792 - 21 Oct 2022
Viewed by 1412
Abstract
Variability in traits forming the Leaf Economics Spectrum (LES) among and within crop species plays a key role in governing agroecosystem processes. However, studies evaluating the extent, causes, and consequences of within-species variation in LES traits for some of the world’s most common [...] Read more.
Variability in traits forming the Leaf Economics Spectrum (LES) among and within crop species plays a key role in governing agroecosystem processes. However, studies evaluating the extent, causes, and consequences of within-species variation in LES traits for some of the world’s most common crops remain limited. This study quantified variations in nine leaf traits measured across 90 vines of five common wine grape (Vitis vinifera L.) varieties at two growth stages (post-flowering and veraison). Grape traits in these varieties covary along an intraspecific LES, in patterns similar to those documented in wild plants. Across the five varieties evaluated here, high rates of photosynthesis (A) and leaf nitrogen (N) concentrations were coupled with low leaf mass per area (LMA), whereas the opposite suite of traits defined the “resource-conserving end” of this intraspecific LES in grape. Variety identity was the strongest predictor of leaf physiological (A) and morphological traits (i.e., leaf area and leaf mass), whereas leaf chemical traits and LMA were best explained by growth stage. All five varieties expressed greater resource-conserving trait syndromes (i.e., higher LMA, lower N, and lower Amass) later in the growing season. Traits related to leaf hydraulics, including instantaneous water-use efficiency (WUE), were unrelated to LES and other resource capture traits, and were better explained by spatial location. These results highlight the relative contributions of genetic, developmental, and phenotypic factors in structuring trait variation in the five wine grape varieties evaluated here, and point to a key role of domestication in governing trait relationships in the world’s crops. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Plant Ecophysiology)
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10 pages, 604 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of Chemical Composition of Miscanthus × giganteus Raised in Different Climate Regions in Russia
by Yulia A. Gismatulina, Vera V. Budaeva, Aleksey N. Kortusov, Ekaterina I. Kashcheyeva, Evgenia K. Gladysheva, Galina F. Mironova, Ekaterina A. Skiba, Nadezhda A. Shavyrkina, Anna A. Korchagina, Vladimir N. Zolotukhin and Gennady V. Sakovich
Plants 2022, 11(20), 2791; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11202791 - 21 Oct 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1542
Abstract
Lignocellulosic biomass is of great interest as an alternative energy resource because it offers a range of merits. Miscanthus × giganteus is a lignocellulosic feedstock of special interest, as it combines a high biomass productivity with a low environmental impact, including CO2 [...] Read more.
Lignocellulosic biomass is of great interest as an alternative energy resource because it offers a range of merits. Miscanthus × giganteus is a lignocellulosic feedstock of special interest, as it combines a high biomass productivity with a low environmental impact, including CO2 emission control. The chemical composition of lignocellulose determines the application potential for efficient industrial processing. Here, we compiled a sample collection of Miscanthus × giganteus that had been cultivated in different climate regions between 2019 and 2021. The chemical composition was quantified by the conventional wet methods. The findings were compared with each other and with the known data. Starting as soon as the first vegetation year, Miscanthus was shown to feature the following chemical composition: 43.2–55.5% cellulose content, 17.1–25.1% acid-insoluble lignin content, 17.9–22.9% pentosan content, 0.90–2.95% ash content, and 0.3–1.2% extractives. The habitat and the surrounding environment were discovered herein to affect the chemical composition of Miscanthus. The stem part of Miscanthus was found to be richer in cellulose than the leaf (48.4–54.9% vs. 47.2–48.9%, respectively), regardless of the planation age and habitat. The obtained findings broaden the investigative geography of the chemical composition of Miscanthus and corroborate the high value of Miscanthus for industrial conversion thereof into cellulosic products worldwide. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Crop Physiology and Crop Production)
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20 pages, 1488 KiB  
Article
A Multi-Level Approach as a Powerful Tool to Identify and Characterize Some Italian Autochthonous Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) Landraces under a Changing Environment
by Martina Falcione, Melissa Simiele, Alessandra Renella, Gabriella Stefania Scippa, Paolo Di Martino and Dalila Trupiano
Plants 2022, 11(20), 2790; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11202790 - 21 Oct 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1451
Abstract
A prime role in matters of agrobiodiversity is held by landraces, which serve as a repository gene pool able to meet sustainable development goals and to face the ongoing challenges of climate change. However, many landraces are currently endangered due to environmental and [...] Read more.
A prime role in matters of agrobiodiversity is held by landraces, which serve as a repository gene pool able to meet sustainable development goals and to face the ongoing challenges of climate change. However, many landraces are currently endangered due to environmental and socio-economic changes. Thus, effective characterization activities and conservation strategies should be undertaken to prevent their genetic and cultural erosion. In the current study, the morphological, genetic, and biochemical analyses were integrated with stress response-related studies to characterize the diversity of seven Italian autochthonous common bean landraces. The results showed that the morphological descriptors and the neutral molecular markers represent powerful tools to identify and distinguish diversity among landrace populations, but they cannot correlate with the stress tolerance pattern of genetically similar populations. The study also supported the use of proline as a biochemical marker to screen the most salt-sensitive bean landraces. Thus, to fully elucidate the future dynamics of agrobiodiversity and to establish the basis for safeguarding them while promoting their utilization, a multi-level approach should always be included in any local and national program for the characterization/conservation/use of genetic resources. This study should represent the basis for further joint research that effectively contributes to set/achieve Italian priorities towards sustainability in the framework of emerging environmental, societal, and economic challenges. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection New Trends in Plant Science in Italy)
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17 pages, 1646 KiB  
Article
Herniarin, Dimethylfraxetin and Extracts from Tagetes lucida, in Psychosis Secondary to Ketamine and Its Interaction with Haloperidol
by Sandra Liliana Porras-Dávila, Enrique Jiménez-Ferrer, Rubén Román Ramos, Manasés González-Cortazar, Julio César Almanza-Pérez and Maribel Herrera-Ruiz
Plants 2022, 11(20), 2789; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11202789 - 21 Oct 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1813
Abstract
Tagetes lucida Cav., is a medicinal plant used in Mexico to alleviate different disorders related to alterations of the central nervous system, such as behaviors associated with psychosis. The present work evaluated the effect of different extracts separated from this plant, TlHex, TlEA, [...] Read more.
Tagetes lucida Cav., is a medicinal plant used in Mexico to alleviate different disorders related to alterations of the central nervous system, such as behaviors associated with psychosis. The present work evaluated the effect of different extracts separated from this plant, TlHex, TlEA, TlMet, and TlAq, and of two isolated coumarins, herniarin (HN) and dimethylfraxetin (DF), on haloperidol-induced catalepsy (HAL), and psychotic behaviors provoked with a glutamatergic antagonist, ketamine (KET) on ICR mice. The extracts TlEA, TlAq, and the isolated compounds HN and DF, induced an increment of the cataleptic effect of HAL. Schizophrenia-like symptoms caused by KET were analyzed through the behavior of the animals in the open field (OFT), forced swimming (FST), passive avoidance test (PAT), and social interaction test (SIT). Treatments derived from T. lucida could interact with this substance in all tests except for FST, in which only TlMet blocks its activity. Mainly, TlEA, TlAq, HN, and DF, blocked the effects of KET on stereotyped behavior, hyperlocomotion, cognitive impairment, and detriment in the social interaction of rodents. T. lucida interacted with dopaminergic and glutamatergic systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biological and Chemical Activity of Metabolites of Medicinal Plants)
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22 pages, 5451 KiB  
Article
Effect of Salinity and Silicon Doses on Onion Post-Harvest Quality and Shelf Life
by Jefferson Bittencourt Venâncio, Nildo da Silva Dias, José Francismar de Medeiros, Patrícia Lígia Dantas de Morais, Clístenes Williams Araújo do Nascimento, Osvaldo Nogueira de Sousa Neto, Luciara Maria de Andrade, Kleane Targino Oliveira Pereira, Tayd Dayvison Custódio Peixoto, Josinaldo Lopes Araújo Rocha, Miguel Ferreira Neto and Francisco Vanies da Silva Sá
Plants 2022, 11(20), 2788; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11202788 - 20 Oct 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2119
Abstract
Salt stress during pre-harvest limits the shelf life and post-harvest quality of produce; however, silicon nutrition can mitigate salt stress in plants. Thus, we evaluated the effects of salinity and fertilization with Si, in pre-harvest, on the morpho-physiological characteristics of onion bulbs during [...] Read more.
Salt stress during pre-harvest limits the shelf life and post-harvest quality of produce; however, silicon nutrition can mitigate salt stress in plants. Thus, we evaluated the effects of salinity and fertilization with Si, in pre-harvest, on the morpho-physiological characteristics of onion bulbs during shelf life. The experiment was set up in randomized complete blocks, with treatments arranged in split-split plots. The plots had four levels of electrical conductivity of irrigation water (0.65, 1.7, 2.8, and 4.1 dS m−1). The subplots had five fertilization levels with Si (0, 41.6, 83.2, 124.8, and 166.4 kg ha−1). The sub-sub plots had four shelf times (0, 20, 40, and 60 days after harvest). Irrigation water salinity and shelf time reduced firmness and increased the mass loss of onion bulbs during shelf life. Salt stress reduced the contents of sugars and total soluble solids of onion bulbs during storage; however, Si supply improved the contents of these variables. Salinity, Si supply, and shelf time increased the concentrations of pyruvic and ascorbic acids in onion bulbs during shelf life. Si doses between 121.8 and 127.0 kg ha−1 attenuated the impacts caused by moderate salinity, increasing the synthesis of metabolites and prolonging the onion bulbs’ shelf life. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Horticultural Crops under Stresses)
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13 pages, 1946 KiB  
Article
Genetic Diversity and Population Structure of Normal Maize Germplasm Collected in South Sudan Revealed by SSR Markers
by Emmanuel Andrea Mathiang, Kyu Jin Sa, Hyeon Park, Yeon Joon Kim and Ju Kyong Lee
Plants 2022, 11(20), 2787; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11202787 - 20 Oct 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 1734
Abstract
Maize is one of the leading global cereals, and in South Sudan maize cultivation occurs in nearly all of the country’s agro-ecological zones. Despite its widespread cultivation, farmers in South Sudan depend on undeveloped varieties, which results in very low yields in the [...] Read more.
Maize is one of the leading global cereals, and in South Sudan maize cultivation occurs in nearly all of the country’s agro-ecological zones. Despite its widespread cultivation, farmers in South Sudan depend on undeveloped varieties, which results in very low yields in the field. In the current study, 27 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers were used to investigate genetic diversity and population structures among 37 landrace maize accessions collected from farmers’ fields in South Sudan. In total, 200 alleles were revealed with an average of 7.4 alleles per locus and a range from 3.0 to 13.0 alleles per locus. The observed heterozygosity values ranged from 0.06 to 0.91 with an average of 0.35. High polymorphic information content (PIC) values were identified with a mean of 0.69, which indicates the informativeness of the chosen SSR loci. Genetic structure analysis revealed a moderate genetic differentiation among the maize populations with a fixation index of 0.16, while there was very high genetic differentiation within the groups of populations of three regions with a mean fixation index (F) of 0.37. An unweighted pair group method with an arithmetic mean (UPGMA) dendrogram clustered the 37 maize accessions into three groups with 43% genetic similarity. The clustering pattern of the maize accessions was moderately consistent with their collection area. The findings of this study will provide maize breeders with a better understanding of maize diversification as well as a reserve of genetic resources for use in the selection of advantageous and useful resources for the development of maize varieties in South Sudan. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Marker-Assisted Technologies for Crop Breeding)
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18 pages, 2977 KiB  
Article
Insights from a Multi-Omics Integration (MOI) Study in Oil Palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) Response to Abiotic Stresses: Part Two—Drought
by André Pereira Leão, Cleiton Barroso Bittencourt, Thalliton Luiz Carvalho da Silva, Jorge Cândido Rodrigues Neto, Ítalo de Oliveira Braga, Letícia Rios Vieira, José Antônio de Aquino Ribeiro, Patrícia Verardi Abdelnur, Carlos Antônio Ferreira de Sousa and Manoel Teixeira Souza Júnior
Plants 2022, 11(20), 2786; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11202786 - 20 Oct 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1690
Abstract
Drought and salinity are two of the most severe abiotic stresses affecting agriculture worldwide and bear some similarities regarding the responses of plants to them. The first is also known as osmotic stress and shows similarities mainly with the osmotic effect, the first [...] Read more.
Drought and salinity are two of the most severe abiotic stresses affecting agriculture worldwide and bear some similarities regarding the responses of plants to them. The first is also known as osmotic stress and shows similarities mainly with the osmotic effect, the first phase of salinity stress. Multi-Omics Integration (MOI) offers a new opportunity for the non-trivial challenge of unraveling the mechanisms behind multigenic traits, such as drought and salinity resistance. The current study carried out a comprehensive, large-scale, single-omics analysis (SOA) and MOI studies on the leaves of young oil palm plants submitted to water deprivation. After performing SOA, 1955 DE enzymes from transcriptomics analysis, 131 DE enzymes from proteomics analysis, and 269 DE metabolites underwent MOI analysis, revealing several pathways affected by this stress, with at least one DE molecule in all three omics platforms used. Moreover, the similarities and dissimilarities in the molecular response of those plants to those two abiotic stresses underwent mapping. Cysteine and methionine metabolism (map00270) was the most affected pathway in all scenarios evaluated. The correlation analysis revealed that 91.55% of those enzymes expressed under both stresses had similar qualitative profiles, corroborating the already known fact that plant responses to drought and salinity show several similarities. At last, the results shed light on some candidate genes for engineering crop species resilient to both abiotic stresses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Responses to Environmental Stresses)
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15 pages, 1831 KiB  
Article
Organic Mulches as an Alternative to Conventional Under-Vine Weed Management in Mediterranean Irrigated Vineyards
by Carlos Cabrera-Pérez, Francisco Valencia-Gredilla, Aritz Royo-Esnal and Jordi Recasens
Plants 2022, 11(20), 2785; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11202785 - 20 Oct 2022
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 1914
Abstract
Vineyard growth and grape yield can be significantly reduced by weeds, especially when these are located in the under-vine zone. Traditional weed management consists of recurrent tillage, which is associated with soil erosion and high fuel consumption, or herbicide applications, associated with damage [...] Read more.
Vineyard growth and grape yield can be significantly reduced by weeds, especially when these are located in the under-vine zone. Traditional weed management consists of recurrent tillage, which is associated with soil erosion and high fuel consumption, or herbicide applications, associated with damage to the environment and human health. In order to find alternative weed management methods, three field trials were carried out in Raimat (Lleida, NE Spain) with the aim of evaluating the suppressive effect of four mulches against weeds. Treatments included (1) straw mulch of Medicago sativa L., (2) straw mulch of Festuca arundinacea (L.) Schreb, (3) straw mulch of Hordeum vulgare L., (4) chopped pine wood mulch of Pinus sylvestris L., (5) mechanical cultivation and (6) herbicide application. The results showed that all mulches were efficient at controlling weeds (<20% of weed coverage) in the first year, compared with the two traditional methods, as long as the percentage of soil covered by mulches was high (>75%). In this way, pine mulch stood out above the straw mulches, as it achieved high soil cover during the three growing seasons of the study (>80%), with weed coverage values under 18%. This, together with the multiple benefits of mulches (improvements in the water balance and increases in soil organic matter, among others), make them a sustainable tool to be considered as an alternative to traditional under-vine weed management in vineyards. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Methods and Innovative Strategies for Weed Management)
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18 pages, 6665 KiB  
Article
Aesthetic Analysis of the Regular Style of Sichuan Potted Landscapes in China
by Yanling Hao, Shixun Hu, Hai Xiao and Shiliang Liu
Plants 2022, 11(20), 2784; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11202784 - 20 Oct 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1852
Abstract
Understanding the Sichuan potted landscapes, one of the five types of traditional Chinese potted landscapes, is important for exploring the development of Sichuan landscape architecture in Southwest China. In this study, we analyzed the shape and aesthetic characteristics of the traditional regular bonsai [...] Read more.
Understanding the Sichuan potted landscapes, one of the five types of traditional Chinese potted landscapes, is important for exploring the development of Sichuan landscape architecture in Southwest China. In this study, we analyzed the shape and aesthetic characteristics of the traditional regular bonsai of the Sichuan style according to trunk features, branch patterns, tree shape, branch arrangement, and branch and plate numbers. Studies have shown that the flat-branch-type branch plate slopes downward and the bottom rises, and the number of branch plates is 2n + 1 (where n is the number of layers of the branch plate, n > 4), which is a proportional sequence. The ratio of the main pile height to the footplate is approximately 1.5:1–2:1, the pot:footplate ratio is <1:1, and the maximum bend:trunk ratio is <1:2. There were extremely significant differences between the length of the foot plate and its adjacent branch and plate length and the distance between the branch and plate. Interestingly, the rolling branch-type plants are characterized by vertical curved branches, oblique curved branches, and curved branches, reflecting the beauty of harmony and symmetry. Overall, the regular-style Sichuan tree potted landscape is mainly characterized by the beauty of rhythm and symmetry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Plant Systems and Synthetic Biology)
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28 pages, 5529 KiB  
Review
The Use of PGPB to Promote Plant Hydroponic Growth
by Ashley A. Stegelmeier, Danielle M. Rose, Benjamin R. Joris and Bernard R. Glick
Plants 2022, 11(20), 2783; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11202783 - 20 Oct 2022
Cited by 23 | Viewed by 8750
Abstract
Improvements to the world’s food supply chain are needed to ensure sufficient food is produced to meet increasing population demands. Growing food in soilless hydroponic systems constitutes a promising strategy, as this method utilizes significantly less water than conventional agriculture, can be situated [...] Read more.
Improvements to the world’s food supply chain are needed to ensure sufficient food is produced to meet increasing population demands. Growing food in soilless hydroponic systems constitutes a promising strategy, as this method utilizes significantly less water than conventional agriculture, can be situated in urban areas, and can be stacked vertically to increase yields per acre. However, further research is needed to optimize crop yields in these systems. One method to increase hydroponic plant yields involves adding plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) into these systems. PGPB are organisms that can significantly increase crop yields via a wide range of mechanisms, including stress reduction, increases in nutrient uptake, plant hormone modulation, and biocontrol. The aim of this review is to provide critical information for researchers on the current state of the use of PGPB in hydroponics so that meaningful advances can be made. An overview of the history and types of hydroponic systems is provided, followed by an overview of known PGPB mechanisms. Finally, examples of PGPB research that has been conducted in hydroponic systems are described. Amalgamating the current state of knowledge should ensure that future experiments can be designed to effectively transition results from the lab to the farm/producer, and the consumer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Agricultural Microbiology)
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10 pages, 1459 KiB  
Article
Cyclodextrins Increase Triterpene Production in Solanum lycopersicum Cell Cultures by Activating Biosynthetic Genes
by Ana Belén Sabater-Jara, María Jesús Marín-Marín, Lorena Almagro and María Angeles Pedreño
Plants 2022, 11(20), 2782; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11202782 - 20 Oct 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1432
Abstract
In this work, Solanum lycopersicum cv. Micro-Tom suspension-cultured cells were used to analyze the effect of different elicitors including β-cyclodextrins (CD), methyl jasmonate (MJ), β-glucan (Glu) and 3-hexenol (Hex) separately and the combined treatments of CD + MJ, CD + glu and CD [...] Read more.
In this work, Solanum lycopersicum cv. Micro-Tom suspension-cultured cells were used to analyze the effect of different elicitors including β-cyclodextrins (CD), methyl jasmonate (MJ), β-glucan (Glu) and 3-hexenol (Hex) separately and the combined treatments of CD + MJ, CD + glu and CD + Hex on triterpene compound production after 24, 72 and 96 h. Moreover, we studied the changes induced by elicitors in the expression of key biosynthetic genes to elucidate the regulation of the triterpene biosynthetic pathway. The relative abundance of the triterpene compounds identified in the extracellular medium after elicitation (squalene, fucosterol, avenasterol, β-sitosterol, cycloartenol and taraxasterol) was determined by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry, and the expression level of genes in treated-cells was analyzed by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Results showed that, in CD-treated cells (CD, CD + MJ, CD + Glu, CD + Hex), specialized metabolites were accumulated mainly in the extracellular medium after 72 h of elicitation. Moreover, qRT-PCR analysis revealed that the highest triterpene levels in CD-treated cells (CD, CD + MJ, CD + Glu, CD + Hex) were highly correlated with the expression of cycloartenol synthase, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase and squalene epoxidase genes at 24 h of treatment, whereas the expression of sterol methyltransferase was increased at 72 h. According to our findings, CD acts as a true elicitor of triterpene biosynthesis and can promote the release of bioactive compounds from the tomato cells into the extracellular medium. The results obtained provide new insights into the regulation of the triterpene metabolic pathway, which might be useful for implementing metabolic engineering techniques in tomato. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Plant Genetics, Genomics and Biotechnology)
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13 pages, 3866 KiB  
Article
The Amount of the Rare Sugar Tagatose on Tomato Leaves Decreases after Spray Application under Greenhouse Conditions
by Abdessalem Chahed, Andrea Nesler, Qassim Esmaeel, Essaid Ait Barka and Michele Perazzolli
Plants 2022, 11(20), 2781; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11202781 - 20 Oct 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1943
Abstract
Tagatose is a rare sugar that suppresses plant diseases, such as late blight of tomato, caused by Phytophthora infestans. Tagatose can be metabolized by some microorganisms and no information is available on its persistence on tomato leaves. The aim of this study [...] Read more.
Tagatose is a rare sugar that suppresses plant diseases, such as late blight of tomato, caused by Phytophthora infestans. Tagatose can be metabolized by some microorganisms and no information is available on its persistence on tomato leaves. The aim of this study was to assess the persistence of tagatose on tomato leaves under commercial greenhouse conditions. The amount of tagatose on tomato leaves and the inhibitory activity against P. infestans decreased seven days after spray application in the absence of rain wash-off. Potential tagatose-degrading bacteria were isolated from tomato leaves, and they belonged to Acinetobacter sp., Bacillus sp., Comamonas sp., Enterobacter sp., Methylobacterium sp., Microbacterium sp., Pantoea sp., Plantibacter sp., Pseudomonas sp., Ralstonia sp., Rhodococcus sp., Sphingobium sp., and Sphingomonas sp. Thus, indigenous phyllosphere microorganisms could partially metabolize tagatose laid on plant leaves after spray application, reducing the persistence of this fungal inhibitor on tomato leaves. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Epidemiology and Control of Plant Diseases II)
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15 pages, 1761 KiB  
Article
Trehalose-Induced Regulations in Nutrient Status and Secondary Metabolites of Drought-Stressed Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) Plants
by Firdos Kosar, Khalid S. Alshallash, Nudrat Aisha Akram, Muhammad Sadiq, Muhammad Ashraf, Dalal Hussien M. Alkhalifah, Arafat Abdel Hamed Abdel Latef and Amr Elkelish
Plants 2022, 11(20), 2780; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11202780 - 20 Oct 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1662
Abstract
Trehalose regulates key physio-biochemical parameters, antioxidants, and the yield of plants exposed to a dry environment. A study was conducted to assess the regulatory roles of exogenously applied trehalose in drought-stressed sunflower plants. Two cultivars of sunflowers (Hysun 33 and FH 598) were [...] Read more.
Trehalose regulates key physio-biochemical parameters, antioxidants, and the yield of plants exposed to a dry environment. A study was conducted to assess the regulatory roles of exogenously applied trehalose in drought-stressed sunflower plants. Two cultivars of sunflowers (Hysun 33 and FH 598) were subjected to drought stress (60% field capacity) and varying (0, 10, 20, and 30 mM) concentrations of trehalose. The data indicated that water stress significantly reduced the shoot length, root length, total soluble proteins, shoot Ca2+, root P, relative water content (RWC), and achene yield per plant. The foliar spray of trehalose was effective at improving plant growth, RWC, total soluble proteins, total soluble sugars, the activities of enzymatic antioxidants, Ca2+ (shoot and root), root K+, and the yield attributes. Exogenously supplemented trehalose considerably suppressed relative membrane permeability (RMP), but did not alter ascorbic acid, malondialdehyde, the total phenolics, shoot K+, or P (shoot and root) in both sunflower cultivars. The cv. Hysun 33 had better ascorbic acid, total soluble sugars, non-reducing sugars, shoot P, and root P than the other cultivar, whereas cv. FH 598 was relatively better at regulating RMP, malondialdehyde, peroxidase, and root Ca2+ concentration. Overall, exogenously supplemented trehalose, particularly at 10 mM, was effective at improving the physiochemical parameters and yield of sunflower plants under stress conditions. Therefore, a better performance of sunflower cv. Hysun 33 under drought stress can be suggested as a trehalose-induced enhancement of yield and oxidative defense potential. Full article
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18 pages, 1478 KiB  
Article
Sesame as an Alternative Host Plant to Establish and Retain Predatory Mirids in Open-Field Tomatoes
by Jose Castillo, Amy Roda, Jawwad Qureshi, Meritxell Pérez-Hedo, Alberto Urbaneja and Philip Stansly
Plants 2022, 11(20), 2779; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11202779 - 20 Oct 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1849
Abstract
The silverleaf whitefly (Bemisia tabaci) and the South America tomato pinworm (Tuta absoluta) are two of the most destructive pests of tomato. Open-field tomato production frequently relies on chemical treatments, which has been shown to lead to pesticide resistance. [...] Read more.
The silverleaf whitefly (Bemisia tabaci) and the South America tomato pinworm (Tuta absoluta) are two of the most destructive pests of tomato. Open-field tomato production frequently relies on chemical treatments, which has been shown to lead to pesticide resistance. The integration of biological control using predatory mirid bugs is an effective alternative method for managing these pests. However, methods to establish and maintain populations of zoophytophagous mirids are not adequately described. We explored the potential use of two mirids naturally occurring in Florida, Nesidiocoris tenuis and Macrolophus praeclarus. We conducted 6 field experiments over 4 consecutive years to develop a strategy to maintain the mirids. Pre-plant inoculation of tomato plants did not lead to their establishment, likely due to the low prevalence of prey. We explored the use of sesame (Sesamum indicum) to retain the mirids. Intercropping sesame maintained the populations of N. tenuis throughout the duration of the crop. Macrolophus praeclarus never established in any of the open-field experiments. Nesidiocoris tenuis damage was minimal (<1 necrotic ring/plant) and mirid damage was reduced in the presence of sesame. Our results show that intercropping sesame may provide a means to utilize mirids to manage B. tabaci, an established pest, and provide options to tomato growers should T. absoluta invade USA. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Latest Research on Biological Control of Pests and Crop Protection)
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12 pages, 1231 KiB  
Article
Joint Cultivation of Allium ursinum and Armoracia rusticana under Foliar Sodium Selenate Supply
by Zarema Amagova, Visita Matsadze, Zulfia Kavarnakaeva, Nadezhda Golubkina, Marina Antoshkina, Agnieszka Sękara, Alessio Tallarita and Gianluca Caruso
Plants 2022, 11(20), 2778; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11202778 - 20 Oct 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1209
Abstract
Despite the high value of ramson (Allium ursinum) in medicine and nutrition, it is not cultivated in open fields due to the need for shading as well as weeding during the early crop stages. Research was carried out in an open [...] Read more.
Despite the high value of ramson (Allium ursinum) in medicine and nutrition, it is not cultivated in open fields due to the need for shading as well as weeding during the early crop stages. Research was carried out in an open field with the aim to improve A. ursinum growth, through its intercropping with Armoracia rusticana (horseradish). In the latter context, with and without sodium selenate application, ramson and horseradish showed reciprocal growth stimulation, as ramson biomass increased by 1.28 times and horseradish root biomass by 1.7 times. The biofortification level of horseradish roots increased from 5.9 to 9.6 times due to joint plant growth under selenium (Se) supply. The opposite phenomenon was recorded for ramson leaves, as the biofortification level decreased from 11.7 in the case of Se supplementation to 6.7 in plants supplied with sodium selenate when jointly cultivated with horseradish. Among the tested antioxidants, the highest increase due to joint cultivation and/or Se supply was recorded for ascorbic acid by 1.69 times in ramson leaves and 1.48 and 1.37 times in horseradish roots and leaves, respectively. All treatments significantly increased the total antioxidant activity (AOA) of horseradish leaves (by 1.33–1.49 times) but not roots. Comparison of the results obtained in field conditions with those obtained earlier for the Se biofortification of ramson in the natural habitat (forest) revealed significantly higher levels of the plant’s antioxidant status under environmental stress (field) and a decrease in the correspondent differences as a consequence of Se biofortification. The estimation of allelopathic beneficial interaction between ramson and horseradish implies the efficiency of ramson growth and production of functional food with high levels of Se (Se–ramson leaves and Se–horseradish roots). Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Crop Physiology and Crop Production)
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17 pages, 7883 KiB  
Article
Eucalyptus cinerea and E. nicholii by-Products as Source of Bioactive Compounds for Agricultural Applications
by Paola Malaspina, Marina Papaianni, Marta Ranesi, Flavio Polito, Cristina Danna, Pierluca Aicardi, Laura Cornara, Sheridan L. Woo and Vincenzo De Feo
Plants 2022, 11(20), 2777; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11202777 - 20 Oct 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1736
Abstract
The cultivation of different species of Eucalyptus has recently expanded in Liguria (Italy) due to the growing demand of the North European floricultural market. Eucalyptus tree branches are cut and selected for their quality, resulting in large amounts of waste biomass to be [...] Read more.
The cultivation of different species of Eucalyptus has recently expanded in Liguria (Italy) due to the growing demand of the North European floricultural market. Eucalyptus tree branches are cut and selected for their quality, resulting in large amounts of waste biomass to be disposed of. The aim of our study was to evaluate the phytotoxic and antimicrobial activities of essential oils (EOs) from pruning wastes of E. cinerea (EC) and E. nicholii (EN), for potential applications in agriculture. Phytochemical analyses showed eucalyptol (1,8-cineole) as the major component in both EOs, but the EO yield of EN was higher than that of EC, in agreement with a significantly higher oil gland density on EN leaves. EOs from both species showed phytotoxicity on both weeds tested, but no significant inhibition on horticultural crop seed germination, except for Raphanus sativus. The EO from EC showed the strongest antibacterial activity, while the EO from EN showed the strongest antifungal activity. Concluding, EOs from Eucalyptus pruning may be used as possible alternatives to synthetic herbicides and pesticides, acting as antimicrobial and antifungal agents, thus representing a safe strategy for crop management programs. Full article
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15 pages, 1539 KiB  
Article
Extracts of Fruits and Plants Cultivated In Vitro of Aristotelia chilensis (Mol.) Stuntz Show Inhibitory Activity of Aldose Reductase and Pancreatic Alpha-Amylase Enzymes
by Adriana Pineda, Andrea Arenas, Juan Balmaceda and Gustavo E. Zúñiga
Plants 2022, 11(20), 2772; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11202772 - 20 Oct 2022
Viewed by 1685
Abstract
Aristotelia chilensis is a plant whose fruit is considered a powerful natural antioxidant. During the last years, some investigations of the fruit have been carried out, finding antioxidant properties in the juice or the phenolic fraction. The antioxidant properties of the plant are [...] Read more.
Aristotelia chilensis is a plant whose fruit is considered a powerful natural antioxidant. During the last years, some investigations of the fruit have been carried out, finding antioxidant properties in the juice or the phenolic fraction. The antioxidant properties of the plant are useful in the inhibition of enzymes related to diabetes such as pancreatic aldose reductase and alpha-amylase. Because many synthetic drugs used today have limitations and potentially harmful side effects, the use of naturally occurring compounds, such as flavonoids, is clinically attractive. In this study, the characterization of aqueous extracts of fruits and in vitro plants of A. chilensis was carried out based on their content of anthocyanins and total phenols, the antioxidant capacity by the antiradical activity 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrilhydrazil (DPPH), and the profile of anthocyanins and other phenolic compounds by liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Subsequently, the effect of these extracts on the inhibition of bovine aldose reductase and pancreatic alpha-amylase enzymes was determined. According to our results, extracts of fruits and in vitro plants of A. chilensis achieved inhibition of the bovine aldose reductase enzyme of 85.54 ± 1.86% and 75.67 ± 1.21%, respectively. Likewise, the percentage of inhibition of the pancreatic alpha-amylase enzyme for fruit extracts was 29.64 ± 0.63%, while for in vitro plant extracts it was 47.66 ± 0.66%. The antioxidant and enzymatic inhibition activity of the extracts were related to the content of anthocyanins, such as delphinidin and cyanidin glycosides as well as the phenols derived from quercetin, myricetin, and kaempferol. The results obtained allow us to suggest that the in vitro culture of plants of A. chilensis represents a viable biotechnological alternative to obtain phenolic compounds for the inhibition of aldose reductase and pancreatic alpha-amylase enzymes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Natural Compounds in Plants)
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21 pages, 5687 KiB  
Article
Biogenic CuO and ZnO Nanoparticles as Nanofertilizers for Sustainable Growth of Amaranthus hybridus
by Dali Vilma Francis, Neeru Sood and Trupti Gokhale
Plants 2022, 11(20), 2776; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11202776 - 19 Oct 2022
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 3289
Abstract
The biogenic synthesis of CuO and ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) was carried out by Stenotrophomonas maltophilia. The shape, size, and chemical identity of the CuO and ZnO NPs were determined using FTIR, XRD, SEM, EDX, and TEM analysis. The study aimed to investigate the [...] Read more.
The biogenic synthesis of CuO and ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) was carried out by Stenotrophomonas maltophilia. The shape, size, and chemical identity of the CuO and ZnO NPs were determined using FTIR, XRD, SEM, EDX, and TEM analysis. The study aimed to investigate the effects of the CuO and ZnO NPs on Amaranthus hybridus seed germination and plant growth. Two different fertilizer application modes (hydroponics and foliar) were studied with varying concentrations of CuO (0.06 µM, 0.12 µM) and ZnO (0.12 µM, 0.24 µM) nanoparticles with water control and Hoagland’s media control. The hydroponic system of fertilizer application demonstrated better efficiency in terms of plant growth as compared to the foliar application. The agronomic traits, SPAD value, total reducing sugars, antioxidant activity, amount of copper, and zinc ions in root and shoot were analyzed for all experimental plants and found better with the nanoparticle application. The highlight of the study is the application of extremely low concentrations of CuO and ZnO nanoparticles, almost 70% lower than the copper and zinc salts in the Hoagland’s medium for improved plant growth. The use of lower concentrations of nanoparticles can prevent their accumulation in the environment and also lower the production cost. The high antioxidant concentration exhibited by the plants treated with CuO and ZnO nanoparticles ensures the enhanced plant’s resistance to infections and pests while promoting plant growth. Full article
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