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Plants, Volume 11, Issue 12 (June-2 2022) – 95 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Since the 1980s, the occurrence of sulfur deficiencies has been increasingly observed in field crops, with negative consequences on yield and seed quality. Many studies have reported that silicon (Si) is a beneficial element to alleviate many nutritional stresses. However, in Brassica napus, a very S demanding species, the effect of Si on S deficiency remains poorly documented. For the first time, this paper evaluates whether Si supply is able to alleviate S deficiency stress in Brassica napus and/or modulate the activity of root sulfate transporters. Furthermore, the effect of Si supply on the modulation of the expression of genes encoding sulfate transporters observed in this study and its consequences on S uptake during a 72 h S re-feeding are discussed. View this paper
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11 pages, 3101 KiB  
Communication
Evaluating Plant Gene Models Using Machine Learning
by Shriprabha R. Upadhyaya, Philipp E. Bayer, Cassandria G. Tay Fernandez, Jakob Petereit, Jacqueline Batley, Mohammed Bennamoun, Farid Boussaid and David Edwards
Plants 2022, 11(12), 1619; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11121619 - 20 Jun 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2383
Abstract
Gene models are regions of the genome that can be transcribed into RNA and translated to proteins, or belong to a class of non-coding RNA genes. The prediction of gene models is a complex process that can be unreliable, leading to false positive [...] Read more.
Gene models are regions of the genome that can be transcribed into RNA and translated to proteins, or belong to a class of non-coding RNA genes. The prediction of gene models is a complex process that can be unreliable, leading to false positive annotations. To help support the calling of confident conserved gene models and minimize false positives arising during gene model prediction we have developed Truegene, a machine learning approach to classify potential low confidence gene models using 14 gene and 41 protein-based characteristics. Amino acid and nucleotide sequence-based features were calculated for conserved (high confidence) and non-conserved (low confidence) annotated genes from the published Pisum sativum Cameor genome. These features were used to train eXtreme Gradient Boost (XGBoost) classifier models to predict whether a gene model is likely to be real. The optimized models demonstrated a prediction accuracy ranging from 87% to 90% and an F-1 score of 0.91–0.94. We used SHapley Additive exPlanations (SHAP) and feature importance plots to identify the features that contribute to the model predictions, and we show that protein and gene-based features can be used to build accurate models for gene prediction that have applications in supporting future gene annotation processes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Plant Genetics, Genomics and Biotechnology)
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14 pages, 21160 KiB  
Article
UVB Irradiation-Induced Transcriptional Changes in Lignin- and Flavonoid Biosynthesis and Indole/Tryptophan-Auxin-Responsive Genes in Rice Seedlings
by Ga-Eun Kim, Me-Sun Kim and Jwakyung Sung
Plants 2022, 11(12), 1618; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11121618 - 20 Jun 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1892
Abstract
Global warming accelerates the destruction of the ozone layer, increasing the amount of UVB reaching the Earth’s surface, which in turn alters plant growth and development. The effects of UVB-induced alterations of plant secondary and cell wall metabolism were previously documented; however, there [...] Read more.
Global warming accelerates the destruction of the ozone layer, increasing the amount of UVB reaching the Earth’s surface, which in turn alters plant growth and development. The effects of UVB-induced alterations of plant secondary and cell wall metabolism were previously documented; however, there is little knowledge of its effects on rice seedlings during the developmental phase of leaves. In this study, we examined secondary metabolic responses to UVB stress using a transcriptomic approach, focusing on the biosynthetic pathways for lignin, flavonoid, and indole/tryptophan-auxin responses. As new leaves emerged, they were irradiated with UVB for 5 days (for 3 h/day−1). The genes encoding the enzymes related to lignin (4CL, CAD, and POD) and flavonoid biosynthesis (CHS, CHI, and FLS) were highly expressed on day 1 (younger leaves) and day 5 (older leaves) after UVB irradiation. The expression of the genes encoding the enzymes related to tryptophan biosynthesis (AS, PRT, PRAI, IGPS, and TS) increased on day 3 of UVB irradiation, and the level of tryptophan increased and showed the same temporal pattern of occurrence as the expression of the cognate gene. Interestingly, the genes encoding BBX4 and BBX11, negative regulators of UVB signaling, and SAUR27 and SAUR55, auxin response enzymes, were downregulated on day 3 of UVB irradiation. When these results are taken together, they suggest that secondary metabolic pathways in rice seedlings are influenced by the interaction between UVB irradiation and the leaf developmental stage. Thus, the strategies of protection against, adaptation to, and mitigation of UVB might be delicately regulated, and, in this context, our data provide valuable information to understand UVB-induced secondary metabolism in rice seedlings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Crop Physiology and Crop Production)
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19 pages, 401 KiB  
Review
Advances in Genetic Analysis and Breeding of Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz): A Review
by Assefa B. Amelework and Michael W. Bairu
Plants 2022, 11(12), 1617; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11121617 - 20 Jun 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 3790
Abstract
Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is the sixth most important food crop and consumed by 800 million people worldwide. In Africa, cassava is the second most important food crop after maize and Africa is the worlds’ largest producer. Though cassava is not one [...] Read more.
Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is the sixth most important food crop and consumed by 800 million people worldwide. In Africa, cassava is the second most important food crop after maize and Africa is the worlds’ largest producer. Though cassava is not one of the main commodity crops in South Africa, it is becoming a popular crop among farming communities in frost-free areas, due to its climate-resilient nature. This necessitated the establishment of a multi-disciplinary research program at the Agricultural Research Council of South Africa. The objective of this review is to highlight progress made in cassava breeding and genetic analysis. This review highlights the progress of cassava research worldwide and discusses research findings on yield, quality, and adaptability traits in cassava. It also discusses the limitations and the prospects of the cassava R&D program towards development of the cassava industry in South Africa. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vegetables Breeding in South Africa)
30 pages, 14868 KiB  
Article
Potential Impacts of Climate Change on the Habitat Suitability of the Dominant Tree Species in Greece
by Nikolaos M. Fyllas, Theano Koufaki, Christodoulos I. Sazeides, Gavriil Spyroglou and Konstantinos Theodorou
Plants 2022, 11(12), 1616; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11121616 - 20 Jun 2022
Cited by 20 | Viewed by 3971
Abstract
Climate change is affecting species distribution and ecosystem form and function. Forests provide a range of ecosystem services, and understanding their vulnerability to climate change is important for designing effective adaptation strategies. Species Distribution Modelling (SDM) has been extensively used to derive habitat [...] Read more.
Climate change is affecting species distribution and ecosystem form and function. Forests provide a range of ecosystem services, and understanding their vulnerability to climate change is important for designing effective adaptation strategies. Species Distribution Modelling (SDM) has been extensively used to derive habitat suitability maps under current conditions and project species distribution shifts under climate change. In this study, we model the current and future habitat suitability of the dominant tree species in Greece (Abies cephalonica, Abies borisii-regis, Pinus brutia, Pinus halepensis, Pinus nigra, Quercus ilex, Quercus pubescens, Quercus frainetto and Fagus sylvatica), based on species-specific presence data from the EU-Forest database, enhanced with data from Greece that is currently under-represented in terms of tree species occurrence points. By including these additional presence data, areas with relatively drier conditions for some of the study species were included in the SDM development, yielding a potentially lower vulnerability under climate change conditions. SDMs were developed for each taxon using climate and soil data at a resolution of ~1 km2. Model performance was assessed under current conditions and was found to adequately simulate potential distributions. Subsequently, the models were used to project the potential distribution of each species under the SSP1-2.6 and SSP5-8.5 scenarios for the 2041–2070 and 2071–2100 time periods. Under climate change scenarios, a reduction in habitat-suitable areas was predicted for most study species, with higher elevation taxa experiencing more pronounced potential habitat shrinkages. An exception was the endemic A. cephalonica and its sister species A. borisii-regis, which, although currently found at mid and high elevations, seem able to maintain their potential distribution under most climate change scenarios. Our findings suggest that climate change could significantly affect the distribution and dynamics of forest ecosystems in Greece, with important ecological, economic and social implications, and thus adequate mitigation measures should be implemented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Feature Papers in Plant Ecology)
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23 pages, 1667 KiB  
Review
Does Abiotic Host Stress Favour Dothideomycete-Induced Disease Development?
by Laura Röhrig and Francois Dussart
Plants 2022, 11(12), 1615; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11121615 - 20 Jun 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3029
Abstract
Dothideomycetes represent one of the largest and diverse class of fungi. This class exhibits a wide diversity of lifestyles, including endophytic, saprophytic, pathogenic and parasitic organisms. Plant pathogenic fungi are particularly common within the Dothideomycetes and are primarily found within the orders of [...] Read more.
Dothideomycetes represent one of the largest and diverse class of fungi. This class exhibits a wide diversity of lifestyles, including endophytic, saprophytic, pathogenic and parasitic organisms. Plant pathogenic fungi are particularly common within the Dothideomycetes and are primarily found within the orders of Pleosporales, Botryosphaeriales and Capnodiales. As many Dothideomycetes can infect crops used as staple foods around the world, such as rice, wheat, maize or banana, this class of fungi is highly relevant to food security. In the context of climate change, food security faces unprecedented pressure. The benefits of a more plant-based diet to both health and climate have long been established, therefore the demand for crop production is expected to increase. Further adding pressure on food security, both the prevalence of diseases caused by fungi and the yield losses associated with abiotic stresses on crops are forecast to increase in all climate change scenarios. Furthermore, abiotic stresses can greatly influence the outcome of the host-pathogen interaction. This review focuses on the impact of abiotic stresses on the host in the development of diseases caused by Dothideomycete fungi. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pathogenic Dothideomycete-Plant Interactions)
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20 pages, 2445 KiB  
Article
Callus-Mediated High-Frequency Plant Regeneration, Phytochemical Profiling, Antioxidant Activity and Genetic Stability in Ruta chalepensis L.
by Ahmed A. Qahtan, Mohammad Faisal, Abdulrahman A. Alatar and Eslam M. Abdel-Salam
Plants 2022, 11(12), 1614; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11121614 - 20 Jun 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2749
Abstract
Efficient methods for callus induction and the high-frequency plant regeneration of Ruta chalepensis L. were established, and the phytochemical potential and antioxidant activity of a donor plant, ex-vitro-established micropropagated plants, and callus were also studied. Yellowish-green callus was induced with a frequency of [...] Read more.
Efficient methods for callus induction and the high-frequency plant regeneration of Ruta chalepensis L. were established, and the phytochemical potential and antioxidant activity of a donor plant, ex-vitro-established micropropagated plants, and callus were also studied. Yellowish-green callus was induced with a frequency of 97.8% from internode shoot segments of the donor plant growing in soil in the botanical garden cultured on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium containing 10 μM 2,4-D (2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid) and 1 μM BA (6-benzyladenine). Adventitious shoots were regenerated from the yellowish-green callus on MS medium containing 5.0 μM (BA) and 1.0 μM 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA), with a regeneration frequency of 98.4% and a maximum of 54.6 shoots with an average length of 4.5 cm after 8 weeks. The regenerated shoots were rooted in a medium containing 1.0 μM IBA (indole-3-butyric acid) and successfully transferred to ex vitro conditions in pots containing normal garden soil, with a 95% survival rate. The amounts of alkaloids, phenolics, flavonoids, tannins, and antioxidant activity of the ex-vitro-established micropropagated plants were higher than in the donor plant and callus. The highest contents of hesperidin and rutin (93.3 and 55.9 µg/mg, respectively) were found in the ex-vitro-established micropropagated plants compared to those obtained from the donor plant (91.4 and 31.0 µg/mg, respectively) and callus (59.1 and 21.6 µg/mg, respectively). The genetic uniformity of the ex-vitro-established micropropagated plants was appraised by the ISSR markers and compared with the donor plant. This is the first report describing the callus-mediated plant regeneration, as well as the production of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activities in R. chalepensis, which might be a potential alternative technique for the mass propagation and synthesis of bioactive compounds such as hesperidin and rutin. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Tissue Culture and Secondary Metabolites Production II)
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16 pages, 20053 KiB  
Article
Comparison of Methoxypyrazine Content and Expression Pattern of O-Methyltransferase Genes in Grape Berries and Wines from Six Cultivars (Vitis vinifera L.) in the Eastern Foothill of the Helan Mountain
by Yanxia Zhang, Xiangyi Li, Xufeng Guo, Ning Wang, Kangqi Geng, Dongmei Li and Zhenping Wang
Plants 2022, 11(12), 1613; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11121613 - 20 Jun 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1664
Abstract
Methoxypyrazines (MPs) are a unique class of volatile compounds containing nitrogenous heterocyclics that impart green bell, vegetal and herbal odors to red grape berries and wines. In this study, the quality and MPs levels of grape berries from six representative red wine grape [...] Read more.
Methoxypyrazines (MPs) are a unique class of volatile compounds containing nitrogenous heterocyclics that impart green bell, vegetal and herbal odors to red grape berries and wines. In this study, the quality and MPs levels of grape berries from six representative red wine grape varieties were determined in the two consecutive years. The results showed that, at maturity, the highest total soluble solid was observed in Petit Verdot grape berries in the two consecutive years. While the anthocyanin content showed the highest in Marselan berries in 2018, in 2019, Petit Verdot berries had the highest anthocyanin content. Moreover, 2-methoxypyrazine (MOMP), 3-methyl-2-methoxypyrazine (MEMP) and 3-ethyl-2-methoxypyrazine (ETMP) levels were relatively lower, with almost no detectable in berries at maturity. The relative higher 3-isobutyl-2-methoxypyrazine (IBMP) content was observed in Cabernet Sauvignon, Marselan, Merlot, and Malbec berries. However, 3-sec-butyl-2-methoxypyrazine (SBMP) and IBMP were only detected in six wines, and their levels were higher than those in the grape berries. Furthermore, correlation analysis showed that there was a statistically positive correlation between the expression levels of VvOMT1 and VvOMT3 and MPs content in grape berries, while the lowest association was found in the VvOMT2. These findings provide a basis for selecting the most suitable grape varieties to improve wine quality. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Identification and Bioactivity of Volatile Compounds in Fruits)
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9 pages, 1184 KiB  
Article
Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacteria Improve Growth and Fruit Quality of Cucumber under Greenhouse Conditions
by Gerardo Zapata-Sifuentes, Luis G. Hernandez-Montiel, Jorge Saenz-Mata, Manuel Fortis-Hernandez, Eduardo Blanco-Contreras, Roberto G. Chiquito-Contreras and Pablo Preciado-Rangel
Plants 2022, 11(12), 1612; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11121612 - 20 Jun 2022
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2959
Abstract
Cucumber fruit is rich in fiber, carbohydrates, protein, magnesium, iron, vitamin B, vitamin C, flavonoids, phenolic compounds, and antioxidants. Agrochemical-based production of cucumber has tripled yields; however, excessive synthetic fertilization has caused problems in the accumulation of salts in the soil and has [...] Read more.
Cucumber fruit is rich in fiber, carbohydrates, protein, magnesium, iron, vitamin B, vitamin C, flavonoids, phenolic compounds, and antioxidants. Agrochemical-based production of cucumber has tripled yields; however, excessive synthetic fertilization has caused problems in the accumulation of salts in the soil and has increased production costs. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of three strains of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) on cucumber fruit growth and quality under greenhouse conditions. The rhizobacteria Pseudomonas paralactis (KBendo6p7), Sinorhizobium meliloti (KBecto9p6), and Acinetobacter radioresistens (KBendo3p1) was adjusted to 1 × 108 CFU mL−1. The results indicated that the inoculation with PGPR improved plant height, stem diameter, root length, secondary roots, biomass, fruit size, fruit diameter, and yield, as well as nutraceutical quality and antioxidant capacity, significantly increasing the response of plants inoculated with A.radioresistens and S.meliloti in comparison to the control. In sum, our findings showed the potential functions of the use of beneficial bacteria such as PGPR for crop production to reduce costs, decrease pollution, and achieve world food safety and security. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vegetable and Fruit Production)
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10 pages, 1576 KiB  
Article
Effects of Magnesium, Pyrophosphate and Phosphonates on Pyrophosphorolytic Reaction of UDP-Glucose Pyrophosphorylase
by Leszek A. Kleczkowski and Daniel Decker
Plants 2022, 11(12), 1611; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11121611 - 20 Jun 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1717
Abstract
UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (UGPase) carries a freely reversible reaction, using glucose-1-P and UTP to produce UDP-glucose (UDPG) and pyrophosphate (PPi), with UDPG being essential for glycosylation reactions in all organisms including, e.g., synthesis of sucrose, cellulose and glycoproteins. In the present study, [...] Read more.
UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (UGPase) carries a freely reversible reaction, using glucose-1-P and UTP to produce UDP-glucose (UDPG) and pyrophosphate (PPi), with UDPG being essential for glycosylation reactions in all organisms including, e.g., synthesis of sucrose, cellulose and glycoproteins. In the present study, we found that free magnesium (Mg2+) had profound effects on the reverse reaction of purified barley UGPase, and was absolutely required for its activity, with an apparent Km of 0.13 mM. More detailed analyses with varied concentrations of MgPPi allowed us to conclude that it is the MgPPi complex which serves as true substrate for UGPase in its reverse reaction, with an apparent Km of 0.06 mM. Free PPi was an inhibitor in this reaction. Given the key role of PPi in the UGPase reaction, we have also tested possible effects of phosphonates, which are analogs of PPi and phosphate (Pi). Clodronate and etidronate (PPi analogs) had little or no effect on UGPase activity, whereas fosetyl-Al (Pi analog), a known fungicide, acted as effective near-competitive inhibitor versus PPi, with Ki of 0.15 mM. The data are discussed with respect to the role of magnesium in the UGPase reaction and elucidating the use of inhibitors in studies on cellular function of UGPase and related enzymes. Full article
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23 pages, 2628 KiB  
Article
Salt Priming as a Smart Approach to Mitigate Salt Stress in Faba Bean (Vicia faba L.)
by Amira K. Nasrallah, Mohamed A. M. Atia, Reem M. Abd El-Maksoud, Maimona A. Kord and Ahmed S. Fouad
Plants 2022, 11(12), 1610; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11121610 - 20 Jun 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2312
Abstract
The present investigation aims to highlight the role of salt priming in mitigating salt stress on faba bean. In the absence of priming, the results reflected an increase in H2O2 generation and lipid peroxidation in plants subjected to 200 mM salt shock for [...] Read more.
The present investigation aims to highlight the role of salt priming in mitigating salt stress on faba bean. In the absence of priming, the results reflected an increase in H2O2 generation and lipid peroxidation in plants subjected to 200 mM salt shock for one week, accompanied by a decline in growth, photosynthetic pigments, and yield. As a defense, the shocked plants showed enhancements in ascorbate peroxidase (APX), catalase (CAT), glutathione reductase (GR), peroxidase (POX), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities. Additionally, the salt shock plants revealed a significant increase in phenolics and proline content, as well as an increase in the expression levels of glutathione (GSH) metabolism-related genes (the L-ascorbate peroxidase (L-APX) gene, the spermidine synthase (SPS) gene, the leucyl aminopeptidase (LAP) gene, the aminopeptidase N (AP-N) gene, and the ribonucleo-side-diphosphate reductase subunit M1 (RDS-M) gene). On the other hand, priming with increasing concentrations of NaCl (50–150 mM) exhibited little significant reduction in some growth- and yield-related traits. However, it maintained a permanent alert of plant defense that enhanced the expression of GSH-related genes, proline accumulation, and antioxidant enzymes, establishing a solid defensive front line ameliorating osmotic and oxidative consequences of salt shock and its injurious effect on growth and yield. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Salinity Stress in Plants and Molecular Responses 2.0)
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13 pages, 678 KiB  
Review
Serial-Omics and Molecular Function Study Provide Novel Insight into Cucumber Variety Improvement
by Danni Han, Xiaojun Ma, Lei Zhang, Shizhong Zhang, Qinghua Sun, Pan Li, Jing Shu and Yanting Zhao
Plants 2022, 11(12), 1609; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11121609 - 20 Jun 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1809
Abstract
Cucumbers are rich in vitamins and minerals. The cucumber has recently become one of China’s main vegetable crops. More specifically, the adjustment of the Chinese agricultural industry’s structure and rapid economic development have resulted in increases in the planting area allocated to Chinese [...] Read more.
Cucumbers are rich in vitamins and minerals. The cucumber has recently become one of China’s main vegetable crops. More specifically, the adjustment of the Chinese agricultural industry’s structure and rapid economic development have resulted in increases in the planting area allocated to Chinese cucumber varieties and in the number of Chinese cucumber varieties. After complete sequencing of the “Chinese long” genome, the transcriptome, proteome, and metabolome were obtained. Cucumber has a small genome and short growing cycle, and these traits are conducive to the application of molecular breeding techniques for improving fruit quality. Here, we review the developments and applications of molecular markers and genetic maps for cucumber breeding and introduce the functions of gene families from the perspective of genomics, including fruit development and quality, hormone response, resistance to abiotic stress, epitomizing the development of other omics, and relationships among functions. Full article
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16 pages, 4810 KiB  
Article
Genome-Wide Identification of Genes Encoding for Rho-Related Proteins in ‘Duli’ Pear (Pyrus betulifolia Bunge) and Their Expression Analysis in Response to Abiotic Stress
by Gang Li, Pingli Song, Xiang Wang, Qingcui Ma, Jianfeng Xu, Yuxing Zhang and Baoxiu Qi
Plants 2022, 11(12), 1608; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11121608 - 19 Jun 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1652
Abstract
Twelve Rho-related proteins (ROPs), namely PbROPs, were identified from the genome of the recently sequenced ‘Duli’ pear (Pyrus betulifolia Bunge), a wild-type pear variety routinely used for rootstocks in grafting in China. The length and molecular weight of these proteins [...] Read more.
Twelve Rho-related proteins (ROPs), namely PbROPs, were identified from the genome of the recently sequenced ‘Duli’ pear (Pyrus betulifolia Bunge), a wild-type pear variety routinely used for rootstocks in grafting in China. The length and molecular weight of these proteins are between 175 and 215 amino acids and 19.46 and 23.45 kDa, respectively. The 12 PbROPs are distributed on 8 of the 17 chromosomes, where chromosome 15 has the highest number of 3 PbROPs. Analysis of the deduced protein sequences showed that they are relatively conserved and all have the G domain, insertion sequence, and HVR motif. The expression profiles were monitored by quantitative RT-PCR, which showed that these 12 PbROP genes were ubiquitously expressed, indicating their involvement in growth and development throughout the life cycle of ‘Duli’ pear. However, they were altered upon treatments with abscisic acid (ABA, mimicking abiotic stress), polyethylene glycol (PEG, mimicking drought), and sodium chloride (NaCl, mimicking salt) to tissue-cultured seedlings. Further, transgenic Arabidopsis expressing PbROP1, PbROP2, and PbROP9 exhibited enhanced sensitivity to ABA, demonstrating that these 3 PbROPs may play important roles in the abiotic stress of ‘Duli’ pear. The combined results showed that the ‘Duli’ genome encodes 12 typical ROPs and they appeared to play important roles in growth, development, and abiotic stress. These preliminary data may guide future research into the molecular mechanisms of these 12 PbROPs and their utility in molecular breeding for abiotic stress-resistant ‘Duli’ pear rootstocks. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Plant Genetics, Genomics and Biotechnology)
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17 pages, 3439 KiB  
Article
Exogenous Paclobutrazol Reinforces the Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Properties of Lavender (Lavandula officinalis L.) Oil through Modulating Its Composition of Oxygenated Terpenes
by Salwa M. El-Sayed, Karim. M. Hassan, Ahmed. N. Abdelhamid, Eman E. Yousef, Yasmin M. R. Abdellatif, Samah H. Abu-Hussien, Mohamed A. Nasser, Walaa. A. Elshalakany, Doaa Bahaa Eldin Darwish, Awatif M. Abdulmajeed, Nadiyah M. Alabdallah, Salem Mesfir Al-Qahtani, Nadi Awad Al-Harbi, Eldessoky S. Dessoky, Hatem Ashour and Mohamed F. M. Ibrahim
Plants 2022, 11(12), 1607; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11121607 - 19 Jun 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2425
Abstract
Plant growth regulators can affect the primary and secondary metabolites of various plant species. However, the effect of paclobutrazol (PBZ) on the composition of lavender oil, especially related to the terpenoid pathway, is still unclear in literatures. In this study, the effect of [...] Read more.
Plant growth regulators can affect the primary and secondary metabolites of various plant species. However, the effect of paclobutrazol (PBZ) on the composition of lavender oil, especially related to the terpenoid pathway, is still unclear in literatures. In this study, the effect of PBZ as a foliar spray (0.200, 400 and 600 ppm) on the vegetative growth, phytochemical content, and both antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of lavender oil were investigated. The results indicated that all examined PBZ treatments led to a significant (p ≤ 0.05) decrease in growth parameters compared to the untreated plants. Meanwhile, the yield of essential oil was significantly decreased by the treatment of PBZ at 200 ppm compared to the control. In contrast, applied-PBZ significantly enhanced the chlorophyll content and displayed a marked change in the composition of the essential oil. This change included an obvious and significant increase in 3-carene, eucalyptol, γ–terpinene, α-pinocarvone, caryophyllene, β-vetivenene, β-santalol, ledol, geranyl isovalerate, farnesol, caryophyllene oxide, and phytol percentage. Generally, the highest significant values were achieved by the treatment of 400 ppm compared to the other treatments. Furthermore, this treatment showed the highest free radical scavenging activity against DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) by 13% over the control. Additionally, to determine the antimicrobial activities of the extracted oil, each treatment was examined against two strains of Gram positive bacteria (S. aureus and B. cereus), two strains of Gram negative bacteria (S. enteritidis and E. coli), and two fungal species (C. albicans and A. niger) represent the yeast modal and filamentous fungus, respectively. The findings demonstrated that all examined species were more sensitive to the oil that was extracted from lavender plants, treated with 400 ppm PBZ, compared to the other concentrations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Roles of Secondary Metabolites in Plants)
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16 pages, 3095 KiB  
Article
Assessing the Effect of Silicon Supply on Root Sulfur Uptake in S-Fed and S-Deprived Brassica napus L.
by Philippe Laîné, Raphaël Coquerel, Mustapha Arkoun, Jacques Trouverie and Philippe Etienne
Plants 2022, 11(12), 1606; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11121606 - 18 Jun 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1794
Abstract
Silicon (Si) is known to alleviate many nutritional stresses. However, in Brassica napus, which is a highly S-demanding species, the Si effect on S deficiency remains undocumented. The aim of this study was to assess whether Si alleviates the negative effects of [...] Read more.
Silicon (Si) is known to alleviate many nutritional stresses. However, in Brassica napus, which is a highly S-demanding species, the Si effect on S deficiency remains undocumented. The aim of this study was to assess whether Si alleviates the negative effects of S deficiency on Brassica napus and modulates root sulfate uptake capacity and S accumulation. For this, Brassica napus plants were cultivated with or without S and supplied or not supplied with Si. The effects of Si on S content, growth, expression of sulfate transporter genes (BnaSultr1.1; BnaSultr1.2) and sulfate transporters activity in roots were monitored. Si supply did not mitigate growth or S status alterations due to S deprivation but moderated the expression of BnaSultr1.1 in S-deprived plants without affecting the activity of root sulfate transporters. The effects of Si on the amount of S taken-up and on S transporter gene expression were also evaluated after 72 h of S resupply. In S-deprived plants, S re-feeding led to a strong decrease in the expression of both S transporter genes as expected, except in Si-treated plants where BnaSultr1.1 expression was maintained over time. This result is discussed in relation to the similar amount of S accumulated regardless of the Si treatment. Full article
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19 pages, 1905 KiB  
Article
Isolation, Identification, and Biocontrol Potential of Root Fungal Endophytes Associated with Solanaceous Plants against Potato Late Blight (Phytophthora infestans)
by Abbas El-Hasan, Grace Ngatia, Tobias I. Link and Ralf T. Voegele
Plants 2022, 11(12), 1605; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11121605 - 18 Jun 2022
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 2881
Abstract
Late blight of potato caused by Phytophthora infestans is one of the most damaging diseases affecting potato production worldwide. We screened 357 root fungal endophytes isolated from four solanaceous plant species obtained from Kenya regarding their in vitro antagonistic activity against the potato [...] Read more.
Late blight of potato caused by Phytophthora infestans is one of the most damaging diseases affecting potato production worldwide. We screened 357 root fungal endophytes isolated from four solanaceous plant species obtained from Kenya regarding their in vitro antagonistic activity against the potato late blight pathogen and evaluated their performance in planta. Preliminary in vitro tests revealed that 46 of these isolates showed potential activity against the pathogen. Based on their ITS-sequences, 37 out of 46 endophytes were identified to species level, three isolates were connected to higher taxa (phylum or genus), while two remained unidentified. Confrontation assays, as well as assays for volatile or diffusible organic compounds, resulted in the selection of three endophytes (KB1S1-4, KA2S1-42, and KB2S2-15) with a pronounced inhibitory activity against P. infestans. All three isolates produce volatile organic compounds that inhibit mycelial growth of P. infestans by up to 48.9%. The addition of 5% extracts obtained from KB2S2-15 or KA2S1-42 to P. infestans sporangia entirely suppressed their germination. A slightly lower inhibition (69%) was achieved using extract from KB1S1-4. Moreover, late blight symptoms and the mycelial growth of P. infestans were completely suppressed when leaflets were pre-treated with a 5% extract from these endophytes. This might suggest the implementation of such biocontrol candidates or their fungicidal compounds in late blight control strategies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Alternative Measures in Plant Protection)
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11 pages, 264 KiB  
Article
Direct and Indirect Selection for Grain Yield and Grain Weight in Late Generations of Bread Wheat under Drought Stress and Normal Irrigation Environments
by Rasha E. Mahdy, Dikhnah Ashehri, Hanan Ali Alatawi, Hadba Al-Amrah and Ezzat E. Mahdy
Plants 2022, 11(12), 1604; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11121604 - 18 Jun 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1401
Abstract
Two cycles of pedigree selection for grain yield/plant (GY/P) and grain weight (GW) (100-grain weight) were imposed under drought stress and normal irrigation to study the direct and indirect selection of GY/P and GW in bread wheat. The selection started in the F [...] Read more.
Two cycles of pedigree selection for grain yield/plant (GY/P) and grain weight (GW) (100-grain weight) were imposed under drought stress and normal irrigation to study the direct and indirect selection of GY/P and GW in bread wheat. The selection started in the F6-generation (Cycle0-C0) of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) traced back to the cross (Giza 164/Sids 4) of two Egyptian cultivars. The narrow sense heritability was higher under drought than under normal irrigation and increased by selection. Under drought, the observed direct gain after two cycles of selection for GW was 21.51% (p ≤ 0.01), and accompanied with an indirect gain in GY/P of 15.52%. The observed direct gain for GY/P was 17.98% and the indirect gain in GW was 13.81%. Under normal irrigation, the observed direct gain for GW was 12.86% and the indirect gain for GY/P was 16.04%. The direct gain in GY/P was 16.04% and the indirect gain in GW was 11.95%. The genotypic correlations were different in both environments before and after selection. Single trait selection was effective in improving the selection criterion, and selection greatly affected gene associations. Full article
20 pages, 3134 KiB  
Review
Trends and Limits for Quinoa Production and Promotion in Pakistan
by Irfan Afzal, Shahzad Maqsood Ahmed Basra, Hafeez Ur Rehman, Shahid Iqbal and Didier Bazile
Plants 2022, 11(12), 1603; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11121603 - 18 Jun 2022
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 5185
Abstract
Quinoa is known as a super food due to its extraordinary nutritional qualities and has the potential to ensure future global food and nutritional security. As a model plant with halophytic behavior, quinoa has potential to meet the challenges of climate change and [...] Read more.
Quinoa is known as a super food due to its extraordinary nutritional qualities and has the potential to ensure future global food and nutritional security. As a model plant with halophytic behavior, quinoa has potential to meet the challenges of climate change and salinization due to its capabilities for survival in harsh climatic conditions. The quinoa crop has received worldwide attention due to its adoption and production expanded in countries out of the native Andean region. Quinoa was introduced to Pakistan in 2009 and it is still a new crop in Pakistan. The first quinoa variety was registered in 2019, then afterward, its cultivation started on a larger scale. Weed pressure, terminal heat stress, stem lodging, bold grain size, and an unstructured market are the major challenges in the production and promotion of the crop. The potential of superior features of quinoa has not been fully explored and utilized. Hence, there is a need to acquire more diverse quinoa germplasm and to establish a strong breeding program to develop new lines with higher productivity and improved crop features for the Pakistan market. Mechanized production, processing practices, and a structured market are needed for further scaling of quinoa production in Pakistan. To achieve these objectives, there is a dire need to create an enabling environment for quinoa production and promotion through the involvement of policymakers, research institutions, farmers associations, and the private sector. Full article
18 pages, 1572 KiB  
Review
Metabolism and Regulation of Ascorbic Acid in Fruits
by Xianzhe Zheng, Min Gong, Qiongdan Zhang, Huaqiang Tan, Liping Li, Youwan Tang, Zhengguo Li, Mingchao Peng and Wei Deng
Plants 2022, 11(12), 1602; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11121602 - 18 Jun 2022
Cited by 34 | Viewed by 4855
Abstract
Ascorbic acid, also known as vitamin C, is a vital antioxidant widely found in plants. Plant fruits are rich in ascorbic acid and are the primary source of human intake of ascorbic acid. Ascorbic acid affects fruit ripening and stress resistance and plays [...] Read more.
Ascorbic acid, also known as vitamin C, is a vital antioxidant widely found in plants. Plant fruits are rich in ascorbic acid and are the primary source of human intake of ascorbic acid. Ascorbic acid affects fruit ripening and stress resistance and plays an essential regulatory role in fruit development and postharvest storage. The ascorbic acid metabolic pathway in plants has been extensively studied. Ascorbic acid accumulation in fruits can be effectively regulated by genetic engineering technology. The accumulation of ascorbic acid in fruits is regulated by transcription factors, protein interactions, phytohormones, and environmental factors, but the research on the regulatory mechanism is still relatively weak. This paper systematically reviews the regulation mechanism of ascorbic acid metabolism in fruits in recent decades. It provides a rich theoretical basis for an in-depth study of the critical role of ascorbic acid in fruits and the cultivation of fruits rich in ascorbic acid. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advance in Fruit Development)
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11 pages, 1699 KiB  
Article
The Mutation of Rice MEDIATOR25, OsMED25, Induces Rice Bacterial Blight Resistance through Altering Jasmonate- and Auxin-Signaling
by Go Suzuki, Manatsu Fukuda, Nonawin Lucob-Agustin, Yoshiaki Inukai and Kenji Gomi
Plants 2022, 11(12), 1601; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11121601 - 17 Jun 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2198
Abstract
Rice bacterial blight disease caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) is one of the most severe diseases of rice. However, the regulatory mechanisms of rice defense against Xoo remain poorly understood. The rice MEDIATOR25, OsMED25—a subunit of the mediator multiprotein [...] Read more.
Rice bacterial blight disease caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) is one of the most severe diseases of rice. However, the regulatory mechanisms of rice defense against Xoo remain poorly understood. The rice MEDIATOR25, OsMED25—a subunit of the mediator multiprotein complex that acts as a universal adaptor between transcription factors (TFs) and RNA polymerase II—plays an important role in jasmonic acid (JA)-mediated lateral root development in rice. In this study, we found that OsMED25 also plays an important role in JA- and auxin-mediated resistance responses against rice bacterial blight. The osmed25 loss-of-function mutant exhibited high resistance to Xoo. The expression of JA-responsive defense-related genes regulated by OsMYC2, which is a positive TF in JA signaling, was downregulated in osmed25 mutants. Conversely, expression of some OsMYC2-independent JA-responsive defense-related genes was upregulated in osmed25 mutants. Furthermore, OsMED25 interacted with some AUXIN RESPONSE FACTORS (OsARFs) that regulate auxin signaling, whereas the mutated osmed25 protein did not interact with the OsARFs. The expression of auxin-responsive genes was downregulated in osmed25 mutants, and auxin-induced susceptibility to Xoo was not observed in osmed25 mutants. These results indicate that OsMED25 plays an important role in the stable regulation of JA- and auxin-mediated signaling in rice defense response. Full article
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20 pages, 1739 KiB  
Review
Diaporthe citri: A Fungal Pathogen Causing Melanose Disease
by Chingchai Chaisiri, Xiangyu Liu, Yang Lin and Chaoxi Luo
Plants 2022, 11(12), 1600; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11121600 - 17 Jun 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 4079
Abstract
Citrus melanose is a fungal disease caused by Diaporthe citri F.A. Wolf. It is found in various citrus-growing locations across the world. The host range of D. citri is limited to plants of the Citrus genus. The most economically important hosts are Citrus [...] Read more.
Citrus melanose is a fungal disease caused by Diaporthe citri F.A. Wolf. It is found in various citrus-growing locations across the world. The host range of D. citri is limited to plants of the Citrus genus. The most economically important hosts are Citrus reticulata (mandarin), C. sinensis (sweet orange), C. grandis or C. maxima (pumelo), and C. paradisi (grapefruit). In the life cycle of D. citri throughout the citrus growing season, pycnidia can be seen in abundance on dead branches, especially after rain, with conidia appearing as slimy masses discharged from the dead twigs. Raindrops can transmit conidia to leaves, twigs, and fruits, resulting in disease dispersion throughout small distances. Persistent rains and warm climatic conditions generally favor disease onset and development. The melanose disease causes a decline in fruit quality, which lowers the value of fruits during marketing and exportation. High rainfall areas should avoid planting susceptible varieties. In this article, information about the disease symptoms, history, geographic distribution, epidemiology, impact, and integrated management practices, as well as the pathogen morphology and identification, was reviewed and discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 10th Anniversary of Plants—Recent Advances and Perspectives)
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10 pages, 289 KiB  
Review
Therapeutic Potential of Ranunculus Species (Ranunculaceae): A Literature Review on Traditional Medicinal Herbs
by Youn-Kyoung Goo
Plants 2022, 11(12), 1599; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11121599 - 17 Jun 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2975
Abstract
The genus Ranunculus includes approximately 600 species and is distributed worldwide. To date, several researchers have investigated the chemical and biological activities of Ranunculus species, and my research team has found them to have antimalarial effects. This review is based on the available [...] Read more.
The genus Ranunculus includes approximately 600 species and is distributed worldwide. To date, several researchers have investigated the chemical and biological activities of Ranunculus species, and my research team has found them to have antimalarial effects. This review is based on the available information on the traditional uses and pharmacological studies of Ranunculus species. The present paper covers online literature, particularly from 2010 to 2021, and books on the ethnopharmacology and botany of Ranunculus species. Previous studies on the biological activity of crude or purified compounds from Ranunculus species, including R. sceleratus Linn., R. japonicus Thunb., R. muricatus Linn., R. ternatus Thunb., R. arvensis Linn., R. diffusus DC., R. sardous Crantz, R. ficaria Linn., R. hyperboreus Rotlb., and R. pedatus Waldst. & Kit., have provided new insights into their activities, such as antibacterial and antiprotozoal effects as well as antioxidant, immunomodulatory, and anticarcinogenic properties. In addition, the anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects of plants used in traditional medicine applications have been confirmed. Therefore, there is a need for more diverse studies on the chemical and pharmacological activities of highly purified molecules from Ranunculus species extracts to understand the mechanisms underlying their activities and identify novel drug candidates. Full article
44 pages, 12483 KiB  
Review
Ethnobotanical Uses, Phytochemical Composition, Biosynthesis, and Pharmacological Activities of Carpesium abrotanoides L. (Asteraceae)
by Sabrin R. M. Ibrahim, Sana A. Fadil, Haifa A. Fadil, Rawan H. Hareeri, Hossam M. Abdallah and Gamal A. Mohamed
Plants 2022, 11(12), 1598; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11121598 - 17 Jun 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2082
Abstract
Carpesium abrotanoides L. (Asteraceae) is a medicinal plant with immense therapeutic importance and bioactivities. It is commonly encountered in various Asian regions. It has numerous ethnomedicinal uses for curing diverse ailments such as toothache, stomach ulcer, boils, tonsillitis, bronchitis, bacterial infection, bruises, swelling, [...] Read more.
Carpesium abrotanoides L. (Asteraceae) is a medicinal plant with immense therapeutic importance and bioactivities. It is commonly encountered in various Asian regions. It has numerous ethnomedicinal uses for curing diverse ailments such as toothache, stomach ulcer, boils, tonsillitis, bronchitis, bacterial infection, bruises, swelling, virus infection, fever, and amygdalitis, as well as an anthelmintic versus round-, tape-, hook-, and pinworms. Different classes of phytoconstituents such as sesquiterpenes, sesquiterpene dimers, monoterpenes, and nitrogenous compounds have been reported from this plant. These phytoconstituents have proved to possess anti-inflammatory, cytotoxic, antimicrobial, and insecticidal capacities. The present review aims to summarize all published data on C. abrotanoides including traditional uses, phytoconstituents, bioactivities, and toxicological aspects, as well as the synthesis and biosynthesis of its metabolites through an extensive survey on various databases and various publishers. These reported data could draw the attention of various natural-metabolite-interested researchers and medicinal chemists towards the development of this plant and/or its metabolites into medicine for the prevention and treatment of certain illnesses. Despite the diverse traditional uses of C. abrotanoides, there is a need for scientific evidence to support these claims. Clinical trials are also required to further assure these data and validate this plant utilization in treating several diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biodiscoveries from Plants)
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14 pages, 1174 KiB  
Article
Impact of Horse Grazing on Floristic Diversity in Mediterranean Small Standing-Water Ecosystems (SWEs)
by Giuseppe Fenu, Arianna Melis, Maria Silvia Pinna, Maria Cecilia Loi, Giulia Calderisi and Donatella Cogoni
Plants 2022, 11(12), 1597; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11121597 - 17 Jun 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1663
Abstract
Small standing-Water Ecosystems (SWEs), despite their pivotal ecological role due to their participation in hydrogeological processes and their richness in biodiversity, seem to be often overlooked by the scientific community. In this study, the vascular plant diversity in some representative SWEs, that host [...] Read more.
Small standing-Water Ecosystems (SWEs), despite their pivotal ecological role due to their participation in hydrogeological processes and their richness in biodiversity, seem to be often overlooked by the scientific community. In this study, the vascular plant diversity in some representative SWEs, that host a peculiar assemblage of plant and animal species, was investigated in relation to the disturbance effects of a wild horse population. A total of 50 plots, equally distributed in small and large SWEs, were surveyed and a level of disturbance was attributed to each plot. We found greater species richness in small and undisturbed SWEs, which suggests the negative impact of horse grazing on the richness of plant species in this type of habitat. Significant differences in plant assemblage were found according to the disturbance level, whereas, contrary to what was observed for species richness, no differences were detected based on their size. The diversity indices, used to evaluate the richness and diversity in these areas, recorded the highest values for small and undisturbed areas. This result highlights that the disturbance of the horse grazing plays a pivotal role in affecting the diversity and richness of species in the SWEs. These findings suggest that SWE systems should be analyzed considering these areas as unique in order to allow the conservation of the plant richness and biodiversity of the SWE systems in conjunction with the protection of horses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Feature Papers in Plant Ecology)
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21 pages, 6357 KiB  
Article
Stolonicaulon: A Section-Puzzle within Marsupella (Gymnomitriaceae, Marchantiophyta)
by Vadim A. Bakalin, Anna A. Vilnet, Yuriy S. Mamontov, Alfons Schäfer-Verwimp, Yulia D. Maltseva, Ksenia G. Klimova, Van Sinh Nguyen and Seung Se Choi
Plants 2022, 11(12), 1596; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11121596 - 17 Jun 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2017
Abstract
Marsupella sect. Stolonicaulon is not speciose and is a commonly neglected section within the genus, which currently includes three species with somewhat similar morphologies (wiry shoots with distanced leaves) and distributions in the mountains of tropical and subtropical regions (SE (Southeast) Asia, the [...] Read more.
Marsupella sect. Stolonicaulon is not speciose and is a commonly neglected section within the genus, which currently includes three species with somewhat similar morphologies (wiry shoots with distanced leaves) and distributions in the mountains of tropical and subtropical regions (SE (Southeast) Asia, the Venezuelan Andes, and the high mountains of SE Brazil). After studying materials that were found to be dissimilar to the “traditional” Marsupella that were collected in the last decade by the authors of this article, it was found that these plants belong to three new-for-science species, and all of these species should be included in Marsupella sect. Stolonicaulon. The newly described species have expanded the boundaries of morphological variability, not only for the section itself, but also for the genus based on two findings: (1) the leaves of Marsupella sect. Stolonicaulon can be either appressed and entire or spaced and deeply divided (thus, the plants could occasionally be similar to Cephaloziella or Anastrophyllum); (2) some species of the section possess regular underleaf production. The first discovery of regular underleaves in Marsupella, as noted in two of the three newly described taxa, is the main morphological novelty described in this paper. The development of regular underleaves is a presumable relict character that brings Marsupella closer to Nardia, which was recently transferred to the Gymnomitriaceae and occupies an isolated position within its own subfamily, Nardioideae. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Knowledge in Bryology 2.0)
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13 pages, 352 KiB  
Review
Haploid Induction in Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) via Gynogenesis
by Ivan Maryn Marin-Montes, Juan Enrique Rodríguez-Pérez, Alejandrina Robledo-Paz, Eulogio de la Cruz-Torres, Aureliano Peña-Lomelí and Jaime Sahagún-Castellanos
Plants 2022, 11(12), 1595; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11121595 - 17 Jun 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3556
Abstract
The generation of new hybrid varieties of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) is the most widely used breeding method for this species and requires at least seven self-fertilization cycles to generate stable parent lines. The development of doubled haploids aims at obtaining completely [...] Read more.
The generation of new hybrid varieties of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) is the most widely used breeding method for this species and requires at least seven self-fertilization cycles to generate stable parent lines. The development of doubled haploids aims at obtaining completely homozygous lines in a single generation, although, to date, routine commercial application has not been possible in this species. In contrast, obtaining doubled haploid lines via gynogenesis has been successfully implemented in recalcitrant crops such as melon, cucumber, pumpkin, loquat and walnut. This review provides an overview of the requirements and advantages of gynogenesis as an inducer of haploidy in different agricultural crops, with the purpose of assessing the potential for its application in tomato breeding. Successful cases of gynogenesis variants involving in vitro culture of unfertilized ovules, use of 60Co-irradiated pollen, in vivo haploid inducers and wide hybridization are presented, suggesting that these methodologies could be implemented in tomato breeding programs to obtain doubled haploids. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Plant Breeding, Genetics and Genomics)
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23 pages, 10347 KiB  
Article
Biostimulants as an Alternative to Improve the Wine Quality from Vitis vinifera (cv. Tempranillo) in La Rioja
by Cristina E. Olavarrieta, Maria Carmen Sampedro, Asier Vallejo, Nikola Štefelová, Ramón J. Barrio and Nuria De Diego
Plants 2022, 11(12), 1594; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11121594 - 16 Jun 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2063
Abstract
The application of biostimulants appears to be an environmentally friendly, innovative, and sustainable agronomical tool to mitigate the negative effects induced by adverse climatology in traditional grape-growing regions such as La Rioja (Spain). However, their mechanism of action in grapevines is still unclear. [...] Read more.
The application of biostimulants appears to be an environmentally friendly, innovative, and sustainable agronomical tool to mitigate the negative effects induced by adverse climatology in traditional grape-growing regions such as La Rioja (Spain). However, their mechanism of action in grapevines is still unclear. We evaluated how commercial substances (two from Ascophyllum nodosum extraction and one amino acids-based biostimulant) and the non-proteinogenic amino acid β-aminobutyric acid (BABA) affect the quality and quantity of musts and grapes in Vitis vinifera L. cv. Tempranillo from a semi-arid region of La Rioja during two seasons. We hypothesized an enhancement in organic metabolites in berries and leaves in response to these treatments, changing the organoleptic characteristics of the final products. The treatments altered the primary metabolites such as carbohydrates, organic acids (AcOrg), and free amino acids, first in the leaves as the effect of the foliar application and second in grapes and musts. As the main result, the biostimulant efficiency depended on the climatology and vineyard location to improve the final yield. Whereas biostimulant application enhanced the yield in 2018 (less dry year), it did not help production in 2019 (dry year). BABA was the most efficient biostimulant, enhancing plant production. Regarding yield quality, the biostimulant application improved the musts mainly by enhancing the fumaric acid content and by reducing carbohydrates, except in BABA-treated plants, where they were accumulated. These results corroborate biostimulants as an exciting approach in wine production, especially for improving wine quality. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chemical Activators of the Natural Defences of the Plant)
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13 pages, 1594 KiB  
Article
Nutrient Composition Analysis of Maize Hybrids Affected by Different Nitrogen Fertilisation Systems
by Csaba Bojtor, Seyed Mohammad Nasir Mousavi, Árpád Illés, Farid Golzardi, Adrienn Széles, Atala Szabó, János Nagy and Csaba L. Marton
Plants 2022, 11(12), 1593; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11121593 - 16 Jun 2022
Cited by 18 | Viewed by 2912
Abstract
Maize is one of the most widely used plants in the agricultural industry, and the fields of application of this plant are broad. The experiment was conducted at the Látókép Crop Production Experimental Station of the University of Debrecen, Hungary. Three mid-ripening maize [...] Read more.
Maize is one of the most widely used plants in the agricultural industry, and the fields of application of this plant are broad. The experiment was conducted at the Látókép Crop Production Experimental Station of the University of Debrecen, Hungary. Three mid-ripening maize hybrids with different FAO numbers were used in the present study. The effects of different nitrogen supplies were examined as a variable rate of abiotic stress and the interrelationship among the essential nutrients through the nutrient acquisition and partitioning of the different vegetative and generative plant parts. The results showed that NPK application compared to the control treatment (no fertilizer application) increased DM in all tissues of maize, while increasing nitrogen application from 120 to 300 kg ha−1 had no significant effect on this trait. The highest protein content was obtained with the nitrogen application of 120 kg ha−1, and the higher nitrogen fertilizer application had no significant effect on this trait. Seeds and leaves had a maximum zinc and manganese value in terms of nitrogen content (protein). Dry matter was positively correlated with nitrogen, potassium, and manganese content, while the dry matter had a negative correlation with nickel content. In general, to achieve a maximum quantitative and qualitative yield, it is recommended to use NPK fertilizer with a rate of 120 kg ha−1 N for maize cultivation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Nutrition Volume II)
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17 pages, 5076 KiB  
Article
Endophytic Fungal and Bacterial Microbiota Shift in Rice and Barnyardgrass Grown under Co-Culture Condition
by Shuyan Li, Qiling Yan, Jieyu Wang and Qiong Peng
Plants 2022, 11(12), 1592; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11121592 - 16 Jun 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1824
Abstract
Although barnyardgrass (Echinochloa crus-galli L.) is more competitive than rice (Oryza sativa L.) in the aboveground part, little is known about whether barnyardgrass is still competitive in recruiting endophytes and the root microbiota composition variation of rice under the barnyardgrass stress. [...] Read more.
Although barnyardgrass (Echinochloa crus-galli L.) is more competitive than rice (Oryza sativa L.) in the aboveground part, little is known about whether barnyardgrass is still competitive in recruiting endophytes and the root microbiota composition variation of rice under the barnyardgrass stress. Here, by detailed temporal characterization of root-associated microbiomes of rice plants during co-planted barnyardgrass stress and a comparison with the microbiomes of unplanted soil, we found that the bacterial community diversity of rice was dramatically higher while the fungal community richness was significantly lower than that of barnyardgrass at BBCH 45 and 57. More importantly, rice recruited more endophytic bacteria at BBCH 45 and 57, and more endophytic fungi at BBCH 17, 24, 37 to aginst the biotic stress from barnyardgrass. Principal coordinates analysis (PCoA) showed that rice and barnyardgrass had different community compositions of endophytic bacteria and fungi in roots. The PICRUSt predictive analysis indicated that majority of metabolic pathways of bacteria were overrepresented in barnyardgrass. However, eleven pathways were significantly presented in rice. In addition, rice and barnyardgrass harbored different fungal trophic modes using FUNGuild analysis. A negative correlation between bacteria and fungi in rice and barnyardgrass roots was found via network analysis. Actinobacteria was the vital bacteria in rice, while Proteobacteria dominated in barnyardgrass, and Ascomycota was the vital fungi in each species. These findings provided data and a theoretical basis for the in-depth understanding of the competition of barnyardgrass and endophytes and have implications relevant to weed prevention and control strategies using root microbiota. Full article
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20 pages, 5993 KiB  
Article
Viromes of Hungarian Peach Trees Identified by High-Throughput Sequencing of Small RNAs
by Daniel Barath, Nikoletta Jaksa-Czotter, Tunde Varga and Eva Varallyay
Plants 2022, 11(12), 1591; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11121591 - 16 Jun 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1853
Abstract
Peach trees can be infected with viruses and viroids. As we do not have efficient plant protection methods against these pathogens, the prevention of infection is crucial. Fruit trees are maintained by vegetative propagation. Planting material such as certified mother trees and rootstocks [...] Read more.
Peach trees can be infected with viruses and viroids. As we do not have efficient plant protection methods against these pathogens, the prevention of infection is crucial. Fruit trees are maintained by vegetative propagation. Planting material such as certified mother trees and rootstocks should be free from viruses and viroids, and this status has to be regularly checked to prevent infections. We surveyed certified peach trees for the presence of viruses and viroids using small RNA high-throughput sequencing (HTS), an unbiased virus diagnostic method. The results of the bioinformatic analysis of HTS were validated by other molecular methods including RT-PCR, Northern blot hybridization and loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP). We found the presence of plum pox virus and peach latent mosaic viroid (PLMVd) in the vector-free isolator houses, whose presence should be regularly tested. Moreover, we detected frequent infection with recently described viruses such as nectarine stem pitting-associated virus and peach-associated luteovirus (PaLV). During the survey, PLMVd and PaLV were detected for the first time in Hungary. The analysis of the presenting virus variants and possible sources of infection suggests that the source of the viral infection could be the infected propagating material. Our study emphasizes the importance of using sensitive and trustworthy diagnostic techniques to be able to detect viral infections and successfully prevent their spread by propagation material. Full article
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33 pages, 740 KiB  
Review
Poorly Investigated Ecuadorian Medicinal Plants
by Chabaco Armijos, Jorge Ramírez and Giovanni Vidari
Plants 2022, 11(12), 1590; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11121590 - 16 Jun 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2806
Abstract
Ecuador has, in proportion of its size, one of the richest floras of Latin America and the world; the country also has an immense cultural heritage due to the presence of different ethnic groups that have implemented the use of many wild and [...] Read more.
Ecuador has, in proportion of its size, one of the richest floras of Latin America and the world; the country also has an immense cultural heritage due to the presence of different ethnic groups that have implemented the use of many wild and cultivated plants, mainly as medicinal remedies. In a recent publication, we have summarized the results of research activities recently carried out on about 120 plants native to Ecuador, which includes the structures of non-volatile isolated compounds, as well as the chemical composition of essential oils (EOs) and the in vitro tested biological activity data. For the sake of completeness, we have collected in this paper the main information obtained from recent ethnobotanical investigations on other important Ecuadorian medicinal plants for which phytochemical, pharmacological, and toxicological studies are, however, still largely lacking. Thus, one of the objectives of this paper is to preserve the traditional knowledge of Ecuadorian Indigenous communities which, being transmitted orally, is in danger of becoming lost. Moreover, it is our intention to stimulate more extensive studies on the rich medicinal flora of the country, which can provide economic and social benefits, especially to the people who traditionally cultivate or collect the plants. Full article
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