Next Article in Journal
Extreme Precipitation and Flooding Contribute to Sudden Vegetation Dieback in a Coastal Salt Marsh
Next Article in Special Issue
A Review on Medicinal Plants Used in the Management of Headache in Africa
Previous Article in Journal
The Epipactis helleborine Group (Orchidaceae): An Overview of Recent Taxonomic Changes, with an Updated List of Currently Accepted Taxa
Previous Article in Special Issue
Dual-Purpose of the Winged Bean (Psophocarpus tetragonolobus (L.) DC.), the Neglected Tropical Legume, Based on Pod and Tuber Yields
Font Type:
Arial Georgia Verdana
Font Size:
Aa Aa Aa
Line Spacing:
Column Width:

Ethnomedicinal Plants Used in the Health Care System: Survey of the Mid Hills of Solan District, Himachal Pradesh, India

by 1,*, 2,*, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 16, 17, 18 and 19,*add Show full author list remove Hide full author list
Chemical and Biochemical Processing Division, ICAR-Central Institute for Research on Cotton Technology, Mumbai 400019, India
School of Biological and Environmental Sciences, Shoolini University of Biotechnology and Management Sciences, Solan 173229, India
School of Mechanical and Civil Engineering, Shoolini University of Biotechnology and Management Sciences, Solan 173229, India
Department of Food, Nutrition and Packaging Sciences, Clemson University, Clemson, SC 29634, USA
Division of Crop Physiology, Biochemistry and Post-Harvest Technology, ICAR-Central Potato Research Institute, Shimla 171001, India
Department of Vegetable Science, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore 641003, India
HCP Division, ICAR-Central Institute of Post-Harvest Engineering and Technology, Abohar 152116, India
ICAR—National Research Centre on Pomegranate, Solapur 413255, India
Dr. S.S. Bhatnagar University Institute of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Panjab University, Chandigarh 160014, India
Division of Crop Improvement, ICAR—Central Institute for Arid Horticulture, Bikaner 334006, India
Division of Horticulture, RCSM College of Agriculture, Kolhapur 416004, India
Department of Agricultural Botany, RCSM College of Agriculture, Kolhapur 416004, India
Department of Food Science and Technology, Dr. Y.S. Parmar University of Horticulture and Forestry, Nauni 173230, India
Department of Rural Development and Agricultural Extension, College of Agriculture, Wolaita Sodo University, Wolaita Sodo P.O. Box 138, Ethiopia
ICAR—Indian Institute of Maize Research, Ludhiana 141004, India
Department of Botany and Microbiology, H.N.B. Garhwal University, Srinagar 246174, India
ICAR—National Research Centre for Orchids, Pakyong 737106, India
Institute of Animal Reproduction and Food Research, Polish Academy of Sciences, 10-748 Olsztyn, Poland
Clinic for Conservative Dentistry and Periodontology, School of Dental Medicine, Christian Albrecht’s University, 24105 Kiel, Germany
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Plants 2021, 10(9), 1842;
Original submission received: 17 July 2021 / Revised: 2 September 2021 / Accepted: 3 September 2021 / Published: 5 September 2021


The study was performed in the mid hills of the Dharampur region in Solan district of Himachal Pradesh, India. At the study site, a total of 115 medicinal plants were documented (38 trees, 37 herbs, 34 shrubs, 5 climbers, 1 fern, and 1 grass). In the study region, extensive field surveys were performed between March 2020 and August 2021. Indigenous knowledge of wild medicinal plants was collected through questionnaires, discussions, and personal interviews during field trips. Plants with their correct nomenclature were arranged by botanical name, family, common name, habitat, parts used, routes used, and diseases treated. In the present study, the predominant family was Rosaceae, which represented the maximum number of plant species, 10, followed by Asteraceae and Lamiaceae, which represented 8 plant species. The rural inhabitants of the Dharampur region in the Solan district have been using local plants for primary health care and the treatment of various diseases for a longer time. However, information related to the traditional knowledge of medicinal plants was not documented. The rural inhabitants of the Dharampur region reported that the new generation is not so interested in traditional knowledge of medicinal plants due to modernization in society, so there is an urgent need to document ethnomedicinal plants before such knowledge becomes inaccessible and extinct.

1. Introduction

Across the world, rural people rely on traditional local knowledge of medicinal plants for primary health care [1,2]. Ethnobotany is the study of the connection that exists among precolonial cultures of individuals and plant ecosystems. Rural people have inherited traditional medicinal plant knowledge from generation to generation [3,4]. Ethnobotanical studies are essential in the quest for modern drugs derived from natural medicinal plant resources [5,6]. For rural communities in developing countries, the use of plant species as traditional medicines provides a good alternative to health care systems [7,8]. It has been reported that 80% of the population in developing countries relies on traditional medicines for primary health care. These medicinal plants are frequently reported as safe, cheap and easily available from the surroundings [9,10]. In India, approximately 7500 plant species have been reported for medicinal use in indigenous health practices and modern systems of medicines [11,12]. Since Vedic times, plants have been used for medicinal purposes and human sustenance in India. Rig Veda and Atharveda were the first to discuss the medicinal use of plants [13]. In India, approximately 75% of the population lives in rural areas. In periods of food scarcity, most rural communities depend on natural resources such as wild edible plants to meet their food requirements [14].
Approximately 800 species of food plants are eaten by rural communities [15]. Wild plants have had significant importance in human life since ancient times; they have been used for food, medicine, fiber, and other purposes, as well as fodder for livestock. Wild edible food plants are valuable to humans and have been identified as a means of maintaining a balance between population expansion and agricultural productivity, particularly in the developing world [16]. It has been reported that approximately 54 million tribal people live in different parts of India. To continue daily life routines, local inhabitants of rural regions depend on forests and forest products. Most tribal communities still rely on local traditional medicines for their survival [17,18,19].
The biodiversity of the Indian Himalayan region millions of years ago has long been considered an important foundation for traditional medicine [20]. In the northwestern Himalayas, the state of Himachal Pradesh is divided into four zones: dry temperate-alpine, subtropical, subtemperate and moist temperate. The state of Himachal Pradesh has high plant diversity, including endemic and endangered species, due to its varied altitudinal gradients and climatic conditions [21,22]. Ninety-one commercially exploited nontimber forest product species and 57 endangered wild medicinal plant species have been identified by the state forest department of Himachal Pradesh [23]. In some parts of India, there is no proper documentation of ethnomedicinal plants used by rural communities. Therefore, systematic documentation is needed for the conservation of medicinal plant prosperity from rural areas of Himachal Pradesh in India [24,25]. Himachal Pradesh is considered one of the richest areas of traditional and potential medicinal wealth. However, limited studies have been carried out in some regions of the state to document traditional knowledge of ethnomedicinal plants [26,27]
Some researchers have attempted to document useful indigenous information on the medicinal uses of plants from the mid hills of the Dharampur region in Solan district, Himachal Pradesh, India. The survey of this study region can be a good preliminary point for new phytopharmacological research in the medicinal domain. There is no proper record available for traditional medicinal knowledge of plants used by rural people of the mid hills in the Dharampur region of Solan district in Himachal Pradesh, India. With these factors in mind, the present study was carried out with the objective of determining the various uses of medicinal plants. Further studies are required to determine the chemical compounds found in medicinal plants responsible for various biological activities.

2. Results

2.1. Demography of Informants

Ethnomedicinal data were gathered through open conversations with local informants between the ages of 25 and 75 years. A total of 114 informants, including 76 males (67%) and 38 females (33%), in the study area were interviewed to document their traditional knowledge of ethnomedicinal plants. Based on interviews, it was observed that local males, compared to local females, have better knowledge about ethnomedicines; the reason behind this might be that men are usually favored in the shift of knowledge. However, it is also observed that elderly traditional medicinal practitioners, including both men and women, have equal knowledge about ethnomedicines. In this survey, informants were categorized into five groups based on age. A total of 14 informants were between the ages of 25 and 35, 25 were between the ages of 36 and 50, 30 were between the ages of 51 and 60, 35 were between the ages of 61 and 70, and 10 were between the ages of 70 and 75 years (Table 1).

2.2. Ethnomedicinal Plants

A total of 115 ethnomedicinal plants were collected from study site during survey. Table 2 demonstrate botanical name, family, common name (Hindi), habitat, voucher no., part used, administration route, use value and usage.
The ethnomedicinal plants collected from the study site belongs to families including Apocynaceae, Caryophyllaceae, Asteraceae, Berberidaceae, Brassicaceae, Urticaceae, Elaeocarpaceae, Salicaceae, Polygonaceae, Rhamnaceae, Rosaceae, Sapindaceae and Violaceae, etc. The highest number of ethnomedicinal plants was recorded from the family Rosaceae having 10 plant species followed by Lamiaceae and Asteraceae having 8 plant species (Figure 1).
It was found that all the plants belonging to the Rosaceae are used to cure dysentery, fever, cough, cold and skin diseases, etc. Based on interview data it was observed that skin infection, fever cough and cold occurs more frequently as compared to other diseases. The medicinal plants reported by informers for the remedy of skin infections are Cryptolepis buchananii, Eucalyptus citriodora, Ligustrum japonicum, Pinus roxburghii, Rosa alba, Ziziphus nummularia and Sonchus oleraceus.
It was observed that some plants such as Rhododendron arboreum, Zanthoxylum armatum, Viola canescens, Quercus leucotrichophora, Rubus ellipticus, Punica granatum, Ocimum sanctum, Morus nigra, Mentha arvensis, Justicia adhatoda, Ficus benghalensis, Eriobotrya japonica, Debregeasia longifolia, Cissampelos pareira, Datura innoxia, Eucalyptus citriodora, Cynodon dactylon, Colebrookea oppositifolia, and Cannabis sativa were suggested by local informants to cure diarrhea, diabetes, dysentery, cough, cold and fever.
Based on the informants’ data, leaves were the most commonly used plant part, followed by whole plants, roots and flowers (Figure 2). It was also reported that in the following plant species were used: Foeniculum vulgare, Berberis asiatica, Centella asiatica, Datura innoxia, Elaeocarpus ganitrus, Euphorbia heliscopia, Euphorbia milii, Ipomoea cairica, Justicia adhatoda, Ligustrum japonicum, Nasturtium officinale, Mentha arvensis, Ocimum sanctum, Oxalis corniculata, Papaver somniferum, Prunus cerasoides, Pseudognaphalium hypoleucum, Rumex hastatus, Punica granatum, Ranunculus laetus, Salvia officinalis, Solanum virum, Spiraea cantoniensis and Stellaria media; all plant parts were utilized to cure different diseases. A few medicinal plant species reported from the study site were used in different ritual ceremonies. For example, flowers of Datura innoxia and leaves of Cannabis sativa are offered to lord Shiva in festivals such as Shivrati, and leaves of Cynodon dactylon are offered to lord Ganesh or different deities in Pooja.

2.3. Use Value

The results of the ethnobotanical study revealed a wealth of indigenous knowledge and the usage of traditional plants in rural people’s health care systems. The high use value of medicinal plants indicates how important they are to indigenous society in treating specific human ailments. Based on use value data, the most commonly used medicinal plant species is Catharanthus roseus (0.90), and the least commonly used medicinal plant species is Prunus persica (0.63). Catharanthus roseus is used to treat hypertension and diabetes, and Prunus persica is used to treat sores and wounds.
Pictures of some plants reported from the study site are shown in Figure 3.
The ongoing decline of indigenous medicinal plant knowledge requires an assessment of traditional knowledge with the goal of developing the medicinal plant sector. Knowledge on indigenous uses of native plants must be studied before it becomes extinct. The findings of the current study could lead to the development of a new herbal drug for the treatment of ailments. Furthermore, ethnobotanical studies that document indigenous knowledge are important for the conservation and sustainable use of natural resources. It is essential to encourage indigenous groups and enable their participation in sustainable harvesting and conservation of natural resources to implement in situ preservation for traditional knowledge in rural areas. To enhance their position and preserve their knowledge, colleges should engage with indigenous tribes and designate them as “knowledge sites” on technical topics.
Traditional knowledge, biodiversity and cultural values are all interconnected and interdependent. These are, without a doubt, the essential factors that keep traditional knowledge intact in practice. Because of the increasing economic value of biocultural resources and threats to their existence, the government and private entities must recognize these natural resources as national wealth. Governments must establish national policy and legal frameworks to ensure that biocultural resources are effectively protected. The primary goal of this research was to document the ethnomedicinal plants utilized by rural people in the Solan district and to document indigenous knowledge about traditional plant uses through ethnobotanical research. More research into the preparation of medicinal formulations, phytochemicals, and pharmacological significance, followed by clinical trials, will add to the traditional medical and cultural systems’ knowledge base.

3. Discussion

In the present study, we documented the uses of commonly used wild medicinal plants in the mid hills of Solan district in Himachal Pradesh, India. A total of 115 plant species belonging to the same or different families were reported from the study region. Due to strong belief in the traditional system of medicine, rural people of the study region frequently prefer to use wild plants. The rural inhabitants of the study site reported that plant species Berberis aristata, Zanthoxylum armatum, Viola canescens, Rhododendron arboreum, Datura innoxia, Ocimum sanctum, Colebrookea oppositifolia, Mentha arvensis, Justicia adhatoda, Cynodon dactylon, Ficus auriculata, Cannabis sativa, Oxalis corniculata and Verbascum thapsus are highly effective in treating different types of human diseases. A few ethnomedicinal plants found in the current study have also been reported from different regions of India, such as Verbascum thapsus, Cannabis sativa, Cynodon dactylon, Ficus palmata, Urtica dioica and Juglans regia. Most of these formulations were prescribed for oral use. In recent years, it has been reported that traditional ethnobotanical knowledge of medicinal plants is gradually decreasing from society, mainly due to modernization, and some medicinal plants with ethnobotanical importance are threatened with extinction worldwide due to habitat destruction, climate change and overexploitation. Studies have reported that the documentation of ethnobotanical knowledge and ethnomedicinal plants can play a significant role in the conservation of traditional ethnobotanical knowledge and the protection of threatened ethnomedicinal plants [28,29,30,31]. The Himalayan forests provided a rich reservoir of medicinal plants that are essential to the native community [32,33]. Various studies on medicinal plants used by tribal groups in India have found that they prefer traditional medicine since it is less expensive, has fewer side effects, and is a part of their lives and culture on which our findings are set up. In India, some medicinal plants are the only source of health care in remote areas due to a lack of medical facilities [34,35,36,37]. Worldwide, traditional uses of ethnomedicinal plants vary from person to person and region to region [38,39,40,41]. Traditional knowledge of medicinal plants has deteriorated among indigenous groups in recent decades, indicating a risk of extinction. In India, recent economic advancements, exposure to the market economy, and infrastructure modernization have caused a shift in indigenous groups’ traditional lifestyles, resulting in the erosion of traditional knowledge [42]. Using indigenous knowledge of traditional medicine is an efficient method of finding novel medicines through ethnobotanical research. Some of the medicinal plants mentioned in the current study site are also documented in other studies conducted in adjoining regions of Himachal Pradesh. Freshly harvested plants or plant parts are widely utilized in human treatments. Leaves, whole plants, stems, fruits, flowers, seeds, roots, and bark are the most regularly used parts to combat human diseases. Interviewed people were enriched with traditional ethnobotanical knowledge from their parents and grandfathers. It has been found that older people have better traditional knowledge of medicinal plants than younger generations. Ethnobotanical findings could help with the development of indigenous knowledge and its application in domains including pharmacology, pharmacognosy, pharmaceuticals, toxicology, phytochemistry, ethnobotany, taxonomy, anthropology, and medicinal science. This type of alternative medical approach is now recognized as critical for community development [43,44,45]. Recent studies have reported the bioactivities of medicinal plants and phytoextracts, showing potential therapeutic use in the treatment of various ailments. The findings given in this research are preliminary and should be verified further. The link between ethnomedicinal knowledge and modern mainstream pharmacology will be highlighted by pharmacological research on ethnomedicines [46,47,48,49,50]. It has been reported that indigenous knowledge of less-known plants is gradually disappearing [51]. A recent study reported that plant-based treatments may become more popular because of the many negative effects of modern allopathic drugs [52].
Local communities lack proper knowledge of wild plant populations, marketing and selling, inadequate regulation and legal protection and have limited access to appropriate technologies for crop plantation and harvesting. Local communities also require assistance and encouragement to safeguard their knowledge and resources. The rural inhabitants of the study site reported that the new generation is not so interested in traditional knowledge of medicinal plants due to modernization, so there is an urgent need to document traditional knowledge of medicinal plants in the study site before its elimination from society. The current study may be helpful for researchers, teachers, scientists, future generations and different pharmaceutical companies to develop new drugs. A few species of wild medicinal plants (Berberis aristata, Zanthoxylum armatum and Viola canescens) were found to be overexploited by rural people and were illegally collected and sold in markets at high cost. Due to unscientific overexploitation, these plants are found in fewer numbers and need proper maintenance and conservation. Because of the current rapid shift in communities worldwide, ethnobotanical knowledge is at risk. Excessive usage of several wild plants results in destructive harvesting and a loss of plant diversity in the area. Thus, there is a need to raise awareness among the native community about the long-term use and conservation of therapeutic medicines.

4. Materials and Methods

4.1. Description of the Study Area

The state of Himachal Pradesh (30°22′40″–33°12′40″ N to 75°45′55″–79°04′20″ E) possesses different types of biodiversity, and it has a pleasant climate throughout the year [53]. The study was performed in the mid hills of Dharampur in Solan district of Himachal Pradesh, India. Solan district is 1350 m above sea level, with a total area of 1936 km2. The average annual rainfall is 1413 mm [25]. It snows during the winter season from Jan to Feb. Because of various climatic alterations and altitudinal gradients, Himachal Pradesh is rich in plant biodiversity, including rare and endemic plants [54]. This study documented ethnobotanical knowledge and highlighted medicinal plants that are important in the lives of rural people belonging to the Dharampur region of Solan district. A scale map of the study site is shown in Figure 4.

4.2. Data Collection

Extensive field surveys were carried out in the mid hills of the Dharampur region, Solan district, Himachal Pradesh from March 2020 to June 2021, as most of the plants were in the flowering stage and were easy to identify. Ethnobotanical information was gathered through a pretested questionnaire in the format given in the Supplementary information 1 (ethnobotanical survey proforma designed and pretested with local informants, later modified according to the response of informants), direct observation, discussion, and interview methods. It was found that the majority of respondents were between 61 and 75 years old. Informants with better traditional knowledge were selected by the snowball method, and the purpose of the study was explained to informants before they gave oral informed consent. Each informant agreed to participate voluntarily and was allowed to discontinue the interviews any time [55]. Local people served as guides for the field study, and samples of medicinally important plants were collected, with their local identity confirmed by informants. The collected plant specimens were dried and mounted on herbarium sheets with labelled information describing when and how plant samples were collected. All collected plant specimens were identified from the taxonomist of the Botanical Survey of India. Dehradun and voucher specimens were submitted to herbarium of Shoolini University in the Solan district, Himachal Pradesh, India.

4.3. Use Value

The importance of plant species was calculated by the use value, and a formula was used for calculation:
UV = ΣUi/n
where Ui represents the number of usage reports mentioned by each informant for a particular plant species, and n is the total number of informants. If there are many use reports for a plant, the use values are high, which means that the plant is important, and if there are few reports, the use values are low [56,57].

5. Conclusions

The current study identified 115 plant species that are utilized to treat a variety of human diseases. The findings of this study show that indigenous people living in remote tribal areas are custodians of knowledge about a wide variety of plant resource uses in the study region. The current study suggests implementing various management strategies with the involvement of indigenous communities through village administrative councils to protect medicinal plants that are threatened by extinction. Ecology is shaped by the dialectical relationship between indigenous knowledge and practice, which has an impact on the plant population. New hypotheses for sustainable resource conservation can be developed by combining indigenous knowledge and use in scientific study. Indigenous knowledge of plant resource utilization is constantly decreasing due to changing perceptions of local people and the ever-increasing influence of globalization and socioeconomic transformation. The amount of valuable plant resources is diminishing at an alarming rate due to a lack of controlled scientific and sustainable monitoring cultivation and harvesting, lack of proper management techniques, and lack of knowledge of social concerns. Additionally, indigenous knowledge of lesser-known plant uses is rapidly disappearing. Plant-based treatments may become more popular as a result of the many negative effects of modern allopathic drugs, and traditional knowledge of plants and folk remedies may be preserved. Rural inhabitants of the study area reported that the new generation is not so interested in traditional knowledge of medicinal plants due to Western influence in society, so there is an urgent need to document traditional knowledge of medicinal plants from the study region of Solan district in Himachal Pradesh. A new generation may become more aware of natural products and motivated to utilize them. However, there is less information on the active phytochemicals in these plant species; therefore, the active principles responsible for pharmacological action must be investigated further at a scientific level to validate the claim.

Supplementary Materials

The following are available online at, Supplementary information 1: Questionnaire for conducting the ethnomedicinal study.

Author Contributions

Conceptualization, Resources, Supervision, Writing—Original Draft Preparation, M.K., S.D., A.G.B., M.S. and S.P. (Sunil Puri); Methodology, Investigation and Writing—Original Draft Preparation, R., A.P., S.R., M.K.S., M.T., H.D., T.I. and S.P. (Suraj Prakash); Software, Writing—Review and Editing, Formal Analysis, M.M., S.P.B., M.K.B., A.S., R.A., B.B., S.N., S.C., S.S., V.K.M., A. and R.D.D.; Visualization: M.M., R. and M.K. All authors have read and agreed to the published version of the manuscript.


This research received no external funding.

Institutional Review Board Statement

Not applicable.

Informed Consent Statement

Not applicable.

Data Availability Statement

Data will be available on request.


The authors are highly thankful to BSI Dehradun for identification of plant samples. The authors would like to thank the University of Kiel and Schleswig-Holstein for the support through the OA program.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflict of interest.


  1. WHO Report. WHO Global Report on Traditional and Complementary Medicine 2019; World Health Organization: Geneva, Switzerland, 2019; pp. 1–228. [Google Scholar]
  2. World Health Organization (WHO). WHO Traditional Medicine Strategy 2014–2023; World Health Organization: Geneva, Switzerland, 2013; pp. 1–76. [Google Scholar]
  3. Taek, M.M.; Banilodu, L.; Neonbasu, G.; Watu, Y.V.; EW, B.P.; Agil, M. Ethnomedicine of Tetun ethnic people in West Timor Indonesia: Philosophy and practice in the treatment of malaria. Integr. Med. Res. 2019, 8, 139–144. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  4. Mahmood, A.; Mahmood, A.; Tabassum, A. Ethnomedicinal Survey of Plants from District Sialkot, Pakistan. J. Appl. Pharm. 2011, 3, 212–220. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  5. Idolo, M.; Motti, R.; Mazzoleni, S. Ethnobotanical and phytomedicinal knowledge in a long history protected area, the Abruzzo, Lazio and Molise National Park (Italian Apennines). J. Ethnopharmacol. 2010, 127, 379–395. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  6. Njoroge, G.N.; Gemmill, B.; Newton, E.L.; Ngumi, V.W.; Bussmann, R.W. Utilisation of weed species as sources of traditional medicines in central Kenya. Lyonia 2004, 7, 71–87. [Google Scholar]
  7. Mahmood, A.; Mahmood, A.; Malik, R.N.; Shinwari, Z.K. Indigenous knowledge of medicinal plants from Gujranwala district, Pakistan. J. Ethnopharmacol. 2013, 148, 714–723. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. Hayta, S.; Polat, R.; Selvi, S. Traditional uses of medicinal plants in ElazIǧ (Turkey). J. Ethnopharmacol. 2014, 155, 171–184. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  9. Fabricant, D.S.; Farnsworth, N.R. The value of plants used in traditional medicine for drug discovery. Environ. Health Perspect. 2001, 109, 69–75. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  10. Rahman, M.A.; Mossa, J.S.; Al-Said, M.S.; Al-Yahya, M.A. Medicinal plant diversity in the flora of Saudi Arabia 1: A report on seven plant families. Fitoterapia 2004, 75, 149–161. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. Arti, S.; Kumar, S.V.; Pooja, S.; Sangeeta, C. Studies on Traditional Knowledge of Ethnomedicinal Plants in Jawalamukhi, Himachal Pradesh, India. Int. Res. J. Biol. Sci. 2014, 3, 6–12. [Google Scholar]
  12. Gowthami, R.; Sharma, N.; Pandey, R.; Agrawal, A. Status and consolidated list of threatened medicinal plants of India. Genet. Resour. Crop Evol. 2021, 68, 2235–2263. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  13. Wani, Z.A.; Kumar, N. Akash Ethnobotanical Study of Some Threatened Plants in District Baramulla, Kashmir, Jammu and Kashmir, India. Int. J. Curr. Res. Biosci. Plant Biol. 2016, 3, 58–64. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  14. Rashid, A.; Anand, V.K.; Serwar, J. Less known wild edible plants used by the Gujjar tribe of district Rajouri, Jammu and Kashmir State-India. Int. J. Bot. 2008, 4, 219–224. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  15. Singh, H.B.; Arora, R.K. Wild Edible Plants of India; Daya Publishing House: New Delhi, India, 1978. [Google Scholar]
  16. Vishwakarma, K.L.; Dubey, V. Nutritional analysis of indigenous wild edible herbs used ineastern chhattisgarh, India. Emirates J. Food Agric. 2011, 23, 554–560. [Google Scholar]
  17. Vijendra, N.; Pavan Kumar, K. Traditional knowledge on ethno-medicinal uses prevailing in tribal pockets of Chhindwara and Betul Districts, Madhya Pradesh, India. Afr. J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 2010, 4, 662–670. [Google Scholar]
  18. Singh, K.N.; Lal, B. Ethnomedicines used against four common ailments by the tribal communities of Lahaul-Spiti in western Himalaya. J. Ethnopharmacol. 2008, 115, 147–159. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  19. Vidyarthi, S.; Samant, S.S.; Sharma, P. Traditional and indigenous uses of medicinal plants by local residents in Himachal Pradesh, Northwestern Himalaya, India. Int. J. Biodivers. Sci. Ecosyst. Serv. Manag. 2013, 9, 185–200. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  20. Sharma, P.; Rana, J.C.; Devi, U.; Randhawa, S.S.; Kumar, R. Floristic Diversity and Distribution Pattern of Plant Communities along Altitudinal Gradient in Sangla Valley, Northwest Himalaya. Sci. World J. 2014, 2014, 264878. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed][Green Version]
  21. Chauhan, N.S. Medicinal and Aromatic Plants of Himachal Pradesh; Indus publishing: New Delhi, India, 1999. [Google Scholar]
  22. Sharma, P.K.; Chauhan, N.S.; Lal, B. Studies on plant associated indigenous knowledge among Malanis of Kullu district, Himachal Pradesh. Indian J. Tradit. Knowl. 2005, 4, 403–408. [Google Scholar]
  23. Home: Himachal Pradesh Forest Department. Available online: (accessed on 16 July 2021).
  24. Muthu, C.; Ayyanar, M.; Raja, N.; Ignacimuthu, S. Medicinal plants used by traditional healers in Kancheepuram District of Tamil Nadu, India. J. Ethnobiol. Ethnomed. 2006, 2, 1–10. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed][Green Version]
  25. Sharma, M.; Sood, S.K. Ethnobotanical survey for wild plants of district Solan, Himachal Pradesh, India. Int. J. Environ. Biol. 2013, 3, 87–95. [Google Scholar]
  26. Raghuvanshi, D.; Dhalaria, R.; Sharma, A.; Kumar, D.; Kumar, H.; Valis, M.; Kuča, K.; Verma, R.; Puri, S. Ethnomedicinal Plants Traditionally Used for the Treatment of Jaundice (Icterus) in Himachal Pradesh in Western Himalaya—A Review. Plants 2021, 10, 232. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  27. Thakur, M.; Asrani, R.K.; Thakur, S.; Sharma, P.K.; Patil, R.D.; Lal, B.; Parkash, O. Observations on traditional usage of ethnomedicinal plants in humans and animals of Kangra and Chamba districts of Himachal Pradesh in North-Western Himalaya, India. J. Ethnopharmacol. 2016, 191, 280–300. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  28. Kumar, M.; Paul, Y.; Anand, V. An Ethnobotanical Study of Medicinal Plants used by the Locals in Kishtwar, Jammu and Kashmir, India. Ethnobot. Leafl. 2009, 10, 5. [Google Scholar]
  29. Verma, J.; Thakur, K. Kusum Ethnobotanically important plants of Mandi and Solan districts of Himachal Pradesh, Northwest Himalaya. Plant Arch. 2012, 12, 185–190. [Google Scholar]
  30. Kunwar, R.M. Ethnobotanical notes on flora of Khaptad National Park (KNP), far-western Nepal. Himal. J. Sci. 2003, 1, 25–30. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  31. Thakur, M.K.; Waske, S. Study of Medicinal Plants used by Local Herbal Healers in South Block of Seoni District (M.P.). Int. J. Theor. Appl. Sci. 2018, 10, 95–99. [Google Scholar]
  32. Kumar, M.; Changan, S.; Tomar, M.; Prajapati, U.; Saurabh, V.; Hasan, M.; Sasi, M.; Maheshwari, C.; Singh, S.; Dhumal, S.; et al. Custard Apple (Annona squamosa L.) Leaves: Nutritional Composition, Phytochemical Profile, and Health-Promoting Biological Activities. Biomolecules 2021, 11, 614. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  33. Radha; Kumar, M.; Puri, S.; Pundir, A.; Bangar, S.P.; Changan, S.; Choudhary, P.; Parameswari, E.; Alhariri, A.; Samota, M.K.; et al. Evaluation of Nutritional, Phytochemical, and Mineral Composition of Selected Medicinal Plants for Therapeutic Uses from Cold Desert of Western Himalaya. Plants 2021, 10, 1429. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  34. Radha; Puri, S.; Kumar, V. Phytochemical screening of medicinal plants used by tribal migratory shepherds in Western Himalaya. Ann. Biol. 2019, 35, 11–14. [Google Scholar]
  35. Radha; Puri, S.; Chandel, K.; Pundir, A.; Thakur, M.S.; Chauhan, B.; Simer, K.; Dhiman, N.; Shivani; Thakur, Y.S.; et al. Diversity of ethnomedicinal plants in Churdhar Wildlife Sanctuary of district Sirmour of Himachal Pradesh, India. J. Appl. Pharm. Sci. 2019, 9, 48–53. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
  36. Radha; Janjua, S.; Ali, M.; Thakur, M.; Jamwal, R.; Rathour, S.; Kumar Pubral, A.; Kumari, N.; Puri, S.; Pundir, A.; et al. Documenting Traditional Knowledge before they are Forgotten: A Study on the Ethnomedicinal uses of Wild Plants by Rural People of Jubbarhatti in District Shimla. Int. J. Theor. Appl. Sci. 2021, 13, 37–51. [Google Scholar]
  37. Nautiyal, S.; Rao, K.; Maikhuri, R.; Saxena, K.G. Traditional knowledge related to medicinal and aromatic plants in tribal societies in a part of Himalaya. J. Med. Aromat. Plant Sci. 2002, 22, 528–541. [Google Scholar]
  38. Negi, C. Socio-cultural dimensions and ethnobotanical value of a sacred forest-Thal ke Dhar, Central Himalaya, India. Indian J. Tradit. Knowl. 2005, 4, 190–198. [Google Scholar]
  39. Garbyal, S.; Aggarwal, K.; Babu, C. Traditionally used medicinal plants in Dharchula Himalayas of Pithoragarh district, Uttaranchal. Indian J. Tradit. Knowl. 2005, 4, 199–207. [Google Scholar]
  40. Kandari, L.S.; Phondani, P.C.; Payal, K.C.; Rao, K.S.; Maikhuri, R.K. Ethnobotanical study towards conservation of medicinal and aromatic plants in upper catchments of Dhauli Ganga in the central Himalaya. J. Mt. Sci. 2012, 9, 286–296. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  41. Bhat, J.A.; Kumar, M.; Negi, A.K.; Todaria, N.P. Informants’ consensus on ethnomedicinal plants in Kedarnath Wildlife Sanctuary of Indian Himalayas. J. Med. Plants Res. 2013, 7, 148–154. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  42. Agrawal, D.P. Traditional knowledge systems and western science. Curr. Sci. 1997, 73, 731–733. [Google Scholar]
  43. Spjut, R.W. Plant folklore: A tool for predicting sources of antitumor activity? In Proceedings of the 16th annual meeting of the Society for Economic Botany: “Plants and cancer.”, Baltimore, MA, USA, 15–18 June 1975; Springer: Berlin/Heidelberg, Germany, 1976; Volume 60, pp. 979–985. [Google Scholar]
  44. Bisht, S.; Adhikari, B.S. Ethnobotanical study of traditional medicinal plants used by Banraji Community in Uttarakhand, West Himalayan. J. Ethnobiol. Tradit. Med. 2018, 129, 1426–1441. [Google Scholar]
  45. Radha, S.P.; Pundir, A. Review on Ethnomedicinal Plant: Trillium govanianum Wall. Ex D. Don. Int. J. Theor. Appl. Sci. 2019, 11, 4–9. [Google Scholar]
  46. Singh, R.P.; Prakash, S.; Bhatia, R.; Negi, M.; Singh, J.; Bishnoi, M.; Kondepudi, K.K. Generation of structurally diverse pectin oligosaccharides having prebiotic attributes. Food Hydrocoll. 2020, 108, 105988. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  47. Kumar, M.; Prakash, S.; Radha; Kumari, N.; Pundir, A.; Punia, S.; Saurabh, V.; Choudhary, P.; Changan, S.; Dhumal, S.; et al. Beneficial role of antioxidant secondary metabolites from medicinal plants in maintaining oral health. Antioxidants 2021, 10, 1061. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  48. Kumar, M.; Tomar, M.; Saurabh, V.; Sasi, M.; Punia, S.; Potkule, J.; Maheshwari, C.; Changan, S.; Radha; Bhushan, B.; et al. Delineating the inherent functional descriptors and biofunctionalities of pectic polysaccharides. Carbohydr. Polym. 2021, 269, 118319. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  49. Kumar, M.; Tomar, M.; Punia, S.; Grasso, S.; Arrutia, F.; Choudhary, J.; Singh, S.; Verma, P.; Mahapatra, A.; Patil, S.; et al. Cottonseed: A sustainable contributor to global protein requirements. Trends Food Sci. Technol. 2021, 111, 100–113. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  50. Kumar, M.; Potkule, J.; Patil, S.; Mageshwaran, V.; Radha; Satankar, V.; Berwal, M.K.; Mahapatra, A.; Saxena, S.; Ashtaputre, N.; et al. Evaluation of detoxified cottonseed protein isolate for application as food supplement. Toxin Rev. 2021. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  51. Sivasankari, B.; Anandharaj, M.; Gunasekaran, P. An ethnobotanical study of indigenous knowledge on medicinal plants used by the village peoples of Thoppampatti, Dindigul district, Tamilnadu, India. J. Ethnopharmacol. 2014, 153, 408–423. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  52. Yuan, H.; Ma, Q.; Ye, L.; Piao, G. The traditional medicine and modern medicine from natural products. Molecules 2016, 21, 559. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
  53. Radha, R.; Chauhan, P.; Puri, S.; Thakur, M.; Rathour, S.; Sharma, A.K.; Pundir, A. A study of wild medicinal plants used in Nargu Wildlife Sanctuary of district Mandi in Himachal Pradesh, India. J. Appl. Pharm. Sci. 2021, 11, 135–144. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  54. Radha; Janjua, S.; Srivastava, S.; Negi, V. Ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants used in shikari devi wildlife sanctuary of Himachal Pradesh, India. Med. Plants 2020, 12, 666–673. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  55. Ribeiro, R.V.; Bieski, I.G.C.; Balogun, S.O.; de Oliveira Martins, D.T. Ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants used by Ribeirinhos in the North Araguaia microregion, Mato Grosso, Brazil. J. Ethnopharmacol. 2017, 205, 69–102. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  56. Phillips, O.; Gentry, A.H.; Reynel, C.; Wilkin, P.; B, C.G.-D. Quantitative Ethnobotany and Amazonian Conservation. Conserv. Biol. 1994, 8, 225–248. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  57. Musa, M.S.; Abdelrasool, F.E.; Elsheikh, E.A.; Ahmed, L.A.M.N.; Mahmoud, A.L.E.; Yagi, S.M. Ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants in the Blue Nile State, South-eastern Sudan. J. Med. Plants Res. 2011, 5, 4287–4297. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
Figure 1. Bar graph showing families and exact number of plants studied during the survey.
Figure 1. Bar graph showing families and exact number of plants studied during the survey.
Plants 10 01842 g001
Figure 2. Graph showing the plant parts used for medicinal purposes and the number of plant species studied in the current work.
Figure 2. Graph showing the plant parts used for medicinal purposes and the number of plant species studied in the current work.
Plants 10 01842 g002
Figure 3. Pictures of medicinal plants surveyed in the current study.
Figure 3. Pictures of medicinal plants surveyed in the current study.
Plants 10 01842 g003aPlants 10 01842 g003bPlants 10 01842 g003c
Figure 4. Scale map showing study site Dharampur in the Solan district, Himachal Pradesh, India.
Figure 4. Scale map showing study site Dharampur in the Solan district, Himachal Pradesh, India.
Plants 10 01842 g004
Table 1. People of different age groups were randomly selected for interviews.
Table 1. People of different age groups were randomly selected for interviews.
Sr. No.Age GroupMaleFemale
125–3510 (13.1%)4 (10.52%)
236–5019 (25%)6 (15.78%)
351–6020 (26.31%)10 (26.31%)
461–7021 (27.63%)14 (36.84%)
570–756 (7.89%)4 (10.52%)
Education levelMaleFemale
Illiterate19 (25%)8 (21.05%)
Primary school level14 (18.42%)14 (36.84%)
Secondary school level21 (27.63%)11 (28.94%)
High school level13 (17.10%)3 (7.89%)
Graduate9 (11.84%)2 (5.26%)
Sr. No.—serial number.
Table 2. Ethnobotanical data documented from the study site.
Table 2. Ethnobotanical data documented from the study site.
Sr. No.Botanical NameFamilyCommon Name (Hindi)HabitVoucher No.Part UsedAdministration RouteUse Value
1 Ageratina adenophora (Spreng.) R.M. King and H. RobAsteraceaeBanmaraShrubSUBMS/BOT-3901LeavesTopical0.13Leaf extract is used to treat cuts and wounds.
2Ageratum conyzoides L.AsteraceaeGhabutiHerbSUBMS/BOT-3902Leaves, RootsTopical0.59A paste made from the leaves is used as a wrapping to remove spines from the skin.
Juice of leaves and roots is used to treat cuts and wounds.
3Ajuga integrifolia Buch.—Ham.Lamiaceae NeelkanthiHerbSUBMS/BOT-3903Whole plantOral0.25Whole plant is used to treat diarrhea.
4Asparagus racemosus Willd.AsparagaceaeShatavariHerbSUBMS/BOT-3904Roots, LeavesOral0.30The leaves and roots extract are used to treat kidney disorders, fevers, stomach ulcer and diarrhea.
5Avena fatua L.PoaceaeJoaHerbSUBMS/BOT-3905SeedsOral 0.11Seeds are used to treat itchy skin and ulcers.
6Bambusa vulgaris Schrad.PoaceaeBansTreeSUBMS/BOT-3906Shoots, BarkOral0.27Shoot powder is boiled with hot water and used against malaria.
The bark powder is boiled with hot water to stimulate blood flow in pelvic area especially during menstruation.
7Bauhinia vahlii Wight and Arn.FabaceaeTorreClimberSUBMS/BOT-3907LeavesOral0.31Juice extracted from the leaves is used to kill stomach worms.
8Bauhinia variegata L.FabaceaeKachnarTreeSUBMS/BOT-3908Roots, BudsOral0.37Roots are used to prepare antidote to snake poisoning.
Dried buds are used during dysentery.
9Berberis asiatica Roxb. Ex DC.BerberidaceaeKashmalShrubSUBMS/BOT-3909Whole plantTopical0.85Whole plant paste is used to apply on wounds and cuts.
10Bergenia ligulata Engl.SaxifragaceaeDakachruHerbSUBMS/BOT-3910Whole plantOral0.43Decoction of whole plant is used for urinary infection or kidney stones.
11Bidens pilosa L.AsteraceaeGumberHerbSUBMS/BOT-3911LeavesOral0.33Decoction of leaves is used to treat constipation, fever and diabetes.
12Boehmeria platyphylla D. DonUrticaceaeHanda ShrubSUBMS/BOT-3912LeavesOral0.10The leaves are used to treat bleeding gums.
13Bougainvillea spectabilis Willd.NyctaginaceaeBooganbelShrubSUBMS/BOT-3913Whole plantOral0.18Whole plant is helpful in the treatment of diabetes.
14Buxus sempervirens L.Buxaceae-ShrubSUBMS/BOT-3914LeavesOral0.05The leaves are used in the treatment of malaria.
15Callistemon viminalis (Sol. Ex Gaertn.) G.DonMyrtaceaeCheelTreeSUBMS/BOT-3915Whole plantOral0.06Whole plant is used for the treatment of diarrhea, skin infection and urinary infections.
16Canna indica L.CannaceaeSarvajjayaHerbSUBMS/BOT-3916SeedsTopical0.26 The seed paste is used to treat fever.
17Cannabis sativa L. Cannabaceae BhangHerbSUBMS/BOT-3917Seeds, LeavesOral, Topical0.69Seeds are used to treat asthma and relief from body pain.
The leaves extract is used to treat cuts, burn, diabetes and dysentery.
18Carissa spinarum L.ApocynaceaeGarnaShrubSUBMS/BOT-3918FruitsOral0.44Fruit extract is used to treat fever, diarrhea and toothache.
19Catharanthus roseus (L.) G. DonApocynaceaeSadabaharShrubSUBMS/BOT-3919Roots, LeavesOral0.90Decoction of roots and leaves are used to treat hypertension and diabetes.
20Centella asiatica (L.) Urb.ApiaceaeBrahmiHerbSUBMS/BOT-3920LeavesOral0.52The leaves are taken with sugar as memory enhancer.
21Cinnamomum camphora (L.) J. PreslLauraceaeKapurTreeSUBMS/BOT-3921Whole plantOral0.39Whole plant is used to treat cough, cold, skin irritation and low blood pressure.
22Cissampelos pareira L.MenispermaceaeBatinduClimberSUBMS/BOT-3922Leaves,
Oral0.11Infusion of leaves and stem is used to treat diarrhea, dysentery and digestive complaints.
23Citrus limon (L.) OsbeckRutaceaeNimbuTreeSUBMS/BOT-3923FruitsOral0.34Fruit juice is taken orally for indigestion.
24Clinopodium vulgare L.LamiaceaeJangalee tulsiHerbSUBMS/BOT-3924LeavesTopical0.22The leaves are used to treat wounds and cuts.
25Colebrookea oppositifolia (Smith.)LamiaceaeGaddoosShrubSUBMS/BOT-3925Leaves, StemOral, Topical0.27Stem is used for cough. Leaf paste is used to treat wounds and eye infection.
26Coronopus didymus (L.) SmithBrassicaceaeGarhbiniHerbSUBMS/BOT-3926LeavesOral0.19The leaves are used to treat asthma.
27Cryptolepis buchananii Roem. and Schult.ApocynaceaeKala belClimberSUBMS/BOT-3927Roots,
Oral0.23Roots are used to treat loss of appetite, fever,
skin infections and considered as blood purifier. Stem is used for the treatment of inflammation, muscle and joint pain.
28Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.PoaceaeDrubGrassSUBMS/BOT-3928Leaves Oral0.50The leaves are used to treat cough, cancer,
diarrhea, dysentery and hypertension.
29Datura innoxia Mill.SolanaceaeDaturaShrubSUBMS/BOT-3929Whole plantOral0.44Whole plant is used to treat fever, diarrhea, cold, asthma and relief body pain.
30Debregeasia longifolia (Burm. f.) Wedd. UrticaceaeSansaruShrubSUBMS/BOT-3930LeavesOral0.04The leaves are used to treat dysentery and indigestion.
31Dicliptera bupleuroides NeesAcanthaceaeKuthiHerbSUBMS/BOT-3931LeavesTopical0.07The leaves are warmed and kept on joints to relieve pains.
32Elaeocarpus ganitrus Roxb.ElaeocarpaceaeRudraksha TreeSUBMS/BOT-3932Whole plantOral0.13Whole plant is used to treat mental illness, cough and hepatic diseases.
33Erigeron annuus (L.) Pers.AsteraceaePhuntha HerbSUBMS/BOT-3933LeavesOral0.18The leaves extract is used to treat diabetes.
34Eriobotrya japonica (Thunb.) Lindl.RosaceaeLokatTreeSUBMS/BOT-3934Leaves,
Oral0.37Decoction of the leaves is used to treat cough and cold.
Fruits are used to relieve vomiting and thirst.
35Eruca vesicaria (L.) CavBrassicaceaeTara miraHerbSUBMS/BOT-3935LeavesOral0.18The leaves are used to treat diarrhea.
36Eucalyptus citriodora Hook.MyrtaceaeSafedaTreeSUBMS/BOT-3936LeavesOral,
0.14Leaves are used to treatcough, cold, sore throat, cuts and skin infections.
37Euonymus tingens Wall.CelastraceaeBarmeliTreeSUBMS/BOT-3937BarkOral0.10 The juice of the bark is used in the treatment of eye diseases.
38Euphorbia helioscopia L.EuphorbiaceaeDudhiHerbSUBMS/BOT-3938Whole plantOral, Topical0.37Paste of the plant applied for healing wounds. Milky latex is applied externally on skin to treat fungal infection.
39Euphorbia milii Var- splendenEuphorbiaceae-ShrubSUBMS/BOT-3939Whole plantTopical0.08Whole plant is widely used in folk medicine for the treatment of cancer and hepatitis.
40Ficus auriculata Lour.MoraceaeTiambleTreeSUBMS/BOT-3940Stem,
0.34The latex from the stems is applied to cuts and wounds.
The roasted fruits are used in the treatment of diarrhea and dysentery.
41Ficus benghalensis L.MoraceaeBargadTreeSUBMS/BOT-3941LeavesOral0.30The leaves are used to treat dysentery and diarrhea.
42Ficus palmata Forssk.MoraceaeFaguraTreeSUBMS/BOT-3942Fruitsoral0.37The fruits are used to treat constipation.
43Ficus religiosa L.MoraceaePipalTreeSUBMS/BOT-3943Bark, RootsOral, Topical0.21Decoction of the bark is used to control diabetes
Roots is used to treat joint swellings.
44Foeniculum vulgare Gaertn.ApiaceaeSaunfHerbSUBMS/BOT-3944Whole plantOral,
0.55Infusion of whole plant parts is used to treat stomach pain and kidney stones.
The leaves paste is applied to healing wounds and skin rashes.
45Geranium wallichianum D. Don ex SweetGeraniaceaeSucha PhulliHerbSUBMS/BOT-3945RootsOral,
0.22Roots are chewed to stop gum bleeding.
Decoction of roots is used to treat kidney stones.
46Hedera nepalensis K. Koch.AraliaceaeBanoClimberSUBMS/BOT-3946Leaves Oral0.28The leaves are used to treat diabetes and skin infections.
47Hibiscus rosasinensis L.MalvaceaeGurhalTreeSUBMS/BOT-3947Flowers, Leaves, RootsOral, Topical 0.68Flowers are used in the treatment of excessive and painful menstruation.
Decoction of leaves are used as a lotion in the treatment of fever.
Decoction of roots is used to treat sore eyes.
48Hypericum oblongifolium choisyHypercaceaeBasantShrubSUBMS/BOT-3948LeavesOral, Topical0.31Leaves extract is used for wounds and juice as an antidote against snakebite.
49Hypodematium crenatum (Forssk.) KunhHypodematiaceaeJadi butiFernSUBMS/BOT-3949LeavesTopical0.06The leaves are used to treat constipation.
50Indigofera heterantha Brandis FabaceaeKali-kathiShrubSUBMS/BOT-3950FlowersOral0.21Flowers are used in the treatment of abdominal pain and liver infection.
51Ipomoea cairica (L.) SweetConvolvulaceaeNeeli BelClimberSUBMS/BOT-3951Whole plant Oral0.31Whole plant is used to treat jaundice, fever, and liver infection.
52Jasminum sambac (L.) AitonOleaceaeMograShrubSUBMS/BOT-3952Flowers, LeavesOral,
0.11Flowers are used to treat jaundice, ulcers, boils, and eye infections.
Leaves are used to treat wounds.
53Juglans regia L.JuglandaceaeAkhrotTreeSUBMS/BOT-3953Leaves, BarkOral,
0.77Decoction of the leaves are used to treat skin diseases like scabies and ringworm.
Paste of the bark is applied to treat fresh wounds and toothache.
54Justicia adhatoda L.AcanthaceaeArusaShrubSUBMS/BOT-3954Whole plantOral0.23Whole plant is used to treat cough, cold and asthma.
55Koelreuteria paniculate Laxm.Sapindaceae-TreeSUBMS/BOT-3955FlowersOral0.07Flowers are used in the treatment of conjunctivitis.
56Lagerstroemia indica L.LythraceaeSawaniTreeSUBMS/BOT-3956Flowers, RootsOral,
0.13Paste of the flowers is applied to treat cuts and wounds.
Decoction of the root is used in the treatment of cold.
57Lantana camara L.VerbenaceaeRaimuniyaShrubSUBMS/BOT-3957Whole plantOral0.33Whole plant is used to treat cough, headache, constipation.
58Lathyrus aphaca L.FabaceaeJangli mattarHerbSUBMS/BOT-3958Seeds Oral0.32Seeds are used in the treatment of toothache.
59Laurus nobilis L.LauraceaeTej pattaTreeSUBMS/BOT-3959LeavesOral0.62Decoction of the leaves are used to treat urinary infection.
60Ligustrum japonicum Thunb.Oleaceae-TreeSUBMS/BOT-3960Whole plantOral0.08Extract of whole plant is used to treat ulcer and skin infections.
61Machilus duthei King Lauraceae-TreeSUBMS/BOT-3961LeavesTopical0.04The leaves are used to cure pimples.
62Malloyus philippensis (Lam.)EurphorbiaceaeKamalaTreeSUBMS/BOT-3962Bark,
0.59Bark is used to treat stomach ulcers.
Decoction of the leaves is used to treat diarrhea.
63Malvastrum coromandelianum (L.) GarckeMalvaceaeKharentiHerbSUBMS/BOT-3963Leaves Oral,
0.08The leaves paste applied for healing wounds.
64Melia azedarach L.Meliaceae BakainTreeSUBMS/BOT-3964Leaves,
0.14The flowers and leaves are used to treat headache.
65Mentha arvensis L.LamiaceaePudinaHerbSUBMS/BOT-3965Whole plantOral0.68Whole plant is used to treat fever, headache and stomach diseases.
66Morus nigra L.MoraceaeTutTreeSUBMS/BOT-3966Leaves, RootsOral0.34The leaves are used to treat cold and eye infections.
Roots are used to treat asthma, coughs, hypertension and diabetes.
67Murraya koenigii (L.) Spreng.RutaceaeKari pattaShrubSUBMS/BOT-3967LeavesOral, Topical0.79The leaves extract is used to treat diabetes and indigestion.
68Nasturtium officinale R. Br.BrassicaceaeJal-indushoorHerbSUBMS/BOT-3968Whole plant Oral, Topical0.08The freshly prepared juice of whole plant is used to treat chest infection.
69Ocimum sanctum L.LamiaceaeTulsi ShrubSUBMS/BOT-3969Whole plantOral0.88Whole plant is used to treat asthma, malaria, diarrhea, dysentery, eye diseases and insect bite.
70Olea europaea L.OleaceaeKahu TreeSUBMS/BOT-3970Leaves,
Oral0.33Decoction of leaves and fruits are used to treat diarrhea, respiratory infections and urinary tract infections.
71Oxalis corniculata L.OxalidaceaeAmrulHerb SUBMS/BOT-3971Whole plantTopical0.21The juice of whole plant is used to treat muscular swellings, boils and pimples.
72Papaver somniferum L.PapaveraceaeAfimHerbSUBMS/BOT-3972Whole plantOral0.61Infusion of whole plant juice is used to treat fever, cough and headache.
73Phyllanthus emblica L.PhyllanthaceaeAmlaTreeSUBMS/BOT-3973FruitsOral0.76Fruit juice is used to treat diarrhea, jaundice, diabetes and inflammation.
74Pinus roxburghii Sarg.PinaceaeChirTreeSUBMS/BOT-3974Leaves, Bark,
Oral, Topical0.66Bark paste is used in burns, cracks, skin infections and ulcers.
Leaves are used to treat fever.
Root extract is used to treat eye infections.
75Potentilla indica (Jacks.) Th. Wolf.RosaceaekiphaliyaHerbSUBMS/BOT-3975LeavesTopical0.21The leaves are used to treat boils, burns and snake bites.
76Potentilla nepalensis L.RosaceaeRatanjotHerbSUBMS/BOT-3976Leaves, StemOral0.22Decoction of leaves and stem are used to treat inflammation of the body and joints.
77Prunus cerasoides Buch.-Ham.RosaceaePadamTreeSUBMS/BOT-3977Whole plantOral0.43Whole plant is used to treat skin infections and renal stones.
78Prunus persica (L.) BatschRosaceaeAruTreeSUBMS/BOT-3978Leaves, FlowersOral, Topical0.63The leaves paste is used to treat sores and wounds.
Flowers are used to treat constipation.
79Pseudognaphalium hypoleucum (DC.) Hilliard and B.L. BurttAsteraceaeGoiphulHerbSUBMS/BOT-3979Whole plantOral0.11Whole plant is used for the treatment of cough and body pain.
80Psidium guajava L.MyrtaceousAmroodTreeSUBMS/BOT-3980Leaves,
Oral0.60Leaves are used to treat diarrhea.
Fruits are used to treat cough, and oral ulcers.
81Punica granatum L.LythraceaeAnarShrubSUBMS/BOT-3981Whole pant Oral0.55Whole plant is used in the treatment of dysentery, stomach-ache, jaundice and diarrhea.
82Pyrus communis L.RosaceaeNashpatiTreeSUBMS/BOT-3982Leaves, BarkOral, Topical0.83The leaves are used to treat inflammation.
Decoction of bark is used to treat sprains.
83Pyrus pashia Buch- Hum.RosaceaeShegalTreeSUBMS/BOT-3983Leaves, FlowersOral, Topical0.75The leaves are used to treat sores and wounds. Flowers are used as internally in the treatment of constipation.
84Quercus leucotrichophora A. CamusFagaceaeBanTreeSUBMS/BOT-3984SeedsOral0.50Seed decoction is used to treat dysentery and diarrhea.
85Ranunculus laetus Wall. Ex Hook.f. and J.W. ThomsonRanunculaceaeJaldhaniyaHerbSUBMS/BOT-3985Whole plant Oral0.44Whole plant is used in the treatment of fever and asthma.
86Reinwardita indica (Dumort.)LinaceaeBasantiShrubSUBMS/BOT-3986Whole plantTopical0.24Whole plant is used to treat cuts, wounds and boils.
87Rhododendron arboreum Smith.EricaceaeBuransShrubSUBMS/BOT-3987Leaves,
Oral0.77The leaves are used to treat headache, cough, diarrhea and dysentery.
Juice of flower is used to treat menstrual disorders.
88Ricinus communis L.EuphorbiaceaeArandiShrubSUBMS/BOT-3988LeavesTopical0.23The leaves are used to treat cuts, swollen joints, inflammation and liver disorders.
89Rosa alba L.RosaceaeGulabShrubSUBMS/BOT-3989FlowersTopical0.37Flowers are used to treat skin infections.
90Rubus ellipticus SmithRosaceaeAakhaeShrubSUBMS/BOT-3990Roots,
Oral0.86Root extract is used to cure headaches and stomach pain.
Fruit juice is used to cure cough, fever and dysentery.
91Rumex hastatus D. DonPolygonaceaeKhattib-utiShrubSUBMS/BOT-3991Whole plantOral0.50 Whole plant is used to treat indigestion, skin diseases and constipation.
92Salix alba L.SalicaceaeBainsTreeSUBMS/BOT-3992BarkOral0.31Bark is used as a remedy for cold, fevers and joint pain.
93Salvia officinalis L.LamiaceaeSageShrubSUBMS/BOT-3993Whole plant Oral, Topical0.28Whole plant is used to treat insect bites, gum infections and vaginal discharge.
94Salvia splendens Sellow ex SchultLamiaceaeSalbia sefakussHerbSUBMS/BOT-3994Leaves, SeedsOral, Topical0.08The leaves are used for dressing wounds, cold, cough and diabetes.
Seeds are used to treat dysentery.
95Sambucus nigra L.AdoxaceaeBerryTreeSUBMS/BOT-3995Flower, FruitsOral0.38Extracts of the flowers and fruits are used to treat cold.
Fruits are used to treat headaches, dental pain, chest pain and nerve pain.
96Setaria viridis (L.) P.Beauv.PoaceaeMakriyaHerbSUBMS/BOT-3996Seeds, LeavesOral0.27The seed is diuretic and used to treat fever.
The leaves are crushed and mixed with water then used to treat wounds and cuts.
97Solanum virum DunalSolanaceaeKandiyariShrubSUBMS/BOT-3997Whole plantOral0.32The whole plant is used to treat headaches, indigestion and stomach diseases.
98Sonchus oleraceus L.AsteraceaeDudhiHerbSUBMS/BOT-3998LeavesOral0.43The plant leaves are used to treat inflammatory swellings and skin diseases.
99Spiraea cantoniensis Lour.RosaceaeJhar mairalaShrubSUBMS/BOT-3999Whole plant Oral0.37Decoction of whole plant is used to treat skin infection.
100Stellaria media L. Vill.CaryophyllaceaeBuch-buchaHerbSUBMS/BOT-4000Whole plantOral,
0.55Whole plant is used to heal skin wound, treat itchiness, indigestion, asthma and respiratory problems.
101Syzygium cumini (L.) SkeelsMyrtaceaeJamunTreeSUBMS/BOT-4001Bark, LeavesOral, Topical0.44Juice of bark is used to treat wounds and enlargement of the spleen. Leaves are used to treat diabetes and diarrhea.
102Tagetes erecta L.AsteraceaeGendaHerbSUBMS/BOT-4002Leaves,
0.25Decoction of flowers is used to treat cold and mumps.
Leaves paste is applied externally to treat skin diseases and conjunctivitis.
103Taraxacum officinale L.Asteraceae-HerbSUBMS/BOT-4003Whole plantOral0.09The whole plant is used for indigestion and jaundice.
104Tecoma capensis (Thunb.) Lindl.Bignoniaceae -ShrubSUBMS/BOT-4004Bark, LeavesOral0.07Bark powder is used to treat fever, pneumonia and stomach troubles.
Leaves are used to treat diarrhea and intestinal inflammation.
105Terminalia arjuna (Roxb. Ex DC.) Wight and ArnCombretaceaeArjun TreeSUBMS/BOT-4005BarkOral0.37Bark extract used to treat dysentery, anemia and asthma.
106Thuja orientalis L.CupressaceaeMorpankhiTreeSUBMS/BOT-4006LeavesOral0.33The leaves are used to treat skin infections.
107Urtica dioica L.UrticaceaeKuksh HerbSUBMS/BOT-4007Whole plantOral0.55Whole plant is used to treat kidney stones and skin disorders.
108Verbascum thapsus L.ScrophulariaceaeTamakhuHerbSUBMS/BOT-4008Leaves, FlowersOral0.85Juice of leaves is used to treat fever.
Flowers are used to treat cough.
109Vinca minor L.Apocynaceae-HerbSUBMS/BOT-4009Leaves,
oral0.44The leaves are used to treat internal injury, heavy menstrual bleeding and nose bleeding.
Root is used to reduce the blood pressure.
110Viola canescens wall.ViolaceaeBanafshaHerbSUBMS/BOT-4010Whole plant Oral0.84Whole plant is used to treat asthma and cold.
111Vitex negundo L.LamiaceaeBanaShrubSUBMS/BOT-4011LeavesTopical0.81Smoke of leaves is inhaled to get rid of cough.
112Withania somnifera L.SolanaceaeAshwagandhaShrubSUBMS/BOT-4012Roots, LeavesOral, Topical0.55Roots are used to treat inflammation of joints, rheumatic pain, cold, cough and ulcers.
Leaves are applied for inflammation and swelling.
113Woodfordia fruiticosa (L.) kurzLythraceaeDhawaiShrubSUBMS/BOT-4013Whole plantOral, Topical0.78Whole plant is used in the treatment of dysentery and skin diseases.
114Zanthoxylum armatum DC.RutaceaeTirmirShrubSUBMS/BOT-4014Whole plantOral, Topical0.80Whole plant is used to treat asthma, diarrhoea, cold, fever, cough, toothache and indigestion.
115Ziziphus nummularia (Burm. f.) Wight and Arn.RhamnaceaeBerShrubSUBMS/BOT-4015LeavesTopical0.78The leaves are used to treat skin infections.
Publisher’s Note: MDPI stays neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Share and Cite

MDPI and ACS Style

Kumar, M.; Radha; Devi, H.; Prakash, S.; Rathore, S.; Thakur, M.; Puri, S.; Pundir, A.; Bangar, S.P.; Changan, S.; et al. Ethnomedicinal Plants Used in the Health Care System: Survey of the Mid Hills of Solan District, Himachal Pradesh, India. Plants 2021, 10, 1842.

AMA Style

Kumar M, Radha, Devi H, Prakash S, Rathore S, Thakur M, Puri S, Pundir A, Bangar SP, Changan S, et al. Ethnomedicinal Plants Used in the Health Care System: Survey of the Mid Hills of Solan District, Himachal Pradesh, India. Plants. 2021; 10(9):1842.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Kumar, Manoj, Radha, Himani Devi, Suraj Prakash, Sonia Rathore, Mamta Thakur, Sunil Puri, Ashok Pundir, Sneh Punia Bangar, Sushil Changan, and et al. 2021. "Ethnomedicinal Plants Used in the Health Care System: Survey of the Mid Hills of Solan District, Himachal Pradesh, India" Plants 10, no. 9: 1842.

Note that from the first issue of 2016, this journal uses article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Metrics

Back to TopTop