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ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf., Volume 13, Issue 5 (May 2024) – 26 articles

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14 pages, 4207 KiB  
Article
Improved A* Navigation Path-Planning Algorithm Based on Hexagonal Grid
by Zehua An, Xiaoping Rui and Chaojie Gao
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2024, 13(5), 166; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi13050166 - 16 May 2024
Viewed by 282
Abstract
Navigation systems are extensively used in everyday life, but the conventional A* algorithm has several limitations in path planning applications within these systems, such as low degrees of freedom in path planning, inadequate consideration of the effects of special regions, and excessive nodes [...] Read more.
Navigation systems are extensively used in everyday life, but the conventional A* algorithm has several limitations in path planning applications within these systems, such as low degrees of freedom in path planning, inadequate consideration of the effects of special regions, and excessive nodes and turns. Addressing these limitations, an enhanced A* algorithm was proposed using regular hexagonal grid mapping. First, the approach to map modeling using hexagonal grids was described. Subsequently, the A* algorithm was refined by optimizing the calculation of movement costs, thus allowing the algorithm to integrate environmental data more effectively and flexibly adjust node costs while ensuring path optimality. A quantitative method was also introduced to assess map complexity and adaptive heuristics that decrease the number of traversed nodes and increase the search speed. Moreover, a turning penalty measure was implemented to minimize unnecessary turns on the planned paths. Simulation results confirmed that the improved A* algorithm exhibits superior performance, which can dynamically adjust movement costs, enhance search efficiency, reduce turns, improve overall path planning quality, and solve critical path planning issues in navigation systems, greatly aiding the development and design of these systems and making them better suited to meet modern navigation requirements. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Geocomputation and Artificial Intelligence for Mapping)
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21 pages, 1317 KiB  
Article
A Question and Answering Service of Typhoon Disasters Based on the T5 Large Language Model
by Yongqi Xia, Yi Huang, Qianqian Qiu, Xueying Zhang, Lizhi Miao and Yixiang Chen
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2024, 13(5), 165; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi13050165 - 14 May 2024
Viewed by 358
Abstract
A typhoon disaster is a common meteorological disaster that seriously impacts natural ecology, social economy, and even human sustainable development. It is crucial to access the typhoon disaster information, and the corresponding disaster prevention and reduction strategies. However, traditional question and answering (Q&A) [...] Read more.
A typhoon disaster is a common meteorological disaster that seriously impacts natural ecology, social economy, and even human sustainable development. It is crucial to access the typhoon disaster information, and the corresponding disaster prevention and reduction strategies. However, traditional question and answering (Q&A) methods exhibit shortcomings like low information retrieval efficiency and poor interactivity. This makes it difficult to satisfy users’ demands for obtaining accurate information. Consequently, this work proposes a typhoon disaster knowledge Q&A approach based on LLM (T5). This method integrates two technical paradigms of domain fine-tuning and retrieval-augmented generation (RAG) to optimize user interaction experience and improve the precision of disaster information retrieval. The process specifically includes the following steps. First, this study selects information about typhoon disasters from open-source databases, such as Baidu Encyclopedia and Wikipedia. Utilizing techniques such as slicing and masked language modeling, we generate a training set and 2204 Q&A pairs specifically focused on typhoon disaster knowledge. Second, we continuously pretrain the T5 model using the training set. This process involves encoding typhoon knowledge as parameters in the neural network’s weights and fine-tuning the pretrained model with Q&A pairs to adapt the T5 model for downstream Q&A tasks. Third, when responding to user queries, we retrieve passages from external knowledge bases semantically similar to the queries to enhance the prompts. This action further improves the response quality of the fine-tuned model. Finally, we evaluate the constructed typhoon agent (Typhoon-T5) using different similarity-matching approaches. Furthermore, the method proposed in this work lays the foundation for the cross-integration of large language models with disaster information. It is expected to promote the further development of GeoAI. Full article
18 pages, 4262 KiB  
Article
Changes in the 19th Century Cultural Landscape with Regard to City Rights in Western Poland
by Dariusz Lorek and Tymoteusz Horbiński
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2024, 13(5), 164; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi13050164 - 14 May 2024
Viewed by 234
Abstract
This research study focuses on determining the spatial transformations taking place in selected areas in the context of administrative changes in the 19th century (in the context of city rights) using the example of three neighboring places in western Poland. The occurrence of [...] Read more.
This research study focuses on determining the spatial transformations taking place in selected areas in the context of administrative changes in the 19th century (in the context of city rights) using the example of three neighboring places in western Poland. The occurrence of both individual topographic features and the transformation of structures and spatial relations occurring in the studied area since the 19th century were considered. The source material included archival cartographic studies from six time periods and contemporary data resources. A significant part of the research concerned the development of the possibility of using and presenting the data in an interactive form. The most important functions include comparing three neighboring places at the same time. Programming activities focused on the implementation of all collected archive data in the form of rasters and the construction of a map service divided into three windows (taking into account the turning on of layers simultaneously for all windows). The Leaflet library was used to create the proposed map solution. Full article
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20 pages, 4786 KiB  
Article
VIS-SLAM: A Real-Time Dynamic SLAM Algorithm Based on the Fusion of Visual, Inertial, and Semantic Information
by Yinglong Wang, Xiaoxiong Liu, Minkun Zhao and Xinlong Xu
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2024, 13(5), 163; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi13050163 - 13 May 2024
Viewed by 336
Abstract
A deep learning-based Visual Inertial SLAM technique is proposed in this paper to ensure accurate autonomous localization of mobile robots in environments with dynamic objects. Addressing the limitations of real-time performance in deep learning algorithms and the poor robustness of pure visual geometry [...] Read more.
A deep learning-based Visual Inertial SLAM technique is proposed in this paper to ensure accurate autonomous localization of mobile robots in environments with dynamic objects. Addressing the limitations of real-time performance in deep learning algorithms and the poor robustness of pure visual geometry algorithms, this paper presents a deep learning-based Visual Inertial SLAM technique. Firstly, a non-blocking model is designed to extract semantic information from images. Then, a motion probability hierarchy model is proposed to obtain prior motion probabilities of feature points. For image frames without semantic information, a motion probability propagation model is designed to determine the prior motion probabilities of feature points. Furthermore, considering that the output of inertial measurements is unaffected by dynamic objects, this paper integrates inertial measurement information to improve the estimation accuracy of feature point motion probabilities. An adaptive threshold-based motion probability estimation method is proposed, and finally, the positioning accuracy is enhanced by eliminating feature points with excessively high motion probabilities. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm achieves accurate localization in dynamic environments while maintaining real-time performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Artificial Intelligence in Navigation)
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20 pages, 21398 KiB  
Article
Leveraging Transfer Learning and U-Nets Method for Improved Gap Filling in Himawari Sea Surface Temperature Data Adjacent to Taiwan
by Dimas Pradana Putra and Po-Chun Hsu
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2024, 13(5), 162; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi13050162 - 13 May 2024
Viewed by 457
Abstract
Satellite sea surface temperature (SST) images are valuable for various oceanic applications, including climate monitoring, ocean modeling, and marine ecology. However, cloud cover often obscures SST signals, creating gaps in the data that reduce resolution and hinder spatiotemporal analysis, particularly in the waters [...] Read more.
Satellite sea surface temperature (SST) images are valuable for various oceanic applications, including climate monitoring, ocean modeling, and marine ecology. However, cloud cover often obscures SST signals, creating gaps in the data that reduce resolution and hinder spatiotemporal analysis, particularly in the waters near Taiwan. Thus, gap-filling methods are crucial for reconstructing missing SST values to provide continuous and consistent data. This study introduces a gap-filling approach using the Double U-Net, a deep neural network model, pretrained on a diverse dataset of Level-4 SST images. These gap-free products are generated by blending satellite observations with numerical models and in situ measurements. The Double U-Net model excels in capturing SST dynamics and detailed spatial patterns, offering sharper representations of ocean current-induced SST patterns than the interpolated outputs of Data Interpolating Empirical Orthogonal Functions (DINEOFs). Comparative analysis with buoy observations shows the Double U-Net model’s enhanced accuracy, with better correlation results and lower error values across most study areas. By analyzing SST at five key locations near Taiwan, the research highlights the Double U-Net’s potential for high-resolution SST reconstruction, thus enhancing our understanding of ocean temperature dynamics. Based on this method, we can combine more high-resolution satellite data in the future to improve the data-filling model and apply it to marine geographic information science. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advances in Earth Observation and Geosciences)
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24 pages, 12808 KiB  
Article
Land Subsidence Susceptibility Mapping in Ca Mau Province, Vietnam, Using Boosting Models
by Anh Van Tran, Maria Antonia Brovelli, Khien Trung Ha, Dong Thanh Khuc, Duong Nhat Tran, Hanh Hong Tran and Nghi Thanh Le
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2024, 13(5), 161; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi13050161 - 11 May 2024
Viewed by 560
Abstract
The Ca Mau Peninsula, situated in the Mekong Delta of Vietnam, features low-lying terrain. In addition to the challenges posed by climate change, land subsidence in the area is exacerbated by the overexploitation of groundwater and intensive agricultural practices. In this study, we [...] Read more.
The Ca Mau Peninsula, situated in the Mekong Delta of Vietnam, features low-lying terrain. In addition to the challenges posed by climate change, land subsidence in the area is exacerbated by the overexploitation of groundwater and intensive agricultural practices. In this study, we assessed the land subsidence susceptibility in the Ca Mau Peninsula utilizing three boosting machine learning models: AdaBoost, Gradient Boosting, and Extreme Gradient Boosting (XGB). Eight key factors were identified as the most influential in land subsidence within Ca Mau: land cover (LULC), groundwater depth, digital terrain model (DTM), normalized vegetation index (NDVI), geology, soil composition, distance to roads, and distance to rivers and streams. The dataset includes 2011 points referenced from the Persistent Scattering SAR Interferometry (PSI) method, of which 1011 points are subsidence points and the remaining are non-subsidence points. The sample points were split, with 70% allocated to the training set and 30% to the testing set. Following computation and execution, the three models underwent evaluation for accuracy using statistical metrics such as the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve, area under the curve (AUC), specificity, sensitivity, and overall accuracy (ACC). The research findings revealed that the XGB model exhibited the highest accuracy, achieving an AUC and ACC above 0.88 for both the training and test sets. Consequently, XGB was chosen to construct a land subsidence susceptibility map for the Ca Mau Peninsula. In addition, 31 subsidence points measured by leveling surveys between 2005 and 2020, provided by the Department of Survey, Mapping and Geographic Information Vietnam, were used for validating the land subsidence susceptibility from the XGB method. The findings indicate a 70.9% accuracy rate in predicting subsidence susceptibility compared to the leveling measurement points. Full article
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18 pages, 4347 KiB  
Article
Towards Quality Management Procedures in 3D Cadastre
by Nenad Višnjevac, Mladen Šoškić and Rajica Mihajlović
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2024, 13(5), 160; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi13050160 - 9 May 2024
Viewed by 466
Abstract
The 3D cadastre presents a modern approach to the development of cadastral information systems, with the role of improving current cadastral systems and overcoming the challenges of a 2D-based approach. Technological advancements, standardization, and scientific research in recent decades have contributed to the [...] Read more.
The 3D cadastre presents a modern approach to the development of cadastral information systems, with the role of improving current cadastral systems and overcoming the challenges of a 2D-based approach. Technological advancements, standardization, and scientific research in recent decades have contributed to the development and definition of the 3D cadastre. This positioned the 3D cadastre as an integral part of the future of land administration. However, every country needs to define a solution for itself based on its own legal system and cadastral tradition, while at the same time relying on international standardization and research. Once a 3D cadastral system is developed, it is crucial to ensure the monitoring, evaluation, and maintenance of both the quality of the cadastral data and the system itself throughout its lifecycle. Since 3D cadastres involve geometric data, quality management procedures must address both geometric and alphanumeric data. In this paper, we analyze and present the quality management procedures that should be included during designing, implementing, and maintaining a 3D cadastral system. Some examples based on real cadastral data were used to emphasize the need for improvement in quality management. The presented quality management procedures require further development in order to meet country-specific requirements and to fully support the 3D cadastre information systems. Full article
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21 pages, 3465 KiB  
Article
Total Least Squares Estimation in Hedonic House Price Models
by Wenxi Zhan, Yu Hu, Wenxian Zeng, Xing Fang, Xionghua Kang and Dawei Li
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2024, 13(5), 159; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi13050159 - 8 May 2024
Viewed by 460
Abstract
In real estate valuation using the Hedonic Price Model (HPM) estimated via Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) regression, subjectivity and measurement errors in the independent variables violate the Gauss–Markov theorem assumption of a non-random coefficient matrix, leading to biased parameter estimates and incorrect precision [...] Read more.
In real estate valuation using the Hedonic Price Model (HPM) estimated via Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) regression, subjectivity and measurement errors in the independent variables violate the Gauss–Markov theorem assumption of a non-random coefficient matrix, leading to biased parameter estimates and incorrect precision assessments. In this contribution, the Errors-in-Variables model equipped with Total Least Squares (TLS) estimation is proposed to address these issues. It fully considers random errors in both dependent and independent variables. An iterative algorithm is provided, and posterior accuracy estimates are provided to validate its effectiveness. Monte Carlo simulations demonstrate that TLS provides more accurate solutions than OLS, significantly improving the root mean square error by over 70%. Empirical experiments on datasets from Boston and Wuhan further confirm the superior performance of TLS, which consistently yields a higher coefficient of determination and a lower posterior variance factor, which shows its more substantial explanatory power for the data. Moreover, TLS shows comparable or slightly superior performance in terms of prediction accuracy. These results make it a compelling and practical method to enhance the HPM. Full article
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25 pages, 30680 KiB  
Article
Oil Palm Bunch Ripeness Classification and Plantation Verification Platform: Leveraging Deep Learning and Geospatial Analysis and Visualization
by Supattra Puttinaovarat, Supaporn Chai-Arayalert and Wanida Saetang
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2024, 13(5), 158; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi13050158 - 8 May 2024
Viewed by 427
Abstract
Oil palm cultivation thrives as a prominent agricultural endeavor within the southern region of Thailand, where the country ranks third globally in production, following Malaysia and Indonesia. The assessment of oil palm bunch ripeness serves various purposes, notably in determining purchasing prices, pre-harvest [...] Read more.
Oil palm cultivation thrives as a prominent agricultural endeavor within the southern region of Thailand, where the country ranks third globally in production, following Malaysia and Indonesia. The assessment of oil palm bunch ripeness serves various purposes, notably in determining purchasing prices, pre-harvest evaluations, and evaluating the impacts of disasters or low market prices. Presently, two predominant methods are employed for this assessment, namely human evaluation, and machine learning for ripeness classification. Human assessment, while boasting high accuracy, necessitates the involvement of farmers or experts, resulting in prolonged processing times, especially when dealing with extensive datasets or dispersed fields. Conversely, machine learning, although capable of accurately classifying harvested oil palm bunches, faces limitations concerning its inability to process images of oil palm bunches on trees and the absence of a platform for on-tree ripeness classification. Considering these challenges, this study introduces the development of a classification platform leveraging machine learning (deep learning) in conjunction with geospatial analysis and visualization to ascertain the ripeness of oil palm bunches while they are still on the tree. The research outcomes demonstrate that oil palm bunch ripeness can be accurately and efficiently classified using a mobile device, achieving an impressive accuracy rate of 99.89% with a training dataset comprising 8779 images and a validation accuracy of 96.12% with 1160 images. Furthermore, the proposed platform facilitates the management and processing of spatial data by comparing coordinates derived from images with oil palm plantation data obtained through crowdsourcing and the analysis of cloud or satellite images of oil palm plantations. This comprehensive platform not only provides a robust model for ripeness assessment but also offers potential applications in government management contexts, particularly in scenarios necessitating real-time information on harvesting status and oil palm plantation conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in AI-Driven Geospatial Analysis and Data Generation)
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22 pages, 83474 KiB  
Article
Spatial and Temporal Analysis of Road Traffic Accidents in Major Californian Cities Using a Geographic Information System
by Tariq Alsahfi
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2024, 13(5), 157; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi13050157 - 8 May 2024
Viewed by 521
Abstract
Road traffic accidents have increased globally, which has led to significant challenges to urban safety and public health. This concerning trend is also evident in California, where major cities have seen a rise in accidents. This research conducts a spatio-temporal analysis of traffic [...] Read more.
Road traffic accidents have increased globally, which has led to significant challenges to urban safety and public health. This concerning trend is also evident in California, where major cities have seen a rise in accidents. This research conducts a spatio-temporal analysis of traffic accidents across the four major Californian cities—Los Angeles, Sacramento, San Diego, and San Jose—over five years. It achieves this through an integration of Geographic Information System (GIS) functionalities (space–time cube analysis) with non-parametric statistical and spatial techniques (DBSCAN, KDE, and the Getis-Ord Gi* method). Our findings from the temporal analysis showed that the most accidents occurred in Los Angeles over five years, while San Diego and San Jose had the least occurrences. The severity maps showed that the majority of accidents in all cities were level 2. Moreover, spatio-temporal dynamics, captured via the space–time cube analysis, visualized significant accident hotspot locations. The clustering of accidents using DBSCAN verified the temporal and hotspot analysis results by showing areas with high accident rates and different clustering patterns. Additionally, integrating KDE with the population density and the Getis-Ord Gi* method explained the relationship between high-density regions and accident occurrences. The utilization of GIS-based analytical techniques in this study shows the complex interplay between accident occurrences, severity, and demographic factors. The insight gained from this study can be further used to implement effective data-driven road safety strategies. Full article
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23 pages, 7657 KiB  
Article
A Multi-Feature Fusion Method for Urban Functional Regions Identification: A Case Study of Xi’an, China
by Zhuo Wang, Jianjun Bai and Ruitao Feng
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2024, 13(5), 156; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi13050156 - 7 May 2024
Viewed by 494
Abstract
Research on the identification of urban functional regions is of great significance for the understanding of urban structure, spatial planning, resource allocation, and promoting sustainable urban development. However, achieving high-precision urban functional region recognition has always been a research challenge in this field. [...] Read more.
Research on the identification of urban functional regions is of great significance for the understanding of urban structure, spatial planning, resource allocation, and promoting sustainable urban development. However, achieving high-precision urban functional region recognition has always been a research challenge in this field. For this purpose, this paper proposes an urban functional region identification method called ASOE (activity–scene–object–economy), which integrates the features from multi-source data to perceive the spatial differentiation of urban human and geographic elements. First, we utilize VGG16 (Visual Geometry Group 16) to extract high-level semantic features from the remote sensing images with 1.2 m spatial resolution. Then, using scraped building footprints, we extract building object features such as area, perimeter, and structural ratios. Socioeconomic features and population activity features are extracted from Point of Interest (POI) and Weibo data, respectively. Finally, integrating the aforementioned features and using the Random Forest method for classification, the identification results of urban functional regions in the main urban area of Xi’an are obtained. After comparing with the actual land use map, our method achieves an identification accuracy of 91.74%, which is higher than other comparative methods, making it effectively identify four typical urban functional regions in the main urban area of Xi’an (e.g., residential regions, industrial regions, commercial regions, and public regions). The research indicates that the method of fusing multi-source data can fully leverage the advantages of big data, achieving high-precision identification of urban functional regions. Full article
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14 pages, 13626 KiB  
Article
An Adaptive Simplification Method for Coastlines Using a Skeleton Line “Bridge” Double Direction Buffering Algorithm
by Lulu Tang, Lihua Zhang, Jian Dong, Hongcheng Wei and Shuai Wei
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2024, 13(5), 155; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi13050155 - 7 May 2024
Viewed by 415
Abstract
Aiming at the problem that the current double direction buffering algorithm is easy to use to seal the “bottleneck” area when simplifying coastlines, an adaptive simplification method for coastlines using a skeleton line “bridge” double direction buffering algorithm is proposed. Firstly, from the [...] Read more.
Aiming at the problem that the current double direction buffering algorithm is easy to use to seal the “bottleneck” area when simplifying coastlines, an adaptive simplification method for coastlines using a skeleton line “bridge” double direction buffering algorithm is proposed. Firstly, from the perspective of visual constraints, the relationship between the buffer distance and the coastline line width and the minimum recognition distance of the human eye is theoretically derived and determined. Then, based on the construction of the coastline skeleton binary tree, the “bridge” skeleton line is extracted using the “source tracing” algorithm. Finally, the shoreline adaptive simplification is realized by constructing a visual buffer of “bridge” skeleton lines to bridge the original resulting coastline and the local details. The experimental results show that the proposed method can effectively solve the problem that the current double direction buffering algorithm has, which can significantly improve the quality of simplification. Full article
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18 pages, 8018 KiB  
Article
Collaborative Methods of Resolving Road Graphic Conflicts Based on Cartographic Rules and Generalization Operations
by Chuanbang Zheng, Qingsheng Guo, Lin Wang, Yuangang Liu and Jianfeng Jiang
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2024, 13(5), 154; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi13050154 - 6 May 2024
Viewed by 411
Abstract
The resolution of road graphic conflicts is a key aspect of map generalization, which involves both scale reduction and the symbolization of map features. This study proposes collaborative methods of road graphic conflict resolution considering different road characteristics. These methods consider both geometric [...] Read more.
The resolution of road graphic conflicts is a key aspect of map generalization, which involves both scale reduction and the symbolization of map features. This study proposes collaborative methods of road graphic conflict resolution considering different road characteristics. These methods consider both geometric and semantic characteristics, and they incorporate the bend characteristics of roads, the road symbol size, and road semantics. Constrained Delaunay triangulation skeleton lines are used to categorize road graphic conflicts, which are made up of four independent conflict types and four group conflict types. Based on their characteristics, three collaborative methods are designed to deal with the different types of road graphic conflicts: collaboration between deletion and the snake displacement model, collaboration between the snake displacement model and collinearity, and collaboration among simplification, smoothing, and the beam displacement model. Two types of independent conflicts can be processed using only one simple operation. This study summarizes the cartographic rules for resolving road graphic conflicts, and these are used along with geometric features to drive the collaborative methods or one simple operation presented here. The experimental results indicate that the method proposed in this study can effectively resolve road graphic conflicts. Full article
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20 pages, 18444 KiB  
Article
Exploration of an Open Vocabulary Model on Semantic Segmentation for Street Scene Imagery
by Zichao Zeng and Jan Boehm
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2024, 13(5), 153; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi13050153 - 5 May 2024
Viewed by 574
Abstract
This study investigates the efficacy of an open vocabulary, multi-modal, foundation model for the semantic segmentation of images from complex urban street scenes. Unlike traditional models reliant on predefined category sets, Grounded SAM uses arbitrary textual inputs for category definition, offering enhanced flexibility [...] Read more.
This study investigates the efficacy of an open vocabulary, multi-modal, foundation model for the semantic segmentation of images from complex urban street scenes. Unlike traditional models reliant on predefined category sets, Grounded SAM uses arbitrary textual inputs for category definition, offering enhanced flexibility and adaptability. The model’s performance was evaluated across single and multiple category tasks using the benchmark datasets Cityscapes, BDD100K, GTA5, and KITTI. The study focused on the impact of textual input refinement and the challenges of classifying visually similar categories. Results indicate strong performance in single-category segmentation but highlighted difficulties in multi-category scenarios, particularly with categories bearing close textual or visual resemblances. Adjustments in textual prompts significantly improved detection accuracy, though challenges persisted in distinguishing between visually similar objects such as buses and trains. Comparative analysis with state-of-the-art models revealed Grounded SAM’s competitive performance, particularly notable given its direct inference capability without extensive dataset-specific training. This feature is advantageous for resource-limited applications. The study concludes that while open vocabulary models such as Grounded SAM mark a significant advancement in semantic segmentation, further improvements in integrating image and text processing are essential for better performance in complex scenarios. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in AI-Driven Geospatial Analysis and Data Generation)
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23 pages, 11519 KiB  
Article
A Quantitative and Qualitative Experimental Framework for the Evaluation of Urban Soundscapes: Application to the City of Sidi Bou Saïd
by Mohamed Amin Hammami and Christophe Claramunt
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2024, 13(5), 152; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi13050152 - 1 May 2024
Viewed by 671
Abstract
This research introduces an experimental framework based on 3D acoustic and psycho-acoustic sensors supplemented with ambisonics and sound morphological analysis, whose objective is to study urban soundscapes. A questionnaire that highlights the differences between what has been measured and what has been perceiveSd [...] Read more.
This research introduces an experimental framework based on 3D acoustic and psycho-acoustic sensors supplemented with ambisonics and sound morphological analysis, whose objective is to study urban soundscapes. A questionnaire that highlights the differences between what has been measured and what has been perceiveSd by humans complements the quantitative approach with a qualitative evaluation. The comparison of the measurements with the questionnaire provides a global vision of the perception of these soundscapes, as well as differences and similarities. The approach is experimented within the historical center of the Tunisian city of Sidi Bou Saïd, demonstrating that from a range of complementary protocols, a soundscape environment can be qualified. This framework provides an additional dimension to urban planning studies. Full article
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20 pages, 6136 KiB  
Article
Prediction of Parking Space Availability Using Improved MAT-LSTM Network
by Feizhou Zhang, Ke Shang, Lei Yan, Haijing Nan and Zicong Miao
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2024, 13(5), 151; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi13050151 - 1 May 2024
Viewed by 575
Abstract
The prediction of parking space availability plays a crucial role in information systems providing parking guidance. However, controversy persists regarding the efficiency and accuracy of mainstream time series prediction methods, such as convolutional neural networks (CNNs) and recurrent neural networks (RNNs). In this [...] Read more.
The prediction of parking space availability plays a crucial role in information systems providing parking guidance. However, controversy persists regarding the efficiency and accuracy of mainstream time series prediction methods, such as convolutional neural networks (CNNs) and recurrent neural networks (RNNs). In this study, a comparison was made between a temporal convolutional network (TCN) based on CNNs and a long short-term memory (LSTM) network based on RNNs to determine an appropriate baseline for predicting parking space availability. Subsequently, a multi-head attention (MAT) mechanism was incorporated into an LSTM network, attempting to improve its accuracy. Experiments were conducted on three real and two synthetic datasets. The results indicated that the TCN achieved the fastest convergence, whereas the MAT-LSTM method provided the highest average accuracy, namely 0.0330 and 1.102 × 10−6, on the real and synthetic datasets, respectively. Furthermore, the improved MAT-LSTM model accomplished an increase of up to 48% in accuracy compared with the classic LSTM model. Consequently, we concluded that RNN-based networks are better suited for predicting long-time series. In particular, the MAT-LSTM method proposed in this study holds higher application value for predicting parking space availability with a higher accuracy. Full article
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28 pages, 14236 KiB  
Article
Delineating Source and Sink Zones of Trip Journeys in the Road Network Space
by Yan Shi, Bingrong Chen, Jincai Huang, Da Wang, Huimin Liu and Min Deng
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2024, 13(5), 150; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi13050150 - 30 Apr 2024
Viewed by 487
Abstract
Source–sink zones refer to aggregated adjacent origins/destinations with homogeneous trip flow characteristics. Current relevant studies mostly detect source–sink zones based on outflow/inflow volumes without considering trip routes. Nevertheless, trip routes detail individuals’ journeys on road networks and give rise to relationships among human [...] Read more.
Source–sink zones refer to aggregated adjacent origins/destinations with homogeneous trip flow characteristics. Current relevant studies mostly detect source–sink zones based on outflow/inflow volumes without considering trip routes. Nevertheless, trip routes detail individuals’ journeys on road networks and give rise to relationships among human activities, road network structures, and land-use types. Therefore, this study developed a novel approach to delineate source–sink zones based on trip route aggregation on road networks. We first represented original trajectories using road segment sequences and applied the Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA) model to associate trajectories with route semantics. We then ran a hierarchical clustering operation to aggregate trajectories with similar route semantics. Finally, we adopted an adaptive multi-variable agglomeration strategy to associate the trajectory clusters with each traffic analysis zone to delineating source and sink zones, with a trajectory topic entropy defined as an indicator to analyze the dynamic impact between the road network and source–sink zones. We used taxi trajectories in Xiamen, China, to verify the effectiveness of the proposed method. Full article
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15 pages, 6621 KiB  
Article
Comparing Machine Learning and Time Series Approaches in Predictive Modeling of Urban Fire Incidents: A Case Study of Austin, Texas
by Yihong Yuan and Andrew Grayson Wylie
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2024, 13(5), 149; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi13050149 - 29 Apr 2024
Viewed by 565
Abstract
This study examines urban fire incidents in Austin, Texas using machine learning (Random Forest) and time series (Autoregressive integrated moving average, ARIMA) methods for predictive modeling. Based on a dataset from the City of Austin Fire Department, it addresses the effectiveness of these [...] Read more.
This study examines urban fire incidents in Austin, Texas using machine learning (Random Forest) and time series (Autoregressive integrated moving average, ARIMA) methods for predictive modeling. Based on a dataset from the City of Austin Fire Department, it addresses the effectiveness of these models in predicting fire occurrences and the influence of fire types and urban district characteristics on predictions. The findings indicate that ARIMA models generally excel in predicting most fire types, except for auto fires. Additionally, the results highlight the significant differences in model performance across urban districts, indicating an impact of local features on fire incidence prediction. The research offers insights into temporal patterns of specific fire types, which can provide useful input to urban planning and public safety strategies in rapidly developing cities. In addition, the findings also emphasize the need for tailored predictive models, based on local dynamics and the distinct nature of fire incidents. Full article
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21 pages, 5960 KiB  
Article
A Methodology for Designing One-Way Station-Based Carsharing Services in a GIS Environment: A Case Study in Palermo
by Gabriele D’Orso and Marco Migliore
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2024, 13(5), 148; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi13050148 - 29 Apr 2024
Viewed by 522
Abstract
One-way carsharing is recognized as one of the most popular transportation services in urban areas, being an alternative option to private cars. Over the last decades, a vast amount of literature on the design of specific aspects of this service (fleet size, stations’ [...] Read more.
One-way carsharing is recognized as one of the most popular transportation services in urban areas, being an alternative option to private cars. Over the last decades, a vast amount of literature on the design of specific aspects of this service (fleet size, stations’ locations, fare, balancing operations) has formed. However, a holistic approach for designing carsharing services seems not to be developed. This paper proposes a new approach for designing one-way station-based carsharing services, presenting a five-step method, entirely developed in a GIS environment. The first three steps (suitability analysis, site selection analysis, and walkability analysis) allow finding the candidate locations for carsharing stations. After the assessment of the capacity of the potential stations, a location-allocation analysis allows for assessing the fleet size, the number of stations that maximize the coverage of carsharing demand, and their optimal locations. This paper presents a case study: a new one-way carsharing service was designed in Palermo (Italy) and compared to the existing carsharing service operating in the city. The results highlight that the current carsharing supply is undersized, having about 45% fewer stations and about half the cars compared to those resulting from the model, leaving some POIs unserved. Full article
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17 pages, 4845 KiB  
Article
Optimization of Shared Electric Scooter Deployment Stations Based on Distance Tolerance
by Jianwei Yue, Yingqiu Long, Shaohua Wang and Haojian Liang
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2024, 13(5), 147; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi13050147 - 29 Apr 2024
Viewed by 716
Abstract
The proliferation of shared electric scooters (E-scooters) has brought convenience to urban transportation but has also introduced challenges such as disorderly parking and an imbalance between supply and demand. Given the current inconsistent quantity and spatial distribution of shared E-scooters, coupled with inadequate [...] Read more.
The proliferation of shared electric scooters (E-scooters) has brought convenience to urban transportation but has also introduced challenges such as disorderly parking and an imbalance between supply and demand. Given the current inconsistent quantity and spatial distribution of shared E-scooters, coupled with inadequate research on deployment stations selection, we propose a novel maximal covering location problem (MCLP) based on distance tolerance. The model aims to maximize the coverage of user demand while minimizing the sum of distances from users to deployment stations. A deep reinforcement learning (DRL) was devised to address this optimization model. An experiment was conducted focusing on areas with high concentrations of shared E-scooter trips in Chicago. The solutions of location selection were obtained by DRL, the Gurobi solver, and the genetic algorithm (GA). The experimental results demonstrated the effectiveness of the proposed model in optimizing the layout of shared E-scooter deployment stations. This study provides valuable insights into facility location selection for urban shared transportation tools, and showcases the efficiency of DRL in addressing facility location problems (FLPs). Full article
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22 pages, 7730 KiB  
Article
Exploring the Pedestrian Route Choice Behaviors by Machine Learning Models
by Cheng-Jie Jin, Yuanwei Luo, Chenyang Wu, Yuchen Song and Dawei Li
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2024, 13(5), 146; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi13050146 - 28 Apr 2024
Viewed by 577
Abstract
To investigate pedestrian route choice mechanisms from a perspective distinct from that employed in discrete choice models (DCMs), this study utilizes machine learning models and employs SHapley Additive exPlanations (SHAP) for model interpretation. The data used in this paper come from several pedestrian [...] Read more.
To investigate pedestrian route choice mechanisms from a perspective distinct from that employed in discrete choice models (DCMs), this study utilizes machine learning models and employs SHapley Additive exPlanations (SHAP) for model interpretation. The data used in this paper come from several pedestrian flow experiments with two routes, which were recorded by UAV. Our findings indicate that logistic regression (similar to a binary logit model) exhibits good computational efficiency but falls short in predictive accuracy when compared to other machine learning models. Among the 12 machine learning models assessed, by calculating the new indicator named OP, we find that eXtreme Gradient Boosting (XGB) and Light Gradient Boosting (LGB) strike the best balance between accuracy and computational efficiency. Regarding feature contribution, our analysis reveals that bottlenecks exert the most significant influence on pedestrian route choice behavior, followed by the time it takes pedestrians to return from the end of the route to the origin (reflecting pedestrian characteristics and attitudes). While the pedestrian density of the shorter route contributes less compared to bottlenecks and return time, it exhibits a threshold effect, meaning that once the density of the shorter route surpasses a certain threshold, most pedestrians opt for the longer route. Full article
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18 pages, 2094 KiB  
Article
Evolution Characteristics and Influencing Factors of City Networks in China: A Case Study of Cross-Regional Automobile Enterprises
by Daming Xu and Weiliang Shen
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2024, 13(5), 145; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi13050145 - 28 Apr 2024
Viewed by 521
Abstract
The optimization of the spatial structure of the city network is conducive to the scientific spatial distribution of industries and the promotion of coordinated regional development. This study selected the top 100 automobile enterprises in the Chinese stock market that belong to China’s [...] Read more.
The optimization of the spatial structure of the city network is conducive to the scientific spatial distribution of industries and the promotion of coordinated regional development. This study selected the top 100 automobile enterprises in the Chinese stock market that belong to China’s pillar industry, a total of 1455 headquarters and branches, to establish an enterprise matrix. Based on the ownership linkage model, the evolution characteristics of city networks in China from 2000 to 2020 are revealed, and the influential factors of city networks are discussed using the negative binomial regression model. The findings are as follows: (1) there are significant differences in the status of automobile cities, forming a “pyramid network” hierarchy. (2) The agglomeration area of automobile cities has formed the development region of “4 + 4 + 1”. (3) The city network with hierarchical connections has formed a spatial structure of a “cross–cobweb” in the middle and “trapezoid–diamond” in the periphery. (4) Urban transportation conditions, the scientific research environment, the enterprise agglomeration economy, GDP per capita, and technological proximity positively impact the formation of a city network, but the total export–import volume has a negative impact. Overall, the government can use this study’s results to formulate policies for the automotive industry and urban development. Full article
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27 pages, 11445 KiB  
Article
Spatiotemporal Evolution and Influencing Factors of Urban Industry in Modern China (1840–1949): A Case Study of Nanjing
by Chun Wang, Gang Chen and Yixin Liang
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2024, 13(5), 144; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi13050144 - 28 Apr 2024
Viewed by 604
Abstract
In modern China, industrialization has formed a critical foundation for the transition to modernization. However, the spatiotemporal evolution patterns and driving mechanisms of urban industrial development in Nanjing from 1840 to 1949 remain unclear. Based on textual historical sources, this study examined the [...] Read more.
In modern China, industrialization has formed a critical foundation for the transition to modernization. However, the spatiotemporal evolution patterns and driving mechanisms of urban industrial development in Nanjing from 1840 to 1949 remain unclear. Based on textual historical sources, this study examined the spatiotemporal patterns of urban industrial development in Nanjing from 1840 to 1949 by using spatial analysis methods, GeoDetector, regression models and industrial structure indices. The results reveal the following: (1) The overall spatial distribution pattern of the industry in modern Nanjing exhibited a “one main, one secondary” dual-center “ladle-shaped” arrangement. Over time, industry has expanded from the urban center toward the east and north. (2) The modernization level of different industries was uneven, exhibiting a “center-periphery” spatial pattern. (3) At the micro level, transportation and population density were the primary influencing factors for industrial location, whereas at the macro level, government intervention mainly affected the industrialization pattern. (4) The industrial development pattern in modern Nanjing, in alignment with the “pole-axis” spatial system, serves as a microcosm of China’s urban modernization transition. This study represents the application of GIS methods in the humanities and provides valuable insights for urban planning and development. Full article
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17 pages, 3712 KiB  
Article
Discovering Links between Geospatial Data Sources in the Web of Data: The Open Geospatial Engine Approach
by Lianlian He and Ruixiang Liu
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2024, 13(5), 143; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi13050143 - 28 Apr 2024
Viewed by 579
Abstract
The Web of Data has been fueled significantly by geospatial data over the last few years. In the current link discovery frameworks, there is still a lack of robust support for finding geospatial-aware links between geospatial data sources in the Web of Data. [...] Read more.
The Web of Data has been fueled significantly by geospatial data over the last few years. In the current link discovery frameworks, there is still a lack of robust support for finding geospatial-aware links between geospatial data sources in the Web of Data. They are also limited in efficient association capabilities for large-scale datasets. This paper extends the data integration capability based on the spatial metrics in the open geospatial engine OGE. These metrics include topological relationships and spatial matching between geospatial entities within multiple geospatial data sources. Thus, the tool can be employed by data publishers to set geospatial-aware links to facilitate geospatial data and knowledge discovery in the Web of Data. Several geospatial data sources are used to demonstrate the usability and effectiveness of the approach and tool implementation. Full article
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18 pages, 6978 KiB  
Article
Integrating Spatial and Non-Spatial Dimensions to Evaluate Access to Rural Primary Healthcare Service: A Case Study of Songzi, China
by Taohua Yang, Weicong Luo, Lingling Tian and Jinpeng Li
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2024, 13(5), 142; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi13050142 - 27 Apr 2024
Viewed by 449
Abstract
Access to rural primary healthcare services has been broadly studied in the past few decades. However, most earlier studies that focused on examining access to rural healthcare services have conventionally treated spatial and non-spatial access as separate factors. This research aims to measure [...] Read more.
Access to rural primary healthcare services has been broadly studied in the past few decades. However, most earlier studies that focused on examining access to rural healthcare services have conventionally treated spatial and non-spatial access as separate factors. This research aims to measure access to primary healthcare services in rural areas with the consideration of both spatial and non-spatial dimensions. The methodology of study is threefold. First, the Gaussian two-step floating catchment area (G-2SFCA) method was adopted to measure spatial access to primary healthcare services. Then, a questionnaire survey was conducted to investigate non-spatial access factors, including demographic condition, patient’s household income, healthcare insurance, education level, and patient satisfaction level with the services. After that, a comprehensive evaluation index system was employed to integrate both spatial and non-spatial access. The empirical study showed a remarkable disparity in spatial access to primary healthcare services. In total, 78 villages with 185,137 local people had a “low” or “very low” level of spatial access to both clinics and hospitals. For the non-spatial dimension, the results depicted that Songzi had significant inequalities in socioeconomic status (e.g., income, education) and patient satisfaction level for medical service. When integrating both spatial and non-spatial factors, the disadvantaged areas were mainly located in the eastern and middle parts. In addition, this study found that comprehensively considering the spatial and non-spatial access had a significant impact on results in healthcare access. In conclusion, this study calls for policymakers to pay more attention to primary healthcare inequalities within rural areas. The spatial and non-spatial access should be considered comprehensively when the long-term rural medical support policy is designated. Full article
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19 pages, 6750 KiB  
Article
A Sensor-Based Simulation Method for Spatiotemporal Event Detection
by Yuqin Jiang, Andrey A. Popov, Zhenlong Li, Michael E. Hodgson and Binghu Huang
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2024, 13(5), 141; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi13050141 - 23 Apr 2024
Viewed by 771
Abstract
Human movements in urban areas are essential to understand human–environment interactions. However, activities and associated movements are full of uncertainties due to the complexity of a city. In this paper, we propose a novel sensor-based approach for spatiotemporal event detection based on the [...] Read more.
Human movements in urban areas are essential to understand human–environment interactions. However, activities and associated movements are full of uncertainties due to the complexity of a city. In this paper, we propose a novel sensor-based approach for spatiotemporal event detection based on the Discrete Empirical Interpolation Method. Specifically, we first identify the key locations, defined as “sensors”, which have the strongest correlation with the whole dataset. We then simulate a regular uneventful scenario with the observation data points from those key locations. By comparing the simulated and observation scenarios, events are extracted both spatially and temporally. We apply this method in New York City with taxi trip record data. Results show that this method is effective in detecting when and where events occur. Full article
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