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Robotics, Volume 11, Issue 3 (June 2022) – 13 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Despite advances in robotic surgery, the existing literature predominantly focuses on the preliminary structural design, control, and human–robot interaction. We present the types of actuation methods, robot kinematics, dynamics, and augmented reality (AR)-based sensing, whilst addressing their shortcomings to facilitate the surgeon’s task. Our current research on snake robots provides a stepping stone for developing highly dexterous, biocompatible, and intelligent systems with force and position feedback, visual servoing, and AR. This paper aims to conduct a review of motion planning concepts in surgical serpentine robots, emphasizing machine-learning algorithms for the validation and optimisation of feedback-enhanced navigation of end-effectors. View this paper
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19 pages, 14057 KiB  
Article
A Study on Phase-Changing Materials for Controllable Stiffness in Robotic Joints
by Bingyin Ma, Mohammed Z. Shaqura, Robert C. Richardson and Abbas A. Dehghani-Sanij
Robotics 2022, 11(3), 66; https://doi.org/10.3390/robotics11030066 - 16 Jun 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2814
Abstract
This paper studies the viability of using a class of phase-changing materials for the design of controlled variable stiffness robotic joints which enable the design of robots that can operate in confined spaces. In such environments, robots need to be able to navigate [...] Read more.
This paper studies the viability of using a class of phase-changing materials for the design of controlled variable stiffness robotic joints which enable the design of robots that can operate in confined spaces. In such environments, robots need to be able to navigate in proximity or while in contact with their environment to reach one or more manipulated target. Joints with controllable stiffness can substantially enhance functionality of this class of robots where relatively higher joint stiffness is required to support the robot weight against gravity and low stiffness is desired when operating in complex or delicate environments. The research work presented in this paper focuses on examining thermorheological fluids (TRF) to design and manufacture thermally controlled variable stiffness joints. Two phase-changing materials are considered in the study: low-melting-point solder and hot-melt adhesive. Both materials are embedded in a custom designed joint fabricated using 3D printing and silicone casting. Joint stiffness was investigated with both materials and reported here. The results shows that the proposed variable stiffness joints with TRF achieve wide ranges of load-deflection ratio varying between 0.05 N/mm (when thermally activated) to about 10 N/mm (in bonding state). On average, the joint can withstand 20 times its total weight when in the bonding state. Design challenges and durability of TRF-based joints are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Intelligent Robots and Mechatronics)
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15 pages, 471 KiB  
Review
Wire Harness Assembly Process Supported by Collaborative Robots: Literature Review and Call for R&D
by Gabriel E. Navas-Reascos, David Romero, Johan Stahre and Alberto Caballero-Ruiz
Robotics 2022, 11(3), 65; https://doi.org/10.3390/robotics11030065 - 10 Jun 2022
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 4956
Abstract
The wire harness assembly process is a complicated manufacturing activity, which is becoming more complex because of the evolving nature of mechatronic and electronic products that require more connectors, sensors, controllers, communication networking, etc. Furthermore, the demand for wire harnesses continues to grow [...] Read more.
The wire harness assembly process is a complicated manufacturing activity, which is becoming more complex because of the evolving nature of mechatronic and electronic products that require more connectors, sensors, controllers, communication networking, etc. Furthermore, the demand for wire harnesses continues to grow in all industries worldwide as the majority of equipment, appliances, machinery, vehicles, etc., are becoming “smart” (i.e., more mechatronic or electronic). Moreover, most of the wire harness assembly process tasks are done manually, and most of these are considered non-ergonomic for human assembly workers. Hence, the wire harness manufacturing industry is faced with the challenge of increasing productivity while improving the occupational health of its human assembly workers. The purpose of this paper is to conduct a literature review exploring the state of the use of collaborative robots in the wire harness assembly process due to their potential to reduce current occupational health problems for human assembly workers and increase the throughput of wire harness assembly lines, and to provide main findings, discussion, and further research directions for collaborative robotics in this application domain. Eleven papers were found in the scientific literature. All papers demonstrated the potential of collaborative robots to improve the productivity of wire harness assembly lines, and two of these in particular on the ergonomics of the wire harness assembly process. None of the papers reviewed presented a cost–benefit or a cycle time analysis to qualitatively and/or quantitatively measure the impact of the incorporation of collaborative robots in the wire harness assembly process. This represents an important area of opportunity for research with relevance to industry. Three papers remark on the importance of the integration of computer vision systems into a collaborative wire harness assembly process to make this more versatile as many types of wire harnesses exist. The literature review findings call for further research and technological developments in support of the wire harness manufacturing industry and its workers in four main categories: (i) Collaborative Robotics and Grippers, (ii) Ergonomics, (iii) Computer Vision Systems, and (iv) Implementation Methodologies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Industrial Robots and Automation)
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26 pages, 4772 KiB  
Article
Wilderness Search for Lost Persons Using a Multimodal Aerial-Terrestrial Robot Team
by Shan Yu Ku, Goldie Nejat and Beno Benhabib
Robotics 2022, 11(3), 64; https://doi.org/10.3390/robotics11030064 - 1 Jun 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2586
Abstract
Mobile robots that are capable of multiple modes of locomotion may have tangible advantages over unimodal robots in unstructured and non-homogeneous environments due to their ability to better adapt to local conditions. This paper specifically considers the use of a team of multimodal [...] Read more.
Mobile robots that are capable of multiple modes of locomotion may have tangible advantages over unimodal robots in unstructured and non-homogeneous environments due to their ability to better adapt to local conditions. This paper specifically considers the use of a team of multimodal robots capable of switching between aerial and terrestrial modes of locomotion for wilderness search and rescue (WiSAR) scenarios. It presents a novel search planning method that coordinates the members of the robotic team to maximize the probability of locating a mobile target in the wilderness, potentially, last seen on an a priori known trail. It is assumed that the search area expands over time and, thus, an exhaustive search is not feasible. Earlier research on search planning methods for heterogeneous though unimodal search teams have exploited synergies between robots with different locomotive abilities through coordination and/or cooperation. Work on multimodal robots, on the other hand, has primarily focused on their mechanical design and low-level control. In contrast, our recent work, presented herein, has two major components: (i) target-motion prediction in the presence of a priori known trails in the wilderness, and (ii) probability-guided multimodal robot search-trajectory generation. For the former sub-problem, the novelty of our work lies in the formulation and use of 3D probability curves to capture target distributions under the influence of a priori known walking/hiking trails. For the latter, the novelty lies in the use of a tree structure to represent the decisions involved in multimodal probability-curve-guided search planning, which enables trajectory generation and mode selection to be optimized simultaneously, for example, via a Monte Carlo tree search technique. Extensive simulations, some of which are included herein, have shown that multimodal robotic search teams, coordinated via the trajectory planning method proposed in this paper, clearly outperform their unimodal counterparts in terms of search success rates. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Aerospace Robotics and Autonomous Systems)
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22 pages, 16811 KiB  
Article
Robotic Nursing Assistant Applications and Human Subject Tests through Patient Sitter and Patient Walker Tasks
by Cody Lee Lundberg, Hakki Erhan Sevil, Deborah Behan and Dan O. Popa
Robotics 2022, 11(3), 63; https://doi.org/10.3390/robotics11030063 - 16 May 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 4056
Abstract
This study presents the implementation of basic nursing tasks and human subject tests with a mobile robotic platform (PR2) for hospital patients. The primary goal of this study is to define the requirements for a robotic nursing assistant platform. The overall designed application [...] Read more.
This study presents the implementation of basic nursing tasks and human subject tests with a mobile robotic platform (PR2) for hospital patients. The primary goal of this study is to define the requirements for a robotic nursing assistant platform. The overall designed application scenario consists of a PR2 robotic platform, a human subject as the patient, and a tablet for patient–robot communication. The PR2 robot understands the patient’s request and performs the requested task by performing automated action steps. Two categories and three tasks are defined as: patient sitter tasks, include object fetching and temperature measurement, and patient walker tasks, including supporting the patient while they are using the walker. For this designed scenario and these tasks, human subject tests are performed with 27 volunteers in the Assistive Robotics Laboratory at the University of Texas at Arlington Research Institute (UTARI). Results and observations from human subject tests are provided. These activities are part of a larger effort to establish adaptive robotic nursing assistants (ARNA) for physical tasks in hospital environments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Robots for Health and Elderly Care)
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17 pages, 6679 KiB  
Article
A Robotic Platform for Aircraft Composite Structure Inspection Using Thermography
by Amalka Indupama Samarathunga, Neelanjana Piyasundara, Anuka Iroshan Wanigasooriya, Buddhika Sampath Kumara, Vimukkthi Priyadarshana Vithanage and Damith Suresh Chathuranga
Robotics 2022, 11(3), 62; https://doi.org/10.3390/robotics11030062 - 15 May 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2784
Abstract
Water ingression is a critical issue in honeycomb composite structures, which could result in catastrophic structural failure. In the aviation industry, they are widely used to manufacture critical aircraft structural components including fuselage, wings, and flight control surfaces. Catastrophic failure of these structures [...] Read more.
Water ingression is a critical issue in honeycomb composite structures, which could result in catastrophic structural failure. In the aviation industry, they are widely used to manufacture critical aircraft structural components including fuselage, wings, and flight control surfaces. Catastrophic failure of these structures would be disastrous, thus identifying water accumulation in earlier stages of the defect is necessary. The conventional non-destructive testing method is thermography which is performed using handheld thermography cameras by manually accessing the specific areas. This method of inspection has been identified to be a risky, costly, time-consuming, and inspector-dependent technique. This paper describes using a wall-climbing robotic platform that can be controlled remotely to access and perform the inspection on a targeted structural area replacing the manual process. The designed wall-climbing inspection robot onboard a heat pump to stimulate the composite surface to an adequate temperature and, an infrared sensor to feed the real-time temperature data via Bluetooth serial communication to a remote computer system to be processed into a thermal image and evaluated to determine the presence of water. The results obtained from the thermographic sensor are validated with the comparison of the Fluke thermography camera. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Industrial Robotics)
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21 pages, 6581 KiB  
Article
Teleoperation Control of an Underactuated Bionic Hand: Comparison between Wearable and Vision-Tracking-Based Methods
by Junling Fu, Massimiliano Poletti, Qingsheng Liu, Elisa Iovene, Hang Su, Giancarlo Ferrigno and Elena De Momi
Robotics 2022, 11(3), 61; https://doi.org/10.3390/robotics11030061 - 14 May 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 5360
Abstract
Bionic hands have been employed in a wide range of applications, including prosthetics, robotic grasping, and human–robot interaction. However, considering the underactuated and nonlinear characteristics, as well as the mechanical structure’s backlash, achieving natural and intuitive teleoperation control of an underactuated bionic hand [...] Read more.
Bionic hands have been employed in a wide range of applications, including prosthetics, robotic grasping, and human–robot interaction. However, considering the underactuated and nonlinear characteristics, as well as the mechanical structure’s backlash, achieving natural and intuitive teleoperation control of an underactuated bionic hand remains a critical issue. In this paper, the teleoperation control of an underactuated bionic hand using wearable and vision-tracking system-based methods is investigated. Firstly, the nonlinear behaviour of the bionic hand is observed and the kinematics model is formulated. Then, the wearable-glove-based and the vision-tracking-based teleoperation control frameworks are implemented, respectively. Furthermore, experiments are conducted to demonstrate the feasibility and performance of these two methods in terms of accuracy in both static and dynamic scenarios. Finally, a user study and demonstration experiments are conducted to verify the performance of these two approaches in grasp tasks. Both developed systems proved to be exploitable in both powered and precise grasp tasks using the underactuated bionic hand, with a success rate of 98.6% and 96.5%, respectively. The glove-based method turned out to be more accurate and better performing than the vision-based one, but also less comfortable, requiring greater effort by the user. By further incorporating a robot manipulator, the system can be utilised to perform grasp, delivery, or handover tasks in daily, risky, and infectious scenarios. Full article
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18 pages, 6254 KiB  
Article
Cat-Inspired Gaits for a Tilt-Rotor—From Symmetrical to Asymmetrical
by Zhe Shen and Takeshi Tsuchiya
Robotics 2022, 11(3), 60; https://doi.org/10.3390/robotics11030060 - 13 May 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3500
Abstract
Among the tilt-rotors (quadrotors) developed in recent decades, Ryll’s model with eight inputs (four magnitudes of thrusts and four tilting angles) attracted great attention. Typical feedback linearization maneuvers all of the eight inputs with a united control rule to stabilize this tilt-rotor. Instead [...] Read more.
Among the tilt-rotors (quadrotors) developed in recent decades, Ryll’s model with eight inputs (four magnitudes of thrusts and four tilting angles) attracted great attention. Typical feedback linearization maneuvers all of the eight inputs with a united control rule to stabilize this tilt-rotor. Instead of assigning the tilting angles by the control rule, the recent research predetermines the tilting angles and leaves the magnitudes of thrusts with the only control signals. These tilting angles are designed to mimic the cat-trot gait while avoiding the singular decoupling matrix in feedback linearization. To complete the discussions of the cat-gait inspired tilt-rotor gaits, this research addresses the analyses on the rest of the common cat gaits, walk, run, transverse gallop, and rotary gallop. It is found that the singular decoupling matrix exists in walk gait, transverse gallop gait, and rotary gallop gait; the decoupling matrix can hardly be guaranteed to be invertible analytically. Further modifications (scaling) are conducted to these three gaits to accommodate the application of feedback linearization; the acceptable attitudes, leading to invertible decoupling matrix, for each scaled gait are evaluated in the roll-pitch diagram. The modified gaits with different periods are then applied to the tilt-rotor in tracking experiments, in which the references are uniform rectilinear motion and uniform circular motion with or without the equipment of the modified attitude-position decoupler. All the experiments are simulated in Simulink, MATLAB. The result shows that these gaits, after modifications, are feasible in tracking references, especially for the cases equipped with the modified attitude-position decoupler. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Aerospace Robotics and Autonomous Systems)
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14 pages, 2438 KiB  
Article
Human–Robot Interaction in Industrial Settings: Perception of Multiple Participants at a Crossroad Intersection Scenario with Different Courtesy Cues
by Carla Alves, André Cardoso, Ana Colim, Estela Bicho, Ana Cristina Braga, João Cunha, Carlos Faria and Luís A. Rocha
Robotics 2022, 11(3), 59; https://doi.org/10.3390/robotics11030059 - 13 May 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 3272
Abstract
In environments shared with humans, Autonomous Mobile Robots (AMRs) should be designed with human-aware motion-planning skills. Even when AMRs can effectively avoid humans, only a handful of studies have evaluated the human perception of mobile robots. To establish appropriate non-verbal communication, robot movement [...] Read more.
In environments shared with humans, Autonomous Mobile Robots (AMRs) should be designed with human-aware motion-planning skills. Even when AMRs can effectively avoid humans, only a handful of studies have evaluated the human perception of mobile robots. To establish appropriate non-verbal communication, robot movement should be legible and should consider the human element. In this paper, a study that evaluates humans’ perceptions of different AMR courtesy behaviors at industrial facilities, particularly at crossing areas, is presented. To evaluate the proposed kinesic courtesy cues, we proposed five tests (four proposed cues—stop, deceleration, retreating, and retreating and moving aside—and one control test) with a set of participants taken two by two. We assessed three different metrics, namely, the participants’ self-reported trust in AMR behavior, the legibility of the courtesy cues in the participants’ opinions, and the behavioral analysis of the participants related to each courtesy cue tested. The retreating courtesy cue, regarding the legibility of the AMR behavior, and the decelerate courtesy cue, regarding the behavioral analysis of the participants’ signs of hesitation, are better perceived from the forward view. The results obtained regarding the participants’ self-reported trust showed no significant differences in the two participant perspectives. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Industrial Robotics and Intelligent Systems)
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16 pages, 5178 KiB  
Communication
Multi-Layered Carbon-Black/Elastomer-Composite-Based Shielded Stretchable Capacitive Sensors for the Underactuated Robotic Hand
by Shi Yong and Kean Aw
Robotics 2022, 11(3), 58; https://doi.org/10.3390/robotics11030058 - 7 May 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2621
Abstract
Soft and flexible strain sensors are becoming popular for many robotic applications. This article presents a stretchable capacitive sensor by combining a conductive filler of carbon black with elastomers and implementing shielding to reduce parasitic interference, applied to an underactuated robotic hand. Sensors [...] Read more.
Soft and flexible strain sensors are becoming popular for many robotic applications. This article presents a stretchable capacitive sensor by combining a conductive filler of carbon black with elastomers and implementing shielding to reduce parasitic interference, applied to an underactuated robotic hand. Sensors with different configurations were explored. The results show that a shield introduced to the sensor does have some mitigation effect on external interference. Two sensor configurations were explored: longitudinal interdigitated capacitive (LIDC) sensor, where the interdigitated fingers lie along the same axis as the strain, and transverse interdigitated capacitive (TIDC) sensor, where the interdigitated fingers are orthogonal to the strain direction. The LIDC configuration had better performance than TIDC. The fabricated two-layered LIDC sensor had a gage factor of 0.15 pF/mm and the rates of capacitive creep of 0.000667 pF/s and 0.001 pF/s at loads of 120 g and 180 g, respectively. The LIDC sensors attached to an underactuated robotic hand demonstrate the sensors’ ability to determine the bending angles of the proximal interphalangeal (PIP) and metacarpophalangeal (MCP) joints. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Sensors and Control in Robotics)
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34 pages, 2075 KiB  
Review
Snake Robots for Surgical Applications: A Review
by Jenna Seetohul and Mahmood Shafiee
Robotics 2022, 11(3), 57; https://doi.org/10.3390/robotics11030057 - 5 May 2022
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 10071
Abstract
Although substantial advancements have been achieved in robot-assisted surgery, the blueprint to existing snake robotics predominantly focuses on the preliminary structural design, control, and human–robot interfaces, with features which have not been particularly explored in the literature. This paper aims to conduct a [...] Read more.
Although substantial advancements have been achieved in robot-assisted surgery, the blueprint to existing snake robotics predominantly focuses on the preliminary structural design, control, and human–robot interfaces, with features which have not been particularly explored in the literature. This paper aims to conduct a review of planning and operation concepts of hyper-redundant serpentine robots for surgical use, as well as any future challenges and solutions for better manipulation. Current researchers in the field of the manufacture and navigation of snake robots have faced issues, such as a low dexterity of the end-effectors around delicate organs, state estimation and the lack of depth perception on two-dimensional screens. A wide range of robots have been analysed, such as the i2Snake robot, inspiring the use of force and position feedback, visual servoing and augmented reality (AR). We present the types of actuation methods, robot kinematics, dynamics, sensing, and prospects of AR integration in snake robots, whilst addressing their shortcomings to facilitate the surgeon’s task. For a smoother gait control, validation and optimization algorithms such as deep learning databases are examined to mitigate redundancy in module linkage backlash and accidental self-collision. In essence, we aim to provide an outlook on robot configurations during motion by enhancing their material compositions within anatomical biocompatibility standards. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Technologies for Autonomous Surgical Robotics)
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23 pages, 10678 KiB  
Article
Low-Cost Sensory Glove for Human–Robot Collaboration in Advanced Manufacturing Systems
by Tyrone Bright, Sarp Adali and Glen Bright
Robotics 2022, 11(3), 56; https://doi.org/10.3390/robotics11030056 - 5 May 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3227
Abstract
Human–robot collaboration (HRC) enables humans and robots to coexist in the same working environment by performing production operations together. HRC systems are used in advanced manufacturing to improve the productivity and efficiency of a manufacturing process. The question is which HRC systems can [...] Read more.
Human–robot collaboration (HRC) enables humans and robots to coexist in the same working environment by performing production operations together. HRC systems are used in advanced manufacturing to improve the productivity and efficiency of a manufacturing process. The question is which HRC systems can ensure that humans can work with robots in a safe environment. This present study proposes a solution through the development of a low-cost sensory glove. This glove was developed using a number of hardware and software tools. The sensory glove analysed and computed the motion and orientation of a worker’s hand. This was carried out to operate the robot through commands and actions while under safe operating conditions. The sensory glove was built as a mechatronic device and was controlled by an algorithm that was designed and developed to compute the data and create a three-dimensional render of the glove as it moved. The image produced enabled the robot to recognize the worker’s hand when collaboration began. Tests were conducted to determine the accuracy, dynamic range and practicality of the system. The results showed that the sensory glove is an innovative low-cost solution for humans and robots to collaborate safely. The sensory glove was able to provide a safe working environment for humans and robots to collaborate on operations together. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Human Collaborative Robotic Systems)
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22 pages, 4921 KiB  
Article
Design, Implementation, and Kinematics of a Twisting Robot Continuum Arm Inspired by Human Forearm Movements
by Alaa Al-Ibadi, Khalid A. Abbas, Mohammed Al-Atwani and Hassanin Al-Fahaam
Robotics 2022, 11(3), 55; https://doi.org/10.3390/robotics11030055 - 22 Apr 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3205
Abstract
In this article, a soft robot arm that has the ability to twist in two directions is designed. This continuum arm is inspired by the twisting movements of the human upper limb. In this novel continuum arm, two contractor pneumatic muscle actuators (PMA) [...] Read more.
In this article, a soft robot arm that has the ability to twist in two directions is designed. This continuum arm is inspired by the twisting movements of the human upper limb. In this novel continuum arm, two contractor pneumatic muscle actuators (PMA) are used in parallel, and a self-bending contraction actuator (SBCA) is laid between them to establish the twisting movement. The proposed soft robot arm has additional features, such as the ability to contract and bend in multiple directions. The kinematics for the proposed arm is presented to describe the position of the distal end centre according to the dimensions and positions of the actuators and the bending angle of the SBCA in different pressurized conditions. Then, the rotation behaviour is controlled by a high precision controller system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Soft Robotics)
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16 pages, 10870 KiB  
Communication
Performance Investigation and Repeatability Assessment of a Mobile Robotic System for 3D Mapping
by Eleonora Maset, Lorenzo Scalera, Alberto Beinat, Domenico Visintini and Alessandro Gasparetto
Robotics 2022, 11(3), 54; https://doi.org/10.3390/robotics11030054 - 20 Apr 2022
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 3001
Abstract
In this paper, we present a quantitative performance investigation and repeatability assessment of a mobile robotic system for 3D mapping. With the aim of a more efficient and automatic data acquisition process with respect to well-established manual topographic operations, a 3D laser scanner [...] Read more.
In this paper, we present a quantitative performance investigation and repeatability assessment of a mobile robotic system for 3D mapping. With the aim of a more efficient and automatic data acquisition process with respect to well-established manual topographic operations, a 3D laser scanner coupled with an inertial measurement unit is installed on a mobile platform and used to perform a high-resolution mapping of the surrounding environment. Point clouds obtained with the use of a mobile robot are compared with those acquired with the device carried manually as well as with a terrestrial laser scanner survey that serves as a ground truth. Experimental results show that both mapping modes provide similar accuracy and repeatability, whereas the robotic system compares favorably with respect to the handheld modality in terms of noise level and point distribution. The outcomes demonstrate the feasibility of the mobile robotic platform as a promising technology for automatic and accurate 3D mapping. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Robotics: 10th Anniversary Feature Papers)
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