# Design of Efficient Perspective Affine Motion Estimation/Compensation for Versatile Video Coding (VVC) Standard

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## Abstract

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## 1. Introduction

## 2. Affine Motion Estimation/Compensation in VVC

#### 2.1. 4-Parameter and 6-Parameter Affine Model

#### 2.2. Affine Inter Mode and Merge Mode

- CPMVPs extrapolated from the CPMVs of the spatial neighbour blocks
- CPMVPs constructed using the translational MVs of the spatial neighbour blocks
- CPMVPs generated by duplicating each of the HEVC AMVP candidates

## 3. Proposed Perspective Affine Motion Estimation/Compensation

#### 3.1. Perspective Motion Model for Motion Estimation

#### 3.2. Perspective Affine Motion Compensation

## 4. Experimental Results

## 5. Conclusions

## Author Contributions

## Funding

## Conflicts of Interest

## References

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**Figure 1.**Example of a non-affine transformation [23].

**Figure 2.**Affine motion vector control points: (

**a**) 4-parameter motion model, (

**b**) 6-parameter motion model.

**Figure 6.**The motion models: (

**a**) 6-parameter affine model with three CPs, (

**b**) perspective model with four CPs.

Class | Sequence | Resolution | RA | LDP | ||||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

Y | U | V | Y | U | V | |||

A | Campfire | 3840 × 2160 | −0.09% | −0.02% | 0.06% | - | - | - |

CatRobot1 | 3840 × 2160 | −0.10% | 0.41% | 0.33% | - | - | - | |

B | RitualDance | 1920 × 1080 | −0.04% | 0.15% | 0.22% | −0.06% | 0.55% | 0.01% |

BasketballDrive | 1920 × 1080 | −0.14% | −0.05% | 0.44% | −0.06% | 0.28% | 0.47% | |

BQTerrace | 1920 × 1080 | −0.08% | −0.11% | −0.03% | −0.08% | 0.38% | −0.16% | |

C | BasketballDrill | 832 × 480 | −0.09% | −0.12% | −0.16% | −0.02% | 0.04% | −0.15% |

PartyScene | 832 × 480 | −0.06% | −0.21% | −0.04% | 0.01% | 0.46% | 0.24% | |

D | BQSquare | 416 × 240 | 0.03% | 0.45% | −0.04% | −0.03% | −0.42% | −1.87% |

RaceHorses | 416 × 240 | 0.07% | −0.76% | 0.09% | −0.25% | 0.21% | 0.49% | |

E | FourPeople | 1280 × 720 | - | - | - | −0.16% | −0.58% | 0.15% |

KristenAndSara | 1280 × 720 | - | - | - | 0.07% | −0.22% | 0.03% | |

F | BasketballDrillText | 832 × 480 | −0.01% | −0.18% | 0.25% | −0.07% | −0.57% | −0.28% |

SlideEditing | 1280 × 720 | −0.07% | −0.03% | −0.03% | −0.28% | −0.22% | −0.47% | |

SlideShow | 1280 × 720 | −0.30% | 1.29% | 0.19% | −0.45% | −1.39% | 0.08% | |

Avg. | −0.07% | 0.07% | 0.11% | −0.12% | −0.12% | −0.12% |

**Table 2.**BD-Rate (%) performance of the proposed algorithm for ERP format sequences compared to VTM 2.0 Baseline.

Sequence | Resolution | LDP | ||
---|---|---|---|---|

Y | U | V | ||

Broadway | 6144 × 3072 | −0.15% | 0.03% | −0.19% |

Freefall | 6144 × 3072 | −0.13% | 0.12% | 0.35% |

BranCastle2 | 6144 × 3072 | −0.08% | −0.11% | −0.28% |

Balboa | 6144 × 3072 | −0.10% | −0.06% | 0.17% |

Avg. | −0.12% | −0.01% | 0.01% |

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**MDPI and ACS Style**

Choi, Y.-J.; Jun, D.-S.; Cheong, W.-S.; Kim, B.-G.
Design of Efficient Perspective Affine Motion Estimation/Compensation for Versatile Video Coding (VVC) Standard. *Electronics* **2019**, *8*, 993.
https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics8090993

**AMA Style**

Choi Y-J, Jun D-S, Cheong W-S, Kim B-G.
Design of Efficient Perspective Affine Motion Estimation/Compensation for Versatile Video Coding (VVC) Standard. *Electronics*. 2019; 8(9):993.
https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics8090993

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

Choi, Young-Ju, Dong-San Jun, Won-Sik Cheong, and Byung-Gyu Kim.
2019. "Design of Efficient Perspective Affine Motion Estimation/Compensation for Versatile Video Coding (VVC) Standard" *Electronics* 8, no. 9: 993.
https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics8090993