# A Voltage-Based Hierarchical Diagnosis Approach for Open-Circuit Fault of Two-Level Traction Converters

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## Abstract

**:**

## 1. Introduction

## 2. Estimation of DC-Link Voltage and Residual Generation

## 3. Faulty Features Analysis

#### 3.1. Residual Change in Fault Cases

#### 3.2. Switching Matching Feature

## 4. Diagnosis Algorithm

#### 4.1. Fault Detection

#### 4.2. Vectors Similarity-Based Leg-Level Diagnosis

#### 4.3. Switching Matching-Based Device-Level Diagnosis

- (a)
- Inverter side: If the fault occurred in U phase of inverter, firstly, the data of sliding window ${s}_{u1}^{"}\left(k\right)$ are set to 0 by the switching matching mechanism. Then, after model formula calculate, the values of diagnostic factor sliding window $F\left(k\right)$ also changed, according to the first, second row and the seventh, eighth row in Table 3, if the fault location is ${T}_{u1}^{"}\left(k\right)$ , the data in sliding window will be less than detection threshold ${h}_{d}$, if not, the fault location for ${T}_{u2}^{"}\left(k\right)$ . Similarly, the other two phases of the inverter can be judged. The diagnostic process is shown in Figure 5.
- (b)
- Rectifier side: Different from the inverter, the current direction of the network side through the two-phase legs of the rectifier is opposite, and the amplitude is the same. Therefore, according to the analysis of the results in Table 3, it can be seen that there are some special conditions that may lead to misdiagnosis. According to this situation, RDCF was established above to locate the rectifier fault. The steps are similar to the inverter but at most two switching matches are required to successfully locate the fault. The specific steps are shown in Figure 5.

## 5. Experimental Results

#### 5.1. Experiment Setup

#### 5.2. Fault Detection

#### 5.3. Leg-Level Diagnosis

#### 5.4. Device-Level Diagnosis

#### 5.5. Comparison with Other Relevant Methods

## 6. Conclusions

## Author Contributions

## Funding

## Acknowledgments

## Conflicts of Interest

## References

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**Figure 7.**The experimental results of the DCF variable and flag variable of the fault states, when an open-circuit fault occurs in transistor ${T}_{a1}\left(\mathbf{a}\right)$, ${T}_{b1}\left(\mathbf{b}\right)$, ${T}_{u1}\left(\mathbf{c}\right)$, ${T}_{v1}\left(\mathbf{d}\right)$, ${T}_{w1}\left(\mathbf{e}\right)$, and ${T}_{b2}\left(\mathbf{f}\right)$.

**Figure 8.**The experimental results of the VASFs, when an open-circuit fault occurs in transistor ${T}_{u1}\left(\mathbf{a}\right)$, ${T}_{v1}\left(\mathbf{b}\right)$, ${T}_{w1}\left(\mathbf{c}\right)$, ${T}_{a1}\left(\mathbf{d}\right)$, ${T}_{b1}\left(\mathbf{e}\right)$, and ${T}_{u2}\left(\mathbf{f}\right)$.

**Figure 9.**The experimental results of the DCF and flag variables of fault diagnosis, when an open-circuit fault occurs in transistor ${T}_{u1}\left(\mathbf{a}\right)$, ${T}_{u2}\left(\mathbf{b}\right)$.

**Figure 10.**The experimental results of the RDCF and flag variables of fault diagnosis, when an open-circuit fault occurs in transistor ${T}_{a1}\left(\mathbf{a}\right)$, ${T}_{a2}\left(\mathbf{b}\right)$, ${T}_{b1}\left(\mathbf{c}\right)$, ${T}_{b2}\left(\mathbf{d}\right)$.

${\mathit{i}}_{\mathit{x}}$ | ${\mathit{s}}_{\mathit{x}1}$ | ${\mathit{s}}_{\mathit{x}2}$ | ${\mathit{S}}_{\mathit{x}}$ | ${\mathit{i}}_{\mathit{x}}$ | ${\mathit{s}}_{\mathit{x}1}$ | ${\mathit{s}}_{\mathit{x}2}$ | ${\mathit{S}}_{\mathit{x}}$ |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

${i}_{x}>0$ | 0 | 0 | 1 | ${i}_{x}<0$ | 0 | 0 | 0 |

0 | 1 | 0 | 0 | 1 | 0 | ||

1 | 0 | 1 | 1 | 0 | 1 |

Faulty IGBT | ${\mathit{i}}_{\mathit{x}}>0$ | ${\mathit{i}}_{\mathit{x}}<0$ |
---|---|---|

${T}_{x1}$ | − | ${s}_{x1}=1,{\tilde{u}}_{d}\left(n\right)={(-1)}^{z+1}\xb7{i}_{x}\xb7{T}_{c}/{C}_{d}$ |

${T}_{x2}$ | ${s}_{x2}=1,{\tilde{u}}_{d}\left(n\right)={(-1)}^{z}\xb7{i}_{x}\xb7{T}_{c}/{C}_{d}$ | − |

Faulty IGBT | Switching IGBT | DCF Change | Current Direction | Control Signal |
---|---|---|---|---|

${T}_{x1}^{"}$ | ${i}_{x}/{C}_{d}\u27f60$ | ${i}_{x}<0$ | $\left[1\phantom{\rule{0.166667em}{0ex}}0\phantom{\rule{0.166667em}{0ex}}XX\right]$ | |

${T}_{x2}^{"}$ | ${i}_{x}/{C}_{d}\u27f6{i}_{x}/{C}_{d}$ | ${i}_{x}<0$ | $\left[1\phantom{\rule{0.166667em}{0ex}}0\phantom{\rule{0.166667em}{0ex}}XX\right]$ | |

${T}_{y1}^{"}$ | ${i}_{x}/{C}_{d}\u27f6{i}_{x}/{C}_{d}$ | ${i}_{x}<0$ | $\left[1\phantom{\rule{0.166667em}{0ex}}0\phantom{\rule{0.166667em}{0ex}}1\phantom{\rule{0.166667em}{0ex}}0\right]$ | |

${T}_{x1}^{\prime}$ | ${T}_{y1}^{"}$ | ${i}_{x}/{C}_{d}\u27f6{i}_{x}/{C}_{d}$ | ${i}_{x}<0$ | $\left[1\phantom{\rule{0.166667em}{0ex}}0\phantom{\rule{0.166667em}{0ex}}0\phantom{\rule{0.166667em}{0ex}}1\right]$ |

${T}_{y2}^{"}$ | ${i}_{x}/{C}_{d}\u27f6{i}_{x}/{C}_{d}$ | ${i}_{x}<0$ | $\left[1\phantom{\rule{0.166667em}{0ex}}0\phantom{\rule{0.166667em}{0ex}}1\phantom{\rule{0.166667em}{0ex}}0\right]$ | |

${T}_{y2}^{"}$ | ${i}_{x}/{C}_{d}\u27f60$ | ${i}_{x}<0$ | $\left[1\phantom{\rule{0.166667em}{0ex}}0\phantom{\rule{0.166667em}{0ex}}0\phantom{\rule{0.166667em}{0ex}}1\right]$ | |

${T}_{x1}^{"}$ | ${i}_{x}/{C}_{d}\u27f6{i}_{x}/{C}_{d}$ | ${i}_{x}>0$ | $\left[0\phantom{\rule{0.166667em}{0ex}}1\phantom{\rule{0.166667em}{0ex}}XX\right]$ | |

${T}_{x2}^{"}$ | ${i}_{x}/{C}_{d}\u27f60$ | ${i}_{x}>0$ | $\left[0\phantom{\rule{0.166667em}{0ex}}1\phantom{\rule{0.166667em}{0ex}}XX\right]$ | |

${T}_{y1}^{"}$ | ${i}_{x}/{C}_{d}\u27f6{i}_{x}/{C}_{d}$ | ${i}_{x}>0$ | $\left[0\phantom{\rule{0.166667em}{0ex}}1\phantom{\rule{0.166667em}{0ex}}1\phantom{\rule{0.166667em}{0ex}}0\right]$ | |

${T}_{x2}^{\prime}$ | ${T}_{y1}^{"}$ | ${i}_{x}/{C}_{d}\u27f60$ | ${i}_{x}>0$ | $\left[0\phantom{\rule{0.166667em}{0ex}}1\phantom{\rule{0.166667em}{0ex}}0\phantom{\rule{0.166667em}{0ex}}1\right]$ |

${T}_{y2}^{"}$ | ${i}_{x}/{C}_{d}\u27f6{i}_{x}/{C}_{d}$ | ${i}_{x}>0$ | $\left[0\phantom{\rule{0.166667em}{0ex}}1\phantom{\rule{0.166667em}{0ex}}1\phantom{\rule{0.166667em}{0ex}}0\right]$ | |

${T}_{y2}^{"}$ | ${i}_{x}/{C}_{d}\u27f6{i}_{x}/{C}_{d}$ | ${i}_{x}>0$ | $\left[0\phantom{\rule{0.166667em}{0ex}}1\phantom{\rule{0.166667em}{0ex}}0\phantom{\rule{0.166667em}{0ex}}1\right]$ |

Method | [9] | [11] | [10] | [12] | [14] | Proposed Method |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

Observation | Currents | Currents | Currents | Pole voltages | DC-link voltages | DC-link voltages |

Dignosis time | 80 ms | 600 $\mathsf{\mu}$s | 2.15 ms | 10 ms | 360 $\mathsf{\mu}$s | 620 $\mathsf{\mu}$s |

System type of diagnosis | Three-level | Three-level | Two-level | Two-level | Three-level | Two-level |

Diagnosis range | Both | Rectifier | Rectifier | Both | Both | Both |

Diagnosis independence | Device level | Device level | Device level | Part of Device level | Both | Both |

Forced signal injection | No | Yes | No | Yes | Yes | No |

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## Share and Cite

**MDPI and ACS Style**

Zhang, J.; Peng, T.; Yang, C.; Chen, Z.; Tao, H.; Yang, C.
A Voltage-Based Hierarchical Diagnosis Approach for Open-Circuit Fault of Two-Level Traction Converters. *Electronics* **2019**, *8*, 992.
https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics8090992

**AMA Style**

Zhang J, Peng T, Yang C, Chen Z, Tao H, Yang C.
A Voltage-Based Hierarchical Diagnosis Approach for Open-Circuit Fault of Two-Level Traction Converters. *Electronics*. 2019; 8(9):992.
https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics8090992

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

Zhang, Jingrong, Tao Peng, Chao Yang, Zhiwen Chen, Hongwei Tao, and Chunhua Yang.
2019. "A Voltage-Based Hierarchical Diagnosis Approach for Open-Circuit Fault of Two-Level Traction Converters" *Electronics* 8, no. 9: 992.
https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics8090992