# Operation Method of PV–Battery Hybrid Systems for Peak Shaving and Estimation of PV Generation

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## Abstract

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## 1. Introduction

- (1)
- The PV prediction model was designed based on mathematical modeling and cumulative data analysis. Historical data is classified as PV output data according to the weather and expressed as a generation rate, and other factors are not considered. The generation rate can predict the maximum output of the PV through a simple calculation.
- (2)
- Battery charge/discharge settings are determined based on predicted weather information and load patterns. In addition, the output error of load and PV can be compensated for by considering an operating margin. It has been validated as providing improved performance through simulation.
- (3)
- The method proposed in this paper utilized data from an actual PV–BESS system. The data of the installed PV was utilized, which is suitable for validating the simulation.

## 2. PV–Battery Hybrid Systems

## 3. Estimation of PV Generation

## 4. Operation Method

## 5. Simulation Studies

## 6. Conclusions

## Author Contributions

## Funding

## Data Availability Statement

## Conflicts of Interest

## References

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**Figure 3.**The Sun’s position can be described by its altitude $\beta $ and azimuth ${\varnothing}_{\mathrm{S}}$ angle.

**Figure 5.**Solar radiation striking a collector ${I}_{C}$ is a combination of direct beam ${I}_{\mathit{BC}}$ diffuse ${I}_{\mathit{DC}}$, and reflected ${I}_{\mathit{RC}}$ radiation.

Categories | Values |
---|---|

Latitude | 35.18° |

Local Longitude | 126.9° |

Local Time Meridian | 135° |

Azimuth Angle | 20° |

PV Module Tilt Angle | 90° |

**Table 2.**Cloud Coverage [27].

Classification | Range |
---|---|

Clear | 0–2 |

Partly cloudy | 2–5 |

Mostly cloudy | 5–8 |

Cloudy | 8–10 |

Weather | Generation Rate | Weather | Generation Rate |
---|---|---|---|

clear | 0.84 | mostly cloudy, fog | 0.52 |

clear, fog | 0.73 | mostly cloudy, rain | 0.46 |

partly cloudy | 0.73 | cloudy | 0.39 |

partly cloudy, fog | 0.62 | cloudy, rain | 0.24 |

mostly cloudy | 0.56 | cloudy, fog, rain | 0.24 |

Categories | Setting Values |
---|---|

Average Load | 7.69 MW |

Battery Capacity | 12 MWh |

PV Capacity | 2.5 MWp |

Inverter Capacity | 2.5 MW |

Initial SoC (margin) | 0.2 |

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**MDPI and ACS Style**

Jo, K.-Y.; Go, S.-I. Operation Method of PV–Battery Hybrid Systems for Peak Shaving and Estimation of PV Generation. *Electronics* **2023**, *12*, 1608.
https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics12071608

**AMA Style**

Jo K-Y, Go S-I. Operation Method of PV–Battery Hybrid Systems for Peak Shaving and Estimation of PV Generation. *Electronics*. 2023; 12(7):1608.
https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics12071608

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

Jo, Kun-Yik, and Seok-Il Go. 2023. "Operation Method of PV–Battery Hybrid Systems for Peak Shaving and Estimation of PV Generation" *Electronics* 12, no. 7: 1608.
https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics12071608