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Electronics, Volume 11, Issue 6 (March-2 2022) – 137 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): The digitalization of freight rail is an essential improvement to create modern functions that offer a cost-effective and improved operational opportunities to operators. These modern functions need intelligence, detection, actuation, and communications. However, the power supply is not granted in a freight wagon. This paper presents the implementation and testing of a wireless connected heterogeneous multiprocessing architecture, and thanks to its configurability, it allows us to propose the most suitable computing resources, data analysis, and communication strategy in terms of efficiency and performance for the functions that any wagon on board unit needs to host and support. With this approach, operation data are reported to a centralized freight driver assistant system. View this paper
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18 pages, 7575 KiB  
Article
CMOS Interface Circuits for High-Voltage Automotive Signals
by Andrea Boni, Michele Caselli, Alessandro Magnanini and Matteo Tonelli
Electronics 2022, 11(6), 971; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics11060971 - 21 Mar 2022
Viewed by 3236
Abstract
The acquisition of high-voltage signals from sensors and actuators in an internal-combustion engine is often required for diagnostic purposes or in the case of conversion to alternative fuels, such as hydrogen, natural gas, or biogas. The integration of electronic interfaces and acquisition circuits [...] Read more.
The acquisition of high-voltage signals from sensors and actuators in an internal-combustion engine is often required for diagnostic purposes or in the case of conversion to alternative fuels, such as hydrogen, natural gas, or biogas. The integration of electronic interfaces and acquisition circuits in a single device provides benefits in terms of component-count reduction and performance. Nonetheless, the high voltage level of the involved signals makes on-chip design challenging. Additionally, the circuits should be compatible with the CMOS technology, with limited use of high-voltage options and a minimum number of off-chip components. This paper describes the design and the implementation in 350 nm CMOS technology of electronic interfaces and acquisition circuits for typical high-voltage signals of automotive context. In particular, a novel co-design of dedicated voltage clamps with electro-static discharge (ESD) protections is described. The proposed circuits require only a single off-chip resistor, and they are suitable for the acquisition of signals with peak voltages up to 400 V. The measured performance of the silicon prototypes, in the [−40 °C, +125 °C] temperature range, make the proposed electronic interfaces suitable for the automotive domain. Full article
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9 pages, 2297 KiB  
Article
Precise Strong Magnet Measurement Method Based on Magnetic Flux Modulation Principle
by Zhun Li, Zhengrong Ouyang, Zengkun Leng, Yubo Zhang, Shan Zhang, Yunfeng Lu and Zhidan Yan
Electronics 2022, 11(6), 970; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics11060970 - 21 Mar 2022
Viewed by 2365
Abstract
Superconducting magnets with stable and strong magnetic fields play a pivotal role in fields such as biology, medical science, and physics. Given the difficult measurement conditions and low measurement accuracy of the strong magnetic field, a measurement method based on magnetic flux modulation [...] Read more.
Superconducting magnets with stable and strong magnetic fields play a pivotal role in fields such as biology, medical science, and physics. Given the difficult measurement conditions and low measurement accuracy of the strong magnetic field, a measurement method based on magnetic flux modulation is proposed in this paper. Additionally, a high-stability coil-driving device is established. A circuit for coil speed acquisition and measurement is developed. The effective values of induced electromotive forces corresponding to the measured strong magnetic field are obtained, following the de-noising principle of the lock-in amplifier. Particularly, a traceable transmission standard is formed when the measurement coil is calibrated by the national standard magnetic field. The experimental system results demonstrated that the uncertainty of the proposed method reaches the order of E-4 for the measurement of magnetic induction intensity below 7T. This significantly contributes to the measurement of superconducting strong magnetic fields. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Circuit and Signal Processing)
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19 pages, 799 KiB  
Article
Less Is More: Robust and Novel Features for Malicious Domain Detection
by Chen Hajaj, Nitay Hason and Amit Dvir
Electronics 2022, 11(6), 969; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics11060969 - 21 Mar 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 3062
Abstract
Malicious domains are increasingly common and pose a severe cybersecurity threat. Specifically, many types of current cyber attacks use URLs for attack communications (e.g., C&C, phishing, and spear-phishing). Despite the continuous progress in detecting cyber attacks, there are still critical weak spots in [...] Read more.
Malicious domains are increasingly common and pose a severe cybersecurity threat. Specifically, many types of current cyber attacks use URLs for attack communications (e.g., C&C, phishing, and spear-phishing). Despite the continuous progress in detecting cyber attacks, there are still critical weak spots in the structure of defense mechanisms. Since machine learning has become one of the most prominent malware detection methods, a robust feature selection mechanism is proposed that results in malicious domain detection models that are resistant to evasion attacks. This mechanism exhibits a high performance based on empirical data. This paper makes two main contributions: First, it provides an analysis of robust feature selection based on widely used features in the literature. Note that even though the feature set dimensional space is cut by half, the performance of the classifier is still improved (an increase in the model’s F1-score from 92.92% to 95.81%). Second, it introduces novel features that are robust with regard to the adversary’s manipulation. Based on an extensive evaluation of the different feature sets and commonly used classification models, this paper shows that models based on robust features are resistant to malicious perturbations and concurrently are helpful in classifying non-manipulated data. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Cyber Security and Critical Infrastructures)
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15 pages, 1645 KiB  
Article
An Experimental Analysis of Various Machine Learning Algorithms for Hand Gesture Recognition
by Shashi Bhushan, Mohammed Alshehri, Ismail Keshta, Ashish Kumar Chakraverti, Jitendra Rajpurohit and Ahed Abugabah
Electronics 2022, 11(6), 968; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics11060968 - 21 Mar 2022
Cited by 35 | Viewed by 10092
Abstract
Nowadays, hand gestures have become a booming area for researchers to work on. In communication, hand gestures play an important role so that humans can communicate through this. So, for accurate communication, it is necessary to capture the real meaning behind any hand [...] Read more.
Nowadays, hand gestures have become a booming area for researchers to work on. In communication, hand gestures play an important role so that humans can communicate through this. So, for accurate communication, it is necessary to capture the real meaning behind any hand gesture so that an appropriate response can be sent back. The correct prediction of gestures is a priority for meaningful communication, which will also enhance human–computer interactions. So, there are several techniques, classifiers, and methods available to improve this gesture recognition. In this research, analysis was conducted on some of the most popular classification techniques such as Naïve Bayes, K-Nearest Neighbor (KNN), random forest, XGBoost, Support vector classifier (SVC), logistic regression, Stochastic Gradient Descent Classifier (SGDC), and Convolution Neural Networks (CNN). By performing an analysis and comparative study on classifiers for gesture recognition, we found that the sign language MNIST dataset and random forest outperform traditional machine-learning classifiers, such as SVC, SGDC, KNN, Naïve Bayes, XG Boost, and logistic regression, predicting more accurate results. Still, the best results were obtained by the CNN algorithm. Full article
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29 pages, 1565 KiB  
Article
A Model for the Definition, Prioritization and Optimization of Indicators
by Frederico Viana Almeida, Edna Dias Canedo, Robson de Oliveira Albuquerque, Flávio Elias Gomes de Deus, Ana Lucila Sandoval Orozco and Luis Javier García Villalba
Electronics 2022, 11(6), 967; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics11060967 - 21 Mar 2022
Viewed by 3069
Abstract
Context: The definition and prioritization of indicators is now a common reality and an integral part of the evolution of the strategic, technical and business processes of any organization, whether public or private. Purpose: This paper proposes a new model regarding the definition [...] Read more.
Context: The definition and prioritization of indicators is now a common reality and an integral part of the evolution of the strategic, technical and business processes of any organization, whether public or private. Purpose: This paper proposes a new model regarding the definition and prioritization of indicators. Herein, we also investigate the definition and prioritization models currently adopted by academia and industry, and analyze the context of the proposed strategies against the traditional view of indicator definition currently adopted. In addition, we conducted a survey with organizations that had well-defined indicator management processes, seeking to identify customer expectations with a new indicator management model proposed by this work. Method: To gather evidence, we defined a methodology that relates the literature review and an exploratory case study with the application of an experiment. Driven by a set of research questions, this methodology comprised four main phases: planning, literature review, experiment execution and documentation of results. The method used is supported by some techniques, such as design thinking, design sprint and the Cynefin framework. Results: The analysis of the results was carried out in two different ways: Through the verification of the achievement of specific objectives and through a questionnaire applied to assess the degrees of perception of all employees who participated in the work. Regarding the specific objectives, it is clear that most of the objectives were achieved. Regarding the applied questionnaire, it is clear that, although the collaborators did not have adequate knowledge regarding the conceptual and practical aspects of some approaches used in the proposed model, there was a general perception that the model, in fact, supported top management for decision making. For professionals, the proposed model has a restricted scope; that is, it does not serve all types of organizations. Conclusion: The model proposed in this work proved to be effective, considering that the indicators were defined, prioritized and optimized, with a focus on the user experience. As future work, we intend to expand the scope of the model’s performance, evaluating business indicators alongside IT indicators. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Challenges in 5G and IoT Environments)
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11 pages, 797 KiB  
Article
Region Resolution Learning and Region Segmentation Learning with Overall and Body Part Perception for Pedestrian Detection
by Yu Zhang, Hui Wang, Yizhuo Liu and Mao Lu
Electronics 2022, 11(6), 966; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics11060966 - 21 Mar 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1637
Abstract
Pedestrian detection is a great challenge, especially in complex and diverse occlusion environments. When a pedestrian is in an occlusion situation, the pedestrian visible part becomes incomplete, and the body bounding box contains part of the pedestrian, other objects and backgrounds. Based on [...] Read more.
Pedestrian detection is a great challenge, especially in complex and diverse occlusion environments. When a pedestrian is in an occlusion situation, the pedestrian visible part becomes incomplete, and the body bounding box contains part of the pedestrian, other objects and backgrounds. Based on this, we attempt different methods to help the detector learn more features of the pedestrian under different occlusion situations. First, we propose region resolution learning, which learns the pedestrian regions on the input image. Second, we propose fine-grained segmentation learning to learn the outline and shape of different parts of pedestrians. We propose an anchor-free approach that combines a pedestrian detector CSP, region Resolution learning and Segmentation learning (CSPRS). We help the detector to learn extra features. CSPRS provides another way to perceive pixels, outline and shapes in pedestrian areas. This detector includes region resolution learning, and segmentation learning helps the detector to locate pedestrians. By simply adding the region resolution learning branch and segmentation branch, CSPRS achieves good results. The experimental results show that both methods of learning pedestrian features improve performance. We evaluate our proposed detector CSPRS on the CityPersons benchmark, and the experiments show that CSPRS achieved 42.53% on the heavy subset on the CityPersons dataset. Full article
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18 pages, 269 KiB  
Article
Data Protection and Cybersecurity Certification Activities and Schemes in the Energy Sector
by Iheanyi Nwankwo, Marc Stauch, Panagiotis Radoglou-Grammatikis, Panagiotis Sarigiannidis, George Lazaridis, Anastasios Drosou and Dimitrios Tzovaras
Electronics 2022, 11(6), 965; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics11060965 - 21 Mar 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3810
Abstract
Cybersecurity concerns have been at the forefront of regulatory reform in the European Union (EU) recently. One of the outcomes of these reforms is the introduction of certification schemes for information and communication technology (ICT) products, services and processes, as well as for [...] Read more.
Cybersecurity concerns have been at the forefront of regulatory reform in the European Union (EU) recently. One of the outcomes of these reforms is the introduction of certification schemes for information and communication technology (ICT) products, services and processes, as well as for data processing operations concerning personal data. These schemes aim to provide an avenue for consumers to assess the compliance posture of organisations concerning the privacy and security of ICT products, services and processes. They also present manufacturers, providers and data controllers with the opportunity to demonstrate compliance with regulatory requirements through a verifiable third-party assessment. As these certification schemes are being developed, various sectors, including the electrical power and energy sector, will need to access the impact on their operations and plan towards successful implementation. Relying on a doctrinal method, this paper identifies relevant EU legal instruments on data protection and cybersecurity certification and their interpretation in order to examine their potential impact when applying certification schemes within the Electrical Power and Energy System (EPES) domain. The result suggests that the EPES domain employs different technologies and services from diverse areas, which can result in the application of several certification schemes within its environment, including horizontal, technological and sector-specific schemes. This has the potential for creating a complex constellation of implementation models and would require careful design to avoid proliferation and disincentivising of stakeholders. Full article
11 pages, 3615 KiB  
Article
Integration of Low-Cost Digital Tools for Preservation of a Sustainable Agriculture System
by Alejandra Serrano-Trujillo, José Jaime Esqueda-Elizondo and Laura Jiménez-Beristáin
Electronics 2022, 11(6), 964; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics11060964 - 21 Mar 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2023
Abstract
This work presents an electronic sensing approach composed of a pair of Physical–Chemical and Imaging modules to preserve an aquaponic system. These modules offer constant measurements of the physical–chemical characteristics within the fish tank and the grow bed, and an indication of the [...] Read more.
This work presents an electronic sensing approach composed of a pair of Physical–Chemical and Imaging modules to preserve an aquaponic system. These modules offer constant measurements of the physical–chemical characteristics within the fish tank and the grow bed, and an indication of the health of the growing plants through image processing techniques. This proposal is implemented in a low-cost computer, receiving measurements from five sensors, including a camera, and processing the signals using open-source libraries and software. Periodic measurements of the temperature, water level, light, and pH within the system are collected and shared to a cloud platform that allows their display in a dashboard, accessible through a web page. The health of the vegetables growing in the system is estimated by analyzing visible and infrared spectra, applying feature extraction, and computing vegetation indices. This work provides a low-cost solution for preserving sustainable urban farming systems, suitable for new farming communities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Digital Transformation in the Agriculture Sector)
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19 pages, 710 KiB  
Article
Cyber Secure Framework for Smart Agriculture: Robust and Tamper-Resistant Authentication Scheme for IoT Devices
by Saleh Alyahya, Waseem Ullah Khan, Salman Ahmed, Safdar Nawaz Khan Marwat and Shabana Habib
Electronics 2022, 11(6), 963; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics11060963 - 21 Mar 2022
Cited by 19 | Viewed by 3735
Abstract
Internet of Things (IoT) as refers to a network of devices that have the ability to connect, collect and exchange data with other devices over the Internet. IoT is a revolutionary technology that have tremendous applications in numerous fields of engineering and sciences [...] Read more.
Internet of Things (IoT) as refers to a network of devices that have the ability to connect, collect and exchange data with other devices over the Internet. IoT is a revolutionary technology that have tremendous applications in numerous fields of engineering and sciences such as logistics, healthcare, traffic, oil and gas industries and agriculture. In agriculture field, the farmer still used conventional agriculture methods resulting in low crop and fruit yields. The integration of IoT in conventional agriculture methods has led to significant developments in agriculture field. Different sensors and IoT devices are providing services to automate agriculture precision and to monitor crop conditions. These IoT devices are deployed in agriculture environment to increase yields production by making smart farming decisions and to collect data regarding crops temperature, humidity and irrigation systems. However, the integration of IoT and smart communication technologies in agriculture environment introduces cyber security attacks and vulnerabilities. Such cyber attacks have the capability to adversely affect the countries’ economies that are heavily reliant on agriculture. On the other hand, these IoT devices are resource constrained having limited memory and power capabilities and cannot be secured using conventional cyber security protocols. Therefore, designing robust and efficient secure framework for smart agriculture are required. In this paper, a Cyber Secured Framework for Smart Agriculture (CSFSA) is proposed. The proposed CSFSA presents a robust and tamper resistant authentication scheme for IoT devices using Constrained Application Protocol (CoAP) to ensure the data integrity and authenticity. The proposed CSFSA is demonstrated in Contiki NG simulation tool and greatly reduces packet size, communication overhead and power consumption. The performance of proposed CSFSA is computationally efficient and is resilient against various cyber security attacks i.e., replay attacks, Denial of Service (DoS) attacks, resource exhaustion. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 10th Anniversary of Electronics: Advances in Networks)
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16 pages, 4717 KiB  
Article
High-Isolation MIMO Antenna for 5G Millimeter-Wave Communication Systems
by Muhammad Bilal, Syeda Iffat Naqvi, Niamat Hussain, Yasar Amin and Nam Kim
Electronics 2022, 11(6), 962; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics11060962 - 21 Mar 2022
Cited by 46 | Viewed by 4167
Abstract
The work in this article presents the design and realization of a low-profile, four-port MIMO antenna supporting fifth-generation (5G) wireless applications operating at a millimeter-Wave (mm-Wave) band. Each MIMO antenna is a 2-element array fed with a corporate feeding network, whereas the single [...] Read more.
The work in this article presents the design and realization of a low-profile, four-port MIMO antenna supporting fifth-generation (5G) wireless applications operating at a millimeter-Wave (mm-Wave) band. Each MIMO antenna is a 2-element array fed with a corporate feeding network, whereas the single antenna is a patch with a bow-tie slot at the center and slits at the edges. The vertical and horizontal slots are incorporated as a Defected Ground Structure (DGS) to optimize the antenna performance. In addition, a slotted zig-zag decoupling structure is etched from edge to edge on the top side to enhance the isolation. Significant isolation (>−40 dB) is achieved between antenna elements by employing spatial and polarization diversity techniques. The proposed antenna covers the 5G mm-Wave band with a −10 dB bandwidth ranging from 27.6–28.6 GHz, whereas the maximum gain attained for the proposed structure is 12.02 dBi. Moreover, the lower correlation values, higher diversity gain, and lower channel capacity loss make it a suitable contender for 5G MIMO applications at the mm-Wave range. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Prospective Multiple Antenna Technologies for 5G and Beyond)
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18 pages, 581 KiB  
Article
A Two-Stage Approach to Locate and Size PV Sources in Distribution Networks for Annual Grid Operative Costs Minimization
by Oscar Danilo Montoya, Edwin Rivas-Trujillo and Jesus C. Hernández
Electronics 2022, 11(6), 961; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics11060961 - 21 Mar 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1783
Abstract
This paper contributes with a new two-stage optimization methodology to solve the problem of the optimal placement and sizing of solar photovoltaic (PV) generation units in medium-voltage distribution networks. The optimization problem is formulated with a mixed-integer nonlinear programming (MINLP) model, where it [...] Read more.
This paper contributes with a new two-stage optimization methodology to solve the problem of the optimal placement and sizing of solar photovoltaic (PV) generation units in medium-voltage distribution networks. The optimization problem is formulated with a mixed-integer nonlinear programming (MINLP) model, where it combines binary variables regarding the nodes where the PV generators will be located and continuous variables associated with the power flow solution. To solve the MINLP model a decoupled methodology is used where the binary problem is firstly solved with mixed-integer quadratic approximation; and once the nodes where the PV sources will be located are known, the dimensioning problem of the PV generators is secondly solved through an interior point method applied to the classical multi-period power flow formulation. Numerical results in the IEEE 33-bus and IEEE 85-bus systems demonstrate that the proposed approach improves the current literature results reached with combinatorial methods such as the Chu and Beasley genetic algorithm, the vortex search algorithm, the Newton-metaheuristic algorithm as well as the exact solution of the MINLP model with the GAMS software and the BONMIN solver. All the numerical simulations are implemented in the MATLAB programming environment and the convex equivalent models are solved with the CVX tool. Full article
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31 pages, 5907 KiB  
Review
Strategies for Applications of Oxide-Based Thin Film Transistors
by Lirong Zhang, Huaming Yu, Wenping Xiao, Chun Liu, Junrong Chen, Manlan Guo, Huayu Gao, Baiquan Liu and Weijing Wu
Electronics 2022, 11(6), 960; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics11060960 - 20 Mar 2022
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 8527
Abstract
Due to the untiring efforts of scientists and researchers on oxide semiconductor materials, processes, and devices, the applications for oxide-based thin film transistors (TFTs) have been researched and promoted on a large scale. With the advantages of relatively high carrier mobility, low off-current, [...] Read more.
Due to the untiring efforts of scientists and researchers on oxide semiconductor materials, processes, and devices, the applications for oxide-based thin film transistors (TFTs) have been researched and promoted on a large scale. With the advantages of relatively high carrier mobility, low off-current, good process compatibility, optical transparency, low cost, and especially flexibility, oxide-based TFTs have already been adapted for not only displays (e.g., liquid crystal display (LCD), organic light emitting diode (OLED), micro-light-emitting diode (Micro-LED), virtual reality/augmented reality (VR/AR) and electronic paper displays (EPD)) but also large-area electronics, analog circuits, and digital circuits. Furthermore, as the requirement of TFT technology increases, low temperature poly-silicon and oxide (LTPO) TFTs, which combine p-type LTPS and n-type oxide TFT on the same substrate, have drawn further interest for realizing the hybrid complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) circuit. This invited review provides the current progress on applications of oxide-based TFTs. Typical device configurations of TFTs are first described. Then, the strategies to apply oxide-based TFTs for improving the display quality with different compensation technologies and obtaining higher performance integrated circuits are highlighted. Finally, an outlook for the future development of oxide-based TFTs is given. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Thin-Film Systems)
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38 pages, 917 KiB  
Article
Harvesting Systems for RF Energy: Trends, Challenges, Techniques, and Tradeoffs
by Surajo Muhammad, Jun Jiat Tiang, Sew Kin Wong, Ali H. Rambe, Ismahayati Adam, Amor Smida, Mohamed Ibrahim Waly, Amjad Iqbal, Adamu Saidu Abubakar and Mohd Najib Mohd Yasin
Electronics 2022, 11(6), 959; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics11060959 - 20 Mar 2022
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 6040
Abstract
The RFEH design challenges can be broadly classified into overall radio frequency direct current (RF-to-DC) power conversion efficiency (PCE), form factor, operational bandwidth (BW), and compactness. A detailed overview of the essential components of an RFEH system is presented in this paper. Various [...] Read more.
The RFEH design challenges can be broadly classified into overall radio frequency direct current (RF-to-DC) power conversion efficiency (PCE), form factor, operational bandwidth (BW), and compactness. A detailed overview of the essential components of an RFEH system is presented in this paper. Various design approaches have been proposed for the realization of compact RFEH circuits that contribute immensely to mm-wave rectenna design. Effective mechanisms for configuring the rectenna modules based on the recommended spectrums for the RFEH system were also outlined. This study featured a conceptual viewpoint on design tradeoffs, which were accompanied by profound EH solutions perspectives for wireless power communications. The work covers some challenges attributed to 5G EH in mm-wave rectenna: from a controlled source of communication signals to distributed ambient EH and system level design. Conversely, the primary targets of this work are to: (I) examine a wide range of ambient RF sources and their performance with various antennae and RF-rectifier layouts; (II) propose unique rectenna design techniques suitable for current trends in wireless technology; (III) explore numerous approaches for enhancing the rectenna or RF-rectifier efficiency in a low-power ambient environment; and (IV) present the findings of a comprehensive review of the exemplary research that has been investigated. These are aimed toward addressing the autonomous system’s energy challenges. Therefore, with the careful management of the reported designs, the rectenna systems described in this study would influence the upcoming advancement of the low-power RFEH module. Full article
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19 pages, 4422 KiB  
Article
Cheyne-Stokes Respiration Perception via Machine Learning Algorithms
by Chang Yuan, Muhammad Bilal Khan, Xiaodong Yang, Fiaz Hussain Shah and Qammer Hussain Abbasi
Electronics 2022, 11(6), 958; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics11060958 - 20 Mar 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 3554
Abstract
With the development of science and technology, transparent, non-invasive general computing is gradually applied to disease diagnosis and medical detection. Universal software radio peripherals (USRP) enable non-contact awareness based on radio frequency signals. Cheyne-Stokes respiration has been reported as a common symptom in [...] Read more.
With the development of science and technology, transparent, non-invasive general computing is gradually applied to disease diagnosis and medical detection. Universal software radio peripherals (USRP) enable non-contact awareness based on radio frequency signals. Cheyne-Stokes respiration has been reported as a common symptom in patients with heart failure. Compared with the disadvantages of traditional detection equipment, a microwave sensing method based on channel state information (CSI) is proposed to qualitatively detect the normal breathing and Cheyne-Stokes breathing of patients with heart failure in a non-contact manner. Firstly, USRP is used to collect subjects’ respiratory signals in real time. Then the CSI waveform is filtered, smoothed and normalized, and the relevant features are defined and extracted from the signal. Finally, the machine learning classification algorithm is used to establish a recognition model to detect the Cheyne-Stokes respiration of patients with heart failure. The results show that the system accuracy of support vector machine (SVM) is 97%, which can assist medical workers to identify Cheyne-Stokes respiration symptoms of patients with heart failure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Bioelectronics)
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13 pages, 2728 KiB  
Article
Design and Integration of Millimeter-Wave 5G and WLAN Antennas in Perfect Full-Screen Display Smartphones
by Fei-Peng Lai, Shih-Yuan Mi and Yen-Sheng Chen
Electronics 2022, 11(6), 957; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics11060957 - 19 Mar 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2426
Abstract
Smartphone industries are seeking to maximize screen size, but a perfect full-screen phone is not yet available due to the unoccupied area required for the mobile antennas. Since a touchscreen is coated with transparent conductive layers, antennas below the touchscreen cannot create outward [...] Read more.
Smartphone industries are seeking to maximize screen size, but a perfect full-screen phone is not yet available due to the unoccupied area required for the mobile antennas. Since a touchscreen is coated with transparent conductive layers, antennas below the touchscreen cannot create outward radiation. Accordingly, a non-metallic area is left for the antennas, which reduces the screen size. In this paper, we propose a design and integration of antennas for future millimeter-wave 5G smartphones to suit a perfect full-screen display. The proposed design consists of three modules, including a 1 × 12 patch antenna array at 28 GHz, a 1 × 8 patch array at 38 GHz, and a loop antenna at 2.45 GHz. The design environment consists of fully metallic top and bottom enclosures, mimicking the touchscreen and the printed circuit board, respectively. The three antennas were implemented on the flanks. Although the design area was limited and contained in parallel conductive plates, the three antennas still provided broad impedance bandwidths (26.5–32.0 GHz, 35.2–42.0 GHz, and 2.41–2.48 GHz) and high gains (16.7 dBi, 16.4 dBi, and 4.3 dBi). The isolation was larger than 20 dB, and the scanning ranges were ±45°. The proposed scheme is the first antenna system designed for perfect full-screen display phones. Full article
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11 pages, 1118 KiB  
Article
Learning Control for Flexible Manipulators with Varying Loads: A Composite Method with Robust Adaptive Dynamic Programming and Robust Sliding Mode Control
by Yiming Xu, Xiao Wang, Li Wang, Kai Wang and Lei Ma
Electronics 2022, 11(6), 956; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics11060956 - 19 Mar 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1513
Abstract
This paper focuses on the learning-based motion control for flexible manipulators with varying loads via the singularly perturbed technique. Considering the two-timescale feature of the flexible manipulator, system dynamics are decomposed into fast and slow subsystems, and corresponding sub-controllers are designed with robust [...] Read more.
This paper focuses on the learning-based motion control for flexible manipulators with varying loads via the singularly perturbed technique. Considering the two-timescale feature of the flexible manipulator, system dynamics are decomposed into fast and slow subsystems, and corresponding sub-controllers are designed with robust adaptive dynamic programming (RADP) and robust sliding mode control (RSMC) methods, respectively. In the proposed composite control framework, an RADP-based sub-controller is developed to realize the trajectory tracking and alleviate the parametric uncertainty utilizing rotating angles in the slow timescale, while an RSMC sub-controller is introduced to improve the vibration suppression in the fast timescale. Finally, the stability of the closed-loop system is guaranteed, and simulations are carried out to show the effectiveness of the proposed control algorithm. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Systems & Control Engineering)
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22 pages, 30086 KiB  
Article
A Smart and Robust Automatic Inspection of Printed Labels Using an Image Hashing Technique
by Mehshan Ahmed Khan, Fawad Ahmed, Muhammad Danial Khan, Jawad Ahmad, Harish Kumar and Nikolaos Pitropakis
Electronics 2022, 11(6), 955; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics11060955 - 19 Mar 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2076
Abstract
This work is focused on the development of a smart and automatic inspection system for printed labels. This is a challenging problem to solve since the collected labels are typically subjected to a variety of geometric and non-geometric distortions. Even though these distortions [...] Read more.
This work is focused on the development of a smart and automatic inspection system for printed labels. This is a challenging problem to solve since the collected labels are typically subjected to a variety of geometric and non-geometric distortions. Even though these distortions do not affect the content of a label, they have a substantial impact on the pixel value of the label image. Second, the faulty area may be extremely small as compared to the overall size of the labelling system. A further necessity is the ability to locate and isolate faults. To overcome this issue, a robust image hashing approach for the detection of erroneous labels has been developed. Image hashing techniques are generally used in image authentication, social event detection and image copy detection. Most of the image hashing methods are computationally extensive and also misjudge the images processed through the geometric transformation. In this paper, we present a novel idea to detect the faults in labels by incorporating image hashing along with the traditional computer vision algorithms to reduce the processing time. It is possible to apply Speeded Up Robust Features (SURF) to acquire alignment parameters so that the scheme is resistant to geometric and other distortions. The statistical mean is employed to generate the hash value. Even though this feature is quite simple, it has been found to be extremely effective in terms of computing complexity and the precision with which faults are detected, as proven by the experimental findings. Experimental results show that the proposed technique achieved an accuracy of 90.12%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Applications of Computer Vision Technology)
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23 pages, 3316 KiB  
Article
UBUMonitor: An Open-Source Desktop Application for Visual E-Learning Analysis with Moodle
by Raúl Marticorena-Sánchez, Carlos López-Nozal, Yi Peng Ji, Carlos Pardo-Aguilar and Álvar Arnaiz-González
Electronics 2022, 11(6), 954; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics11060954 - 19 Mar 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2770
Abstract
An inherent requirement of teaching using online learning platforms is that the teacher must analyze student activity and performance in relation to course learning objectives. Therefore, all e-learning environments implement a module to collect such information. Nevertheless, these raw data must be processed [...] Read more.
An inherent requirement of teaching using online learning platforms is that the teacher must analyze student activity and performance in relation to course learning objectives. Therefore, all e-learning environments implement a module to collect such information. Nevertheless, these raw data must be processed to perform e-learning analysis and to help teachers arrive at relevant decisions for the teaching process. In this paper, UBUMonitor is presented, an open-source desktop application that downloads Moodle (Modular Object-Oriented Dynamic Learning Environment) platform data, so that student activity and performance can be monitored. The application organizes and summarizes these data in various customizable charts for visual analysis. The general features and uses of UBUMonitor are described, as are some approaches to e-teaching improvements, through real case studies. These include the analysis of accesses per e-learning object, statistical analysis of grading e-activities, detection of e-learning object configuration errors, checking of teacher activity, and comparisons between online and blended learning profiles. As an open-source application, UBUMonitor was institutionally adopted as an official tool and validated with several groups of teachers at the Teacher Training Institute of the University of Burgos. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Open Source Software in Learning Environments)
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17 pages, 362 KiB  
Article
Beyond Perceptual Thresholds and Personal Preference: Towards Novel Research Questions and Methodologies of Quality of Experience Studies on Light Field Visualization
by Peter A. Kara, Roopak R. Tamboli, Edris Shafiee, Maria G. Martini, Aniko Simon and Mary Guindy
Electronics 2022, 11(6), 953; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics11060953 - 19 Mar 2022
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 1829
Abstract
With the upcoming emergence of the IEEE P3333.1.4 standard, the first ever standardization document on the subjective quality assessment of light field visualization, we are approaching a major milestone of light field Quality of Experience (QoE). The research efforts leading up to this [...] Read more.
With the upcoming emergence of the IEEE P3333.1.4 standard, the first ever standardization document on the subjective quality assessment of light field visualization, we are approaching a major milestone of light field Quality of Experience (QoE). The research efforts leading up to this point have answered the fundamental questions regarding perceptual thresholds and personal preference, and best practices regarding research methodologies have been formed. However, in order to introduce successful and efficient light field systems and services, research questions beyond perceptual thresholds and personal preference must be addressed, along with the associated methodologies. In this paper, we propose a comprehensive set of novel research questions and methodologies regarding light field QoE. Our work also provides a detailed discussion of related factors, particularly those that extend to test participants and thus may affect the results of subjective studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Immersive Quality of Experience Management and Evaluation)
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28 pages, 1941 KiB  
Article
Two-Layer Bus-Independent Instruction Set Architecture for Securing Long Protocol Data Units in Automotive Open System Architecture-Based Automotive Electronic Control Units
by Ahmed Hamed, M. Watheq El-Kharashi, Ashraf Salem and Mona Safar
Electronics 2022, 11(6), 952; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics11060952 - 18 Mar 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2822
Abstract
In this paper, we propose a bus-independent hardware (HW)-based approach to secure long protocol data units (PDUs) in Automotive Open System Architecture (AUTOSAR)-based automotive electronic control units (ECUs). Our approach is based on extending previous works that implemented two AUTOSAR communication (COM) application-specific [...] Read more.
In this paper, we propose a bus-independent hardware (HW)-based approach to secure long protocol data units (PDUs) in Automotive Open System Architecture (AUTOSAR)-based automotive electronic control units (ECUs). Our approach is based on extending previous works that implemented two AUTOSAR communication (COM) application-specific instruction set processors (ASIPs). COM ASIP V1 introduced two instructions to handle the transmission and reception of PDUs no larger than 8 bytes and signals no larger than 32 bits individually through send signal and receive signal instructions. COM ASIP V2 introduced two extra instructions to handle long signals and PDUs of arbitrary lengths. We extended the instruction set architecture (ISA) of our previous ASIPs by introducing six new instructions, in COM ASIP V3, to hash PDUs that contain these signals to authenticate transmission and reception of such PDUs. The experimental results show that COM ASIP V3 can handle (i.e., transmit, receive, calculate hash, or verify hash) a 64-byte controller area network flexible data-rate (CAN FD) frame in 1.575 μs and a 254-byte FlexRay frame in 6.301 μs. These measurements indicate that the throughput of our new COM ASIP is much higher, 42× to 75×, than the throughput required by these communication buses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Application of FPGA in Embedded Systems)
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17 pages, 4588 KiB  
Article
AlexNet Convolutional Neural Network for Disease Detection and Classification of Tomato Leaf
by Hsing-Chung Chen, Agung Mulyo Widodo, Andika Wisnujati, Mosiur Rahaman, Jerry Chun-Wei Lin, Liukui Chen and Chien-Erh Weng
Electronics 2022, 11(6), 951; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics11060951 - 18 Mar 2022
Cited by 71 | Viewed by 7823
Abstract
With limited retrieval of reserves and restricted capability in plant pathology, automation of processes becomes essential. All over the world, farmers are struggling to prevent various harm from bacteria or pathogens such as viruses, fungi, worms, protozoa, and insects. Deep learning is currently [...] Read more.
With limited retrieval of reserves and restricted capability in plant pathology, automation of processes becomes essential. All over the world, farmers are struggling to prevent various harm from bacteria or pathogens such as viruses, fungi, worms, protozoa, and insects. Deep learning is currently widely used across a wide range of applications, including desktop, web, and mobile. In this study, the authors attempt to implement the function of AlexNet modification architecture-based CNN on the Android platform to predict tomato diseases based on leaf image. A dataset with of 18,345 training data and 4,585 testing data was used to create the predictive model. The information is separated into ten labels for tomato leaf diseases, each with 64 × 64 RGB pixels. The best model using the Adam optimizer with a realizing rate of 0.0005, the number of epochs 75, batch size 128, and an uncompromising cross-entropy loss function, has a high model accuracy with an average of 98%, a strictness rate of 0.98, a recall value of 0.99, and an F1-count of 0.98 with a loss of 0.1331, so that the classification results are good and very precise. Full article
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29 pages, 7104 KiB  
Article
Improving Characteristics of LUT-Based Three-Block Mealy FSMs’ Circuits
by Alexander Barkalov, Larysa Titarenko, Kazimierz Krzywicki and Svetlana Saburova
Electronics 2022, 11(6), 950; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics11060950 - 18 Mar 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1905
Abstract
One of the very important problems connected with FPGA-based design is reducing the hardware amount in implemented circuits. In this paper, we discuss the implementation of Mealy finite state machines (FSMs) by circuits consisting of look-up tables (LUT). A method is proposed to [...] Read more.
One of the very important problems connected with FPGA-based design is reducing the hardware amount in implemented circuits. In this paper, we discuss the implementation of Mealy finite state machines (FSMs) by circuits consisting of look-up tables (LUT). A method is proposed to reduce the LUT count of three-block circuits of Mealy FSMs. The method is based on finding a partition of set of internal states by classes of compatible states. To reduce the LUT count, we propose a special kind of state code, named complex state codes. The complex codes include two parts. The first part includes the binary codes of a state as the element of some partition class. The second part consists of the code of corresponding partition class. Using complex state codes allows obtaining FPGA-based FSM circuits with exactly four logic blocks. If some conditions hold, then any FSM function from the first and second blocks is implemented by a single LUT. The third level is represented as a network of multiplexers. These multiplexers generate either additional variable encoding collections of outputs or input memory functions. The fourth level generates FSM outputs. An example of synthesis and experimental results is shown and discussed. The experiments prove that the proposed approach allows reducing hardware compared to such methods as auto and one-hot of Vivado, JEDI. Further, the proposed approach produces circuits with fewer LUTs than for three-level Mealy FSMs based on joint use of several methods of structural decomposition. The experiments show that our approach allows reducing the LUT counts on average from 11 to 77 percent. As the complexity of an FSM increases, the gain from the application of the proposed method grows; the same is true for both the FSM performance and power consumption. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Circuit and Signal Processing)
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12 pages, 6277 KiB  
Article
A High-Loop-Gain Low-Dropout Regulator with Adaptive Positive Feedback Compensation Handling 1-A Load Current
by Yongchao Jiang, Lixin Wang, Yue Wang, Shixin Wang and Min Guo
Electronics 2022, 11(6), 949; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics11060949 - 18 Mar 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3142
Abstract
Low-dropout regulators, which have the capabilities of handling large output current and obtaining a superior transient response, are receiving increasing attention. This paper presents a high-output-current low-dropout regulator with high loop gain. An adaptive positive feedback compensation method is presented. It guarantees stability [...] Read more.
Low-dropout regulators, which have the capabilities of handling large output current and obtaining a superior transient response, are receiving increasing attention. This paper presents a high-output-current low-dropout regulator with high loop gain. An adaptive positive feedback compensation method is presented. It guarantees stability under full load conditions and achieves high loop gain. Without relying on an external zero, a ceramic capacitor with low equivalent series resistance can be employed, resulting in the minimized output voltage variation during the load transient response. In addition, the load regulation and line regulation are both small. An impedance adapting stage is inserted between the error amplifier and power transistor. It is suitable for low-supply voltage applications and drives the power transistor quickly. The simulation results indicate that the proposed LDO can supply a 1000 mA load current with a 200 mV dropout voltage. The load regulation and line regulations are 0.089 μV/mA and 0.562 m V/V, respectively. The power supply rejection is above 75 dB at 1 kHz under the full range of the output current. Full article
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19 pages, 885 KiB  
Article
Hierarchical Collaborated Fireworks Algorithm
by Yifeng Li and Ying Tan
Electronics 2022, 11(6), 948; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics11060948 - 18 Mar 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1455
Abstract
The fireworks algorithm (FWA) has achieved significant global optimization ability by organizing multiple simultaneous local searches. By dynamically decomposing the target problem and handling each one with a sub-population, it has presented distinct property and applicability compared with traditional evolutionary algorithms. In this [...] Read more.
The fireworks algorithm (FWA) has achieved significant global optimization ability by organizing multiple simultaneous local searches. By dynamically decomposing the target problem and handling each one with a sub-population, it has presented distinct property and applicability compared with traditional evolutionary algorithms. In this paper, we extend the theoretical model of fireworks algorithm based on search space partition to obtain a hierarchical collaboration model. It maintains both multiple local fireworks for local exploitation and one global firework for overall population distribution control. The implemented hierarchical collaborated fireworks algorithm is able to combine the advantages of both classic evolutionary algorithms and fireworks algorithms. Several experiments are provided for in-depth analysis and discussion on the proposed algorithm. The effectiveness of proposed strategy is demonstrated on the benchmark test suite from CEC 2020. Experimental results validate that the hierarchical collaborated fireworks algorithm outperforms former fireworks algorithms significantly and achieves similar results compared with state-of-the-art evolutionary algorithms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Swarm Intelligence, Data Science and Their Applications)
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22 pages, 10183 KiB  
Article
Nonlinear Time Series Analysis in Unstable Periodic Orbits Identification-Control Methods of Nonlinear Systems
by Cosmin Ivan and Mihai Catalin Arva
Electronics 2022, 11(6), 947; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics11060947 - 18 Mar 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1737
Abstract
The main purpose of this paper is to present a solution to the well-known problems generated by classical control methods through the analysis of nonlinear time series. Among the problems analyzed, for which an explanation has been sought for a long time, we [...] Read more.
The main purpose of this paper is to present a solution to the well-known problems generated by classical control methods through the analysis of nonlinear time series. Among the problems analyzed, for which an explanation has been sought for a long time, we list the significant reduction in control power and the identification of unstable periodic orbits (UPOs) in chaotic time series. To accurately identify the type of behavior of complex systems, a new solution is presented that involves a method of two-dimensional representation specific to the graphical point of view, and in particular the recurrence plot (RP). An example of the issue studied is presented by applying the recurrence graph to identify the UPO in a chaotic attractor. To identify a certain type of behavior in the numerical data of chaotic systems, nonlinear time series will be used, as a novelty element, to locate unstable periodic orbits. Another area of use for the theories presented above, following the application of these methods, is related to the control of chaotic dynamical systems by using RP in control techniques. Thus, the authors’ contributions are outlined by using the recurrence graph, which is used to identify the UPO from a chaotic attractor, in the control techniques that modify a system variable. These control techniques are part of the closed loop or feedback strategies that describe control as a function of the current state of the UPO stabilization system. To exemplify the advantages of the methods presented above, the use of the recurrence graph in the control of a buck converter through the application of a phase difference signal was analyzed. The study on the command of a direct current motor using a buck converter shows, through a final concrete application, the advantages of using these analysis methods in controlling dynamic systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Operation and Control of Power Systems)
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15 pages, 5819 KiB  
Article
Intelligent Design of Multi-Machine Power System Stabilizers (PSSs) Using Improved Particle Swarm Optimization
by Sohaib Latif, Sadaf Irshad, Mehrdad Ahmadi Kamarposhti, Hassan Shokouhandeh, Ilhami Colak and Kei Eguchi
Electronics 2022, 11(6), 946; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics11060946 - 18 Mar 2022
Cited by 31 | Viewed by 1987
Abstract
In this paper, an improved version of the particle swarm optimization algorithm is proposed for the online tuning of power system stabilizers in a standard four-machine two-area power system to mitigate local and inter-area mode oscillations. Moreover, an innovative objective function is proposed [...] Read more.
In this paper, an improved version of the particle swarm optimization algorithm is proposed for the online tuning of power system stabilizers in a standard four-machine two-area power system to mitigate local and inter-area mode oscillations. Moreover, an innovative objective function is proposed for performing the optimization, which is a weight function of two functions. The first part of fitness is the function of the angular velocity deviation of the generators, and the other part is a function based on the percentage of undershoot and maximum overshoot, and also the damping time of the power system oscillations. The performance of the proposed stabilization method is compared with the genetic algorithm and bacteria foraging algorithm results. Simulations are made in three different power system operation conditions by changing the system load. The simulation results indicate the superiority of the proposed method over the genetic algorithm and bacteria foraging algorithm. In all the scenarios, power system oscillations are damped faster and with lower amplitude when the power system stabilizers coordinate with the proposed optimization method. Full article
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23 pages, 2385 KiB  
Review
A Survey on Efficient Convolutional Neural Networks and Hardware Acceleration
by Deepak Ghimire, Dayoung Kil and Seong-heum Kim
Electronics 2022, 11(6), 945; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics11060945 - 18 Mar 2022
Cited by 82 | Viewed by 11627
Abstract
Over the past decade, deep-learning-based representations have demonstrated remarkable performance in academia and industry. The learning capability of convolutional neural networks (CNNs) originates from a combination of various feature extraction layers that fully utilize a large amount of data. However, they often require [...] Read more.
Over the past decade, deep-learning-based representations have demonstrated remarkable performance in academia and industry. The learning capability of convolutional neural networks (CNNs) originates from a combination of various feature extraction layers that fully utilize a large amount of data. However, they often require substantial computation and memory resources while replacing traditional hand-engineered features in existing systems. In this review, to improve the efficiency of deep learning research, we focus on three aspects: quantized/binarized models, optimized architectures, and resource-constrained systems. Recent advances in light-weight deep learning models and network architecture search (NAS) algorithms are reviewed, starting with simplified layers and efficient convolution and including new architectural design and optimization. In addition, several practical applications of efficient CNNs have been investigated using various types of hardware architectures and platforms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Computer Science & Engineering)
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14 pages, 50829 KiB  
Article
Analysis of HBM Failure in 3D NAND Flash Memory
by Biruo Song, Zhiguo Li, Xin Wang, Xiang Fu, Fei Liu, Lei Jin and Zongliang Huo
Electronics 2022, 11(6), 944; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics11060944 - 18 Mar 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2870
Abstract
Electrostatic discharge (ESD) events are the main factors impacting the reliability of NAND Flash memory. The behavior of human body model (HBM) failure and the corresponding physical mechanism of 3D NAND Flash memory are investigated in this paper. A catastrophic burn-out failure during [...] Read more.
Electrostatic discharge (ESD) events are the main factors impacting the reliability of NAND Flash memory. The behavior of human body model (HBM) failure and the corresponding physical mechanism of 3D NAND Flash memory are investigated in this paper. A catastrophic burn-out failure during HBM zapping is first presented. Analysis shows that NMOS fingers’ local heating induced by inhomogeneous substrate resistance Rsub and local heating induced by the drain contact and 3D stacked IC (SIC) structure lead to the failure. Therefore, a new approach is proposed to reduce local heat generation. Finally, by increasing N+ length (NPL) and introducing a novel contact strip, the silicon result shows enhanced ESD robustness. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Microelectronics)
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26 pages, 3567 KiB  
Article
Connected Heterogenous Multi-Processing Architecture for Digitalization of Freight Railway Transport Applications
by Markos Losada, Iñigo Adin, Alejandro Perez, Roberto Carlos Ramírez and Jaizki Mendizabal
Electronics 2022, 11(6), 943; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics11060943 - 17 Mar 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2326
Abstract
The digitalisation of freight rail is an essential improvement to create modern functions that offer a cost-effective, attractive service and improved operational opportunities to operators. These modern functions need intelligence, detection, actuation and communications. For this, generally, it is possible to process raw [...] Read more.
The digitalisation of freight rail is an essential improvement to create modern functions that offer a cost-effective, attractive service and improved operational opportunities to operators. These modern functions need intelligence, detection, actuation and communications. For this, generally, it is possible to process raw data in the Edge and send meaningful data over a communication link. However, the power supply is not granted in a freight wagon and so low power strategies need to be adopted. This paper presents the implementation and testing of a wireless connected heterogeneous multiprocessing architecture. From the power consumption point of view, this system has been stressed by means of a generic FFT function to evaluate the different on-board computing devices that have been decided. From the communication point of view, the LPWAN LoRa technology has been tested and validated on robustness and coverage. Thanks to the heterogeneous nature of this architecture and its configurability, it allows us to propose the most suitable computing ressources, data analysis and communication strategy in terms of efficiency and performance for the functions that this wagon on board unit needs to host and support. With this approach, operation data are reported to the centralised freight driver assistant system. Full article
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26 pages, 103977 KiB  
Review
Review of Ka-Band Power Amplifier
by Zhong Wang, Shanwen Hu, Ling Gu and Lujun Lin
Electronics 2022, 11(6), 942; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics11060942 - 17 Mar 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 5750
Abstract
With the increase in the demand for high-speed transmission communication, satellite communication is developing rapidly. Because of the bandwidth capacity, the K/Ka band is considered the mainstream frequency band of satellite communication. The performance of a power amplifier (PA) directly affects the power [...] Read more.
With the increase in the demand for high-speed transmission communication, satellite communication is developing rapidly. Because of the bandwidth capacity, the K/Ka band is considered the mainstream frequency band of satellite communication. The performance of a power amplifier (PA) directly affects the power of the transmitter, so the application of a power amplifier in Ka-band satellite communication is very important. A review of the state-of-the-art PA in the Ka band is presented in this article. The structure of the PA introduced includes common source, cascode, stacked field-effect transistor (FET), power combining, and Doherty PA, highlighting the advantages and disadvantages. The main solid-state technologies are outlined, including Si, SiGe, GaAs, and GaN, emphasizing Si complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor (CMOS) due to low price and high integration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Power Amplifier for Wireless Communication)
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