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Cosmetics, Volume 10, Issue 6 (December 2023) – 27 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): This study explores innovative approaches to protect skin from environmental stressors, contributing to its aging and functional decline. Skin keratinocytes were treated with a unique combination of extracts including Withania somnifera (MIX Adaptogen Technology), in the presence of oxidative stress or pollution. Employing expression proteomics, bioinformatics, and functional analyses, the study assesses the MIX's impact on skin's resilience, cellular function regulation, resulting in the preservation of mitochondrial activity and protection of key proteins from stress-induced oxidation. The results indicate a promising prospective in precision cosmetics for promoting healthy skin. Acting as adaptogen, the MIX improves resistance to harmful stressors, potentially having a favorable impact on skin longevity. View this paper
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18 pages, 3623 KiB  
Article
The Impact of PSR™ (Plant Small RNA Technology), Tea Extract, and Its Principal Components on Mitochondrial Function and Antioxidant Properties in Skin Cells
Cosmetics 2023, 10(6), 172; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics10060172 - 18 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1695
Abstract
Objective: This study explored the impact of a black tea extract obtained through (plant small RNA) PSRTM technology, characterized by its abundance of small molecules, particularly citric acid—an antioxidant and tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle contributor—on mitochondrial health. The primary focus was to [...] Read more.
Objective: This study explored the impact of a black tea extract obtained through (plant small RNA) PSRTM technology, characterized by its abundance of small molecules, particularly citric acid—an antioxidant and tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle contributor—on mitochondrial health. The primary focus was to assess whether this extract could counteract reactive oxygen species (ROS)-induced mitochondrial alterations associated with aging, which lead to impaired mitochondrial function, reduced ATP production, and increased ROS generation. Methods: The PSRTM extraction method was employed to obtain a high content of polyphenols and small molecules, particularly citric acid. Results: In comparison with a conventional extract, the PSRTM extract demonstrated significant enhancements in aconitase activity, an ROS-sensitive enzyme in the TCA cycle, as well as basal respiration and ATP synthesis in fibroblast cells and skin biopsies. Moreover, the PSRTM extract effectively reduced ROS production by safeguarding this critical enzyme within the Krebs cycle and displayed superior capabilities in scavenging free radicals when exposed to UV-induced stress. When administered post-UV exposure, the PSRTM extract protected nuclear DNA by reducing the formation of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) and promoting DNA repair mechanisms. Furthermore, the extract exhibited beneficial effects on the extracellular matrix, characterized by a reduction in matrix metalloprotease 1 (MMP1) and an increase in fibrillin 1 expression. Conclusions: These findings collectively suggest that the PSRTM extract holds promising antiaging potential, potentially functioning as a mitochondrial nutrient/protector due to its multifaceted benefits on mitochondrial function, nuclear DNA integrity, and the extracellular matrix. Full article
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17 pages, 2097 KiB  
Article
Physicochemical Characteristics, Fatty Acid Profile, and In Vitro Antioxidant Activity Evaluation of Sacha Inchi Seed Oil from Indonesia
Cosmetics 2023, 10(6), 171; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics10060171 - 15 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1789
Abstract
Free radicals can cause damage to the structure of the dermis layer, which makes skin lose its elasticity and leads to the formation of wrinkles. A strategy to prevent this problem is by using antioxidants. A plant that has been reported to contain [...] Read more.
Free radicals can cause damage to the structure of the dermis layer, which makes skin lose its elasticity and leads to the formation of wrinkles. A strategy to prevent this problem is by using antioxidants. A plant that has been reported to contain good antioxidant activity is sacha inchi seed (Plukenetia volubilis L.); apart from that, its oil has quite a high omega-3 content and potentially can act as an anti-aging agent stimulating the skin-cell-regeneration process, maintaining skin moisture and elasticity and stimulating collagen production. This research aims to analyze the physicochemical characteristics and determine the fatty acid profile, the levels of vitamins A, D, and E, and the antioxidant activity of sacha inchi seed oil. This research was conducted through eight main stages: sacha inchi seed extraction, quality parameters checking, phytochemical screening, determining fatty acid profiles, vitamin analysis, antioxidant activity tests, microbiological contamination tests, and heavy-metal contamination tests. In this study, quality inspection results were obtained: organoleptic form (liquid), color (yellow), odor (typical), relative density value (0.91 g/cm3), acid number (0.38 ± 0.02 mg/g), peroxide value (11.01 mEq/Kg), iodine value (179.32 g/100 g), and refractive index (1.479). The phytochemical screening results of sacha inchi seed oil were positive for containing flavonoids, triterpenoids, and steroids. The results of the fatty acid profile were omega-3 (48.5%), omega-6 (34.8%), and omega-9 (7.7%). The results of the vitamin contents analysis were vitamin A (123.42 mg/100 g), vitamin D (899.46 mg/100 g), and vitamin E (145.06 mg/100 g). The antioxidant activity test showed an IC50 value of 8.859 ppm (very strong), and the microbial and heavy-metal contamination tests were negative. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Compounds From Natural Resources Against Skin Aging)
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13 pages, 3282 KiB  
Article
Exploring the Potential Anti-Inflammatory and Wound-Healing Proprieties of Cepaea hortensis Snail Mucin
Cosmetics 2023, 10(6), 170; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics10060170 - 14 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1650
Abstract
Long before its popularization as a skincare ingredient, snail slime was reported to have a variety of health-promoting attributes. Its medicinal use involved the treatment of ailments, such as anthrax, hernias, stomach pain, chest pain, as well as tuberculosis. The main aim of [...] Read more.
Long before its popularization as a skincare ingredient, snail slime was reported to have a variety of health-promoting attributes. Its medicinal use involved the treatment of ailments, such as anthrax, hernias, stomach pain, chest pain, as well as tuberculosis. The main aim of this study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory and wound-healing properties of snail slime from Cepaea hortensis (Müller, 1774) (brown garden snail). The slime was extracted by a mild method, and the anti-inflammatory characteristics were determined by croton-oil-induced mouse-ear edema. The histological study showed that the snail slime exerts its action at the level of inflammatory mediators, explaining the drastic decrease of edema (59% in comparison to the 47% of indomethacin). The daily application of 50 µL (15 mg/kg) of snail slime on excision wounds in rabbits proved to induce an almost full tissue repair after 24 days of treatment (87.80–92.7% wound closure in width and length, respectively). Analysis of the slime’s safety aspect allowed affirming the nontoxicity of snail slime on both the skin and eyes. Full article
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12 pages, 1263 KiB  
Article
Impact of Raspberry Seed Oil, Sesame Oil, and Coconut Oil on Skin in Young Women
Cosmetics 2023, 10(6), 169; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics10060169 - 12 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1919
Abstract
The skin serves protective roles for internal organs and is responsible for maintaining homeostasis between the body and the environment. The outermost and most exposed part of the skin to environmental factors is the stratum corneum (SC). SC hydration and transepidermal water loss [...] Read more.
The skin serves protective roles for internal organs and is responsible for maintaining homeostasis between the body and the environment. The outermost and most exposed part of the skin to environmental factors is the stratum corneum (SC). SC hydration and transepidermal water loss (TEWL) values provide information about the physiological state of the skin. Plant oils, owing to their chemical structure, possess moisturizing and protective functions. This study assessed the impact of a single application of drying oil (Rubus idaeus seed oil), semi-drying oil (Sesamum indicum seed oil), and nondrying oil (Cocos nucifera (coconut) oil) on specific skin characteristics in young, healthy women. Thirty-five female volunteers (age: 20.03 ± 1.69) participated in the study. Before commencing the investigation, a questionnaire survey on the subjective assessment of skin condition and a body composition test were conducted. Subsequently, each participant had three oils applied to nonoverlapping skin areas on the forearms. Skin characteristics were assessed before and 1 h after the oil application using specialized probes: a corneometer and a tewameter. An enhancement in skin hydration was evident after the application of each of the tested oils (p = 0.001). Raspberry oil demonstrated the most significant moisturizing effect, while coconut oil showed the weakest impact. Only raspberry seed oil (p = 0.012) resulted in a noteworthy decrease in TEWL. The initial skin condition did not correlate with the subjects’ body composition, and the improvement induced by the application of the oils was not dependent on body weight, body water content, or BMI (body mass index). The applied vegetable oils positively influence the level of SC hydration. Improvement in barrier function, as measured by TEWL, was observed only for raspberry seed oil. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2023)
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15 pages, 4342 KiB  
Case Report
Pilot Study of Microfocused Ultrasound, Incobotulinum Toxin, and Calcium Hydroxyapatite in Triple Therapy for Skin Tightening after Weight Loss
Cosmetics 2023, 10(6), 168; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics10060168 - 11 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1285
Abstract
Background: After significant weight loss, the abdominal skin can become permanently stretched, resulting in stretch marks, laxity, and thinning of the dermis. For many patients, surgical methods such as abdominoplasty are too risky due to the potential for complications, the lengthy recovery period, [...] Read more.
Background: After significant weight loss, the abdominal skin can become permanently stretched, resulting in stretch marks, laxity, and thinning of the dermis. For many patients, surgical methods such as abdominoplasty are too risky due to the potential for complications, the lengthy recovery period, and the high cost. Objective: The purpose of this pilot study was to use microfocused ultrasound, calcium hydroxyapatite, and Incobotulinum toxin A to improve the appearance of patients who were suffering from abdominal skin laxity after heavy weight loss. The combination of these treatments can provide comprehensive results with minimal downtime and lower risk compared to traditional surgical procedures. Methods: Our team treated four female Chinese patients with microfocused ultrasound, diluted calcium hydroxylapatite, and Incobotulinum toxin A with different combinations, respectively. The first and second cases were only treated with 810 shots of microfocused ultrasound. The third case received 850 shots of microfocused ultrasound plus 5 mL of diluted calcium hydroxylapatite and 50 units of Incobotulinum toxin A on the left abdominal skin, and the fourth case was treated with 900 shots of microfocused ultrasound plus 5 mL of diluted calcium hydroxylapatite and 10 units of Incobotulinum toxin A on the left abdominal skin. All four patients received a single treatment session. Clinical photographs were taken before each treatment, and two individual blinded investigators were asked to assess photographs taken after 4 weeks and compare them with the pretreatment photos. Results: All four cases showed an overall clinical improvement, with the third and fourth cases demonstrating more significant skin tightening based on photographic analysis. The data indicate that the inclusion of calcium hydroxylapatite and Incobotulinum toxin A in microfocused ultrasound treatment yields superior results for abdominal rejuvenation. Conclusions: Abdominal skin laxity can be treated with a triple therapy combining microfocused ultrasound, diluted calcium hydroxylapatite, and Incobotulinum toxin A. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Advances in Medical and Cosmetic Dermatology)
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46 pages, 1743 KiB  
Review
Medicinal Plants for Dermatological Diseases: Ethnopharmacological Significance of Botanicals from West Africa in Skin Care
Cosmetics 2023, 10(6), 167; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics10060167 - 07 Dec 2023
Viewed by 2480
Abstract
Skin disease is a severe health issue that affects a lot of people in Africa and is vastly underreported. Because of their availability, affordability, and safety, medicinal plants represent a major source of treatment for various skin diseases in West Africa. This review [...] Read more.
Skin disease is a severe health issue that affects a lot of people in Africa and is vastly underreported. Because of their availability, affordability, and safety, medicinal plants represent a major source of treatment for various skin diseases in West Africa. This review presents the medicinal plants used in treating skin diseases in West Africa and their available biological activities that have lent credence to their skin care usage. A total of 211 plant species from 56 families are implicated to be used in West Africa for several skin conditions such as aphthous ulcers, burns, eczema, scabies, sores, and wounds. Fabaceae is the most-implicated family (30 species) for the treatment of skin diseases, followed by Combretaceae (14 species) and Asteraceae (13 species). Most of the medicinal plants used are trees (93); leaves (107) were the most-used plant part, and decoction (73) was the preferred preparation method for the medicinal plants. The biological activities related to the pathology of skin diseases, such as antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory properties of 82 plants, have been evaluated. Based on their minimum inhibitory concentration, the most active antimicrobial plant is Brillantaisia lamium. Among the isolated phytochemicals, betulenic acid and lespedin were the most active, while plants such as Kigelia africana and Strophanthus hispidus showed significant wound-healing activities. This review highlights research gaps in the ethnobotanical studies of many West African countries, the biological activities of plants used to treat skin diseases, and the cosmetic potential of these plants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of Plant-Based Molecules and Materials in Cosmetics)
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30 pages, 4953 KiB  
Article
Multifunctional Biotechnological Lip Moisturizer for Lip Repair and Hydration: Development, In Vivo Efficacy Assessment and Sensory Analysis
Cosmetics 2023, 10(6), 166; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics10060166 - 05 Dec 2023
Viewed by 2145
Abstract
The demand for sustainable cosmetics leads to the search for natural and biotechnological ingredients. The present study reports the development of a multifunctional lip moisturizer containing levan (LEV) from Bacillus subtilis natto, sophorolipids (SOPs) from Starmerella bombicola and Citrus paradisi (OCP) essential [...] Read more.
The demand for sustainable cosmetics leads to the search for natural and biotechnological ingredients. The present study reports the development of a multifunctional lip moisturizer containing levan (LEV) from Bacillus subtilis natto, sophorolipids (SOPs) from Starmerella bombicola and Citrus paradisi (OCP) essential oil, using a simplex-centroid experimental design. The formulations were evaluated physicochemically, pharmacotechnically and by DPPH assay. The optimized formulation was selected through the Response Surface Method, and the evaluation of its efficiency in lip hydration was carried out using the bioimpedance method and sensory analysis. The formulations showed pH compatibility with lips and remained stable after a centrifuge test and thermal stress. Spreadability varied between 415.3 and 1217.1 mm2, moisture retention was above 95% and antioxidant capacity was around 50% for all formulations. The optimized formulation, containing 0.4% LEV and 0.8% SOF, maintained the lip hydration already shown by the participants; 85% of them reported improvement in this aspect. For the first time, LEV and SOP were incorporated in lip moisturizers, which is an environmentally friendly product with marketing potential. Furthermore, the use of the Skin Analyzer Digital equipment, a low-cost and non-invasive technique, to evaluate the effectiveness of lip products is innovative; this methodology may help in the development of future cosmetology studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2023)
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13 pages, 1677 KiB  
Review
Navigating a Complex Intersection: Immunotherapy and Radiotherapy Synergy in Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Skin—A Comprehensive Literature Review
Cosmetics 2023, 10(6), 165; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics10060165 - 04 Dec 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1440
Abstract
Skin squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) represents a major public health concern due to its high incidence and potential for local invasion and metastasis. Compared to local recurrence, metastatic SCC represents an even greater therapeutic challenge. Once distant metastasis occurs, the disease becomes incurable, [...] Read more.
Skin squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) represents a major public health concern due to its high incidence and potential for local invasion and metastasis. Compared to local recurrence, metastatic SCC represents an even greater therapeutic challenge. Once distant metastasis occurs, the disease becomes incurable, and treatment focuses on palliation and prolonging survival. The immune microenvironment of SCC is characterized by an infiltration of immune cells, including tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes. In addition to its direct cytotoxic effects, radiotherapy also induces immunomodulatory effects within the tumor microenvironment. Radiation can promote the release of tumor-associated antigens and induce immunogenic cell death, thereby enhancing the recognition of tumor cells by the immune system. Immunotherapy and radiotherapy have emerged as promising therapeutic modalities for metastatic SCC. This literature review aims to evaluate the potential synergy between these treatments and shed light on their combined efficacy. Within the manuscript, we present a compelling case report of a patient with advanced SCC who exhibited resistance to the combined regimen of immunotherapy and radiotherapy, leading to disease progression. Despite the increasing evidence supporting the synergy between these modalities, this case underscores the complex nature of treatment response and the importance of considering individual patient characteristics. Full article
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18 pages, 4504 KiB  
Article
Anti-Obesity Effect of Daidzein Derived from Pachyrhizus erosus (L.) Urb. Extract via PPAR Pathway in MDI-Induced 3T3-L1 Cell Line
Cosmetics 2023, 10(6), 164; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics10060164 - 01 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1706
Abstract
Pachyrhizus erosus (L.) Urb. is a tropical perennial vine plant native to southern Mexico, Southeast Asia, Central America, and Africa. In this study, we analyzed and identified various polyphenolic compounds and isoflavones present in ethanolic P. erosus root extracts and investigated their potential [...] Read more.
Pachyrhizus erosus (L.) Urb. is a tropical perennial vine plant native to southern Mexico, Southeast Asia, Central America, and Africa. In this study, we analyzed and identified various polyphenolic compounds and isoflavones present in ethanolic P. erosus root extracts and investigated their potential anti-obesity activity as a natural health food resource. The extraction process involved drying the yam bean, followed by extraction with 70% ethanol, evaporation, and freeze-drying. Fractionation was achieved through layer separation using n-hexane, ethyl acetate (EtOAc), butanol (BuOH), and water. The EtOAc fraction exhibited the highest antioxidant activity among the experimental groups, with an IC50 value of 531.77 µg/mL for ABTS radical scavenging. In α-glucosidase and lipase inhibition assays, IC50 values were determined to be 873.07 µg/mL and 915.02 µg/mL, respectively. Using HPLC and LC-MS/MS, we detected isoflavone components in P. erosus root extracts, identifying daidzein, genistein, and rotenone among them. Daidzein was the most abundant isoflavone in P. erosus root extracts. To validate the anti-obesity activity in the EtOAc fraction and daidzein, we used 3T3-L1 preadipocytes treated with MDI (3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine, dexamethasone, insulin) for 8 days. Oil Red O staining experiments demonstrated a concentration-dependent reduction in lipid content in the EtOAc fraction and daidzein treatment groups. Additionally, we examined the expression pattern of proteins related to the leptin-PPAR-FAS Pathway, revealing a concentration-dependent decrease in obesity-related proteins. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Active Substances and Bioavailability in Cosmetics)
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18 pages, 4191 KiB  
Article
Rice Derivatives in Hair Protecting
Cosmetics 2023, 10(6), 163; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics10060163 - 29 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1735
Abstract
The research was carried out on a hair conditioner containing the following rice derivatives individually: rice germ oil, rice germ oil GX-N, and riceterol esters. To evaluate the protective efficacy of the three active ingredients chosen, the following techniques were used: FT-IR, SEM, [...] Read more.
The research was carried out on a hair conditioner containing the following rice derivatives individually: rice germ oil, rice germ oil GX-N, and riceterol esters. To evaluate the protective efficacy of the three active ingredients chosen, the following techniques were used: FT-IR, SEM, stress–strain test, and polarized light microscopy analysis. The tests were carried out on natural Caucasian hair. The methodologies were found to be suitable for the evaluation and led to interesting results: the selected ingredients showed good properties in improving the hair. The conditioners containing the active ingredients restored the properties of the hair even when subjected to stress such as irradiation. In this case, the most effective was the rice germ oil GX-N. Full article
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21 pages, 8729 KiB  
Article
Development of a “Green” Emulsion with a Milk Protein Hydrolysate: An Evaluation of Rheology, Texture, In Vitro Bioactivity, and Safety
Cosmetics 2023, 10(6), 162; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics10060162 - 28 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1750
Abstract
Bioactive peptides are promising cosmetic active ingredients that can improve skin health and appearance. They exhibit a broad spectrum of activity, including anti-aging, antioxidant, antimicrobial, and anti-inflammatory effects. The aim of this study was to develop a safe, stable, and efficacious environmentally friendly [...] Read more.
Bioactive peptides are promising cosmetic active ingredients that can improve skin health and appearance. They exhibit a broad spectrum of activity, including anti-aging, antioxidant, antimicrobial, and anti-inflammatory effects. The aim of this study was to develop a safe, stable, and efficacious environmentally friendly (“green”) emulsion using a milk protein hydrolysate as a model active ingredient. Potential emulsions were formulated with biodegradable emollients, stabilized with naturally derived mixed emulsifier, and prepared by cold process. They were evaluated for rheological behavior (continuous rotation and oscillation tests), physical stability (dynamic mechanical thermal analysis—DMTA test), and texture profiles, as well as cytotoxic, antioxidant, and antimicrobial effects. Rheological characterization revealed shear-thinning flow behavior with yield point from continuous rotation tests and predominantly elastic character from oscillation (amplitude and frequency sweep) tests, with small structural change detected in the DMTA test. These results implied satisfactory rheological properties and good stability. Texture analysis revealed acceptable spreadability and substantivity of the emulsions. The protein hydrolysate showed antioxidant activity. The developed emulsions showed low antibacterial activity against selected microorganisms, but this was due to the action of preservatives, not peptides. All potential emulsions showed a desirable safety profile. The results obtained provide the basis for the next stage of formulation development, i.e., in vivo efficacy tests. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2023)
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11 pages, 2658 KiB  
Article
Hair Pores Caused by Surfactants via the Cell Membrane Complex and a Prevention Strategy through the Use of Cuticle Sealing
Cosmetics 2023, 10(6), 161; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics10060161 - 27 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1643
Abstract
In this study, we discovered that washing hair with surfactants causes a decrease in the internal density of hair, and we propose a cuticle-sealing strategy to inhibit this phenomenon. This phenomenon was revealed based on optical analyses such as optical microscopy, scanning electron [...] Read more.
In this study, we discovered that washing hair with surfactants causes a decrease in the internal density of hair, and we propose a cuticle-sealing strategy to inhibit this phenomenon. This phenomenon was revealed based on optical analyses such as optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), drop shape analysis, atomic force microscopy (AFM), and single hair analysis. Repeated treatment with surfactants creates areas of low density within the hair. Additionally, treatment with low-molecular-weight materials resulted in replenishment of the internal density of the hair. It has been shown that the more severe the degree of cuticle lifting, the more the internal density of the hair is reduced by surfactants. In addition, the study confirmed that a decrease in internal density could be prevented by sealing the cell membrane complex (CMC), and it was suggested that this reduced internal density may reflect the pore structure of hair. This study investigates the mass transfer phenomenon that occurs in hair and proposes a strategy to maintain hair homeostasis. Full article
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14 pages, 622 KiB  
Review
Endocrine Disruptors in Cosmetic Products and the Regulatory Framework: Public Health Implications
Cosmetics 2023, 10(6), 160; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics10060160 - 24 Nov 2023
Viewed by 2651
Abstract
Endocrine disruptors (EDs) are molecules capable of mimicking the natural hormones of the body and interfering with the endocrine system in both humans and wildlife. Cosmetic products are one source of EDs; these include an extensive variety of personal care and beauty products [...] Read more.
Endocrine disruptors (EDs) are molecules capable of mimicking the natural hormones of the body and interfering with the endocrine system in both humans and wildlife. Cosmetic products are one source of EDs; these include an extensive variety of personal care and beauty products designed for the skin and hair, as well as makeup. The widespread use of such products has raised concerns about the presence of EDs within them. In this study, we highlight the issue of EDs and analyze the functioning of the EU regulatory framework for chemicals, specifically those which act as EDs in cosmetic products. We also highlight issues related to the interface between science and policy in the critical area of risk regulation within the EU. In addition, we investigate how chemical substances that act as EDs are identified based on specific criteria and conditions, a process which involves the production and adoption of particular scientific opinions. Finally, we assess the efficiency, suitability, and effectiveness of the regulatory framework in this sensitive area of human exposure to chemicals, especially those that function as EDs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2023)
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12 pages, 3708 KiB  
Article
Developing Botanical Formulations for Sustainable Cosmetics
Cosmetics 2023, 10(6), 159; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics10060159 - 22 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1755
Abstract
Interest in clean beauty is rising due to minimalism in the formulation of cosmetics, rational use of water, and fewer chemical additives like preservatives, colorants, surfactants, and artificial fragrances. Green ingredients lead to the development of sustainable formulations with advanced performance and are [...] Read more.
Interest in clean beauty is rising due to minimalism in the formulation of cosmetics, rational use of water, and fewer chemical additives like preservatives, colorants, surfactants, and artificial fragrances. Green ingredients lead to the development of sustainable formulations with advanced performance and are less aggressive to human health and the environment. Currently, the electrospinning technique is used as a simple one-step manufacturing process to produce nanostructured cosmetics under mild temperature conditions. This study focuses on the utilization of rice bran oil (RBO) in the creation of sustainable nanostructured cosmetics for potential cosmetic and well-being applications. Four sustainable formulations were developed to optimize the creation of nanostructured cosmetics using ethyl cellulose and rice bran oil (RBO). Ethanol absolute and polyvinyl pyrrolidone have been chosen to compose the sustainable formulation due to their biocompatibility and biodegradability. We studied four different RBO concentrations regarding morphology, encapsulation efficiency, biodegradability, and cytotoxicity. Nanostructured cosmetics present biomimetic surfaces, high RBO encapsulation ability, low mass loss at simulated physiologic conditions, and non-cytotoxicity. Therefore, the minimalist sustainable formulation does not contain any toxic solvents and incompatible harmful excipients, was nanostructured using a mild manufacturing process, and obtained high RBO entrapment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Practices in the Life Cycle of Cosmetic Products)
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17 pages, 3506 KiB  
Article
Characterization and Efficacy of Essential Oil-Based Cosmetic Formulations for Acne-Prone Skin
Cosmetics 2023, 10(6), 158; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics10060158 - 16 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1867
Abstract
This randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind clinical in vivo study aimed to evaluate the clinical efficacy of a cosmetic formulation for non-inflammatory acne using essential oils. Fifty-three male participants were divided into four groups: a formulation containing a mixture of four essential oils (4EO), Melaleuca [...] Read more.
This randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind clinical in vivo study aimed to evaluate the clinical efficacy of a cosmetic formulation for non-inflammatory acne using essential oils. Fifty-three male participants were divided into four groups: a formulation containing a mixture of four essential oils (4EO), Melaleuca alternifolia (M.a.), nanoemulsion of M. alternifolia (Nanoem.), and a placebo group. The participants applied the formulation daily for 90 days and non-invasive skin imaging techniques were employed to assess the outcomes. Skin microrelief images and reflectance confocal microscopy images were captured in the malar region, and Raman spectroscopy was used to analyze the terpene composition of the essential oils, oil mixture, and nanoemulsion. The results indicated that the nanoemulsion, M.a. essential oil, and 4EO formulation effectively reduced the overall number of comedone and improved follicular hyperkeratinization. The nanoemulsion of M.a. demonstrated the most promising outcomes in reducing comedone areas, especially in the infundibular region. This effect could be attributed to the presence of terpinene-4-ol in the essential oil and the enhanced penetration provided by the nanoemulsion formulation. These findings suggest that cosmetic formulations containing essential oils, particularly in nanoemulsion form, have potential against mild acne. This study contributes to our understanding of the relationship between terpene composition and clinical activity, highlighting the importance of innovative delivery systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2023)
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18 pages, 3059 KiB  
Review
Pharmacy and Fragrances: Traditional and Current Use of Plants and Their Extracts
Cosmetics 2023, 10(6), 157; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics10060157 - 15 Nov 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1977
Abstract
This paper aims to establish a current relationship between pharmaceutical sciences andthe development of perfumes and fragrances, which bring significant economic benefits. For this purpose, historical data are used as a starting point, and galenic, chemical and botanical aspects are discussed in a [...] Read more.
This paper aims to establish a current relationship between pharmaceutical sciences andthe development of perfumes and fragrances, which bring significant economic benefits. For this purpose, historical data are used as a starting point, and galenic, chemical and botanical aspects are discussed in a transversal way. Sources such as Web of Science (WOS) and databases such as Scopus, monographs and various web pages (where scientific–technical documents appear) were used. The results and discussion are based on the selection of the 50 plant species most commonly used in high-quality fragrances. Therefore, this publication should be considered an approach to this subject based on an analysis of a representative sample of data. Some characteristics of perfumes (classification according to the concentration of essential oils and combination of plant extracts) are presented beforehand. The main focus of this work is the botanical and chemical analysis of these described plants, pointing out their common name, correct botanical name, geographical place of origin, used part of the plant and main molecules. The most significant families are aromatic: Rutaceae, Lamiaceae (16.7%) and Apiaceae. The most represented genus is Citrus (with seven species or hybrids). However, it should be noted that natural extracts of good quality natural fragrances may be supplemented with chemically synthesized molecules. Of the 50 botanical species selected, 84% of the extracts have their origin in Tropical Asia, the Middle East and the Mediterranean region. This figure generally coincides with the percentage of medicinal plants (or their extracts) admitted by the European Pharmacopoeia. All parts of a plant (depending on which one it is) can be a source of molecules for the elaboration of these products. The most commonly used parts to obtain extracts are flowers and leaves, a biological circumstance that is explained in this work. In this work, 110 molecules have been found that are part of the essences of perfumes and fragrances; the most frequent are linalool, limonene, 1,8-cineole, eugenol and derivatives, geraniol, vanillin and derivatives, β-caryophyllene, p-cymene, and farnesene and derivatives. However, in order to elaborate a quality perfume, many other molecules must be taken into account, according to the creative experience of the perfumer, which is subject to confidentiality, and chemical analysis according to current legislation, which would avoid fraud, allergy and dermatitis problems. Full article
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13 pages, 2557 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Staphylococcus Phages in a Skincare Serum against Staphylococcus spp.
Cosmetics 2023, 10(6), 156; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics10060156 - 14 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1665
Abstract
The emergence of multidrug-resistant (MDR) Staphylococcus spp. has resulted in the reduced use of antibiotics in many skincare cosmetic products. Alternative treatments using natural bioactive compounds and chemical agents can be replaced. However, these compounds have induced negative side effects among users and [...] Read more.
The emergence of multidrug-resistant (MDR) Staphylococcus spp. has resulted in the reduced use of antibiotics in many skincare cosmetic products. Alternative treatments using natural bioactive compounds and chemical agents can be replaced. However, these compounds have induced negative side effects among users and are not environmentally friendly. Phage therapy is an alternative to antibiotics for the treatment of specific pathogenic bacteria including Staphylococcus spp., without harmful effects on human skin cells and microflora. Phages can be potentially used in cosmetic products. The direct application of phage-based cosmetic products on skin can reduce the chance of skin infection caused by pathogenic Staphylococcus spp. In the present work, we isolated 17 Staphylococcus phages from sewage and soil samples. Phage A1 showed the highest lytic ability at 50% (B1 profile), covering 13 tested Staphylococcus isolates including Staphylococcus aureus (SA), methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), S. capitis (SC), and S. epidermidis (SE). Phage A1 reduced the representative S. aureus ATCC 25923 and S. capitis SC1 by 2.0 ± 0.1 and 4.1 ± 0.3 log units at a multiplicity of infection (MOI) of 104 and by 4.2 ± 0.2 and 4.4 ± 0.5 log units at a MOI of 105 after 6 h of post-phage treatment. The transmission electron microscope revealed that phage A1 was classified in the order Caudovirales of the family Myoviridae based on its appearance. Phage A1 showed optimal survival in the presence of a 0.125% (v/v) solidant DMH suspension after 3 h of post-treatment. Under a phage skincare serum formulation, the titers of phage A1 were reduced by 0.46 and 0.85 log units after storage at 4 and 25 °C, whereas a reduction of 2.96 log units was also observed after storage at 37° for 90 days. This study provides strong evidence for the effectiveness of phage application in cosmetic skincare serum for the treatment of skin diseases caused by MDR and pathogenic Staphylococcus spp. The concept of this study could be advantageous for cosmetic and/or cosmeceutical industries searching for new bioactive ingredients for cosmetic/cosmeceutical products. Full article
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15 pages, 1879 KiB  
Article
Adaptogen Technology for Skin Resilience Benefits
Cosmetics 2023, 10(6), 155; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics10060155 - 10 Nov 2023
Viewed by 2285
Abstract
(1) Background: Skin undergoes constant changes, providing capabilities to repair and renovate its constituents once damaged and a fundamental shield to contrast environmental stress. Nevertheless, environmental stressors may overcome the skin’s protective potential inducing premature aging and accelerating the appearance of anaesthetic age-related [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Skin undergoes constant changes, providing capabilities to repair and renovate its constituents once damaged and a fundamental shield to contrast environmental stress. Nevertheless, environmental stressors may overcome the skin’s protective potential inducing premature aging and accelerating the appearance of anaesthetic age-related skin aspects. Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) and pollutants (particulate matters, PAHs) contribute to skin aging and functional decline inducing harmful oxidative modifications of macromolecules and stress-related skin disorders. Innovative approaches to preserve skin are needed. (2) Methods: Skin keratinocytes were treated (or not) with a combination of ingredients (Lactobacillus plantarum extract, Withania somnifera root extract and Terminalia ferdinandiana fruit extract; “MIX”) in the presence or absence of stress (oxidative stress or pollution). The effects of the MIX adaptogen technology on (a) cellular resilience, (b) the regulation of cellular functions and (c) regeneration of skin were disclosed through expression proteomics and bioinformatics analyses first, and then through focused evaluations of protein carbonylation as a hallmark of oxidative stress’ deleterious impact and mitochondrial activity. (3) Results: The deleterious impact of stressors was evidenced, as well as the beneficial effects of the MIX through (a) mitochondrial activity preservation, (b) the “vigilance” of the NRF2 pathway activation, (c) NADPH production and protein homeostasis improvements, (d) preserving skin regeneration function and I the contrasting stress-induced oxidation (carbonylation) of mitochondrial and nuclear proteins. (4) Conclusions: The effects of the MIX on increasing cell adaptability and resilience under stress suggested a beneficial contribution in precision cosmetics and healthy human skin by acting as an adaptogen, an innovative approach that may be employed to improve resistance to harmful stress with a potential favourable impact on skin homeostasis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of Plant-Based Molecules and Materials in Cosmetics)
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12 pages, 1022 KiB  
Article
Analysis of Depigmenting Substances of Interest (Hydroquinone, Kojic Acid, and Clobetasol Propionate) Contained in Lightening Cosmetic Products Marketed in Burkina Faso
Cosmetics 2023, 10(6), 154; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics10060154 - 09 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1827
Abstract
The practice of voluntary depigmentation is still prevalent in Africa, with a wide range of lightening cosmetics used. Our objective was to research and quantify three regulated and/or prohibited depigmenting ingredients present in lightening cosmetics sold in Ouagadougou. Twenty-nine lightening cosmetic samples were [...] Read more.
The practice of voluntary depigmentation is still prevalent in Africa, with a wide range of lightening cosmetics used. Our objective was to research and quantify three regulated and/or prohibited depigmenting ingredients present in lightening cosmetics sold in Ouagadougou. Twenty-nine lightening cosmetic samples were collected from vendors and HPLC analysis was subsequently conducted to identify and measure the concentrations of hydroquinone, clobetasol propionate, and kojic acid. The presence of hydroquinone was indicated on the label of 13.79% of the products, while 51.72% contained it after analysis. Furthermore, none of the products mentioned a concentration of hydroquinone exceeding 2.00%, even though 27.58% of them contained high concentrations. For clobetasol propionate, its presence was stated on the labels of 13.79% of the products, while 31.03% contained it. One sample had a clobetasol content exceeding 0.05%, although none mentioned a concentration higher than this value. Finally, while 24.13% of the samples claimed to contain kojic acid, only 17.24% did. We also observed that 41.38% of the samples contained combinations of two depigmenting ingredients investigated, with a predominance of the hydroquinone + clobetasol propionate (27.38%). These results demonstrate that manufacturers’ declarations regarding the compositions of active ingredients in lightening cosmetics can sometimes be deceptive. Full article
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11 pages, 1231 KiB  
Article
Long-Term Efficacy and Safety of Dupilumab in Patients with Atopic Dermatitis: A Single-Centre Retrospective Study
Cosmetics 2023, 10(6), 153; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics10060153 - 07 Nov 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1645
Abstract
Introduction: There are few long-term effectiveness and safety data for dupilumab in the treatment of atopic dermatitis (AD). The aim of this study was to evaluate efficacy and safety of dupilumab for up to three years after treatment initiation. Materials and Methods: We [...] Read more.
Introduction: There are few long-term effectiveness and safety data for dupilumab in the treatment of atopic dermatitis (AD). The aim of this study was to evaluate efficacy and safety of dupilumab for up to three years after treatment initiation. Materials and Methods: We collected data from patients ≥ 12 years with severe AD who started dupilumab at the Dermatology Clinic of the Turin University Hospital between December 2018 and October 2022. Clinic and patient reported outcomes were evaluated from baseline, up to 3 years (T9), every 4 months. Results: A total of 418 patients were observed. A progressive decrease in the meanEASI was observed: from 23.64 at baseline to 2.31 at T9. Similar trends were observed in patients’ reported outcomes. The achievement of EASI75 and EASI90 was observed in 75.58% of patients and 53.49%, respectively, at T1 (4 months), and in 92.55% and 80.85% at T9; DLQI 0/1 was achieved at T9 in 61.7%. Mean NRSpp ≤ 4 was achieved at T9 in 91.5% (86 out of 94 patients). The most common adverse event was conjunctivitis occurring in 13% of patients on average at each timepoint analyzed. Conclusions: Dupilumab proved to be effective and safe for the treatment of AD in clinical practice, up to 3 years. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2023)
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15 pages, 2626 KiB  
Article
Piperine Extraction and Encapsulation in Polycaprolactone Nanoparticles
Cosmetics 2023, 10(6), 152; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics10060152 - 06 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1696
Abstract
Black pepper, a commonly utilized culinary condiment, holds significant importance in Ayurvedic and Chinese medicinal practices due to its various biological benefits, including antioxidant, antimicrobial, and anti-inflammatory properties. To amplify these attributes and enhance their efficacy in formulations, the utilization of nanocarriers presents [...] Read more.
Black pepper, a commonly utilized culinary condiment, holds significant importance in Ayurvedic and Chinese medicinal practices due to its various biological benefits, including antioxidant, antimicrobial, and anti-inflammatory properties. To amplify these attributes and enhance their efficacy in formulations, the utilization of nanocarriers presents a promising approach. Thus, the objective of this study was to obtain a pepper extract, evaluate its constituents, and encapsulate it in polymeric nanoparticles. The ethanol extract of the grains powder had a higher concentration of piperine and better antioxidant activity when compared to whole grains. Pepper extract encapsulation efficiency in terms of piperine concentration was 84.8 ± 3.5%, and a sustained and prolonged release profile was observed, as well as other studies in the literature using polycaprolactone (PCL). The presence of the extract did not change the instability index and the sedimentation velocity of the nanoparticles, as well as the polydispersity index and the zeta potential of nanoparticles. However, there was a difference in the mean size and concentration of particles. This study highlights the potential of PCL nanoparticles as a promising delivery system for black pepper extract, which could have various applications in the cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries, maximizing the benefits of black pepper extract. Full article
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17 pages, 9587 KiB  
Article
Skin Anti-Aging Potentials of Phytochemicals from Peperomia pellucida against Selected Metalloproteinase Targets: An In Silico Approach
Cosmetics 2023, 10(6), 151; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics10060151 - 02 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1883
Abstract
Skin aging and wrinkle formation are processes that are largely influenced by the overexpression of enzymes like tyrosinase, elastase, and collagenase. This study aimed to validate the skin anti-aging properties of phytochemicals from Peperomia pellucida (PP) as well as its attendant mechanism of [...] Read more.
Skin aging and wrinkle formation are processes that are largely influenced by the overexpression of enzymes like tyrosinase, elastase, and collagenase. This study aimed to validate the skin anti-aging properties of phytochemicals from Peperomia pellucida (PP) as well as its attendant mechanism of action. Compounds previously characterized from PP were retrieved from the PubChem database and docked to the active sites of tyrosinase, elastase, and collagenase using Schrödinger’s Maestro 11.5 and AutoDock tools to predict compounds with the best inhibitory potential to block these enzymes in preventing skin aging. It was observed that our hit compounds had favorable affinity and displayed key interactions at the active sites of these enzymes similar to those of the standards. With elastase, we observed key interactions with the amino acids in the S1 sub-pocket (especially ALA-181), Zn chelation, and histidine residues, which are key for inhibitory activity and ligand stability. The hit compounds showed H-bonds with the key amino acids of collagenase, including LEU-185 and ALA-186; phlobaphene and patuloside B were found to have better docking scores and inhibition constants (Ki) (−12.36 Kcal/mol, 0.87 nM and −12.06 Kcal/mol, 1.45 nM, respectively) when compared with those of the synthetic reference compound (−12.00 Kcal/mol, 1.67 nM). For tyrosinase, our hit compounds had both better docking scores and Ki values than kojic acid, with patuloside B and procyanidin having the best values of −9.43 Kcal/mol, 121.40 nM and −9.32 Kcal/mol, 193.48 nM, respectively (kojic acid = −8.19 Kcal/mol, 898.03 nM). Based on this study, we propose that acacetin, procyanidin, phlobaphene, patulosides A and B, palmitic acid, and hexahydroxydiphenic acid are responsible for the anti-aging effects of PP on the skin, and that they work synergistically through a multi-target inhibition of these enzymes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant-Based Cosmeceuticals: Recent Developments and Advances)
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12 pages, 2462 KiB  
Article
Initial Study on Physiochemical Property and Antibacterial Activity against Skin-Infecting Bacteria of Silver Nanoparticles Biologically Produced Using Crude Melanin from Xylaria sp.
Cosmetics 2023, 10(6), 150; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics10060150 - 01 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1882
Abstract
Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) produced by biological methods are safer for biomedical applications. Melanins were initially reported to facilitate AgNPs synthesis. Our research found that the stromata of some Xylaria species contained significant amounts of melanins, which had strong antioxidant and anti-ultraviolet activities without [...] Read more.
Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) produced by biological methods are safer for biomedical applications. Melanins were initially reported to facilitate AgNPs synthesis. Our research found that the stromata of some Xylaria species contained significant amounts of melanins, which had strong antioxidant and anti-ultraviolet activities without toxicity toward human skin cells. This study reported the characteristics and antibacterial activities against skin-infecting bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus and Cutibacterium acnes) of AgNPs synthesized using crude melanin extracted from stromata of Xylaria sp. AgNPs were successfully synthesized by mixing the crude melanin solution with 0.1 M AgNO3 (25:1, v/v) and incubating for 3 h at 100 °C. The SEM found that the average size of the synthesized AgNPs was 18.85 ± 3.75 nm. The melanin-mediated AgNPs displayed significantly higher antibacterial activities against the tested acne-causing bacteria compared to the positive control (Erythromycin). Specifically, the melanin-mediated AgNPs inhibited 90% of S. aureus and C. acnes at 62.5 (µg/mL) and 15.625 (µg/mL), respectively, whereas it required erythromycin up to 4000 (µg/mL) to achieve the same activities. This research illustrated the feasibility of using crude melanin of Xylaria sp. for the direct synthesis of AgNPs and the potential use of the synthesized AgNPs for treating acne-causing bacteria (with further investigation needed). Full article
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14 pages, 2521 KiB  
Article
Molecular Docking Simulation of Phenolics towards Tyrosinase, Phenolic Content, and Radical Scavenging Activity of Some Zingiberaceae Plant Extracts
Cosmetics 2023, 10(6), 149; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics10060149 - 31 Oct 2023
Viewed by 1519
Abstract
In Indonesia, plants have been indigenously used to treat various diseases and as cosmetics. It is always challenging to explore the molecular interactions of phenolic compounds towards the levels of constituents that contribute to the biological activities of plants. This study aimed to [...] Read more.
In Indonesia, plants have been indigenously used to treat various diseases and as cosmetics. It is always challenging to explore the molecular interactions of phenolic compounds towards the levels of constituents that contribute to the biological activities of plants. This study aimed to select a plant of the Zingiberaceae family with the highest phenolics and flavonoids, the strongest radical scavenging activity, and the best interaction towards tyrosinase in terms of docking score and binding mode. Initially, the total phenolics and radical scavenging capacity of Zingiberaceae plants, namely, Hedychium coronarium, Curcuma zedoaria, Curcuma heyneana, and Alpinia galanga, were determined using the Folin–Ciocâlteu method and the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay. The main phytoconstituents of plants with the highest phenolic levels were docked to the binding site of tyrosinase. Three anti-melanogenesis agents commonly used in cosmetics, namely, arbutin, hydroquinone, and kojic acid, were used as the standard. Our study revealed that all the tested plants contain polyphenolic compounds in the range of 17.92 (C. zedoaria rhizome extract) to 252.36 (A. galanga rhizome extract) mg GAE/g and have radical scavenging capacity, with IC50 values in the range of 66.67 (A. galanga rhizome extract) to 320.0 (C. heyneana rhizome extract) μg/mL. A molecular docking simulation demonstrated that four constituents, i.e., kaempferol, galangin, ethyl p-methoxycinnamate, and 6-gingerol, could occupy the binding site of tyrosinase with prominent affinity and interact with essential residues of the enzyme. This study confirms that Alpinia galanga possesses the potential to be further developed as a cosmetic with a radical scavenging and tyrosinase inhibitory activity. However, it may be interesting to carry out further studies of how the plant extract affects the melanogenesis signaling pathway. Full article
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25 pages, 5743 KiB  
Article
Development of Effervescent Cleansing Tablets Containing Asiatic-Acid-Loaded Solid Lipid Microparticles
Cosmetics 2023, 10(6), 148; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics10060148 - 25 Oct 2023
Viewed by 2028
Abstract
The objective of this study was to develop effervescent cleansing tablets that can be dissolved and turned into liquid soap, which can be used for bathing or soaking the body. The asiatic-acid-loaded solid lipid microparticles (AASLMs) were prepared via the hot emulsification method [...] Read more.
The objective of this study was to develop effervescent cleansing tablets that can be dissolved and turned into liquid soap, which can be used for bathing or soaking the body. The asiatic-acid-loaded solid lipid microparticles (AASLMs) were prepared via the hot emulsification method followed by cold re-solidification and then freeze-dried to obtained dry powder. The physicochemical properties such as morphology and % entrapment efficiency (%EE) were evaluated. The results revealed that AASLMs have an irregular shape, and the %EE for the resulting AASLMs was 92.04 ± 3.43%. The tablets were manufactured via the direct compression technique. The compatibility test was conducted to ensure that the excipients are compatible with the active ingredient. The angle of repose, Carr’s index, and Hausner’s ratio were studied to evaluate the flowability of the powder blend before compression. The weight of each tablet was set to 1000 mg, and physicochemical characteristics, in vitro dissolution, ex vivo cleansing efficacy, and stability were evaluated. The results showed that the active ingredient was compatible with other excipients, as the results obtained from FTIR spectra indicated the absence of potential chemical interaction between the active ingredient and excipients used in this study. Additionally, all formulations had good flow properties. The effervescence times of selected formulations, F2 and F3, were <5 min, with favorable pH and hardness values. The friability values of all formulations exceeded 1% because the excipients used in effervescent tablets are very fragile. The release of asiatic acid (AA) from the tablets was dependent on the concentration of SLS. In an ex vivo test, it was discovered that the developed products F2 and F3 showed much more effective cleansing efficacy than water. Nevertheless, brown spots appeared in the tablets and the AA content was significantly decreased in both tested formulations after 3 months’ storage at 40 ± 2 °C/75% RH ± 5% RH. The stability study revealed that the developed products were not stable at high temperature and humidity. Therefore, it is recommended that the developed effervescent tablets are not stored at a high temperature. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Cosmetic Sciences: Sustainability in Materials and Processes)
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6 pages, 3626 KiB  
Case Report
Quality-Switched Nd:YAG 1064 nm Laser for Management of Hyperpigmentation and Atrophic Scars after Long-Pulsed Nd:YAG Laser for Treatment of Leg Telangiectasias—A Case Report
Cosmetics 2023, 10(6), 147; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics10060147 - 25 Oct 2023
Viewed by 2239
Abstract
The correction of leg telangiectasias is one of the most frequently performed interventions in the Western world. While sclerotherapy remains the gold standard of treatment, several studies have shown comparable efficacy and, in some situations, an even more favorable use of lasers as [...] Read more.
The correction of leg telangiectasias is one of the most frequently performed interventions in the Western world. While sclerotherapy remains the gold standard of treatment, several studies have shown comparable efficacy and, in some situations, an even more favorable use of lasers as an alternative treatment option. The most frequent side effect of both treatment options is hyperpigmentation, which usually clears spontaneously in most cases but can be challenging to treat if it persists. The origin of this hyperpigmentation is not fully understood; small studies point to hemosiderin as the causative pigment, at least in post-sclerotherapy hyperpigmentation. More rare side effects of the treatment include ulcerations and scarring. Quality-switched (QS) Nd:YAG lasers have demonstrated good efficacy in treating hemosiderin depositions in the skin, post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation and atrophic scars. We present a case of post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation and scarring after laser treatment of leg telangiectasia with a long-pulsed Nd:YAG laser that was successfully treated using a QS Nd:YAG 1064 nm laser. This case suggests the QS Nd:YAG laser as a possible treatment option in cases of hyperpigmentation with various origins, including hemosiderin and melanin, and scarring after laser treatment of leg telangiectasias. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2023)
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11 pages, 695 KiB  
Article
The Impact of COVID-19 Pandemic on Acne Patients and Their Management: An Observational Multicenter Study from Italy
Cosmetics 2023, 10(6), 146; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics10060146 - 24 Oct 2023
Viewed by 2291
Abstract
Acne vulgaris was one of several diseases whose progression was significantly influenced psychologically by the rapid and protracted alteration of daily routines that occurred during the COVID-19 pandemic, especially for specific populations like adolescents. In order to assess their psychological impact and the [...] Read more.
Acne vulgaris was one of several diseases whose progression was significantly influenced psychologically by the rapid and protracted alteration of daily routines that occurred during the COVID-19 pandemic, especially for specific populations like adolescents. In order to assess their psychological impact and the relationship with the progression of acne vulgaris, this study aims to examine the quality of life, stress, anxiety, and depression of acne patients during the COVID-19 pandemic and their care. This observational, multicenter investigation was carried out in five dermatology clinics in Italy. Data were obtained via a remote telephone interview using questionnaires that were approved by a group of dermatologists and psychiatrists. Evaluations included demographic information, treatment status, disease progression, dietary habits, and employment activities. Some 178 acne vulgaris patients in various stages of systemic or topical medication were included in the study: 47 of 178 (26.4%) patients showed high scores on the HADS anxiety subscale, and 41 of 178 (23%) patients showed high scores on the HADS depression subscale. The Brief Resilience Scale (BRS) was used to measure resilience; 70 patients out of 178 (or 39.3%) showed low resilience (range: 1.00–2.99). In 32 out of 178 patients with PSS, high levels of stress were discovered (18%). Some 50 out of 178 patients experienced alterations in their way of life, including increased acne-related symptoms of relationship humiliation and constraints on everyday activities. Some 52 out of 178 patients (29.2%) said that they felt their condition had gotten worse over the study period. Our findings revealed a potential link between the exacerbation of acne and high levels of anxiety and depressive symptoms, as well as an elevated sense of stress and low or moderate levels of adaptability and resilience. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2023)
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