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Cosmetics, Volume 10, Issue 5 (October 2023) – 28 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): The use of water in personal care products and their packaging, consisting mainly of plastic, are major problems of the cosmetic industry, imposing the need to develop sustainable cosmetics. On the other hand, it is reported that by-products of the agricultural sector are rich in phenolic compounds with bioactive properties, namely high antioxidant capacities, suggesting the possibility of incorporating them into cosmetic formulations. A strategy with which to overcome these problems is the development of solid cosmetics, such as natural shampoo bars, fortified with extracts from agro-industrial by-products, assessing their potential to replace commercial antioxidants. In this way, the saving and recovery of natural resources, as well as reducing waste, would be accomplished, contributing to a circular economy. View this paper
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15 pages, 3088 KiB  
Article
Multifunctional Biological Properties and Topical Film Forming Spray Base on Auricularia polytricha as a Natural Polysaccharide Containing Brown Agaricus bisporus Extract for Skin Hydration
Cosmetics 2023, 10(5), 145; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics10050145 - 20 Oct 2023
Viewed by 1634
Abstract
Mushrooms are edible fungi containing valuable nutrients. They provide attractive bio-active properties, which have confirmed anti-oxidants, anti-aging, and anti-inflammatory properties. Mushrooms possess abundant natural polymers affecting skin hydration and acting as moisturizers supporting skin barrier function. In this study, cloud ear mushroom ( [...] Read more.
Mushrooms are edible fungi containing valuable nutrients. They provide attractive bio-active properties, which have confirmed anti-oxidants, anti-aging, and anti-inflammatory properties. Mushrooms possess abundant natural polymers affecting skin hydration and acting as moisturizers supporting skin barrier function. In this study, cloud ear mushroom (Auricularia polytricha) water extract (CW) was produced as a natural polymer to evaluate a new film-forming spray (FFS) containing CW to increase skin hydration and protect transepidermal water loss. CW contained polysaccharides as 748.2 ± 0.02 mg glucose/g extract. CW significantly inhibited the secretion of IL-6 and TNF-α and enhanced skin hydration by increasing aquaporin-3 (AQP3) and filaggrin (FLG) in HaCaT cells. The FFS was formulated using CW, sodium polystyrene sulfonate, and glycerin. The selected formulation contained brown Agaricus bisporus (BE-FFS) evaluated physical appearance, spray angle, spray pattern, and in vitro skin permeation. The BE-FFS has a transparent thin film with suitable occlusive properties, drying time, and physical appearance. Afterward, in vitro skin permeation and human hydration property studies presented the long-lasting effects and provided safety and hydration potential after 4 weeks of use. Overall, all results indicate that the BE-FFS is a natural film-forming spray for skin hydration improvement. Full article
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12 pages, 2392 KiB  
Article
Skin Anti-Aging Effect of Oral Vitamin A Supplementation in Combination with Topical Retinoic Acid Treatment in Comparison with Topical Treatment Alone: A Randomized, Prospective, Assessor-Blinded, Parallel Trial
Cosmetics 2023, 10(5), 144; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics10050144 - 18 Oct 2023
Viewed by 3217
Abstract
Topical retinoid treatment is considered a standard therapeutic approach for chrono and photo skin aging. Retinol (vitamin A) is the precursor of endogenous retinoids. A prospective, 12-week, randomized, parallel-group trial comparing the combination of vitamins’ oral supplementation (one capsule daily, 50.000 UI vitamin [...] Read more.
Topical retinoid treatment is considered a standard therapeutic approach for chrono and photo skin aging. Retinol (vitamin A) is the precursor of endogenous retinoids. A prospective, 12-week, randomized, parallel-group trial comparing the combination of vitamins’ oral supplementation (one capsule daily, 50.000 UI vitamin A and 50 mg vitamin E) and a 0.02% retinoic acid topical gel formulation (RG) applied in the evening (Group B) in comparison with the topical RG treatment alone (Group A) was conducted. A total of 60 subjects (men and women, aged >50 years, mean age 60 ± 8 years) with moderate-severe facial skin aging (Glogau score > 2) were enrolled after their written informed consent. Thirty participants were randomly assigned to Group A and 30 to Group B. The primary endpoint was the clinical evaluation of a Skin Aging Global Score (SAGS), at baseline, and after 6 and 12 weeks. A VISIA® (Canfield Scientific, Parsippany, NJ, USA)face sculptor analysis was performed in a subgroup of 20 subjects. Skin tolerability was evaluated in both groups at weeks 6 and 12. In comparison with the baseline, SAGS scores in both groups were reduced by 13% (Group A) and by 14% (Group B) after 6 weeks and by 22% (Group A) and by 27% (Group B) at week 12. At the end of the study, SAGS score absolute reduction in Group B was significantly greater (p < 0.01) in comparison with the absolute reduction in Group A. Both treatment regimens were well tolerated. The combination of medium-high doses of oral retinol supplementation (Vitamin A) and topical retinoic acid gel showed superior efficacy in terms of clinical improvement in comparison with the topical treatment alone in subjects with moderate/severe skin aging. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2023)
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13 pages, 4853 KiB  
Article
Effect of an Oral Formulation on Skin Lightening: Results from In Vitro Tyrosinase Inhibition to a Double-Blind Randomized Placebo-Controlled Clinical Study in Healthy Asian Participants
Cosmetics 2023, 10(5), 143; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics10050143 - 17 Oct 2023
Viewed by 2391
Abstract
Oral formulations with natural plant-based extracts represent a safe and promising strategy for skin lightening and anti-dark-spot effects, especially in Asia. This study evaluated the effect of an oral formulation including polyphenol-rich extracts and vitamin C (Belight3TM) on in vitro tyrosinase [...] Read more.
Oral formulations with natural plant-based extracts represent a safe and promising strategy for skin lightening and anti-dark-spot effects, especially in Asia. This study evaluated the effect of an oral formulation including polyphenol-rich extracts and vitamin C (Belight3TM) on in vitro tyrosinase inhibitory activity and investigated its skin lightening and anti-dark-spot effects in vivo. Tyrosinase inhibitory activity of the formulation was measured with spectrophotometry. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical study was carried out on 58 healthy Asian males and females, aged 45–65. Skin color was measured at baseline, 6 weeks and 12 weeks with digital photographs. Color of dark spots was assessed with spectrophotometry. In vitro, the formulation showed a significant synergistic tyrosinase inhibitory activity of 85% compared to the control. In vivo, 12-week oral administration of the formulation significantly lightened the skin and was significantly better than the placebo. In addition, this formulation induced a slight and significant lightening effect of the dark spots after 6 and 12 weeks. Our findings suggest that the daily oral administration of Belight3TM during 12 weeks appears as an efficient and safe nutricosmetic to lighten the color of the facial skin and dark spots in Asian subjects. Full article
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27 pages, 4773 KiB  
Review
Enhancing Skin Anti-Aging through Healthy Lifestyle Factors
Cosmetics 2023, 10(5), 142; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics10050142 - 12 Oct 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3966
Abstract
Lifestyle health has been recognized as an evidence-based innovation that defines how everyday behaviors and routines influence the avoidance and therapy of illness and provides an important adjunctive component to overall health. Specifically, an approach with small changes over time can have a [...] Read more.
Lifestyle health has been recognized as an evidence-based innovation that defines how everyday behaviors and routines influence the avoidance and therapy of illness and provides an important adjunctive component to overall health. Specifically, an approach with small changes over time can have a dramatic impact on the health and well-being of individuals not only, in general, but also can be applied to skin health. However, lifestyle health factors to improve skin well-being have not been discussed extensively and/or well promulgated. The narrative for this overview focuses on providing a summary for topic background information, but more importantly, presents four lifestyle factors that can improve dermal health [i.e., factor 1: nutrition—diet; factor 2: rest (sleep); factor 3: movement/physical exercise, and factor 4: social and community associations]. This was accomplished by identifying preceding journal reports/reviews covering especially the last five years (January 2018 to July 2023; 164 out of 205 references cited or 80%) using scientific search databases. The main conclusions of this overview encourage the concept that lifestyle health factors such as nutrition/diet, rest/sleep, movement/physical exercise, and community/social interactions support enhanced skin health and well-being with aging. Plus, social media interventions that aim to promote dietary, sleep and physical activity changes might be an application to improve skin health in the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2023)
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21 pages, 323 KiB  
Review
Occurrence and Regulatory Evaluation of Contaminants in Tattoo Inks
Cosmetics 2023, 10(5), 141; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics10050141 - 10 Oct 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2237
Abstract
Tattooing has been an enduring form of body art since ancient times, but it carries inherent health risks, primarily due to the complex composition of tattoo inks. These inks consist of complex mixtures of various ingredients, including pigments, solvents, impurities and contaminants. This [...] Read more.
Tattooing has been an enduring form of body art since ancient times, but it carries inherent health risks, primarily due to the complex composition of tattoo inks. These inks consist of complex mixtures of various ingredients, including pigments, solvents, impurities and contaminants. This literature review aims to shed light on the organic and inorganic contaminants present in tattoo inks prior to the implementation of the Registration, Evaluation, Authorization and Restriction of Chemicals (REACH) regulation in 2022. This review shows that the most common contaminants are polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), with a concentration range of 0.005–201 mg/kg, mainly detected in black tattoo inks, and primary aromatic amines (PAAs), with a concentration range of 0.5–1100 mg/kg, and heavy metals such as lead (0.01–14.0 mg/kg) and chromium(VI) (0.16–4.09 mg/kg) which are detected in almost all tattoo inks. When compared to the new concentration limits outlined in REACH, it is clear that a significant part of these contaminants would be considered non-compliant. However, the results of the review are limited due to the lack of quantitative data on contaminants in tattoo inks. In addition, the future implementation of REACH is expected to lead to changes in the composition of tattoo inks, which will affect the presence of contaminants. Full article
17 pages, 2418 KiB  
Article
On the Path to Sustainable Cosmetics: Development of a Value-Added Formulation of Solid Shampoo Incorporating Mango Peel Extract
Cosmetics 2023, 10(5), 140; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics10050140 - 03 Oct 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 3107
Abstract
The excessive use of water and plastic packaging in the cosmetic industry imposes the need to develop sustainable alternatives. Moreover, agricultural by-products are reported in the literature to be rich in bioactive properties, namely high antioxidant capacity, suggesting their potential use in cosmetic [...] Read more.
The excessive use of water and plastic packaging in the cosmetic industry imposes the need to develop sustainable alternatives. Moreover, agricultural by-products are reported in the literature to be rich in bioactive properties, namely high antioxidant capacity, suggesting their potential use in cosmetic formulations as substitutes for commercial additives. The aim of this work was the development of a sustainable formulation of solid shampoo, incorporating extracts from mango peel as antioxidants. The characterization of the extracts revealed the presence of several phenolic compounds and a strong antioxidant capacity. Six formulations of solid shampoo were produced by varying the quantity of the additives: tocopherol and butylated hydroxytoluene, used as positive controls, and mango peel (MP) extract. The antioxidant capacity assays demonstrated that the MP extract increased the antioxidant activity of the shampoos, in comparison to the positive controls and the stability tests revealed that the MP extract is a stable ingredient. Hence, it was concluded that the MP extract is a strong source of antioxidants with the potential to replace commercial antioxidants in cosmetics. Thus, it was possible to develop a value-added formulation of solid shampoo, eliminating the use of water and plastic for the packaging, and reusing waste from the food sector. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Practices in the Life Cycle of Cosmetic Products)
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51 pages, 858 KiB  
Review
Towards Sustainable Color Cosmetics Packaging
Cosmetics 2023, 10(5), 139; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics10050139 - 02 Oct 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 5397
Abstract
In spite of the significant progress towards sustainable cosmetics, mass-produced sustainable packaging has proven to be a challenge. The complexity of environmental, economic, social, technological, and policy considerations in conjunction with varying consumer behaviors and corporate goals can make it difficult to select [...] Read more.
In spite of the significant progress towards sustainable cosmetics, mass-produced sustainable packaging has proven to be a challenge. The complexity of environmental, economic, social, technological, and policy considerations in conjunction with varying consumer behaviors and corporate goals can make it difficult to select an optimal strategy across heterogeneous supply chain components spread over the globe, and the cost and effort of developing, testing, and validating alternative strategies discourages empirical exploration of potential alternatives. This review discusses the challenges that can be expected in the context of broader sustainability efforts, as well as the experience gained in related fields, such as sustainable cosmetics and sustainable packaging, to identify potential pitfalls as well as promising trends towards the development of sustainable color cosmetics packaging. The findings suggest there may be little to be gained from attempting to induce customers to change their behavior, waiting for a significant increase in global recycling infrastructure, or expecting regulatory constraints to substitute for the lack of technological and business solutions. A research strategy is delineated towards the development of sustainable packaging that, with appropriate policy support, could minimize externalities and provide mass-produced packaging that is acceptable to both consumers and producers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Cosmetic Sciences: Sustainability in Materials and Processes)
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13 pages, 1539 KiB  
Communication
Efficacy of a Novel SPF Booster Based on Research Aboard the International Space Station
Cosmetics 2023, 10(5), 138; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics10050138 - 02 Oct 2023
Viewed by 1848
Abstract
The use of sunscreen is the most effective way to minimize sun damage to the skin. Excessive UV exposure is linked to an increased risk of melanoma and accelerated skin aging. Currently, approved UV filters fall into two categories: chemical- or mineral-based filters. [...] Read more.
The use of sunscreen is the most effective way to minimize sun damage to the skin. Excessive UV exposure is linked to an increased risk of melanoma and accelerated skin aging. Currently, approved UV filters fall into two categories: chemical- or mineral-based filters. Besides approved filters, there are numerous SPF-boosting additives that can be added to sunscreen products to enhance their efficacy. This manuscript shows the potential application of the novel SPF booster, Bacillus Lysate, developed from Bacillus pumilus PTA-126909, which was derived from research aboard the International Space Station. The addition of the 3.5%, 7%, or 10% Bacillus Lysate resulted in a 33%, 29%, and 22% boost in the SPF values of an SPF 30 sunscreen, respectively. The potential use of extremophiles and their byproducts, like the Bacillus Lysate presented here, may be a promising alternative SPF booster for the sunscreen industry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Compounds From Natural Resources Against Skin Aging)
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15 pages, 1997 KiB  
Article
Effect of Phenolic Compounds Extracted from Turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) and Ginger (Zingiber officinale) on Cutaneous Wound Healing in Wistar Rats
Cosmetics 2023, 10(5), 137; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics10050137 - 02 Oct 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1843
Abstract
Turmeric and ginger, widely used rhizomes in culinary arts, have several beneficial biological activities, such as hypoglycemic, hepato-protective, antimicrobial, and antioxidant properties. This work investigated the effects of three phenolic extracts isolated from turmeric and ginger rhizomes on anti-inflammatory and healing properties using [...] Read more.
Turmeric and ginger, widely used rhizomes in culinary arts, have several beneficial biological activities, such as hypoglycemic, hepato-protective, antimicrobial, and antioxidant properties. This work investigated the effects of three phenolic extracts isolated from turmeric and ginger rhizomes on anti-inflammatory and healing properties using the solid–liquid extraction method. Wistar rats were used as a biological model. The anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated on induced edema in the rat’s hind paw using carrageenan (1%). Paw volume was measured at 0 min, 45 min, 3 h, and 5 h. Treatment with turmeric and ginger extracts, administered at a dose of 100 mg/kg, revealed a reduction in edema volume by 98.8%, 94.8%, and 98.3% using an aqueous extract of turmeric, ethanolic extract of turmeric, and methanolic extract of ginger, respectively. The healing activity parameters of induced burns on the rat’s dorsal region in nine groups (7 rats each) were monitored daily throughout the experiment’s duration. Results showed that the application of creams composed of petroleum jelly dispersing turmeric and ginger extracts to wounds at a dose of 100 mg/kg g induced complete healing after 19 days while the negative control was only 60% cured. On day 14, the aqueous, ethanolic, and methanolic turmeric extracts nearly resulted in complete tissue repair by 95.26%, 98.34%, and 87.39%, respectively. According to the chromatographic analysis (Sephadex G50 column), there is a variation in the molecular weight distribution of phenolic compounds (polymers, oligomers, and monomers) in the three studied extracts, which has a differential effect on the anti-inflammatory and wound healing activities of the extracts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2023)
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12 pages, 1948 KiB  
Article
A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Pilot Study to Evaluate the Efficacy and Safety of Latanoprost for Eyelash Growth in Aesthetic Medicine
Cosmetics 2023, 10(5), 136; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics10050136 - 02 Oct 2023
Viewed by 1809
Abstract
Eyelashes, in addition to fulfilling eye-protective functions, generate an aesthetic impact. Latanoprost is a prostaglandin analog, commonly used for the treatment of glaucoma and intraocular hypertension. The side effect reported most often is the stimulation of eyelash growth. The aim of this study [...] Read more.
Eyelashes, in addition to fulfilling eye-protective functions, generate an aesthetic impact. Latanoprost is a prostaglandin analog, commonly used for the treatment of glaucoma and intraocular hypertension. The side effect reported most often is the stimulation of eyelash growth. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of latanoprost in inducing eyelash growth and darkening. Thirty healthy volunteers were recruited in a 3-month, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot study. A transparent eyelash mascara was used as a vehicle. The placebo group (n = 15) received only the vehicle, and the latanoprost group (n = 15) received the vehicle + 0.005% latanoprost. The participants were asked to apply the latanoprost topically to the eyelashes while avoiding entry into the eye, daily at night. The latanoprost group showed a significant increase in eyelash length and color change, while the placebo group maintained eyelash length and color throughout the study. The intraocular pressures of all the participants were maintained in normal ranges (10–20 mmHg). Topical application of both the placebo and the latanoprost medications was well tolerated; none of the participants withdrew, generated side effects, or developed any ophthalmic pathology. In conclusion, latanoprost is effective and safe to stimulate the growth of eyelashes. Full article
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11 pages, 887 KiB  
Article
Effects of Dietary Bacillus natto Productive Protein on the Skin: In Vitro Efficacy Test and Single-Armed Trial
Cosmetics 2023, 10(5), 135; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics10050135 - 25 Sep 2023
Viewed by 1616
Abstract
The dietary bacillus natto productive protein (BNPP) is a functional food ingredient that contains Bacillopeptidase F. BNPP is reported to improve blood flow. Based on previous research, we investigated the effect of BNPP on the skin. In vitro tests were performed to evaluate [...] Read more.
The dietary bacillus natto productive protein (BNPP) is a functional food ingredient that contains Bacillopeptidase F. BNPP is reported to improve blood flow. Based on previous research, we investigated the effect of BNPP on the skin. In vitro tests were performed to evaluate BNPP for its inhibitory effects on tyrosinase, elastase, and active oxygen (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH)) radical scavenging activities. In addition, a small-scale, single-armed trial of 15 female participants aged 40–65 years were conducted to assess the effects on human skin of BNPP, administered 250 mg/day orally, for 6 weeks. The beneficial effects of BNPP on the skin were shown by the evaluation of the tyrosinase inhibitory (0.01% and 0.1%), elastase inhibitory (0.00001% to 0.001%), and DPPH radical scavenging (1% and 10%) activities. In addition, the results suggested that the oral administration of BNPP may significantly enhance skin rosiness and also achieve significant improvement in skin conditions, defined as complexion, skin elasticity and resilience, moist feeling, skin texture, cosmetic adhesion, fine lines, under-eye darkness, eye bags, sagging cheeks, and sagging mouth. Furthermore, to investigate the use of BNPP as cosmetics, a skin irritation study was conducted using a cultured human skin model. The results showed that BNPP is non-irritant. In addition, to confirm the stability of BNPP, the quality of BNPP at the time of manufacture and three years and six months after manufacture was examined. The results showed no quality problems. These results suggest that the BNPP could be used as cosmetic purposes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Compounds From Natural Resources Against Skin Aging)
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14 pages, 1364 KiB  
Review
Work-Related Hand Eczema in Healthcare Workers: Etiopathogenic Factors, Clinical Features, and Skin Care
Cosmetics 2023, 10(5), 134; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics10050134 - 25 Sep 2023
Viewed by 1746
Abstract
Work-related skin conditions, including work-related irritant and allergic contact dermatitis, rank as the second most prevalent among work-related diseases. The most commonly reported manifestation of these conditions is hand eczema, which develops due to exposure to various substances in the workplace. Understanding the [...] Read more.
Work-related skin conditions, including work-related irritant and allergic contact dermatitis, rank as the second most prevalent among work-related diseases. The most commonly reported manifestation of these conditions is hand eczema, which develops due to exposure to various substances in the workplace. Understanding the origins and triggers of eczema and contact dermatitis enables healthcare professionals to educate themselves and their patients about effective preventive measures, such as avoiding specific irritants and allergens, using protective equipment, and maintaining proper skincare hygiene. Additionally, this knowledge facilitates the development of new recommendations to enhance skin protection in work-related settings, regulate the use of substances known to cause work-related skin diseases, and provide healthcare practitioners with the necessary training to recognize and manage these conditions. Given that approximately one in every five healthcare workers is considered to have hand eczema, the objective of this study was to review the existing literature regarding the characteristics of eczema in healthcare workers. Furthermore, this study aimed to comprehensively investigate environmental and constitutional factors (including years of work experience involving exposure to skin hazards, frequent glove use, regular handwashing and water contact, frequent use of disinfectants and detergents, and a history of previous allergies and atopic dermatitis) that influence the occurrence and progression of eczema. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2023)
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14 pages, 1744 KiB  
Article
Development and Clinical Efficacy Evaluation of Facial Toner Containing Houttuynia cordata Thunb
Cosmetics 2023, 10(5), 133; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics10050133 - 21 Sep 2023
Viewed by 2671
Abstract
The goal of this research was to develop a reliable oil-controlling toner for facial skin with a natural product, Houttuynia cordata Thunb extract (HCE). The developed HCE facial toner showed high stability and had a high satisfaction level. Clinical studies revealed that the [...] Read more.
The goal of this research was to develop a reliable oil-controlling toner for facial skin with a natural product, Houttuynia cordata Thunb extract (HCE). The developed HCE facial toner showed high stability and had a high satisfaction level. Clinical studies revealed that the sebum value of the skin after using the developed HCE toner for eight weeks decreased (4.6-times lower), which was statistically significant (p-value < 0.05) when compared to the HCE-free toner. The sebum amount on the facial skin after using the HCE toner decreased by approximately two-times compared to the HCE-free toner. In addition, the skin moisture content increased statistically significantly (p-value < 0.05) from the eighth week of treatment compared to the HCE-free toner and was 1.5- and 1.4-times higher for the left and right cheeks, respectively. The average moisture content of the facial skin treated with the HCE toner increased by 2- and 1.4-times compared to the treatment with the HCE-free toner for the left and right cheeks, respectively. Consequently, the HCE toner had anti-sebum and moisturizing efficacy, and the increased reliability of the natural product meant that it could soon be a premium commercial product. Full article
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22 pages, 3089 KiB  
Article
Sustainability by Reduced Energy Consumption during Manufacturing: The Case of Cosmetic Emulsions
Cosmetics 2023, 10(5), 132; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics10050132 - 20 Sep 2023
Viewed by 2088
Abstract
Energy input in emulsion manufacturing comprises thermal and mechanical energy, with thermal energy being predominant. In terms of raw material selection, there is a widely accepted belief that natural formulations are more “eco-friendly” than their standard (not natural) counterparts. The aim of this [...] Read more.
Energy input in emulsion manufacturing comprises thermal and mechanical energy, with thermal energy being predominant. In terms of raw material selection, there is a widely accepted belief that natural formulations are more “eco-friendly” than their standard (not natural) counterparts. The aim of this study was to compare the energy consumption and subsequent carbon footprint resulting from the production of two main emulsion types, each represented by its standard and natural variant and made by using different manufacturing processes (hot, hot-cold and cold). This resulted in six samples of oil-in-water (O/W) and water-in-oil (W/O) emulsion types, respectively. Scale-down calculations were used to establish the required homogenisation time and speed of the laboratory homogeniser, necessary to achieve the same shear rates as the chosen industrial vessel. The resulting emulsions were characterised using rheological and textural analysis. The six emulsions within each emulsion type have exhibited sufficiently similar characteristics for the purpose of carbon footprint comparisons. Calculations were conducted to quantify the energy input of hot and hot-cold procedures, followed by cradle-to-gate life cycle analysis (LCA). Energy calculations demonstrated that the hot-cold manufacturing process saved approximately 82% (for O/W) and 86% (for W/O) of thermal energy in comparison to the hot process. LCA has shown that the effects of using natural instead of standard ingredients were negative, i.e., it led to a higher carbon footprint. However, it was dwarfed by the effect of the energy used, specifically thermal energy during manufacturing. This strongly indicates that the most efficient way for companies to reduce their carbon footprint is to use the hot-cold emulsification process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2023)
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12 pages, 726 KiB  
Review
Topical AHA in Dermatology: Formulations, Mechanisms of Action, Efficacy, and Future Perspectives
Cosmetics 2023, 10(5), 131; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics10050131 - 19 Sep 2023
Viewed by 5187
Abstract
The utilization of topical formulations containing alpha hydroxy acids (AHAs) has garnered considerable attention. This review summarizes the effectiveness of the most common topical AHA formulations, including mechanisms of action and future research directions. AHAs have a dramatic impact on diverse skin conditions, [...] Read more.
The utilization of topical formulations containing alpha hydroxy acids (AHAs) has garnered considerable attention. This review summarizes the effectiveness of the most common topical AHA formulations, including mechanisms of action and future research directions. AHAs have a dramatic impact on diverse skin conditions, enhancing texture and stimulating collagen synthesis. Uncertainties persist regarding optimal concentration, pH, and vehicle for maximum efficacy. Advancements in formulation technologies offer opportunities for AHA penetration and stability. Understanding mechanisms is vital for skincare optimization. The review covers AHAs, their concentrations, formulation considerations, safety measures, and future directions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2023)
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27 pages, 4362 KiB  
Article
Psychobiotics-like Activity as a Novel Treatment against Dry Scalp Related-White Flakes Production with Pogostemon cablin Leaf Extract
Cosmetics 2023, 10(5), 130; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics10050130 - 15 Sep 2023
Viewed by 1522
Abstract
Microbiome supplementation initially targeted the gut microbiota but has since been extended to the skin. A new category, psychobiotics, defined beneficial compounds with a positive action on microbiota, providing benefits to the host’s mental health. Pogostemon cablin leaf extract, proven to alleviate scalp [...] Read more.
Microbiome supplementation initially targeted the gut microbiota but has since been extended to the skin. A new category, psychobiotics, defined beneficial compounds with a positive action on microbiota, providing benefits to the host’s mental health. Pogostemon cablin leaf extract, proven to alleviate scalp dryness, was clinically evaluated on volunteers presenting dry scalp with flakes. A metagenomics study and sebum production analysis were performed, coupled to flakes scoring. The benefits of Pogostemon cablin leaf extract on emotions were assessed through three neuroscientific methods. Through this study, we proved that the skin microbiota of dry scalp was imbalanced, with increased alpha diversity and decreased Cutibacterium relative abundance compared to oilier skin. After applying our ingredient for one month, microbiota was rebalanced with a decrease in alpha diversity and increase in Cutibacterium relative abundance compared to the initial profile. Microbiota rebalancing led to an increase in scalp sebum and decrease in dry flakes compared to the start of the study. This global rebalancing improved the emotional state of people with scalp dryness who expressed more positive emotions after treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2023)
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11 pages, 675 KiB  
Systematic Review
Cannabinoids for the Treatment of Hair, Scalp, and Skin Disorders: A Systematic Review
Cosmetics 2023, 10(5), 129; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics10050129 - 15 Sep 2023
Viewed by 2804
Abstract
Cannabinoid products have been studied in the treatment of various dermatologic conditions. We searched PubMed/MEDLINE for articles published before 1 February 2023 that described the use of cannabinoids in the management of hair, scalp, and skin conditions, identifying 18 original articles that encompassed [...] Read more.
Cannabinoid products have been studied in the treatment of various dermatologic conditions. We searched PubMed/MEDLINE for articles published before 1 February 2023 that described the use of cannabinoids in the management of hair, scalp, and skin conditions, identifying 18 original articles that encompassed 1090 patients who used various forms of cannabinoid products. Where specified, topical cannabidiol (CBD) was the most commonly utilized treatment (64.3%, 173/269), followed by oral dronabinol (14.4%, 39/269), oral lenabasum (14.1%, 38/269), and oral hempseed oil (5.9%, 16/269). Using the GRADE approach, we found moderate-quality evidence supporting the efficacy of cannabinoid products in managing atopic dermatitis, dermatomyositis, psoriasis, and systemic sclerosis and moderate-quality evidence supporting a lack of efficacy in treating trichotillomania. There was low to very low quality evidence supporting the efficacy of cannabinoid products in managing alopecia areata, epidermolysis bullosa, hyperhidrosis, seborrheic dermatitis, and pruritus. Our findings suggest that cannabinoids may have efficacy in managing symptoms of certain inflammatory dermatologic conditions. However, the evidence is still limited, and there is no standardized dosage or route of administration for these products. Large randomized controlled trials and further studies with standardized treatment regimens are necessary to better understand the safety and efficacy of cannabinoids. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2023)
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17 pages, 2586 KiB  
Article
Effect of the Hypoxic Chamber Training Series on Skin Characteristics of Overweight and Obese Women
Cosmetics 2023, 10(5), 128; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics10050128 - 14 Sep 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1162
Abstract
Obesity is a disease of civilization. The COVID-19 pandemic has caused an increase in its incidence; therefore, there is an increasing emphasis on programs aimed at improving body composition, often through physical activity. Various modifications to training interventions are being introduced, including the [...] Read more.
Obesity is a disease of civilization. The COVID-19 pandemic has caused an increase in its incidence; therefore, there is an increasing emphasis on programs aimed at improving body composition, often through physical activity. Various modifications to training interventions are being introduced, including the modification of the thermo-climatic conditions of the training. However, to date, whether such a modification is safe for the skin has not been studied. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of a series of workouts in a hypoxic chamber on skin characteristics such as elasticity, hydration, and transepidermal water loss (TEWL). Women who were overweight or obese were invited to participate in the project. The workouts took place in a hypoxic chamber where conditions were mimicked at 2500 m, three times a week for a period of four weeks, for 60 min each. Finally, the results from 11 women in the study group and 9 in the control group were included in the analysis. Body composition analysis was performed, and venous blood was drawn (morphology and lipidogram). No statistically significant changes in skin firmness or the amount of TEWL were observed in the subjects. An increase in skin hydration on the hand was observed only after the first workout (p = 0.046), while skin hydration on the mandible did not change. A significant reduction in body weight (p = 0.042), BMI (p = 0.045), and TBW (p = 0.017) was indicated in the study group. The control group showed an increase in BMI (p = 0.045) and VFA (p = 0.042). There was no correlation between measured skin characteristics and body composition indices or the results of blood indices. A correlation was observed between TEWL and lipidogram results. Training under hypoxic conditions does not affect skin features in overweight and obese women. Even a significant reduction in TBW did not result in a decrease in hydration. It was also shown that the proper barrier function of the skin is closely dependent on the serum lipid profile. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2023)
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14 pages, 943 KiB  
Review
Applications of Beehive Products for Wound Repair and Skin Care
Cosmetics 2023, 10(5), 127; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics10050127 - 14 Sep 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2361
Abstract
There is a long and interesting history between honeybees and humans. From the beginning, honey has been utilized not only as a sweetener, but also as an ointment and a drug to treat several diseases. Until the discovery of antibiotics, honey was a [...] Read more.
There is a long and interesting history between honeybees and humans. From the beginning, honey has been utilized not only as a sweetener, but also as an ointment and a drug to treat several diseases. Until the discovery of antibiotics, honey was a very popular product used to protect and preserve skin and promote wound healing, to counteract gastrointestinal pains and disorders of the oral cavity, and for other diseases. After the development of antibiotic resistance, honey again gained interest for its use in wound management. Subsequently, more recently, in vitro and in vivo studies have displayed antimicrobial, antioxidant, and other effects of honey and honeybee products, as well as protection of cardiovascular, respiratory, nervous, and gastrointestinal systems. Moreover, recent studies have demonstrated that beehive products are also able to influence the phenotype of skin cells, such as keratinocytes, fibroblasts, and endothelial cells, involved in correct wound healing. This review will characterize the great potential of honeybee products in the field of health and skin care, considering that honey is a virtually inexhaustible natural resource which people, as bees have been domesticated over the centuries, can freely access. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2023)
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12 pages, 1433 KiB  
Article
Sequential and Combined Efficacious Management of Auricular Keloid: A Novel Treatment Protocol Employing Ablative CO2 and Dye Laser Therapy—An Advanced Single-Center Clinical Investigation
Cosmetics 2023, 10(5), 126; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics10050126 - 08 Sep 2023
Viewed by 1266
Abstract
Auricular keloids pose significant aesthetic and functional challenges, and traditional treatments often fall short in addressing these issues. Our study presents an innovative combined approach of ablative CO2 and dye laser therapy for improved keloid management. This treatment protocol was applied to [...] Read more.
Auricular keloids pose significant aesthetic and functional challenges, and traditional treatments often fall short in addressing these issues. Our study presents an innovative combined approach of ablative CO2 and dye laser therapy for improved keloid management. This treatment protocol was applied to 15 patients with auricular keloids after an initial multispectral analysis to assess keloid composition. The laser sequence was tailored per patient based on this analysis. Evaluations using the Vancouver Scar Scale and Patient and Observer Scar Assessment Scale were carried out at baseline and at 3-week intervals post-treatment. The results showed a significant reduction in these scores at the final follow-up (p < 0.05), suggesting improvements in keloid color, texture, and pliability, with minimal adverse events. Additionally, no recurrence of keloids was observed. Our findings indicate that this novel methodology of multispectral analysis followed by tailored laser therapy may offer a safe and effective solution for auricular keloids, promising enhanced keloid treatment and prevention of recurrence. However, further investigations, including randomized controlled trials, are needed to confirm and optimize this treatment protocol. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2023)
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13 pages, 1216 KiB  
Article
The Antibacterial Potential of Essential Oils of Oral Care Thai Herbs against Streptococcus mutans and Solobacterium moorei—In Vitro Approach
Cosmetics 2023, 10(5), 125; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics10050125 - 07 Sep 2023
Viewed by 1632
Abstract
Oral malodor, often known as halitosis, is an irritating breath odor that originates in the mouth and can cause significant psychological and social distress. Chlorhexidine, a powerful antimicrobial agent effective against bacteria and fungi, has become the standard treatment for halitosis. However, it [...] Read more.
Oral malodor, often known as halitosis, is an irritating breath odor that originates in the mouth and can cause significant psychological and social distress. Chlorhexidine, a powerful antimicrobial agent effective against bacteria and fungi, has become the standard treatment for halitosis. However, it has drawbacks including altered taste perception, dry mouth, and more noticeable dental staining. The use of natural essential oils to avoid these unwanted effects has proven to be an attractive strategy. This study aims to evaluate the potential of four essential oils consisting of Ma-kwean fruit (Zanthoxylum limonella, MK), clove bud (Syzygium aromaticum, CV), star anise fruit (Illicium verum, SA) and cinnamon bark (Cinnamomum aromaticum, CM) for the purpose of combating bad breath by assessing their antibacterial efficacy against halitosis-associated bacteria (Streptococcus mutans and Solobacterium moorei). The hydro-distillation process was used to prepare the essential oils, which were obtained as yellowish to colorless liquids with yields of 6.58 ± 0.81, 12.21 ± 2.98, 4.29 ± 0.15 and 1.26 ± 0.09% for MK, CV, SA and CM, respectively. The terpenoid compounds terpinene-4-ol (47.04%), limonene (17.19%), sabinene (13.27%) and alpha-terpineol (6.05%) were found as the main components in MK essential oil, while phenylpropanoids were identified as the primary components of other essential oils, namely trans-cinnamaldehyde (83.60%), eugenol (83.59%) and anethol (90.58%) were identified as the primary components of CM, CV and SA essential oils, respectively. For the antibacterial properties, the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) values were investigated. CM essential oil exhibited the greatest capacity to inhibit growth and eradicate S. mutans, with MIC and MBC values of 0.039%, followed by CV (MIC of 0.078% and MBC of 0.156%) and MK (MIC and MBC of 0.156%), whereas the MIC of SA was 1.250% without eradication. Both CM and CV essential oils demonstrated exceptional efficacy against S. moorei, with MIC and MBC values of 0.019% and 0.033%, respectively. Furthermore, the inhibition of S. moorei biofilm formation was investigated and we discovered that the lowest effective concentration necessary to eliminate the S. moorei biofilm was one quarter of the MIC for MK, CM and CV, while that for SA essential oil was half of the MIC. These encouraging results suggest that the incorporation of MK, CM and CV essential oils into oral care products could potentially enhance their efficacy in halitosis treatment. Full article
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14 pages, 1615 KiB  
Article
Antioxidant Profile of Origanum dictamnus L. Exhibits Antiaging Properties against UVA Irradiation
Cosmetics 2023, 10(5), 124; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics10050124 - 06 Sep 2023
Viewed by 1560
Abstract
Skin aging mainly occurs due to intrinsic and extrinsic factors. Extrinsic aging is a consequence of exposure to ultraviolet radiation. Meanwhile, natural products exhibit protective properties against skin aging as well as photoaging. In this context, the research on natural anti-aging agents is [...] Read more.
Skin aging mainly occurs due to intrinsic and extrinsic factors. Extrinsic aging is a consequence of exposure to ultraviolet radiation. Meanwhile, natural products exhibit protective properties against skin aging as well as photoaging. In this context, the research on natural anti-aging agents is greatly advanced, and in recent years, numerous plant-based products have been investigated. The aim of this study was to assess the antioxidant profile of Origanum dictamnus L. extract as well as its antiaging effects on 2D cultures of fibroblasts and keratinocytes under UVA irradiation to unravel the potential role of Origanum dictamnus L. in cosmetology. In an attempt to explore the antioxidant profile of the extract, we employed well-established enzymatic assays (DPPH, FRAP, ABTS, and TPC) and a phytochemical screening by LC/MS. According to our findings, the Origanum dictamnus L. extract possesses high scavenging activity (DPPH, ABTS), high phenolic content (TPC), and high Fe(III)-reduction activity (FRAP). Moreover, the LC/MS analysis revealed that the extract was rich in flavonoids, holding a high content of curcumin, kampferol, silymarin, cyanidin-3-glucoside, deosmin, rutin, and quercetin. To gain insight into the bioactivity of Origanum dictamnus L. extract in cell aging, the expression of various genes that are implicated in the skin aging process in keratinocytes and fibroblasts was studied. The gene expression analysis revealed that the extract increases cell proliferation in the cells exposed to UVA irradiation and concomitantly modulates the expression of genes related to the aging process in keratinocytes (KLK7, OCLN, GBA1) and fibroblasts (SIRT2, FOXO3, COL3A1) under the same conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Compounds From Natural Resources Against Skin Aging)
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12 pages, 3466 KiB  
Article
Effect of Incorporating a Biowax Derived from Hydroprocessing of Crude Palm Oil in a Facial Cream and a Blemish Balm Cream
Cosmetics 2023, 10(5), 123; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics10050123 - 05 Sep 2023
Viewed by 1329
Abstract
Most waxes used as cosmetic ingredients are derived from the petrochemical industry. A modern alternative to this complex synthesis approach is the hydrotreatment of palm oil; thus, the aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of incorporating a biowax derived from [...] Read more.
Most waxes used as cosmetic ingredients are derived from the petrochemical industry. A modern alternative to this complex synthesis approach is the hydrotreatment of palm oil; thus, the aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of incorporating a biowax derived from hydroprocessing of crude palm oil as a new natural cosmetic ingredient in facial cream and BB cream. Therefore, two water in oil (W/O) emulsions, one including pigments, with five different weight percentages were developed and subjected to further sensory evaluation by a trained panel to estimate the level of acceptance. Moreover, resistance to centrifugation, pH, spreadability, phase separation, viscosity and storage modulus were the parameters evaluated in a preliminary stability study using thermal stress. Sensory analysis showed that the highest level of acceptance was obtained between 3% and 9 wt% biowax. For both prototypes, increasing biowax percentage led to a greater effect on stickiness, the viscosity increased, and extensibility decreased. The formulations were able to maintain their pH. The best stability for BB cream was observed at 9%, since the changes in the properties were slight. For facial cream, the emulsion was more stable at intermediate biowax content. It was observed that biowax exhibits favorable characteristics as an emollient or thickening agent. Finally, the formulations with the best stability and sensory characteristics were obtained at 9 wt% biowax. Full article
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16 pages, 494 KiB  
Systematic Review
Laser-Assisted Drug Delivery on the Face: A Systematic Review of Indications and Outcomes
Cosmetics 2023, 10(5), 122; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics10050122 - 31 Aug 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1307
Abstract
Laser-assisted drug delivery (LADD) has gained prominence as a promising technique with the potential to enhance topical drug skin penetration and absorption. However, the effectiveness of various laser-assisted facial procedures remains unclear. This systematic review aimed to explore and summarize the evidence regarding [...] Read more.
Laser-assisted drug delivery (LADD) has gained prominence as a promising technique with the potential to enhance topical drug skin penetration and absorption. However, the effectiveness of various laser-assisted facial procedures remains unclear. This systematic review aimed to explore and summarize the evidence regarding the indications, clinical outcomes, and adverse effects of LADD performed on the face. Based on a predetermined protocol, an electronic search in MEDLINE, Scopus, the Cochrane Library, and CENTRAL electronic databases was conducted. Eligible studies comprised prospective controlled trials that explored the utility of laser-assisted techniques for topical medication facial application and reported on efficacy and/or safety. Secondary outcomes encompassed patient satisfaction. This review included 12 prospective controlled studies involving a total of 271 participants. LADD, through various laser types, topical medications, clinical protocols, and follow-up assessments, showed enhanced melasma, facial rejuvenation, scar, and periprocedural laser outcomes without increased risk of adverse effects. This review provides evidence that LADD is an effective and safe adjunct for various facial procedures. It also highlights the necessity for further high-quality studies with larger sample sizes, standardized treatment protocols, and evaluation of long-term outcomes and adverse effects in order to elucidate the potential of laser-assisted drug delivery. Full article
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13 pages, 3020 KiB  
Article
Exploring the Biological Functions and Anti-Melanogenesis of Phallus indusiatus for Mushroom-Based Cosmetic Applications
Cosmetics 2023, 10(5), 121; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics10050121 - 29 Aug 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2197
Abstract
Phallus indusiatus, or bamboo mushroom, has been reported for its nutraceutical properties, while its cosmeceutical properties remain unclear. In this study, we conducted extractions of whole, fresh P. indusiatus using both aqueous and ethanolic methods. Among the extracts, ultrasonic-assisted extraction method with [...] Read more.
Phallus indusiatus, or bamboo mushroom, has been reported for its nutraceutical properties, while its cosmeceutical properties remain unclear. In this study, we conducted extractions of whole, fresh P. indusiatus using both aqueous and ethanolic methods. Among the extracts, ultrasonic-assisted extraction method with DI showed the highest antioxidant activity compared to the others. For cosmeceutical assessment, we evaluated the extracts’ inhibitory effects against ECM-degrading enzymes and found that they exhibited a modest inhibitory effect of approximately 50%. Remarkably, ultrasonic-assisted extraction with DI demonstrated promising cosmeceutical properties. Additionally, pressure-assisted extraction with DI showed a potentially protective effect against H2O2-induced DNA damage. To investigate the anti-melanogenic effect on MNT-1 cells, we treated them with the extracts and observed a significant decrease in cellular tyrosinase activity under α-MSH stimulation. This resulted in a relative reduction in melanin content. Notably, autoclaving extraction exhibited a significantly greater anti-melanogenic effect than the other extracts at the lowest concentration tested. Furthermore, the extracts demonstrated a reduction in NO production under LPS-induced inflammation. Hot water extraction with DI and ethanol exhibited a stronger anti-inflammatory effect compared to diclofenac, without any cytotoxicity. These findings highlight the hidden cosmeceutical properties of P. indusiatus and suggest its potential use as a bioactive ingredient in cosmetic formulations. Full article
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13 pages, 1885 KiB  
Review
Carotenoids and Dermoaesthetic Benefits: Public Health Implications
Cosmetics 2023, 10(5), 120; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics10050120 - 28 Aug 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1799
Abstract
Food technology, health, nutrition, dermatology, and aesthetics have focused on colorless carotenoids. Carotenoids are readily bioavailable and have demonstrated various health-promoting actions. This article reviews the recent literature concerning carotenoids with the aim to systematize the scattered knowledge on carotenoids and aesthetics. The [...] Read more.
Food technology, health, nutrition, dermatology, and aesthetics have focused on colorless carotenoids. Carotenoids are readily bioavailable and have demonstrated various health-promoting actions. This article reviews the recent literature concerning carotenoids with the aim to systematize the scattered knowledge on carotenoids and aesthetics. The applications of carotenoids in health-promoting and nutrient products and their potential health effects are discussed. The carotenoids, particularly phytoene and phytofluene, have the unique ability to absorb ultraviolet radiation. Their distinct structures and properties, oxidation sensitivity, stiffness, aggregation tendency, and even fluorescence in the case of phytofluene, contribute to their potential benefits. A diet rich in carotenoid-containing products can positively impact skin health, overall well-being, and the prevention of various diseases. Future studies should focus on generating more data about phytoene and phytofluene levels in the skin to accurately assess skin carotenoid status. This expanding area of research holds promise for the development of novel applications in the fields of health and cosmetics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2023)
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14 pages, 1209 KiB  
Article
Reporting Quality of Randomized Controlled Trial Abstracts on Aesthetic Use of Botulinum Toxin: How Much Do Abstracts Actually Tell Us?
Cosmetics 2023, 10(5), 119; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics10050119 - 23 Aug 2023
Viewed by 1192
Abstract
Botulinum toxin use has become the most commonly performed aesthetic procedure among individuals of all age groups, encompassing both women and men. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) provide the highest level of evidence and quality reporting of their abstracts plays a significant role for [...] Read more.
Botulinum toxin use has become the most commonly performed aesthetic procedure among individuals of all age groups, encompassing both women and men. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) provide the highest level of evidence and quality reporting of their abstracts plays a significant role for health professionals, influencing their decision-making in patient management. Therefore, our study aimed to assess the reporting quality of published RCT abstracts for botulinum toxin aesthetic use in the head area. The CONSORT-A checklist with 17 items was used to assess the quality of reporting. All available RCT abstracts (N = 191) found by searching the Medline database that were published up until June 2023 were included in this study. The average reporting rate was 52.9%. General items were inadequately reported (30.9%), with few abstracts describing the trial design. The methods section was better reported (62.0%), with interventions, objectives, and outcomes properly reported in over 97.5% abstracts. The results section (56.9%) demonstrated good reporting of randomized participant numbers but limited reporting of primary outcomes and harms. None of the abstracts reported funding sources or randomization information. To enhance the transparency and reliability of RCT results, abstracts should adhere more rigorously to the CONSORT-A guidelines. Improved reporting in abstracts can facilitate evidence-based decision-making in everyday practice of medical professionals in the field of aesthetic medicine. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2023)
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13 pages, 3166 KiB  
Article
The Method of Studying Cosmetic Creams Based on the Principles of Systems Theory and Mathematical Modeling Techniques
Cosmetics 2023, 10(5), 118; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics10050118 - 23 Aug 2023
Viewed by 1214
Abstract
This paper reviews research on some cosmetic creams considered “distributed parameters systems” and on the experimental-computational mathematical models that have been determined for them. The determined models characterize the cosmetic creams in all stages of the manufacturing process, starting with the development of [...] Read more.
This paper reviews research on some cosmetic creams considered “distributed parameters systems” and on the experimental-computational mathematical models that have been determined for them. The determined models characterize the cosmetic creams in all stages of the manufacturing process, starting with the development of recipes, the description of raw materials, manufacturing technologies, and the determination of the physico-chemical and microbiological indicators that most strongly influence their quality. This approach suggests the possibility of performing optimization operations, specifically sensitivity analyses, which may lead to the identification of best quality indicators and to the amelioration of negative effects related to disturbance sizes (temperature, pressure, humidity etc.). Five emulsions with different compositions, prepared in vitro according to our own recipes, using raw materials and preparation methods approved for cosmetic products, were studied. Through specific physico-chemical and microbiological analyses, we obtained databases that were processed computationally. The resulting mathematical models, in the form of both graphs and equations, led to important conclusions regarding obtaining high quality in the studied creams and to the confirmation of the usefulness of applying the principles of Systems Theory to the study of cosmetic products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Analytical Methods for Quality Control in Cosmetics)
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