Inventory of Good Practices of Sustainable and Circular Phosphorus Management in the Visegrad Group (V4)
- clarify the importance of the recovery of P raw materials from waste in the context of V4 countries;
- overview of possible sources of P raw materials in V4 countries;
- overview of good examples of sustainable management of P raw materials in V4 countries;
2. Materials and Methods
3.1. Case Study Region
3.2. Primary and Secondary P Raw Materials in V4 Countries
- the maximum depth of deposits documentation is 400 m below the surface,
- the minimum P2O5 content in calcium phosphate-rich nodules is 15%,
- the minimum affluence of calcium phosphate-rich nodules is 1800 kg/.
- 45–55% for wastewater-outflow from the treatment plant,
- 45–50% for sedimentary liquid – leachate,
- 50–60% for dehydrated sewage sludge,
- >90% for sewage sludge ash.
3.3. Good Practices of P Recovery in V4 Countries
3.3.1. Good Practices of P Recovery in Poland
3.3.2. Good Practices of P Recovery in Slovakia
3.3.3. Good Practices of P Recovery in the Czech Republic
3.3.4. Good Practices of P Recovery in HUNGARY
- industrial wastewater,
- industrial waste,
Data Availability Statement
Conflicts of Interest
- Wieczorek, D.; Żyszka-Haberecht, B.; Kafka, A.; Lipok, J. Phosphonates as Unique Components of Plant Seeds—A Promising Approach to Use Phosphorus Profiles in Plant Chemotaxonomy. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22, 11501. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Smol, M.; Adam, C.; Kugler, S.A. Thermochemical Treatment of Sewage Sludge Ash (SSA)—Potential and Perspective in Poland. Energies 2020, 13, 5461. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Smol, M.; Preisner, M.; Bianchini, A.; Rossi, J.; Hermann, L.; Schaaf, T.; Kruopienė, J.; Pamakštys, K.; Klavins, M.; Ozola-Davidane, R.; et al. Strategies for Sustainable and Circular Management of Phosphorus in the Baltic Sea Region: The Holistic Approach of the InPhos Project. Sustainability 2020, 12, 2567. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Yu, H.; Lu, X.; Miki, T.; Matsubae, K.; Sasaki, Y.; Nagasaka, T. Sustainable Phosphorus Supply by Phosphorus Recovery from Steelmaking Slag: A Critical Review. Resour. Conserv. Recycl. 2022, 180, 106203. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Sun, H.; Mohammed, A.N.; Liu, Y. Phosphorus Recovery from Source-Diverted Blackwater through Struvite Precipitation. Sci. Total Environ. 2020, 743, 140747. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- European Commission. Communication from the Commission: On the Review of the List of Critical Raw Materials for the EU and the Implementation of the Raw Materials Initiative; COM No. 297; European Commission: Brussels, Belgium, 2014. [Google Scholar]
- European Commission. Communication from the Commission: On the 2017 List of Critical Raw Materials for the EU; COM No. 490; European Commission: Brussels, Belgium, 2017. [Google Scholar]
- European Commission. Communication from the Commission: Critical Raw Materials Resilience: Charting Path towards Greated Secrity and Sustainability; COM No. 474; European Commission: Brussels, Belgium, 2020. [Google Scholar]
- Akhtar, M.S.; Oki, Y.; Adachi, T. Intraspecific Variations of Phosphorus Absorption and Remobilization, P Forms, and Their Internal Buffering in Brassica Cultivars Exposed to a P-Stressed Environment. J. Integr. Plant Biol. 2008, 50, 703–716. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Fotyma, M.; Igras, J.; Kopiński, J. Production and Environment Conditions of Fertilization Management in Poland (Produkcyjne i Środowiskowe Uwarunkowania Gospodarki Nawozowej w Polsce). Stud. Rap. IUNG-PIB 2009, 14, 187–206. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Czuba, R. Mineral Fertilization of Crops (Nawożenie Mineralne Upraw); Zakłady Chem. “POLICE” S.A.: Puławy, Poland, 1996; Volume 413. [Google Scholar]
- Phosphorus. Available online: www.britannica.com/science/phosphorus-chemical-element (accessed on 21 October 2022).
- European Commission. Communication from the Commission: A Farm to Fork Strategy for a Fair, Healthy and Environmentally-Friendly Food System; COM No. 381; European Commission: Brussels, Belgium, 2020. [Google Scholar]
- Sgroi, F.; Marino, G. Environmental and Digital Innovation in Food: The Role of Digital Food Hubs in the Creation of Sustainable Local Agri-Food Systems. Sci. Total Environ. 2022, 810, 152257. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Peydayesh, M.; Bagnani, M.; Soon, W.L.; Mezzenga, R. Turning Food Protein Waste into Sustainable Technologies. Chem. Rev. 2022. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Kochanek, E. The Role of Hydrogen in the Visegrad Group Approach to Energy Transition. Energies 2022, 15, 7235. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Han, E.; Tan, M.M.J.; Turk, E.; Sridhar, D.; Leung, G.M.; Shibuya, K.; Asgari, N.; Oh, J.; García-Basteiro, A.L.; Hanefeld, J.; et al. Lessons Learnt from Easing COVID-19 Restrictions: An Analysis of Countries and Regions in Asia Pacific and Europe. Lancet 2020, 396, 1525–1534. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Population on 1 January 2022. Available online: https://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/web/products-datasets/-/TPS00001 (accessed on 13 November 2022).
- Main Indicators of the Visegrad Group Countries. Available online: https://stat.gov.pl/statystyka-miedzynarodowa/porownania-miedzynarodowe/publikacje-zawierajace-dane-z-zakresu-porownan-miedzynarodowych/publikacje-biezace/main-indicators-of-the-visegrad-group-countries,3,1.html (accessed on 14 November 2022).
- Rahimpour Golroudbary, S.; El Wali, M.; Kraslawski, A. Rationality of Using Phosphorus Primary and Secondary Sources in Circular Economy: Game-Theory-Based Analysis. Environ. Sci. Policy 2020, 106, 166–176. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Smol, M. Transition to Circular Economy in the Fertilizer Sector—Analysis of Recommended Directions and End-Users’ Perception of Waste-Based Products in Poland. Energies 2021, 14, 4312. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Burkowicz, A.; Galos, K.; Guzik, K.; Kamyk, J.; Kot-Niewiadomska, A.; Lewicka, E.; Smakowski, T.; Szlugaj, J. Minerals Yearbook of Poland 2013; Mineral and Energy Economy Research Institute of the Polish Academy of Sciences, Department of Mineral Policy, Polish Geological Institute—National Research Institute: Warsaw, Poland, 2014; ISBN 978-83-7863-378-5. [Google Scholar]
- Polish Geological Institute—National Research Institute. The Balance of Mineral Resources Deposits in Poland as of 31.12.2021. Available online: http://surowce.pgi.gov.pl (accessed on 10 November 2022).
- Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Available online: https://www.fao.org/faostat/en/#data/RFB (accessed on 10 November 2022).
- Bakalár, T.; Pavolová, H.; Šimková, Z.; Bednárová, L. Phosphorus Management in Slovakia—A Case Study. Sustainability 2022, 14, 10374. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Statistical Office of the Slovak Republic: Phosphorus Export/Import, Livestock Inventory 2010–2019. Available online: http://datacube.statistics.sk (accessed on 11 November 2022).
- Smol, M. The Importance of Sustainable Phosphorus Management in the Circular Economy (CE) Model: The Polish Case Study. J. Mater. Cycles Waste Manag. 2019, 21, 227–238. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Egle, L.; Rechberger, H.; Krampe, J.; Zessner, M. Phosphorus Recovery from Municipal Wastewater: An Integrated Comparative Technological, Environmental and Economic Assessment of P Recovery Technologies. Sci. Total Environ. 2016, 571, 522–542. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Guedes, P.; Couto, N.; Ottosen, L.M.; Ribeiro, A.B. Phosphorus Recovery from Sewage Sludge Ash through an Electrodialytic Process. Waste Manag. 2014, 34, 886–892. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Klem-Marciniak, E.; Hoffmann, K.; Huculak-Wczka, M.; Hoffamann, J.; Makara, A.; Kowalski, Z. Fertilizer Properties of Filter Sludge from Pig Slurry. Przem. Chem. 2015, 94, 2158–2161. [Google Scholar]
- Staron, P.; Banach, M.; Kowalski, Z. Assessment of an Application of Ashes Produced by Incineration of Poultry Industry Waste as a Rich Phosphorus Source. Przem. Chem. 2013, 92, 1142–1144. [Google Scholar]
- Kulczycka, J.; Kowalski, Z.; Smol, M.; Wirth, H. Evaluation of the Recovery of Rare Earth Elements (REE) from Phosphogypsum Waste—Case Study of the WIZÓW Chemical Plant (Poland). J. Clean. Prod. 2016, 113, 345–354. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Johansson, S.; Ruscalleda, M.; Colprim, J. Phosphorus Recovery through Biologically Induced Precipitation by Partial Nitritation-Anammox Granular Biomass. Chem. Eng. J. 2017, 327, 881–888. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Krzywy, E.; Iewska, A.; Włoszczyk, C. Assessment of the Chemical Composition and Fertilizing Value of Sewage Sludge and Composts Produced from Municipal Sewage Sludge (Ocena Składu Chemicznego i Wartosci Nawozowej Osadu Sciekowego Oraz Kompostow Wyprodukowanych z Komunalnego Osadu Sciekow. Zesz. Probl. Postępow Nauk Rol. 2004, 499, 165–171. [Google Scholar]
- Gondek, K.; Filipek-Mazur, B. The Content and Uptake of Micronutrients by Oats under the Conditions of Fertilization with Composts of Various Origins in Terms of Feed Value and Environmental Impact (Zawartosc i Pobranie Mikroelementow Przez Owies w Warunkach Nawozenia Kompostami R. Woda-Srodowisko-Obsz. Wiej. 2005, 1, 81–93. [Google Scholar]
- Poluszunska, J.; Slezak, E. Possibilities of Phosphorus Recovery from Sewage Sludge (Mozliwosci Odzysku Fosforu z Osadow Sciekowych). Pr. Inst. Ceram. Mater. Bud. 2015, 21, 7–21. [Google Scholar]
- Tabatabai, M.A.; Frankenberger, W.T. Variability of Chemical Properties of Sewage Sludges in Iowa. Res. Bull. 1979, 36, 13. [Google Scholar]
- Mattenberger, H.; Fraissler, G.; Brunner, T.; Herk, P.; Hermann, L.; Obernberger, I. Sewage Sludge Ash to Phosphorus Fertiliser: Variables Influencing Heavy Metal Removal during Thermochemical Treatment. Waste Manag. 2008, 28, 2709–2722. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Lynn, C.J.; Dhir, R.K.; Ghataora, G.S.; West, R.P. Sewage Sludge Ash Characteristics and Potential for Use in Concrete. Constr. Build. Mater. 2015, 98, 767–779. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Herzel, H.; Krüger, O.; Hermann, L.; Adam, C. Sewage Sludge Ash—A Promising Secondary Phosphorus Source for Fertilizer Production. Sci. Total Environ. 2016, 542, 1136–1143. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Gondek, K.; Filipek-Mazur, B. Accumulation of Micronutrients in Oat Biomass and Their Availability in Soil Fertilized with Plant Waste Compost (Akumulacja Mikroelementow w Biomasie Owsa Oraz Ich Dostepnosc w Glebie Nawozonej Kompostem z Odpadow Roslinnych). Acta Agrophysica 2006, 8, 579–590. [Google Scholar]
- Marcato, C.; Pinelli, E.; Pouech, P.; Winterton, P.; Guiresse, M. Particle Size and Metal Distributions in Anaerobically Digested Pig Slurry. Bioresour. Technol. 2008, 99, 2340–2348. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Gollehon, N.; Caswell, M.; Ribaudo, M.; Kellogg, R.; Lander, C.; Letson, D. Confined Animal Production and Manure Nutrients; Agriculture Information Bulletin Number 771; United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), Economic Research Service: Washington, DC, USA, 2001. [Google Scholar]
- Risberg, K.; Cederlund, H.; Pell, M.; Arthurson, V.; Schnürer, A. Comparative Characterization of Digestate versus Pig Slurry and Cow Manure—Chemical Composition and Effects on Soil Microbial Activity. Waste Manag. 2017, 61, 529–538. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Halik, J.; Chowaniak, M.; Poczesna, E.; Polak, E. Agrochemical Assessment of the Fertilizing Value of Composts (Agrochemiczna Ocena Wartosci Nawozowej Kompostow). Mater. II Ogolnopolskiej Młodziezowej Konf. Nauk. 2004, 96–100. [Google Scholar]
- Gondek, K. Accumulation of Heavy Metals in Oat Fertilized with Compost (Akumulacja Metali Ciezkich w Owsie Nawozonym Kompostami). Acta Agrophysica 2007, 10, 89–102. [Google Scholar]
- Chiew, Y.L.; Spångberg, J.; Baky, A.; Hansson, P.-A.; Jönsson, H. Environmental Impact of Recycling Digested Food Waste as a Fertilizer in Agriculture—A Case Study. Resour. Conserv. Recycl. 2015, 95, 1–14. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- European Commission. Communication from the Commission: Consultative Communication on the Sustainable Use of Phosphorus; COM No. 517; European Commission: Brussels, Belgium, 2013. [Google Scholar]
- Smol, M.; Adam, C.; Anton Kugler, S. Inventory of Polish Municipal Sewage Sludge Ash (SSA)—Mass Flows, Chemical Composition, and Phosphorus Recovery Potential. Waste Manag. 2020, 116, 31–39. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Smol, M. Phosphorus Extraction and Sludge Dissolution. In Industrial and Municipal Sludge; Elsevier: Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 2019; pp. 657–677. [Google Scholar]
- Eurostat Sewage Sludge Production and Disposal from Urban Wastewater (in Dry Substance (d.s)). Available online: http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/web/products-datasets/-/ten00030 (accessed on 14 November 2022).
- Smol, M. Inventory of Wastes Generated in Polish Sewage Sludge Incineration Plants and Their Possible Circular Management Directions. Resources 2020, 9, 91. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- The Plant in Jarocin Will Produce Agricultural Fertiliser from Sediments. Available online: www.portalkomunalny.pl/oczyszczalnia-w-jarocinie-wyprodukuje-nawoz-rolniczy-z-osadow-374791 (accessed on 6 November 2022).
- Azoty Group Fosfory Sp. z o.O. Available online: www.fosfory.pl (accessed on 6 November 2022).
- Sewage Treatment Plant-Tarnowskie Wodociągi Sp. z o.O. Available online: www.tw.tarnow.pl/new/pliki/10_1.html (accessed on 6 November 2022).
- Project “Sustainable Management of Phosphorus in the Baltic Region (InPhos)”. Available online: www.min-pan.krakow.pl/projekty/en/2019/07/17/english-zrownowazone-zarzadzanie-fosforem-w-regionie-baltyckim/ (accessed on 6 November 2022).
- Project “Market Ready Technologies for P-Recovery from Municipal Wastewater (PhosForce)”. Available online: www.min-pan.krakow.pl/projekty/en/2019/07/17/technologia-odzysku-fosforu-ze-sciekow-komunalnych/ (accessed on 6 November 2022).
- Project “Towards Circular Economy in Wastewater Sector: Knowledge Transfer and Identification of the Recovery Potential for Phosphorus in Poland (CEPhosPOL)”. Available online: www.min-pan.krakow.pl/projekty/en/2019/07/16/program-stypendialny-im-mieczyslawa-bekkera/ (accessed on 6 November 2022).
- Smol, M.; Kulczycka, J.; Lelek, Ł.; Gorazda, K.; Wzorek, Z. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of the Integrated Technology for the Phosphorus Recovery from Sewage Sludge Ash (SSA) and Fertilizers Production. Arch. Environ. Prot. 2020, 46, 42–52. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Duslo, A.S. Available online: https://www.duslo.sk/en/about-us (accessed on 6 November 2022).
- Project “Drinking Water Supply, Sewerage and Wastewater Treatment”. Available online: www.ec.europa.eu/regional_policy/et/projects/major/slovakia/major-water-management-project-makes-waves (accessed on 6 November 2022).
- Chernysh, Y.; Balintova, M.; Plyatsuk, L.; Holub, M.; Demcak, S. The Influence of Phosphogypsum Addition on Phosphorus Release in Biochemical Treatment of Sewage Sludge. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15, 1269. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Czech Phosphorus Platform. Available online: www.fosforovaplatforma.cz/english/ (accessed on 6 November 2022).
- Fosfa, A.S. Available online: www.web.fosfa.cz/en/ (accessed on 6 November 2022).
- Lovochemie, A.S. Available online: www.lovochemie.cz/en (accessed on 6 November 2022).
- Portfolio of Phosphorus Friend in Europe. Available online: https://www.phosv4.eu/project-products/portfolio-of-phosphorus-friends-in-europe-mapping-service (accessed on 12 November 2022).
- Bige Holding Ltd. Available online: www.bigeholding.hu/english/index.html (accessed on 6 November 2022).
- Nitrogénművek Zrt. Available online: www.nitrogen.hu/en (accessed on 6 November 2022).
- Péti Nitrokomplex Ltd. Available online: www.nitrokomplex.hu/24-2/ (accessed on 6 November 2022).
- Nádudvar Agrochemical Ltd. Available online: www.nakft.hu (accessed on 6 November 2022).
- Nzrt-Trade Ltd. Available online: www.genezispartner.com (accessed on 6 November 2022).
Calcium Phosphate-Rich Nodules (%)
|Radom—Dąbrówka Warszawska||>2||16.5||upper series: 317||upper series: 18|
|lower series: 460||lower series: 26|
|Radom—Krogulcza||>2||19.1||upper series: 218||upper series: 12|
|lower series: 504||lower series: 28|
|Radom—Wolanów||>2||15.4||upper series: 170||upper series: 9|
|lower series: 447||lower series: 25|
|Types of Waste||P Concentration [mg/kg]||References|
|Sewage sludge ash||46,200||60,697||127,351||112,425||[37,38,39,40]|
|Compost from plant waste||40,900||89,000||83,000||78,000||[35,45,46,47]|
|Company/Project Name||Description of Good Practices||References|
|Jarocin Waterworks Company||The Jarocin Waterworks Company has signed a contract for carrying out an investment under the project ‘Modernisation and Extension of WWTP Jarocin’. The project includes the implementation of five tasks (with a total value of 60 M EUR), supported by co-financing from the EU. The largest investment in the project is the construction of a station for the recovery of raw materials, such as nitrogen, P, and biogas, at the sewage treatment plant in Cielcza. This would allow it to recover between 100 and 200 kg of fertiliser per year. The water and wastewater management project implemented in Jarocin was recognised with a prestigious award at the international Wex Global 2018 conference, which took place in Lisbon. In the years that follow, the introduction on the market of technologies for the recovery of P will be planned, in particular in the wastewater sector.|||
|Azoty Group “Fosfory”||Azoty Group “Fosfory” Sp. z o. o. are one of the leaders in the fertiliser and chemical industry in Europe. The highest quality of products and complete customer satisfaction are their priority. By producing agricultural fertilisers, they strive to maximise the benefits of buyers and maintain all environmental protection requirements. Group is a producer of mineral fertilisers that are widely used in agriculture, vegetable cultivation, and horticulture. Their offers also included chemical products. The Azoty Group “Fosfory” taking advantage of the location within the Gdansk port and access to the Chemikow Wharf in use, it imports some raw materials for the production of fertilisers by sea. With its experience in maritime trading, the Azoty Group “Fosfory” also conducts a wide range of services and reloading as well as sea freight of loose and liquid bulk goods in export and import.|||
|Sewage Treatment Plant—|
|Tarnowskie Wodociągi Sp. z o.o. provides services in the field of collection and treatment of municipal wastewater. In 2007, on the premises of Sewage Treatment Plant-Tarnowskie Wodociągi Sp. z o.o. the construction of a sewage sludge drying plant was started. This investment was completed in 2008. The construction of the dryer is another step towards even more complete use of sewage sludge and reducing its mass four times. Ultimately, it is planned to utilise sewage sludge along with recovery of P compounds from the ashes.|||
|Project “Sustainable management |
of phosphorus in the Baltic region (InPhos)”
|Project “Sustainable management of phosphorus in the Baltic region” (InPhos) received funding from the European Institute of Innovation and Technology (EIT)—a body of the EU, under the Horizon 2020 program. The main objective of the InPhos project was to develop a strategy for sustainable P management (including identification of the P recovery potential) in the Baltic Sea Region by a working group of experts from the Baltic countries—Poland, Germany, Sweden, Finland, Latvia, Lithuania, Estonia, and Italy.|||
|Project “Market ready technologies for P-recovery from municipal wastewater (PhosForce).”||The main objective of the “Market ready technologies for P-recovery from municipal wastewater” (PhosForce) project is to develop innovative technology for the recovery of P from wastewater. The Struvia® technology has been used to recover P in the form of struvite crystals from wastewater generated in municipal waste disposal facilities.|||
|Project “Towards Circular Economy in wastewater sector: Knowledge transfer and identification of the recovery potential for Phosphorus in Poland (CEPhosPOL).”||The main goal of the “Towards Circular Economy in wastewater sector: Knowledge transfer and identification of the recovery potential for Phosphorus in Poland” (CEPhosPOL) project was to conduct research works focused on the identification of the recovery potential for P in Poland and the development of the sustainable model of the P management, based on the circular economy assumptions. The project was implemented under the Mieczysław Bekker programme for young researchers, financed by the National Academic Exchange Agency (NAWA).|||
|Project “Polish Fertilisers form Ash (PolFerAsh)”||The main goal of the Polish project “Polish Fertilisers form Ash” (PolFerAsh) was to develop an environmentally-friendly technology for sewage sludge ash utilisation as a source of fertilisers and construction materials. The project has been conducted in the Cracow University of Technology and Mineral and Energy Economy Research Institute of the Polish Academy of Sciences in Poland and has received the founding from the National Centre for Research and Development.|||
|Company/Project Name||Description of Good Practices||References|
|Duslo, a.s-company dealing |
|The biggest company dealing with fertilisers is Duslo, a.s., a member of the AGROFERT Group. It is one of the most significant companies in the chemical industry in Slovakia. It has developed into a manufacturer of fertilisers of European significance and a global supplier of rubber chemicals. It is a producer of polyvinyl acetate and polyacrylic glues and dispersions that it supplies to the global market. The company s product portfolio includes: industrial fertilisers, rubber chemicals, dispersions and glues, products of magnesium chemistry, and special products.|||
|Project “Drinking water supply, |
sewerage and wastewater treatment.”
|The “Drinking water supply, sewerage and wastewater treatment” project contributed to reducing pollution and improving wastewater collection. The project also brought drinking water to people struggling to find regular or reliable supplies. As part of the project, the existing facilities were modernised and a new central pumping station was constructed. Improvements to existing facilities included making it easier to remove nitrogen and P from the water. These actions resulted in a radical increase in the capacity and efficiency of the existing wastewater plant.|||
|Slovak Grant Agency for Science (Grant No. 1/0563/15)||The research project was carried out as planned research projects of the Department of Applied Ecology, Sumy State University, connected with subjects “Reduction of technogenic loading on the environment of enterprises of chemical, machine-building industry and heat and power engineering” according to the scientific and technical program of the Ministry of Education and Science of Ukraine (state registration No 0116U006606). The project focused, inter alia, on the biochemical treatment of sewage sludge and phosphogypsum under conditions reducing sulphates with the release of P. A schematic model of the dephosphatation process under the conditions of anaerobic stabilisation of sewage sludge and phosphogypsum was developed.|||
|Company/Project Name||Description of Good Practices||References|
|Fosfa, a.s.||Fosfa, a.s. is an innovative Life Science company, the largest processor of yellow P in Europe and a successful exporter. After the successful resumption of phosphoric acid production, the company decided to invest in the production of special applications based on P and detergents. At present, Fosfa products are for food and alcohol industrial applications. The production scope of the company consists of product groups: sodium phosphates, potassium phosphates, ammonium phosphates, and thermal phosphoric acid. During production, the company keeps principles of sustainable development and footprint reduction strongly.|||
|Lovochemie, a.s.||Lovochemie, a.s., is the largest producer of fertilisers in the Czech Republic. Its production program has significantly contributed to the development of Czech agriculture. The company decided to invest in the production of special applications based on P and detergents. Currently, the company produces NPK fertilisers. Lovochemie is trying to find long-term sustainable sources of P to replace current raw materials in future.|||
|Czech Phosphorus Platform||Czech Phosphorus Platform is an organisation that brings together private companies, government agencies, academic institutions, and individuals. The organisation creates conditions for various activities of members in the area of recycling, circular economy, waste management, sustainable agriculture, and water management to reduce dependence on imports and to recycle P from waste, from crop and animal production in agriculture, from industrial and municipal wastewater.|||
|Cleaning of the Brno lake from |
|The Brno lake is the largest reservoir in Brno, measures 10 km in length, and the flooded area is 259 ha. The main problem of Brno lake for a long time was green cyanobacteria, which polluted the entire water area and made recreation impossible. Water purification and treatment in the lake began in 2007. The project on how to stop and improve the gradual deterioration of water quality at Brno lake, especially from flushing water, is called “Implementation of Measures at the Brno Valley Reservoir”, which aims to reduce the effects of excessive eutrophication on water. The aeration system, in combination with ferric sulphate dosing, ensures the precipitation of P, which sinks to the bottom and becomes (so far) its harmless part. Results show an improvement in water quality in the lake. Applied systems are used to precipitate P, which is the main food for bacteria and most often enters the water with rainwater from fields where farmers use it as fertiliser. These measures have proved very successful over the years and therefore continue during the next stage of the project, “Implementation of measures at the Brno Valley Reservoir, IVth stage 2023–2027 “. The project is managed and implemented by the Moravia River Basin District. Its staff monitors the state of the water, monitors the health of aquatic animals, and generally finds out how the dam is doing thanks to continuous care. The next significant necessary steps are the removal of precipitated P from the bottom of the Brno Lake and the recovery of P by recycling.|||
|Company/Project Name||Description of Good Practices||References|
|Bige Holding Ltd.||Bige Holding Ltd. privatised the Tiszamenti Vegyiművek Rt. in 1997. Following the investment in 2004, Bige Holding Ltd. produces compacted NPK products from the Genesis fertiliser range, as well as sulphuric acid, phosphoric acid, and cryolite. The plant, which operates with compacting technology, produces reliably high-quality NPK and PK fertilisers without chemical reaction and drying process, with both meso- and micro-nutrient content in the quality required by the customer. The particle size and strength of the fertilisers are produced to meet today’s modern European quality standards. The environmental impact of the new technology is minimal.|||
|Nitrogénművek Zrt.||Nitrogénművek Zrt. in Pétfürdő is the one Hungarian nitrogen fertiliser company with ammonia and fertiliser production capacities. The range includes nitrogen fertilisers, complex NPK fertilisers, foliar and nutrient fertilisers. Chemical products and industrial gases generated during the fertiliser production process are also sold. The main task of the company is to meet the long-term demand for fertilisers in Hungarian agriculture. The current market share of Nitrogénművek Zrt. in the domestic fertiliser market is about 60%.|||
|Péti Nitrokomplex Ltd.||Péti Nitrokomplex Ltd. is owned by Nitrogénművek Zrt, which was founded in 1991 by the self-establishment of the research and development part of the plant. The main goal of the company is to meet the needs of its customers and to adapt to the principles of environmentally friendly, integrated crop production, i.e., the rational supply of nutrients according to the area and the needs of the plan.|||
|Nádudvar Agrochemical Ltd.||Nádudvar Agrochemical Ltd. operates a world-class state-of-the-art liquid fertiliser service system. The primary objective of the agricultural plant is economic production, which has necessitated the application of state-of-the-art methods in the crop production sector. To achieve this goal, created one of the most advanced liquid fertiliser plants of the time. The company’s services include consultancy, transport, the setting up of transit depots, the provision of a group of application machines and the development of using technology.|||
|Nzrt-Trade Ltd.||Nzrt-Trade Ltd. is a fertiliser supplier in the eastern part of Hungarian agriculture; as a member of the Bige Holding Group, it has a significant R&D activity in the production of fertilisers. The company has links with several research institutes and universities, which carry out the crop certification of its products and the basic research work necessary for their development.|||
Disclaimer/Publisher’s Note: The statements, opinions and data contained in all publications are solely those of the individual author(s) and contributor(s) and not of MDPI and/or the editor(s). MDPI and/or the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to people or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content.
© 2022 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).
Smol, M.; Marcinek, P.; Šimková, Z.; Bakalár, T.; Hemzal, M.; Klemeš, J.J.; Fan, Y.V.; Lorencz, K.; Koda, E.; Podlasek, A. Inventory of Good Practices of Sustainable and Circular Phosphorus Management in the Visegrad Group (V4). Resources 2023, 12, 2. https://doi.org/10.3390/resources12010002
Smol M, Marcinek P, Šimková Z, Bakalár T, Hemzal M, Klemeš JJ, Fan YV, Lorencz K, Koda E, Podlasek A. Inventory of Good Practices of Sustainable and Circular Phosphorus Management in the Visegrad Group (V4). Resources. 2023; 12(1):2. https://doi.org/10.3390/resources12010002Chicago/Turabian Style
Smol, Marzena, Paulina Marcinek, Zuzana Šimková, Tomáš Bakalár, Milan Hemzal, Jiří Jaromír Klemeš, Yee Van Fan, Kinga Lorencz, Eugeniusz Koda, and Anna Podlasek. 2023. "Inventory of Good Practices of Sustainable and Circular Phosphorus Management in the Visegrad Group (V4)" Resources 12, no. 1: 2. https://doi.org/10.3390/resources12010002