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Systems, Volume 11, Issue 12 (December 2023) – 24 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): During the COVID-19 pandemic, China implemented various restrictions on movement, including closing public transportation in epidemic centers, blocking transportation in infected areas, and implementing concentration and home isolation to achieve the purpose of epidemic prevention and control. Rail transit, as a crucial public service, requires effective strategies to control the virus’ spread. This study suggested that employing a strategy that combined travel reservations and flow-control fences could improve travel efficiency and at the same time reduce the infection risk of passengers. View this paper
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18 pages, 4119 KiB  
Article
Concurrent Value-Driven Decision-Making Process for the Aircraft, Supply Chain and Manufacturing Systems Design
Systems 2023, 11(12), 578; https://doi.org/10.3390/systems11120578 - 18 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1119
Abstract
The integration of product design and supply-chain management can lead to an increase in the profitability and efficiency of companies. However, considering manufacturing, supply chain, and aircraft criteria in the early design phase increases the size of the solutions’ trade space and, thus, [...] Read more.
The integration of product design and supply-chain management can lead to an increase in the profitability and efficiency of companies. However, considering manufacturing, supply chain, and aircraft criteria in the early design phase increases the size of the solutions’ trade space and, thus, the complexity of performing the decision-making process. This paper demonstrates how to leverage value-model theory to simplify the decision-making process when multiple criteria related to multiple systems are considered at the same time. The proposed concurrent approach is formalized from a systems-engineering perspective, considering the interactions between the lifecycle stages of the System of Interest, i.e., the aircraft, and Enabling Systems like the supply chain and manufacturing. A value-based interactive dashboard, called VALORISE, is developed to automatize the process, support decision-makers in modeling their expectations, analyze real-time strategic scenarios, and easily explore the value-driven trade space for best-solution identification. An aeronautical application case highlights the advantages of leveraging the proposed concurrent approach to overcome the limits of traditional approaches, in which decisions about supply chain and manufacturing are addressed once the aircraft configuration is decided. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Decision Making with Model-Based Systems Engineering)
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13 pages, 5250 KiB  
Article
Strategic Sensor Placement in Expansive Highway Networks: A Novel Framework for Maximizing Information Gain
Systems 2023, 11(12), 577; https://doi.org/10.3390/systems11120577 - 18 Dec 2023
Viewed by 921
Abstract
Traffic sensors play a pivotal role in monitoring and assessing network-wide traffic conditions. However, the substantial costs associated with deploying an extensive sensor network across real-world highway systems can often prove prohibitive. Thus, the strategic selection of optimal sensor locations within budget and [...] Read more.
Traffic sensors play a pivotal role in monitoring and assessing network-wide traffic conditions. However, the substantial costs associated with deploying an extensive sensor network across real-world highway systems can often prove prohibitive. Thus, the strategic selection of optimal sensor locations within budget and resource constraints becomes imperative, leading to the well-known Traffic Sensor Location Problem (TSLP). In this study, we introduce a novel framework to address the TSLP for large-scale highway networks, focusing on maximizing information gain in a joint vector space that comprehensively captures both network topology and segment-level features. To solve this optimization problem, we devised a genetic algorithm (GA) with penalty handling. Additionally, we developed a physics-guided random walk algorithm, which not only significantly reduces the search space but offers remarkable flexibility in striking a practical balance between computational load and the confidence of achieving global optimality. For illustration purposes, the proposed framework was applied to the Savannah highway network in Georgia. The results from our GA method align well with those from exhaustive research, but with significantly reduced computational time. By leveraging information theory and maximizing information gain in a low-dimensional vector space, the proposed framework permits parallel, scalable computation and offers considerable potential in the strategic planning and deployment of various sensors for expansive, real-world highway networks. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Decision Making and Policy Analysis in Transportation Planning)
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32 pages, 976 KiB  
Article
An Analysis of the Features of Requirements Engineering Tools
Systems 2023, 11(12), 576; https://doi.org/10.3390/systems11120576 - 15 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1294
Abstract
Many requirements engineering tools have been developed for gathering, documenting, and tracing requirements that can even be further processed for such purposes as analysis and transformation. In this study, we analysed 56 different requirements engineering tools for a comprehensive set of features that [...] Read more.
Many requirements engineering tools have been developed for gathering, documenting, and tracing requirements that can even be further processed for such purposes as analysis and transformation. In this study, we analysed 56 different requirements engineering tools for a comprehensive set of features that are categorised into multiple viewpoints (i.e., project management, specification, collaboration, customisation, interoperability, methodology, and user-support). The analysis results led to many interesting findings. Some of them are as follows: (i) the project planning and execution activities are rarely supported, (ii) multi-user access and versioning are highly supported, (iii) the most popular specification technique is natural languages, while precise specification via modeling languages is rarely supported, (iv) requirements analysis is rarely supported, (v) requirements transformation is considered for generating documents only, (vi) tool customisation via the tool integration and API support is highly popular, while customising the notation set is rarely supported, (vii) exchanging requirements is popular in such standards as ReqIF and Excel/CSV, while no single standard is accepted by all the tools, (viii) agile development is very common, while other methodologies (e.g., MDE and SPLE) are rarely supported, and (ix) user-guides, telephone, e-mail, and videos are the most preferred methods for user-support. The analysis results will be useful for different stakeholders including practitioners, tool vendors, and researchers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Systems Engineering)
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20 pages, 1789 KiB  
Article
Concept for the Customer Perspective of the Balanced Scorecard (BSC) System in Bus Transport Companies in the Slovak Republic
Systems 2023, 11(12), 575; https://doi.org/10.3390/systems11120575 - 14 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1296
Abstract
Customer awareness and customer satisfaction are generally important attributes for the success and competitiveness of any business. In some sectors, they are studied very intensively; in others, they are neglected. In the field of transport services, it is important that the attitudes of [...] Read more.
Customer awareness and customer satisfaction are generally important attributes for the success and competitiveness of any business. In some sectors, they are studied very intensively; in others, they are neglected. In the field of transport services, it is important that the attitudes of customers are sufficiently monitored because public passenger transport has a lot of individual competition. Only satisfied customers can prefer public transportation over their own. In this context, this contribution analyses customer requirements and their satisfaction with bus public transport in the Slovak Republic. The opinions of customers are supplemented in this article with those of strategic managers. We ascertained customer requirements through questionnaire surveys. Using theoretical knowledge, we established hypotheses, which were subsequently verified using the selected statistical methods. Based on the findings, we proposed the concept of the target perspective of the BSC system for bus transport companies in the Slovak Republic in an effort to increase their competitiveness. Our procedure was also based on knowledge that is the output of various research studies in this area. Their results show that marketing strategies are considered the most important part of strategic management. Today, it is common in many industries that all business entities offer the same product at the same price under approximately the same technological conditions and with the assistance of equally well-equipped personnel. Therefore, a correctly set marketing strategy can also be the key to business success in transport services. The methods used in this paper were analysis, synthesis, questionnaire surveys, and the selected managerial and statistical methods. Our goal was to propose a concept of the customer perspective of the BSC system based on the analysis of customer requirements. We are convinced that the results of our survey can contribute to increasing the competitiveness of not only bus carriers in Slovakia, but also in other EU countries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Systems Theory and Methodology)
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20 pages, 1122 KiB  
Article
Factors Influencing Blockchain Technologies Adoption in Supply Chain Management and Logistic Sectors: Cultural Compatibility of Blockchain Solutions as Moderator
Systems 2023, 11(12), 574; https://doi.org/10.3390/systems11120574 - 13 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1578
Abstract
The rapid advancements in blockchain technology have heralded a new era for various industries, including the supply chain and logistics. However, despite the promising opportunities, the adoption of blockchain within supply chain and logistics still needs to be explored, especially in Saudi Arabia. [...] Read more.
The rapid advancements in blockchain technology have heralded a new era for various industries, including the supply chain and logistics. However, despite the promising opportunities, the adoption of blockchain within supply chain and logistics still needs to be explored, especially in Saudi Arabia. This study investigated the impact of technological, organizational, and environmental factors on blockchain adoption among Saudi supply chain and logistics companies. The study also tested cultural compatibility’s moderating role in solving blockchain issues. A quantitative method approach was employed, utilizing a survey questionnaire. Data were gathered from various stakeholders across the industry, including managers, IT experts, and logistics professionals. The findings indicate that relative advantage, top management support, and competitors influence blockchain technology adoption significantly and positively. However, openness to innovation use has an insignificant effect on adoption. Government support demonstrates the strongest positive influence on blockchain adoption, whereas vendor orientation and support showed an insignificant impact. Both blockchain technology adoption and the cultural compatibility of blockchain solutions significantly enhance operational excellence, but the moderating effect of cultural compatibility of blockchain solutions shows no effect on operational excellence. This study stands out as one of the first explorations into blockchain adoption in the supply chain and logistics sector within the Saudi context, identifying the factors contributing to blockchain’s successful implementation for operational excellence. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Blockchain Technology in Supply Chain Management and Logistics)
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26 pages, 2781 KiB  
Review
Role of Information Systems in Effective Management of Human Resources during the COVID-19 Pandemic
Systems 2023, 11(12), 573; https://doi.org/10.3390/systems11120573 - 11 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1336
Abstract
Employees and employers were thrown into uncertainty and chaos during the period of the COVID-19 pandemic, where they had no clear idea of exactly what they should do. Human resource managers operated in crisis mode since the beginning of the pandemic, that is, [...] Read more.
Employees and employers were thrown into uncertainty and chaos during the period of the COVID-19 pandemic, where they had no clear idea of exactly what they should do. Human resource managers operated in crisis mode since the beginning of the pandemic, that is, from 2020 to the first half of 2021. In this period, human resource managers sorted out the possibilities and probabilities on how employees could work from home and formulated strategies for providing them with extra mental and physical care, and they worked harder than ever on corporate-level initiatives to maintain the operations of their companies. The function of Human Resource (HR) has fundamentally changed as businesses have adapted to a new normal and the dust continues to settle. Throughout the pandemic, non-clinical organizations faced uncertain challenges, strategies, and had to make unique decisions regarding human resource management. There have been a variety of detrimental consequences associated with the COVID-19 pandemic, including economic shocks, global health crisis, changes in social behaviors, and challenges for businesses in sustaining their operations. The role of information systems in the management of human resources during the COVID-19 pandemic has been studied in this research. After gathering 400 records from credible publications, duplicates were removed, inclusion and exclusion criteria were used, and 130 papers were finally included in this research. By analyzing the selected papers, it was found in this study that organizations need to be flexible, improve their internal efficiency, acquire talent, and implement innovative changes based on organizational needs in order to ensure smooth business operations. It is possible to improve employees’ mental health, satisfaction, productivity, motivation, and workplace health and safety by implementing appropriate human resource management strategies and innovative information systems and IT tools. A conceptual model that establishes relationships between variables is also presented as an outcome of this research. Full article
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39 pages, 15440 KiB  
Article
Identification of Innovative Opportunities Based on Product Scenario Evolution
Systems 2023, 11(12), 572; https://doi.org/10.3390/systems11120572 - 08 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1092
Abstract
Innovation is a key factor for product development. Identifying innovative opportunities is the first step in innovative product design. Traditional methods of identifying innovative opportunities, such as market surveys and brainstorming, are limited by product users’ and designers’ experiences and lack systematic approaches [...] Read more.
Innovation is a key factor for product development. Identifying innovative opportunities is the first step in innovative product design. Traditional methods of identifying innovative opportunities, such as market surveys and brainstorming, are limited by product users’ and designers’ experiences and lack systematic approaches to generate breakthrough innovations. This paper proposes a method to identify innovative opportunities based on product scenario evolution. The method models a product scenario based on product scenario elements, states, and behaviors. A Type II hierarchical function model is constructed based on the transformation and abstraction hierarchy of the product function model to identify target elements for the scenario evolution. Based on the theory of basic element extension and needs evolution characteristics, the method of extending target scenario elements is proposed. Based on the new scenario element sets and their impact, diffusion, identification, and evaluation methods are proposed for innovation opportunities. Potential opportunities are explored for product innovation from a scenario evolutionary perspective, which updates knowledge and technology reserves and finds new market opportunities for industries. The feasibility and effectiveness of the method are verified using the innovative design of a polyethylene (PE) pipeline hot-melt welding machine. Full article
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18 pages, 2754 KiB  
Article
Research on the Measurement and Characteristics of Virtual Agglomeration Based on Social Network Analysis: Evidence from 29 Manufacturing Industries in China
Systems 2023, 11(12), 571; https://doi.org/10.3390/systems11120571 - 08 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1150
Abstract
(1) Background: Virtual agglomeration reshapes the organizational form and drives the sustainable development of the manufacturing industry. How to measure the virtual agglomeration level of the manufacturing industry is an important and difficult problem for current research. (2) Methods: In this study, we [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Virtual agglomeration reshapes the organizational form and drives the sustainable development of the manufacturing industry. How to measure the virtual agglomeration level of the manufacturing industry is an important and difficult problem for current research. (2) Methods: In this study, we constructed a social network for the virtual agglomeration of the manufacturing industry, with each industry representing a node in the network. We also measured the virtual agglomeration level of the overall manufacturing industry using the network edge number and network density indicators in the social network analysis method. Each sub-industry virtual agglomeration level was measured using the point centrality index. Furthermore, the virtual agglomeration characteristics of the manufacturing industry were examined through cluster analysis and core–periphery analysis. The data sources include the supply chain statistics and virtual agglomeration text data of manufacturing enterprises. The virtual agglomeration text data were obtained with the help of Python crawler technology. Two types of data were matched, and the virtual agglomeration data of 29 manufacturing industries in China from 2012 to 2022 was obtained. (3) Results: The virtual agglomeration level of the overall manufacturing industry is constantly improving, but there are large differences among different industries. Moreover, the virtual agglomeration of the manufacturing industry has the characteristics of both specialization and diversification. The virtual agglomeration social network of the manufacturing industry is experiencing an evolution process from a “core–periphery” structure to a “core–semi-periphery–periphery” structure. (4) Conclusions: This study provides a theoretical basis and practical reference for improving the virtual agglomeration level of the manufacturing industry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Strategic Management in Digital Transformation Era)
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22 pages, 2421 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of Lean Manufacturing Tools and Digital Technologies Effectiveness for Increasing Labour Productivity in Construction
Systems 2023, 11(12), 570; https://doi.org/10.3390/systems11120570 - 07 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1245
Abstract
Multiple studies are devoted to problems of construction labour productivity and methods of increasing it. These studies contain systematized factors and the main measures that can be applied to influence them. However, the issues of reducingdowntime in design and construction by integrating Lean [...] Read more.
Multiple studies are devoted to problems of construction labour productivity and methods of increasing it. These studies contain systematized factors and the main measures that can be applied to influence them. However, the issues of reducingdowntime in design and construction by integrating Lean manufacturing tools and innovative digital technologies to increase construction labour productivity have not yet been actively studied. This paper examines the quantitative assessment of the impact of tools for Lean construction and the digitalization of business processes on labour productivity when implementing investment projects in development and changes in the effectiveness of projects. The conducted study contains an extensive review of the literature, identifies time losses as an important labour productivity factor, proposes a practical approach to the implementation of Lean 4.0 technology in the activities of a development company, and provides practical calculations of labour productivity for the existing project. Expert and calculated evidence of the positive impact of Lean 4.0 on labour productivity and performance parameters of construction projects are presented here. The effects of the introduction of tools and principles of Lean-digital technologies for construction project participants, as well as recommendations for the implementation of the proposed approach in construction practice, are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lean Manufacturing in Industry 4.0)
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20 pages, 2285 KiB  
Article
A Maturity Model for Diagnosing the Capabilities of Smart Factory Solution Suppliers and Its Pilot Application
Systems 2023, 11(12), 569; https://doi.org/10.3390/systems11120569 - 06 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1278
Abstract
For the successful and sustainable deployment and diffusion of smart factories, both the capabilities of the adopters who operate the factories and the capabilities of the suppliers who supply information technology and equipment play very important roles. However, since the existing models for [...] Read more.
For the successful and sustainable deployment and diffusion of smart factories, both the capabilities of the adopters who operate the factories and the capabilities of the suppliers who supply information technology and equipment play very important roles. However, since the existing models for diagnosing the capabilities of smart factories are mainly focused on evaluating the capabilities of the manufacturing companies themselves, such as technological capabilities and digital transformation, there are not many models that diagnose the supply capabilities of suppliers from the perspective of demand companies. Unlike models that diagnose the level of smart factories, when diagnosing the capabilities of suppliers, various factors such as supply experience and management capabilities must be comprehensively evaluated in addition to the capabilities of the company itself. Therefore, this study proposes a new model to diagnose the capabilities of suppliers from the perspective of adopters who want to build smart factories and verifies the validity of the model by applying the model for a pilot diagnosis for 32 suppliers. In addition, based on the survey results obtained from both adopters and suppliers participating in the pilot diagnoses, this study proposes an institutionalization plan for capability diagnosis. Full article
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17 pages, 1397 KiB  
Article
Sustainability Assessment of Bus Low-Fare Policy Considering Three Stakeholders of the Public, Bus Enterprises and Government: A Case Study of Shenzhen, China
Systems 2023, 11(12), 568; https://doi.org/10.3390/systems11120568 - 05 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1040
Abstract
In order to quantitatively evaluate the sustainability of bus low-fare policy, this study establishes a sustainability evaluation index system for bus low-fare policy by using the PSR (Pressure–State–Response) model. Based on the matter–element extension model and entropy weight method, the sustainability evaluation model [...] Read more.
In order to quantitatively evaluate the sustainability of bus low-fare policy, this study establishes a sustainability evaluation index system for bus low-fare policy by using the PSR (Pressure–State–Response) model. Based on the matter–element extension model and entropy weight method, the sustainability evaluation model of bus low-fare policy is constructed. Finally, taking Shenzhen as an example, this study compares and analyzes the sustainability changes of bus fare policy in 2006, 2012 and 2016. The results show that the sustainability of the bus fare policy does not depend on the attribute of the fare (profit-making fares or public welfare fares): the sustainability of bus low-fare policy is closely related to the supporting fiscal subsidy system. Compared with the cost regulation subsidy system, the quota subsidy system is more conducive to the sustainability of bus low-fare policy. This study provides a decision-making reference for the sustainable development of urban bus low-fare policy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Systems Practice in Social Science)
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17 pages, 1579 KiB  
Article
Vulnerability Assessment for Port Logistics System Based on DEMATEL-ISM-BWM
Systems 2023, 11(12), 567; https://doi.org/10.3390/systems11120567 - 04 Dec 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1245
Abstract
In order to identify and assess the vulnerability of the port logistics system itself, this paper further improves the methodology on the basis of previous studies by using the Deterministic Experimentation and Evaluation Laboratory (DEMATEL) and Interpretive Structural Modeling (ISM) methods to study [...] Read more.
In order to identify and assess the vulnerability of the port logistics system itself, this paper further improves the methodology on the basis of previous studies by using the Deterministic Experimentation and Evaluation Laboratory (DEMATEL) and Interpretive Structural Modeling (ISM) methods to study the correlation between the vulnerability factors of the port logistics system, and the best-worst method (BWM) to identify the key vulnerability points of the system. The results of the study showed that in terms of the correlation between the factors, port consolidation capacity and average arrival time are the most direct factors affecting the vulnerability of the port logistics system, and the strength of government regulation and coordination and the level of port management are important indirect factors affecting the vulnerability of the port logistics system. This paper also found that port loading and unloading facilities and natural disasters are the main vulnerabilities affecting the port logistics system itself. Port enterprises should focus on reducing the vulnerability of the system by strengthening the above aspects. The model constructed in this paper can also be applied to future research on the resilience and sustainability of port logistics. Full article
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14 pages, 9950 KiB  
Article
The Exploration of Integrating the Midjourney Artificial Intelligence Generated Content Tool into Design Systems to Direct Designers towards Future-Oriented Innovation
Systems 2023, 11(12), 566; https://doi.org/10.3390/systems11120566 - 04 Dec 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 3643
Abstract
In an age where computing capabilities are expanding at a breathtaking pace, the advent of Artificial Intelligence-Generated Content (AIGC) technology presents unprecedented opportunities and challenges to the future of design. It is crucial for designers to investigate how to utilize this powerful tool [...] Read more.
In an age where computing capabilities are expanding at a breathtaking pace, the advent of Artificial Intelligence-Generated Content (AIGC) technology presents unprecedented opportunities and challenges to the future of design. It is crucial for designers to investigate how to utilize this powerful tool to facilitate innovation effectively. As AIGC technology evolves, it will inevitably shift the expectations of designers, compelling them to delve deeper into the essence of design creativity, transcending traditional sketching or modeling skills. This study provides valuable insights for designers on leveraging AIGC for forward-thinking design innovation. We focus on the representative AIGC tool, “Midjourney”, to explore its integration into design systems for collaborative innovation among content creators. We introduce an AIGC-based Midjourney path for product design and present a supporting tool card set: AMP-Cards. To confirm their utility, we undertook extensive validation through advanced prototype design research, task-specific project practices, and interdisciplinary collaborative seminars. Our findings indicate that AIGC can considerably enhance designers’ efficiency during product development, especially in the “explorative product shape” phase. The technology excels in identifying design styles and quickly producing varied design solutions. Moreover, AIGC’s capacity to swiftly translate creators’ concepts into visual forms greatly aids in multidisciplinary team communication and innovation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Futures Thinking in Design Systems and Social Transformation)
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25 pages, 1559 KiB  
Article
How to Make Cities Get across “The Valley of Death”? Exploring the Ecological Index System and Index Correlation of Green Cities
Systems 2023, 11(12), 565; https://doi.org/10.3390/systems11120565 - 03 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1148
Abstract
Disasters caused by climate change are continuing around the world. Densely populated urban areas have been pushed to the forefront of global climate change, and ecological security has gradually become the focus of global attention. Whether it is predictable natural disasters, or it [...] Read more.
Disasters caused by climate change are continuing around the world. Densely populated urban areas have been pushed to the forefront of global climate change, and ecological security has gradually become the focus of global attention. Whether it is predictable natural disasters, or it is long-term global warming, or any unexpected events, exploring green development that coexists with them, green urban environmental strategies will play an important role in urban development. We analyzed data from 31 sample cities in China, accurately quantified indicators through qualitative and quantitative analysis, and then explored the development status and related indicator systems of green cities in China by “Driving Force–State–Response” model. The results reveal that (1) economic factors are the fundamental and decisive factors for the development of green cities. The higher the level of economic development, the stronger the ability of urban development; we also revealed the indicators that are significantly correlated with the level of green city construction and clarified the important factors of green cities; (2) technological factors are crucial for the construction of green cities. Only with continuous improvement at the technological level do green industries have the driving force for sustainable development, and traditional high-energy consuming and high-pollution industries can be continuously eliminated so as to promote the construction of green cities. (3) Based on the correlation analysis between each indicator and comprehensive scores, this study also pointed out that there is a significant gap in the level of green city construction among different regions in China. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Systems Practice in Social Science)
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16 pages, 1743 KiB  
Article
Ethics and Cooperative Optimization Scheme for CAVs with Velocity-Prioritized Emergency Vehicles at Signal-Free Intersections
Systems 2023, 11(12), 564; https://doi.org/10.3390/systems11120564 - 30 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1073
Abstract
This study investigates collaborative route mapping for a collection of connected automated vehicles (CAVs) traversing multi-lane pathways, with a particular emphasis on intersections without traffic signals. A distinctive feature of our research is the prioritization of emergency vehicles, such as ambulances and fire [...] Read more.
This study investigates collaborative route mapping for a collection of connected automated vehicles (CAVs) traversing multi-lane pathways, with a particular emphasis on intersections without traffic signals. A distinctive feature of our research is the prioritization of emergency vehicles, such as ambulances and fire engines, according to their velocity demands. Additionally, a comprehensive analysis of the ethical ramifications of implementing such a prioritised system is engaged, while it is notable that in most of the existing studies, the ethical evaluation of intelligent transportation modalities is neglected. From a technical aspect, trajectories for CAVs in current models tend to be either inflexible or congruent with the collective formation of the fleet. Concurrently, the pre-set velocities for CAVs frequently demonstrate a lack of adaptability, which impedes cohesive operation. Moreover, there exists a pronounced deficiency in catering to the prioritization needs of emergency vehicles within these models. The current research endeavours to address these shortcomings by formulating the intersection management as an optimal control problem (OCP). This formulation enables CAVs to modulate their velocities in response to practical objectives, sidestepping fixed lane regulations at junctions. The control framework also encompasses autonomous vehicles of diverse sizes and velocities. An Adaptive Stepwise Optimization (ASO) methodology is proposed to augment the efficacy of the OCP resolution. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from the 42nd Chinese Control Conference (CCC 2023))
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28 pages, 7338 KiB  
Review
A Survey of Digital Government: Science Mapping Approach, Application Areas, and Future Directions
Systems 2023, 11(12), 563; https://doi.org/10.3390/systems11120563 - 30 Nov 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1526
Abstract
With the rapid development of digital technologies, digital transformation reshapes the functioning of governments. Digital government (DG) aims to leverage technology to enhance the delivery of public services, improve efficiency, and foster transparency. Embracing DG is a strategic imperative for governments looking to [...] Read more.
With the rapid development of digital technologies, digital transformation reshapes the functioning of governments. Digital government (DG) aims to leverage technology to enhance the delivery of public services, improve efficiency, and foster transparency. Embracing DG is a strategic imperative for governments looking to provide effective, transparent, and citizen-centric services in the 21st century. Therefore, many government organizations have intensified their DG efforts in response to its necessity. However, there is little clarity in the previous literature and a lack of uniform understanding among government employees, policymakers, and citizens regarding the concept of DG. Therefore, this study aims to analyze current DG research with science mapping, classify the research areas, and propose future directions for upcoming studies. A search was conducted on Web of Science and Scopus databases since the year 2000. VOSViewer software was used for visualizing and exploring bibliometric networks. This study is one of the first attempts to examine the DG area using the science mapping approach. Selected publications were categorized into research areas, and future directions were presented to bridge the identified research gaps. According to our results, the five main research areas are DG transformation, cybersecurity, public participation and social media, open government data and transparency, and e-Government adoption models. This study guides practitioners, academics, policymakers, and public employees in planning their future studies. Full article
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26 pages, 5361 KiB  
Article
Group Buying Pricing Strategies of O2O Restaurants in Meituan Considering Service Levels
Systems 2023, 11(12), 562; https://doi.org/10.3390/systems11120562 - 29 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1295
Abstract
After the COVID-19 pandemic has subsided, the catering industry has returned to its previous thriving scene. Many restaurants have launched group buying services and collaborate with third-party online platforms to attract more customers. For the optimal decisions and maximum profits of restaurants and [...] Read more.
After the COVID-19 pandemic has subsided, the catering industry has returned to its previous thriving scene. Many restaurants have launched group buying services and collaborate with third-party online platforms to attract more customers. For the optimal decisions and maximum profits of restaurants and online platforms, a two-layer supply chain model is designed to investigate and study the price strategies and service strategies. Considering the service levels of restaurants and platforms, we construct the mathematical expressions of the offline retail model, online retail model, and online group buying model, respectively, and solve the game equilibrium. The results are shown as follows: (1) With cooperation between the restaurant and platform, both the restaurant and platform can obtain their maximum profits when they apply optimal pricing strategies. (2) The optimal pricing strategies of the restaurant are influenced by the sensitivity coefficients of customers to the restaurant and platform’s service levels, and the cost coefficients of the restaurant and platform’s service levels. (3) The maximum profit of the restaurant is directly proportional to the number of new potential consumers who are attracted. The more potential consumers who are attracted, the higher the profit the restaurant earns. The research results provide a reference for restaurants and platforms to formulate price strategies and service strategies, to help restaurants and platforms achieve more profits. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Supply Chain Management)
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29 pages, 4071 KiB  
Article
Analysis and Requirement Generation for Defense Intelligence Search: Addressing Data Overload through Human–AI Agent System Design for Ambient Awareness
Systems 2023, 11(12), 561; https://doi.org/10.3390/systems11120561 - 29 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1257
Abstract
This research addresses the data overload faced by intelligence searchers in government and defense agencies. The study leverages methods from the Cognitive Systems Engineering (CSE) literature to generate insights into the intelligence search work domain. These insights are applied to a supporting concept [...] Read more.
This research addresses the data overload faced by intelligence searchers in government and defense agencies. The study leverages methods from the Cognitive Systems Engineering (CSE) literature to generate insights into the intelligence search work domain. These insights are applied to a supporting concept and requirements for designing and evaluating a human-AI agent team specifically for intelligence search tasks. Domain analysis reveals the dynamic nature of the ‘value structure’, a term that describes the evolving set of criteria governing the intelligence search process. Additionally, domain insight provides details for search aggregation and conceptual spaces from which the value structure could be efficiently applied for intelligence search. Support system designs that leverage these findings may enable an intelligence searcher to interact with and understand data at more abstract levels to improve task efficiency. Additionally, new system designs can support the searcher by facilitating an ‘Ambient Awareness’ of non-selected objects in a large data field through relevant system cues. Ambient Awareness achieved through the supporting concept and AI teaming has the potential to address the data overload problem while increasing the breadth and depth of search coverage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Design Methods for Human–Machine Teams)
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15 pages, 2263 KiB  
Article
Metaverse Acceptance by the Accounting Community as a Premise of Sustainable Behavior
Systems 2023, 11(12), 560; https://doi.org/10.3390/systems11120560 - 29 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1361
Abstract
Metaverse research has as its main focus the technology, neglecting the human factor and, implicitly, how the metaverse user perceives this technology, with its strengths and risks. The main objective of our research is to assess the impact that the metaverse has on [...] Read more.
Metaverse research has as its main focus the technology, neglecting the human factor and, implicitly, how the metaverse user perceives this technology, with its strengths and risks. The main objective of our research is to assess the impact that the metaverse has on accountants and how they perceive the advantages and disadvantages of using digital technologies, including the metaverse, and, as a secondary objective, to identify the factors that lead accountants to accept or reject the conduct of activities in the virtual world. We used an integrated theoretical framework combining the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) and the Technology Acceptance Model 3 (TAM 3). Data collected online from a sample of 597 accountants were analyzed using structural equation modeling with partial least squares (PLS-SEM) for evaluating the multiple causal relationships between items of variables. Our findings prove that digital technology does not represent a barrier for members of the accounting community to work in virtual space. However, the deficiency of accounting standards tailored to the specifics of digital technologies does not promote transparency or ensure a high level of safety for members of the accounting community in virtual space. Full article
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13 pages, 1228 KiB  
Article
Does Robotaxi Offer a Positive Travel Experience? A Study of the Key Factors That Influence Consumers’ Use of the Robotaxi
Systems 2023, 11(12), 559; https://doi.org/10.3390/systems11120559 - 29 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1297
Abstract
Presently, robotaxi is being tested in cities such as Beijing, Changsha, Guangzhou, etc., and it remains a relatively new mode of transportation for consumers. Considering that robotaxi is a new mobility model, its popularity has an immediate impact on the function and efficiency [...] Read more.
Presently, robotaxi is being tested in cities such as Beijing, Changsha, Guangzhou, etc., and it remains a relatively new mode of transportation for consumers. Considering that robotaxi is a new mobility model, its popularity has an immediate impact on the function and efficiency of urban traffic, so further research on consumers’ perceptions is necessary in order to improve their acceptance of robotaxi. In this study, we explored the behavioral intention of current users of robotaxi based on their performance expectancy, effort expectation, and perceived risk. Based on the results, it appears that performance expectations and effort expectations positively influence usage intentions, which indicates that improving travel efficiency and lowering the threshold for robotaxi use will assist consumers in accepting it. In terms of consumer behavior, perceived risk negatively impacts usage intention, meaning that personal safety, service quality, and travel experience are important factors. Performance expectancy and effort expectancy are positively correlated, indicating that improving travel efficiency and lowering thresholds are complementary. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Decision Making and Policy Analysis in Transportation Planning)
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28 pages, 2923 KiB  
Article
A Model for the Acceptance and Use of Online Meeting Tools
Systems 2023, 11(12), 558; https://doi.org/10.3390/systems11120558 - 27 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1291
Abstract
This study explores the utilization of online meeting tools in remote or hybrid work environments. The main research question is: “How do Turkish employees’ expectations and concerns regarding the use of online meeting tools influence their intention to use these tools”. To achieve [...] Read more.
This study explores the utilization of online meeting tools in remote or hybrid work environments. The main research question is: “How do Turkish employees’ expectations and concerns regarding the use of online meeting tools influence their intention to use these tools”. To achieve the study’s objectives, it is essential to ascertain the expectations and concerns of employees in Turkey regarding the use of online meeting tools. Subsequently, it is crucial to determine the extent to which these factors influence the intention to use them. Accordingly, a mixed methods research approach was deemed appropriate for this study. To validate the extended technology acceptance model (TAM) proposed as a result of the qualitative phase, the relationships in the model will be tested and interpreted with structural equation modeling (SEM) through the data set to be obtained quantitatively. Expectations (employee–employee interaction, technological contribution, and adaptation to social and organizational changes) regarding the use of online meeting tools have a considerable and statistically significant influence on employees’ intention to use them through perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use. This research is expected to advance the theory, methodology, and practice of online meeting tools’ acceptance, which are widely used in business. Full article
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20 pages, 2267 KiB  
Article
Future Strategy of Lifelong Education through Systems Analysis in Republic of Korea: Long-Term Research Conducted Based on Two Surveys in 2016 and 2023
Systems 2023, 11(12), 557; https://doi.org/10.3390/systems11120557 - 26 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1328
Abstract
This study is a long-term research project on the Fourth and Fifth Comprehensive Lifelong Education Promotion Plan from 2018 to 2023. It explores factors and prospective scenarios of lifelong education to create the educational environment that is likely to be prevalent in Korea [...] Read more.
This study is a long-term research project on the Fourth and Fifth Comprehensive Lifelong Education Promotion Plan from 2018 to 2023. It explores factors and prospective scenarios of lifelong education to create the educational environment that is likely to be prevalent in Korea after 2035. First, internal factors affecting lifelong education in 2016 were gathered from a literature review and expert interviews, and external factors related to laws and policies were identified through surveys of 65 participants, including government officials, university representatives, and lifelong education companies. Second, a causal map was developed based on these results using the multi-factor system, a tool to design future policy directions. Third, scenarios for strategic environments based on uncertain future factors in the causal map were developed, and future strategies for these scenarios were identified. Among the identified future strategies, those applicable to all scenarios were selected via the wind tunneling method as important strategies that must be prioritized in the Fourth Comprehensive Lifelong Education Promotion Plan from 2018 to 2023, which was to be implemented by the Korean government in 2017. Lastly, the second survey was conducted in 2023 based on the first survey for comparison with the past outcome and to provide an outlook for the Fifth Comprehensive Lifelong Education Promotion Plan from 2024 to 2029, which is to be implemented by the Korean government in 2023. By analyzing various factors and environments, the results of this study are expected to be useful as a portfolio for developing policy designs to achieve desirable lifelong education for the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Systems Practice in Social Science)
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41 pages, 6642 KiB  
Review
Reliability Analysis during the Life Cycle of a Technical System and the Monitoring of Reliability Properties
Systems 2023, 11(12), 556; https://doi.org/10.3390/systems11120556 - 24 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1327
Abstract
The present review deals with the issues of ensuring and maintaining high reliability during the entire life cycle of a technical system in the engineering sector, i.e., determining the requirements, design, research, development, production, installation, operation, and disposal of the product. Owing to [...] Read more.
The present review deals with the issues of ensuring and maintaining high reliability during the entire life cycle of a technical system in the engineering sector, i.e., determining the requirements, design, research, development, production, installation, operation, and disposal of the product. Owing to their reliability, special attention is given to the technical systems in companies for several reasons. These mainly include the need to achieve reliability and safety by using the product, but also in terms of economic, social, and ecological aspects. We understand reliability as a primary feature, and during the design of new products, it is necessary to predict its course and characteristics appropriately. Reliability needs to be analyzed with the help of partial reliability properties throughout the entire life cycle of the product. To achieve the required level of reliability, we use reliability analyses, which are successfully implemented to examine and predict reliability indicators. The present review provides a comprehensive overview of reliability analysis and offers a mathematical basis for individual sub-indicators. In the article, the analysis of system reliability is described as a process, the essence of which is the acquisition, examination, and organization of specific information. This information is significant for the given system and necessary for making decisions according to the specified goals, which ensure an objective assessment of the overall level of reliability. Full article
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18 pages, 3765 KiB  
Article
Increasing Passenger Efficiency and Minimizing Infection Transmission in Chinese Metro Stations during COVID-19: A Simulation-Based Strategy Analysis
Systems 2023, 11(12), 555; https://doi.org/10.3390/systems11120555 - 23 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1322
Abstract
This study addresses the challenging problem of increasing passengers’ travel efficiency while lowering the infection transmission risk at metro stations during COVID-19 pandemic. To achieve this objective, we deploy Anylogic software and formulate an infection risk model. As a case study, this study [...] Read more.
This study addresses the challenging problem of increasing passengers’ travel efficiency while lowering the infection transmission risk at metro stations during COVID-19 pandemic. To achieve this objective, we deploy Anylogic software and formulate an infection risk model. As a case study, this study focuses on a transfer metro station in Xi’an, China. Firstly, by utilizing Anylogic software, three distinct strategies are simulated: flow-control fences, travel reservation, and the collaborative use of travel reservations and flow-control fences. Secondly, the passenger density and average dwell time under these strategies are assessed while constructing an infection risk model to quantify the risk faced by passengers. Thirdly, when compared to the absence of any strategy, the results are as follows: (1) The flow-control fences strategy: implementing flow-control fences can effectively reduce the risk of passenger infection when the length of the flow-control fences is fixed at 47.5 m, but comes at the cost of a 20.15% decrease in passenger travel efficiency; however, excessively long flow-control fences will neither alleviate congestion nor reduce the infection risk. (2) The travel reservation strategy: the adoption of travel reservations, along with a fast track for reserved users, when the reservation proportion is 40%, leads to a remarkable 29.05% improvement in travel efficiency and reduces the risk of passenger infection by 67.12%. (3) The combined strategy: the combined utilization of travel reservations and flow-control fences enhances travel efficiency by 15.80% and reduces the risk of passenger infection by 56.77% when the reservation proportion is set at 30%. When the reservation proportion is between 10 and 30%, its infection risk reduction effect is better than that of the travel reservation strategy, but this is not necessarily true for their effects on travel efficiency. Finally, this study was compared to an existing study that proposed a new strategy by combining travel reservations with departure intervals, analyzing the effect of the implementation of the strategy with different departure intervals. The findings from this study have implications for developing appropriate strategies to optimize passenger flow without significantly compromising the transmission of infection risk during the pandemic. Full article
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