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Systems, Volume 11, Issue 11 (November 2023) – 29 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): We identified 35 case studies using ABM, SD, or a hybrid of the two, and found that each modeling approach shared commonalities that collectively contributed to the policymaking process, offering a comprehensive understanding of the intricate dynamics within SES, facilitating scenario exploration and policy testing in addition to fostering effective communication and stakeholder engagement. This study also suggests several improvements with which to chart a more effective trajectory for research in this field. View this paper
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29 pages, 6901 KiB  
Article
Critical Thinking Skills Enhancement through System Dynamics-Based Games: Insights from the Project Management Board Game Project
Systems 2023, 11(11), 554; https://doi.org/10.3390/systems11110554 - 19 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1498
Abstract
This study aims to explore and discuss the role of systems thinking and system dynamics-assisted games in enhancing critical thinking skills in learners. In more detail, the study relies on the use of a system dynamics-based interactive learning environment related to project management [...] Read more.
This study aims to explore and discuss the role of systems thinking and system dynamics-assisted games in enhancing critical thinking skills in learners. In more detail, the study relies on the use of a system dynamics-based interactive learning environment related to project management issues, followed by systems thinking-supported debriefing sessions. The interactive learning environment was developed and used in the form of a single-player, online, computer-based game. The game was designed to mimic all the necessary planning and operational activities needed to organize a wedding ceremony. The acquisition of critical thinking skills in learners was evaluated in three main ways: (1) players’ performances were analyzed through a scoring system embedded in the game that considers several performance dimensions; (2) feedback from the players was collected and analyzed by using basic content analysis; (3) players’ performances were analyzed using five main categories of structures that are typical of project management domains, i.e., project features, the rework cycle, project control, ripple effects, and knock-on effects. The findings show that the joint use of system dynamics and systems thinking tools and principles within a gaming environment has the potential to facilitate and enhance the acquisition of critical thinking skills in learners and may also provide valid support for educators and practitioners interested in the enhancement of project management skills. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Systems Thinking Approach to Strategic Management)
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18 pages, 1894 KiB  
Article
Data-Driven Management of Vaccination and Its Consequences
Systems 2023, 11(11), 553; https://doi.org/10.3390/systems11110553 - 19 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1324
Abstract
Vaccination is critical to preventing the spread of diseases. It stimulates the immune system to produce antibodies that fight specific diseases, eradicating and reducing their incidence. However, despite the proven benefits, there is hesitation and skepticism in some areas due to side effects [...] Read more.
Vaccination is critical to preventing the spread of diseases. It stimulates the immune system to produce antibodies that fight specific diseases, eradicating and reducing their incidence. However, despite the proven benefits, there is hesitation and skepticism in some areas due to side effects and lack of knowledge. Developing a data collection and processing system to analyze vaccination is critical in today’s world. Vaccines are necessary to minimize morbidity and mortality, but success depends on analyzing data on vaccine use and efficacy. This system can identify potential side effects and adverse reactions, ensuring vaccine safety and building public confidence. This research focuses on IT support for analyzing vaccination side effects. The aim of this work is to develop an architecture model of the system to collect and process data on the health status of vaccinated patients. The research methodology consists of analyzing sources on the consequences and side effects of vaccination. On the basis of this knowledge, the key attributes (stakeholders, sources of information, input data, data analysis processes) of the data collection and analysis system were analyzed using an enterprise architecture approach. As a result, a general model of the architecture of the data collection and analysis system was proposed. Full article
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14 pages, 57697 KiB  
Article
Futures Studies for Design Systems and Social Transformation from Time/Space-Based Perspectives
Systems 2023, 11(11), 552; https://doi.org/10.3390/systems11110552 - 17 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1282
Abstract
Analyses of disciplines encompassing futures studies reveal a prevailing tendency to perceive time as a linear sequence of projections. However, this perspective is not applicable to the current context of social transformation in the age of globalization and digitization, such as sustainable development. [...] Read more.
Analyses of disciplines encompassing futures studies reveal a prevailing tendency to perceive time as a linear sequence of projections. However, this perspective is not applicable to the current context of social transformation in the age of globalization and digitization, such as sustainable development. Preliminary investigations into time-based design and futures studies have shown the potential of time-based paradigms for predicting reliable future scenarios and redesigning current forms of spaces, relationships, and services in response to these desired futures. In this paper, we describe a project of an Ephemeral and Temporary Space Design Laboratory, which has been a pedagogical experiment for 3 years to date in the School of Design at the Politecnico di Milano. The objective of this project is to systematically design an area of the city by reflecting on the relationship between design systems and social change, using participatory design methods such as field research and interviews with local residents to systematically redesign the urban space of the Lodi/Corvetto area in the city of Milan. This research aims to investigate the systematic influence of time factors on the spatial design of urban communities through futuristic and time/space-based design perspectives. The findings demonstrate that the utilization of time-based paradigms and tools can effectively enhance the time-based design approach, resulting in its increased integration within the design process. This integration plays a pivotal role in the construction of systems that have the capability to interact with and catalyze social transformation within the broader public and shared community. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Futures Thinking in Design Systems and Social Transformation)
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18 pages, 987 KiB  
Article
Why Do Older Adults Feel Negatively about Artificial Intelligence Products? An Empirical Study Based on the Perspectives of Mismatches
Systems 2023, 11(11), 551; https://doi.org/10.3390/systems11110551 - 15 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1613
Abstract
Artificial intelligence products (AIPs) for older adults enhance the functions of traditional products and improve the quality of their lives. However, AIPs are not popular among this population, and limited attempts have been made to investigate these users’ negative tendencies regarding AIPs. This [...] Read more.
Artificial intelligence products (AIPs) for older adults enhance the functions of traditional products and improve the quality of their lives. However, AIPs are not popular among this population, and limited attempts have been made to investigate these users’ negative tendencies regarding AIPs. This study explores the causes of avoidance and exit behaviors toward AIPs among older people from both a functional and socio-emotional mismatch perspective. Data were collected from 1102 older AIP users to verify the research model and hypotheses. The results indicate that perceived control and expectation disconfirmation affect the functional mismatch, while public stigma has the greatest impact on the socio-emotional mismatch. Furthermore, the results highlight a mixed influence of the functional and socio-emotional mismatches on negative behaviors. This study explores older people’s negative tendencies toward AIPs, comprehensively considering the functions of AIPs and the socio-emotions they evoke. Thus, it provides new empirical evidence for the systematic relationship between the functional mismatch and the socio-emotional mismatch and fills the research gap on the influence on the subsequent behaviors of older adults. Additionally, this study sheds light on the specific methods of designing, developing, and promoting AIPs. Full article
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18 pages, 539 KiB  
Article
Blockchain-Embedded Strategic Options for Satellite Operators: Sell, SataaS, or Dual?
Systems 2023, 11(11), 550; https://doi.org/10.3390/systems11110550 - 15 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1286
Abstract
With the rise of satellite-as-a-service subscriptions as technology improves, our paper examines how satellite operators (SOs) can choose between traditional channels for selling satellites, satellite-as-a-service (SataaS), and dual-channel strategies. In the space supply chain, commercial satellites display several distinct characteristics that differentiate them [...] Read more.
With the rise of satellite-as-a-service subscriptions as technology improves, our paper examines how satellite operators (SOs) can choose between traditional channels for selling satellites, satellite-as-a-service (SataaS), and dual-channel strategies. In the space supply chain, commercial satellites display several distinct characteristics that differentiate them from other physical commodities in traditional supply chains, most notably their exposure to significant launch risks. In addition, SataaS suffers from the risk of secure data transmission. However, the emergence of novel technologies such as blockchain technology (BCT) could help to mitigate such risks. Therefore, our study analyzes the optimal strategy among the sell, SataaS, and dual-channel approaches for SOs by considering the above distinctive characteristics in the case without blockchain and the case with blockchain. Our paper reveals the existence of a dual-channel strategy that generates the highest profit for the SO and yields the highest consumer utility when launch success is high and when SataaS fixed costs are low. When the launch success rate is very high, the dual-channel strategy transforms into a pure sell strategy. After the adoption of BCT, when the cost of BCT is low, the SO’s profit is enhanced in all three sales channels compared to the case without blockchain. Notably, in SataaS as well as in the dual-channel approach, the adoption of BCT always improves consumer utility compared to the case without blockchain. However, in the sell channel, the consumer benefits depend on the relatively low cost of blockchain customization. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Blockchain Technology in Supply Chain Management and Logistics)
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24 pages, 14190 KiB  
Review
Beyond the Bitcoin Hype: A Structured Study of Blockchain’s Impact and Potential in Today’s Digital World
Systems 2023, 11(11), 549; https://doi.org/10.3390/systems11110549 - 14 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1350
Abstract
The development and application of blockchain-based technologies have been overshadowed by the performance of cryptocurrencies and the belief that these are all that this technology has to offer. This idea has led to the question on numerous occasions if this technology is just [...] Read more.
The development and application of blockchain-based technologies have been overshadowed by the performance of cryptocurrencies and the belief that these are all that this technology has to offer. This idea has led to the question on numerous occasions if this technology is just expectations or if there are indeed applications that solve problems in today’s world. This bibliometric study on the current state of blockchain applications in the context of digital transformation seeks to break down the myth that this technology is just expectations, synthesizing and ordering the wide variety of topics that arise from this relationship. The results showed that the development of blockchain in the context of digital transformation is growing at an exponential rate, and with this, its applications have come to cover a large part of the industries, interact with other technologies, and establish objectives of all kinds. Based on these topics of technologies, industries, operational objectives, and strategic objectives, a structure is proposed that will serve as a guide for the development of new solutions to some problems, research, applications, and integrations with other technologies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Blockchain Technology for Future Supply Chain Management)
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14 pages, 1509 KiB  
Article
Constructing Ethical AI Based on the “Human-in-the-Loop” System
Systems 2023, 11(11), 548; https://doi.org/10.3390/systems11110548 - 13 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1509
Abstract
The Human-in-the-Loop (HITL) system was first proposed by Robert Monarch, a machine learning expert. It adopted a “hybrid” strategy combining human intelligence and machine intelligence, aiming to improve the accuracy of machine learning models and assist human learning. At present, there have been [...] Read more.
The Human-in-the-Loop (HITL) system was first proposed by Robert Monarch, a machine learning expert. It adopted a “hybrid” strategy combining human intelligence and machine intelligence, aiming to improve the accuracy of machine learning models and assist human learning. At present, there have been a number ethical design attempts based on the HITL system, and some progress has been made in the ethical choices of disaster rescue robots and nursing robots. However, there is no analysis of why the HITL system can serve as an effective path in constructing ethical AI and how it can implement the efficiency of AI in ethical scenarios. This paper draws on the feasibility of the HITL system and analyzes how ethical AIs are possible when using the HITL system. We advocate for its application to the entire process of ethical AI design. Full article
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26 pages, 5771 KiB  
Article
Enhancing Smart IoT Malware Detection: A GhostNet-based Hybrid Approach
Systems 2023, 11(11), 547; https://doi.org/10.3390/systems11110547 - 11 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1448
Abstract
The Internet of Things (IoT) constitutes the foundation of a deeply interconnected society in which objects communicate through the Internet. This innovation, coupled with 5G and artificial intelligence (AI), finds application in diverse sectors like smart cities and advanced manufacturing. With increasing IoT [...] Read more.
The Internet of Things (IoT) constitutes the foundation of a deeply interconnected society in which objects communicate through the Internet. This innovation, coupled with 5G and artificial intelligence (AI), finds application in diverse sectors like smart cities and advanced manufacturing. With increasing IoT adoption comes heightened vulnerabilities, prompting research into identifying IoT malware. While existing models excel at spotting known malicious code, detecting new and modified malware presents challenges. This paper presents a novel six-step framework. It begins with eight malware attack datasets as input, followed by insights from Exploratory Data Analysis (EDA). Feature engineering includes scaling, One-Hot Encoding, target variable analysis, feature importance using MDI and XGBoost, and clustering with K-Means and PCA. Our GhostNet ensemble, combined with the Gated Recurrent Unit Ensembler (GNGRUE), is trained on these datasets and fine-tuned using the Jaya Algorithm (JA) to identify and categorize malware. The tuned GNGRUE-JA is tested on malware datasets. A comprehensive comparison with existing models encompasses performance, evaluation criteria, time complexity, and statistical analysis. Our proposed model demonstrates superior performance through extensive simulations, outperforming existing methods by around 15% across metrics like AUC, accuracy, recall, and hamming loss, with a 10% reduction in time complexity. These results emphasize the significance of our study’s outcomes, particularly in achieving cost-effective solutions for detecting eight malware strains. Full article
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19 pages, 1292 KiB  
Article
Digital Revolution, Sustainability, and Government Revenues: A Transversal Analysis of How Digital Transformation and Sustainable Practices Impact Sustainable Government Revenues
Systems 2023, 11(11), 546; https://doi.org/10.3390/systems11110546 - 10 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1734
Abstract
In recent decades, digital transformation and sustainability have become two crucial aspects of economic and social development in the European Union (EU), improving government tax collection and other government incomes. This paper investigates the interplay between digital transformation and sustainability and their impact [...] Read more.
In recent decades, digital transformation and sustainability have become two crucial aspects of economic and social development in the European Union (EU), improving government tax collection and other government incomes. This paper investigates the interplay between digital transformation and sustainability and their impact on total general government revenue (TGGR) in the European Union (EU). The study uses quantitative research methods to analyze relationships among variables, including artificial neural networks and cluster analyses. The variables considered in this research are the Digital Economy and Society Index (DESI), the Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) index, and TGGR. Our findings reveal intricate connections between digital transformation, sustainability, and TGGR across EU member states. The DESI score measures the level of digitalization within each country, while the SDG Index assesses sustainability performance. The study demonstrates that countries with higher DESI scores tend to experience increased TGGR, indicating that a more robust digital economy contributes positively to government revenue, among other elements. The research identifies clusters of EU member states with similar patterns of digital transformation, sustainability, and TGGR. These clusters highlight challenges and opportunities, guiding policymakers in tailoring strategies to boost digitalization and government revenue sustainably. Full article
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23 pages, 10713 KiB  
Article
Development of a Virtual Reality Memory Maze Learning System for Application in Social Science Education
Systems 2023, 11(11), 545; https://doi.org/10.3390/systems11110545 - 09 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1393
Abstract
Virtual reality (VR) is a 3D space created by computer graphics technology and immersive devices. In addition to providing a new visual experience, users can also interact with others in the virtual world to address any of their needs. In recent years, the [...] Read more.
Virtual reality (VR) is a 3D space created by computer graphics technology and immersive devices. In addition to providing a new visual experience, users can also interact with others in the virtual world to address any of their needs. In recent years, the application of virtual reality in the field of education has attracted the attention of more and more people. This study combined virtual reality and concepts of spatial memory in wayfinding and memory palace to develop a VR memory maze learning system based on the seven large-scale expedition voyages of Zheng He (1405–1433) in the early Ming Dynasty of imperial China. The objective is to improve memory and efficiency in learning social science by correlating spatial information and organizational skills in the virtual environment. A teaching experiment has been conducted to explore its impacts on learning effectiveness, learning motivation, and cognitive load, as well as learners’ technology acceptance of the VR system. The analysis results indicate that using the VR system for learning social science can improve learning effectiveness; it can also increase learning motivation and reduce cognitive load. The questionnaire results of the technology acceptance model analysis show that most learners were satisfied with various aspects of this system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Systems Practice in Social Science)
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28 pages, 1778 KiB  
Article
Conceptualization of DIANA Economy and Global RPM Analysis: Differences in Digitalization Levels of Countries
Systems 2023, 11(11), 544; https://doi.org/10.3390/systems11110544 - 09 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1843
Abstract
The economics of globalization are changing due to digitization. The increasing global scope of digital platforms is lowering the cost of cross-border communications, allowing companies to connect with customers and suppliers across borders. This leads to the emergence of new competitors from anywhere [...] Read more.
The economics of globalization are changing due to digitization. The increasing global scope of digital platforms is lowering the cost of cross-border communications, allowing companies to connect with customers and suppliers across borders. This leads to the emergence of new competitors from anywhere in the world, increasing competition within an industry. The main objective of this research was to conduct an analysis of the DIANA Economy and Global RPM and to examine the various definitions and concepts of measuring the digital and analog economies in a comprehensive approach. Furthermore, this study analyzes and ranks the changes that countries around the globe have seen in their digital competitiveness, presenting the foundations of analog and digital economies and refining their definitions. Based on the results, most countries, 41 out of 60, are analog and anatal, which implies that they rely on an analog economy and need to develop digitalization strategies to transition from analog to digital. By providing rankings, policy implications, and strategies tailored to different population categories, it offers a roadmap for countries and businesses seeking to thrive in an increasingly digitalized world. Full article
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17 pages, 3961 KiB  
Article
Selection of Sales Mode for E-Commerce Platform Considering Corporate Social Responsibility
Systems 2023, 11(11), 543; https://doi.org/10.3390/systems11110543 - 07 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1294
Abstract
From the perspective of corporate social responsibility (CSR) of the e-commerce platform, this paper investigates the choice of e-commerce platform for wholesale sales, agency sales, and hybrid sales modes when the manufacturer has both an offline retail channel and an e-commerce platform channel. [...] Read more.
From the perspective of corporate social responsibility (CSR) of the e-commerce platform, this paper investigates the choice of e-commerce platform for wholesale sales, agency sales, and hybrid sales modes when the manufacturer has both an offline retail channel and an e-commerce platform channel. Taking the e-commerce platform as the dominant player and considering factors such as the potential market size of the e-commerce platform, consumers’ sensitivity to CSR input level, and the CSR input cost coefficient, we constructed a Stackelberg game model under the wholesale sales, agency sales, and hybrid sales modes. We explored the impact of the e-commerce platform’s CSR behavior on the choice of its sales modes as well as on the members of the supply chain. The findings indicate that, irrespective of the consumers’ sensitivity to CSR level and CSR input cost coefficient, the e-commerce platform tends to adopt the hybrid sales mode when its potential market size is smaller. Moreover, when the potential market size is larger, the wholesale sales mode is preferred; only when the potential market size is moderate, and consumers are less sensitive to CSR input level or CSR input cost coefficient is higher, the e-commerce platform will choose the agency sales mode. The increase in the potential market size of the e-commerce platform and the consumers’ sensitivity to CSR input level is conducive to the rise in the profits of the e-commerce platform, and the increase in the CSR input cost coefficient makes the profits of the e-commerce platform decrease. At the same time, the demand for the e-commerce platform increases as consumers become more sensitive to CSR input level or as the potential market size of the e-commerce platform increases. In contrast, the reduction in the CSR input cost coefficient negatively affects the demand for the e-commerce platform. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Supply Chain Management)
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23 pages, 11075 KiB  
Article
Identification of a One Health Intervention for Brucellosis in Jordan Using System Dynamics Modelling
Systems 2023, 11(11), 542; https://doi.org/10.3390/systems11110542 - 06 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1390
Abstract
Brucellosis occurs because of a complex multisector system involving the interplay between animal production and human behavior. A better understanding of transmission dynamics helps pinpoint the most effective interventions to reduce human and animal cases. Modeling methodologies have not been applied extensively to [...] Read more.
Brucellosis occurs because of a complex multisector system involving the interplay between animal production and human behavior. A better understanding of transmission dynamics helps pinpoint the most effective interventions to reduce human and animal cases. Modeling methodologies have not been applied extensively to brucellosis. This study applies system dynamics modeling to identify the interplay between the different sectors that drive disease transmission and identify One Health interventions to control brucellosis. The study applies a quantitative system dynamics modeling methodology based on a qualitative in-depth analysis of the Brucella transmission system in Jordan. The data are analyzed manually to establish causal pathways to develop a stock and flow (SF) model. The structure is examined and reviewed by key informants. Several intervention scenarios to control Brucella transmission is assessed. Brucella transmission among sheep and between farms and markets are the main drivers of human incidence. Farmers’ visits to veterinary clinics are a critical intervention point for control associated with access to vaccination. The vaccination of sheep and health education activities alone might not be an effective strategy. Testing and culling sheep is the most efficient individual control strategy for animal incidence and a combination of public and animal health strategies (One Health) is the most effective strategy to reduce human incidence. The synthesis of current knowledge through the system dynamics model enables better understanding, visualization, and interpretation of the sectors involved in Brucella transmission. There is a strong synergy between sectors; therefore, greater control might be provided by utilizing multi-sectoral relationships embedded in the system. Full article
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26 pages, 1106 KiB  
Review
Assessing Impact in Europe: A Systematic Review of Evaluation Methodologies in Homeless Interventions
Systems 2023, 11(11), 541; https://doi.org/10.3390/systems11110541 - 06 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1439
Abstract
Homelessness presents a complex societal challenge, necessitating evidence-based interventions. This paper conducts a PRISMA systematic review of impact evaluation methodologies in homeless interventions, examining the existence of standardized methodologies, and the role of theoretical frameworks, consensus on evaluation designs, and reliable outcome variables. [...] Read more.
Homelessness presents a complex societal challenge, necessitating evidence-based interventions. This paper conducts a PRISMA systematic review of impact evaluation methodologies in homeless interventions, examining the existence of standardized methodologies, and the role of theoretical frameworks, consensus on evaluation designs, and reliable outcome variables. Drawing from diverse studies, the research comprehensively analyzes impact evaluations with the goal of yielding valuable insights for practitioners and policymakers responding to the challenges and dynamics of the European context. The findings reveal a lack of standardized methodologies validated by regulatory agencies, particularly within Europe. Theoretical foundations guiding the evaluations vary widely, highlighting the need for a context-sensitive framework that considers the complexities of homelessness and socio-political factors across welfare states. While randomized controlled trials offer rigor, they are underutilized in Europe. The review advocates a mixed-methods approach for comprehensive insights to capture the multifaceted nature of homelessness interventions. Furthermore, the identification of suitable outcome variables emerges as a challenge, with inconsistent definitions hindering cross-study comparisons. The analysis underscores the significance of adopting standardized outcome variables, such as the ETHOS definition, to facilitate robust impact assessments. This review emphasizes the need for methodological refinement and collaboration, enabling comparability between programs and the generation of reliable evidence. Advocating standardized methodologies, robust frameworks, and comprehensive designs, it guides future research, evidence-based policymaking, and effective homeless interventions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Systems Practice in Social Science)
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19 pages, 1549 KiB  
Article
What Influences Users’ Intention to Share Works in Designer-Driven User-Generated Content Communities? A Study Based on Self-Determination Theory
Systems 2023, 11(11), 540; https://doi.org/10.3390/systems11110540 - 06 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1353
Abstract
Designer UGC (user-generated content) communities serve as the epicenter of contemporary innovation and creativity, offering a platform for a broad design community to showcase their talents, communicate, and collaborate. Grounded in Self-Determination Theory, this study constructs a research model aiming to delve deeply [...] Read more.
Designer UGC (user-generated content) communities serve as the epicenter of contemporary innovation and creativity, offering a platform for a broad design community to showcase their talents, communicate, and collaborate. Grounded in Self-Determination Theory, this study constructs a research model aiming to delve deeply into the underlying driving factors influencing users’ intention to share their works within these communities. Through online surveys targeting UGC community users and employing structural equation modeling, this research validates the determinants affecting their sharing intentions and dissects the pathways of each influencing factor. The findings reveal that in designer UGC communities, factors such as autonomy, competence, relatedness, online social support, and value fit have a significant positive impact on users’ intention to share their works. This study offers profound insights into the intrinsic logic behind user behaviors in the design creativity domain, also providing robust guidance for the operation and management of online community platforms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Communication for the Digital Media Age)
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16 pages, 3022 KiB  
Article
Research on Financial Fraud Detection Models Integrating Multiple Relational Graphs
Systems 2023, 11(11), 539; https://doi.org/10.3390/systems11110539 - 04 Nov 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1752
Abstract
The current fraud risk in digital finance is increasing year by year, and the mainstream solutions rely on the inherent characteristics of users, which makes it difficult to explain fraud behaviors and fraud behavior patterns are less researched. To address these problems, we [...] Read more.
The current fraud risk in digital finance is increasing year by year, and the mainstream solutions rely on the inherent characteristics of users, which makes it difficult to explain fraud behaviors and fraud behavior patterns are less researched. To address these problems, we propose an integrated multiple relational graphs fraud detection model Tri-RGCN-XGBoost, which analyzes the impact of user association patterns on fraud detection by mining the behavioral associations of users. The model builds a heterogeneous information network based on real transaction data, abstracts three types of bipartite graphs (user–device, user–merchant, and user–address), aggregates the information of the user’s neighbor nodes under the three types of behavioral patterns, and integrates the graph convolution classification results under the three behavioral patterns with the XGBoost model to achieve fraudulent user detection with integrated multiple relational graphs. The results show that the performance of this model in fraud identification is significantly improved, especially in reducing the fraudulent user underreporting rate. Further, the behavioral associations that play a key role in fraud user identification are analyzed in conjunction with shape value to provide a reference for fraud pattern mining. Full article
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29 pages, 4020 KiB  
Article
Estimating Benefits of Microtransit for Social Determinants of Health: A Social Return on Investment System Dynamics Model
Systems 2023, 11(11), 538; https://doi.org/10.3390/systems11110538 - 04 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1742
Abstract
Lack of transportation services in low-income communities greatly affects people’s health and well-being, creating barriers to social determinants of health (SDOH). One potential solution that has gained the attention of US decision-makers in recent years is microtransit, a transportation intervention aimed at addressing [...] Read more.
Lack of transportation services in low-income communities greatly affects people’s health and well-being, creating barriers to social determinants of health (SDOH). One potential solution that has gained the attention of US decision-makers in recent years is microtransit, a transportation intervention aimed at addressing this issue. Despite promising results from prior microtransit implementation, the extent to which these programs deliver social benefits remains uncertain. This study presents a novel model called Social Return on Investment System Dynamics (SROISD) to forecast the social benefits of a microtransit program in Holmes County, Mississippi. The SROISD model identifies the scope and key stakeholders, maps outcomes, and gives outcomes a value. A causal loop diagram is developed next based on mapped outcomes and a literature review, thereby conceptualizing the processes through which social benefits are gained from the microtransit program. Three stock and flow diagrams are then created from the causal loop diagram to formulate the system and produce results. Outcomes mapped relative to three SDOH areas (1) accessing healthcare, (2) accessing employment, and (3) social participation indicate an overall positive return from investing in microtransit within the low-income community of interest. Additionally, ridesharing demonstrates a significant positive correlation with the SROI ratio. These findings offer support for the advantages of investing in microtransit. Additionally, the SROISD methodology offers decisionmakers a dynamically responsive approach that integrates traditional return on investment methodologies with system dynamics to explore social benefits across a variety of impact categories. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Decision Making and Policy Analysis in Transportation Planning)
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19 pages, 7646 KiB  
Article
Manufacturing System Design in Industry 5.0: Incorporating Sociotechnical Systems and Social Metabolism for Human-Centered, Sustainable, and Resilient Production
Systems 2023, 11(11), 537; https://doi.org/10.3390/systems11110537 - 04 Nov 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1723
Abstract
This paper delves into the concept of social metabolism as a foundation for the development of sociotechnical systems in Industry 5.0. The study conducts an analysis of the existing methods and approaches for designing sociotechnical systems, and reviews publications that utilize such systems [...] Read more.
This paper delves into the concept of social metabolism as a foundation for the development of sociotechnical systems in Industry 5.0. The study conducts an analysis of the existing methods and approaches for designing sociotechnical systems, and reviews publications that utilize such systems to incorporate Industry 4.0 technologies into manufacturing processes. Additionally, it examines the three key factors of Industry 5.0 and the enabling framework of Industry 4.0 technologies. Based on these investigations, a theoretical model is proposed for manufacturing system design, employing sociotechnical systems to integrate Industry 4.0 enabling technologies, while considering the essential aspects of Industry 5.0. The model emphasizes the early consideration of sociotechnical systems to design manufacturing systems that prioritize human-centricity, sustainability, and resilience. By embracing this comprehensive approach, the proposed model contributes to the realization of a production environment aligned with societal needs, fostering a more conscious and adaptable industry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Design Methods for Human–Machine Teams)
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16 pages, 946 KiB  
Article
The Relationship between AI Adoption Intensity and Internal Control System and Accounting Information Quality
Systems 2023, 11(11), 536; https://doi.org/10.3390/systems11110536 - 04 Nov 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2355
Abstract
This study develops an empirical model for accounting information systems’ quality. The paper identifies the manufacturing industry, intensity of artificial intelligence (AI) adoption and internal control system quality as critical factors for the accounting information system quality. It empirically tests their relative importance, [...] Read more.
This study develops an empirical model for accounting information systems’ quality. The paper identifies the manufacturing industry, intensity of artificial intelligence (AI) adoption and internal control system quality as critical factors for the accounting information system quality. It empirically tests their relative importance, as well as the interrelationships between each variable. We use technology domain theory as a theoretical lens because it encompasses key interrelationships between technology, organization science and cognitive processes necessary to explain the complex relationship between different organizational artifacts. A survey was conducted using managers of 381 firms from different economic sectors. The findings demonstrate a statistically significant relationship between the intensity of AI adoption and the manufacturing industry and the internal control system quality, which in turn contributes to the accounting information system quality. Full article
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23 pages, 842 KiB  
Article
Safety Constraint-Guided Reinforcement Learning with Linear Temporal Logic
Systems 2023, 11(11), 535; https://doi.org/10.3390/systems11110535 - 02 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1198
Abstract
In the context of reinforcement learning (RL), ensuring both safety and performance is crucial, especially in real-world scenarios where mistakes can lead to severe consequences. This study aims to address this challenge by integrating temporal logic constraints into RL algorithms, thereby providing a [...] Read more.
In the context of reinforcement learning (RL), ensuring both safety and performance is crucial, especially in real-world scenarios where mistakes can lead to severe consequences. This study aims to address this challenge by integrating temporal logic constraints into RL algorithms, thereby providing a formal mechanism for safety verification. We employ a combination of theoretical and empirical methods, including the use of temporal logic for formal verification and extensive simulations to validate our approach. Our results demonstrate that the proposed method not only maintains high levels of safety but also achieves comparable performance to traditional RL algorithms. Importantly, our approach fills a critical gap in the existing literature by offering a solution that is both mathematically rigorous and empirically validated. The study concludes that the integration of temporal logic into RL offers a promising avenue for developing algorithms that are both safe and efficient. This work lays the foundation for future research aimed at generalizing this approach to various complex systems and applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Systems Theory and Methodology)
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28 pages, 2403 KiB  
Article
Unraveling Digital Transformation in Banking: Evidence from Romania
Systems 2023, 11(11), 534; https://doi.org/10.3390/systems11110534 - 02 Nov 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2091
Abstract
This research probes into the digital transformation shifts in Romania and sets them against a backdrop of certain EU countries. Its primary objective is to spotlight digitalization’s significance and assess its level of integration within the Romanian banking landscape. Our approach relies on [...] Read more.
This research probes into the digital transformation shifts in Romania and sets them against a backdrop of certain EU countries. Its primary objective is to spotlight digitalization’s significance and assess its level of integration within the Romanian banking landscape. Our approach relies on a detailed examination of the adoption of digital banking instruments in Romania through correlation and ANOVA assessments. The ANOVA analysis of the DESI index and its associated dimensions reveals how Romania’s digital transformation stands in relation to other EU member states. Our findings emphasize the numerous advantages Romanian banks have garnered from increasingly embracing digital innovations and artificial technologies. These perks span from optimized operations and efficiency to enhanced customer experiences and a sharpened competitive advantage. The research indicates a strong positive correlation between a bank’s return on assets and its liquid assets to deposits and short-term funding ratios. This suggests that as digital integration deepens, there is a marked upturn in financial robustness. Additionally, the study sheds light on the perks of individuals adopting digital banking offerings and delves into factors that propel and impede the digital evolution in the banking arena. Overall, this paper presents valuable insights into Romania’s digital banking trajectory and the sector’s long-term viability. Full article
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22 pages, 4757 KiB  
Article
Dynamic Evolution Characteristics and Drivers of Tourism-Related Ecological Security in the Beijing–Tianjin–Hebei Region
Systems 2023, 11(11), 533; https://doi.org/10.3390/systems11110533 - 02 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1127
Abstract
Revealing the characteristics of the spatial and temporal evolution of regional tourism-related ecological security and exploring its driving factors are of great theoretical and practical value to promoting the coordinated and sustainable development of the tourism economy and the ecological environment. Taking the [...] Read more.
Revealing the characteristics of the spatial and temporal evolution of regional tourism-related ecological security and exploring its driving factors are of great theoretical and practical value to promoting the coordinated and sustainable development of the tourism economy and the ecological environment. Taking the Beijing–Tianjin–Hebei region as a case study, this study constructed a tourism-related ecological security evaluation index system based on the DPSIR theoretical framework. The tourism-related ecological security index was measured from 2011 to 2022 and its spatiotemporal characteristics and dynamic evolutionary process were analyzed. Finally, the panel quantile regression model was used to analyze its driving factors. The results show that: (1) in time, the average value of tourism-related ecological security fluctuates and rises, and the differences between the units show a convergent trend, which is mainly manifested in the catching-up effect from low-value cities to higher-value cities; (2) in space, Beijing and its southeastern cities have a high level of tourism-related ecological security, and although the study area is mainly at the less secure level, it is developing continuously and progressively; (3) in terms of the dynamic evolution characteristics, the type transfer of tourism-related ecological security has certain “path dependence” and “self-locking” effects, often occurring between neighboring levels, and the type transfer under the influence of different neighborhoods has significant differences; (4) in terms of driving factors, environmental pollution has a significant inhibitory effect on the level of tourism-related ecological security, and the level of economic development has the largest positive marginal effect on tourism-related ecological security, while other influencing factors such as the level of tourism development have certain differences in terms of their positive role in the promotion of the level of tourism-related ecological security. This study can provide a reference for decisionmakers to promote ecological protection and high-quality tourism development in the Beijing–Tianjin–Hebei region. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Service Ecosystems: Resilience and Sustainability)
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21 pages, 1958 KiB  
Article
Overseas Market Expansion Strategy of the Global Electronic Components Company Based on the AHP Analysis of Factors in Technology, Organization, and Environment Context: A Case of Samsung Electro-Mechanics
Systems 2023, 11(11), 532; https://doi.org/10.3390/systems11110532 - 31 Oct 2023
Viewed by 1733
Abstract
The overseas market expansion strategy is important for achieving competitive advantage and sustainable growth of global electronic component companies. Although the global electronic component market has grown rapidly recently, research focusing on the innovation strategy of global electronic component companies’ expansion into overseas [...] Read more.
The overseas market expansion strategy is important for achieving competitive advantage and sustainable growth of global electronic component companies. Although the global electronic component market has grown rapidly recently, research focusing on the innovation strategy of global electronic component companies’ expansion into overseas markets is scarce. This paper defines the key factors that influence the success of a global electronic component company’s overseas market expansion strategy based on the Technology, Organization, and Environment (TOE) framework and quantitatively identifies the relative importance of factors at the technology, organization, and environmental levels through Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) analysis. As a case study, we analyze Samsung Electro-Mechanics, which has grown as a global electronic components company through an overseas market expansion strategy in recent decades. As a result of the analysis, among the three top factors defined as key factors, the technology factor was evaluated as the most important factor, and among the subfactors of the technology factor, “R&D Availability”, and “Production Availability” were analyzed as the most important influencing factors. These analysis results suggest that global electronic component companies can achieve successful results when they pursue overseas market expansion strategies by prioritizing technology development and focusing on growth strategies suited to the market environment. This study is meaningful as an academic study focusing on the overseas market expansion strategies of global electronic component companies and makes a practical contribution by providing management implications that can be taken by electronic component companies seeking to expand overseas markets. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research and Practices in Technological Innovation Management Systems)
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18 pages, 968 KiB  
Article
How Does Economic Resilience Enhance the Innovation Capability of the High-Tech Industry? Evidence from China
Systems 2023, 11(11), 531; https://doi.org/10.3390/systems11110531 - 31 Oct 2023
Viewed by 1276
Abstract
There is still a significant gap between most high-tech fields in China and developed countries, and the relationship between the economic resilience of innovation systems and the innovation capability of the high-tech industry has received attention. Using data from 30 provinces in China, [...] Read more.
There is still a significant gap between most high-tech fields in China and developed countries, and the relationship between the economic resilience of innovation systems and the innovation capability of the high-tech industry has received attention. Using data from 30 provinces in China, this study adopts the fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis approach to analyze the relationship between economic resilience and high-tech industry innovation capability, and the findings are as follows: (1) Technological talents and economic development are necessary conditions for explaining the high innovation capability of high-tech industries. (2) The combination of economic resilience and different factors constitutes the equivalent configuration of two high innovation capabilities and four low innovation capabilities. (3) Under high-intensity technological competition between governments, the increased agglomeration of technological talents, and high-quality economic development, the strengthening of economic resilience is conducive to enhancing the innovation capability of high-tech industries. (4) Under low-intensity technological competition between governments, a well-developed technology market, and increased agglomeration of technological talents, the strengthening of economic resilience is adverse to enhancing the innovation capability of high-tech industries. The main contribution of this study is to clarify the configuration mechanism of economic resilience that acts on the innovation capability of the high-tech industry and reveal the complex interaction between economic resilience and multiple factors. Full article
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29 pages, 2085 KiB  
Review
Systematic Review of Agent-Based and System Dynamics Models for Social-Ecological System Case Studies
Systems 2023, 11(11), 530; https://doi.org/10.3390/systems11110530 - 30 Oct 2023
Viewed by 2289
Abstract
Social–ecological system (SES) modeling involves developing and/or applying models to investigate complex problems arising from the interactions between humans and natural systems. Among the different types, agent-based models (ABM) and system dynamics (SD) are prominent approaches in SES modeling. However, few SES models [...] Read more.
Social–ecological system (SES) modeling involves developing and/or applying models to investigate complex problems arising from the interactions between humans and natural systems. Among the different types, agent-based models (ABM) and system dynamics (SD) are prominent approaches in SES modeling. However, few SES models influence decision-making support and policymaking. The objectives of this study were to explore the application of ABM and SD in SES studies through a systematic review of published real-world case studies and determine the extent to which existing SES models inform policymaking processes. We identified 35 case studies using ABM, SD, or a hybrid of the two and found that each modeling approach shared commonalities that collectively contributed to the policymaking process, offering a comprehensive understanding of the intricate dynamics within SES, facilitating scenario exploration and policy testing, and fostering effective communication and stakeholder engagement. This study also suggests several improvements to chart a more effective trajectory for research in this field, including fostering interdisciplinary collaboration, developing hybrid models, adopting transparent model reporting, and implementing machine-learning algorithms. Full article
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29 pages, 3302 KiB  
Article
Energy Efficient CH Selection Scheme Based on ABC and Q-Learning Approaches for IoUT Applications
Systems 2023, 11(11), 529; https://doi.org/10.3390/systems11110529 - 29 Oct 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1097
Abstract
Nowadays, the Internet of Underwater Things (IoUT) provides many marine 5G applications. However, it has some issues with energy efficiency and network lifetime. The network clustering approach is efficient for optimizing energy consumption, especially for underwater acoustic communications. Recently, many algorithms have been [...] Read more.
Nowadays, the Internet of Underwater Things (IoUT) provides many marine 5G applications. However, it has some issues with energy efficiency and network lifetime. The network clustering approach is efficient for optimizing energy consumption, especially for underwater acoustic communications. Recently, many algorithms have been developed related to clustering-based underwater communications for energy efficiency. However, these algorithms have drawbacks when considered for heterogeneous IoUT applications. Clustering efficiency in heterogeneous IoUT is influenced by the uniform distribution of cluster heads (CHs). As a result, conventional schemes are inefficient when CHs are arranged in large and dense nodes since they are unable to optimize the right number of CHs. Consequently, the clustering approach cannot improve the IoUT network, and many underwater nodes will rapidly consume their energies and be exhausted because of the large number of clusters. In this paper, we developed an efficient clustering scheme to effectively select the best CHs based on artificial bee colony (ABC) and Q-learning optimization approaches. The proposed scheme enables an effective selection of the CHs based on four factors, the residual energy level, the depth and the distance from the base station, and the signal quality. We first evaluate the most suitable swarm algorithms and their impact on improving the CH selection mechanism. The evaluated algorithms are generic algorithm (GA), particle swarm optimization (PSO), ant colony optimization (ACO), and ABC. Then, the ABC algorithm process is improved by using the Q-learning approach to improve the process of ABC and its fitness function to optimize the CH selection. We observed from the simulation performance result that an improved ABC-QL scheme enables efficient selection of the best CHs to increase the network lifetime and reduce average energy consumption by 40% compared to the conventional ABC. Full article
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30 pages, 17684 KiB  
Article
Designing for Intergenerational Communication among Older Adults: A Systematic Inquiry in Old Residential Communities of China’s Yangtze River Delta
by and
Systems 2023, 11(11), 528; https://doi.org/10.3390/systems11110528 - 29 Oct 2023
Viewed by 1703
Abstract
Presently, a substantial majority of older individuals in urban regions of China prefer to inhabit older residential communities over newer counterparts. Within these aging communities, the intricate matter of intergenerational communication among older adults presents a complex and multifaceted issue that warrants comprehensive [...] Read more.
Presently, a substantial majority of older individuals in urban regions of China prefer to inhabit older residential communities over newer counterparts. Within these aging communities, the intricate matter of intergenerational communication among older adults presents a complex and multifaceted issue that warrants comprehensive investigation from a systematic perspective. This paper first employs the observational method to study multiple old residential communities in a city in the Yangtze River Delta region of China. The POEMS framework and the AEIOU framework are applied, focusing on the analysis of individuals and the interaction between individuals and objects, respectively. Semistructured interviews are then conducted with three groups of people, emphasizing community participation by older adults, intergenerational interaction from the perspective of older adults, and intergenerational interaction from the perspective of young people. Finally, the paper categorizes the types and characteristics of individuals in the old communities, identifying the intersections between these groups. The current social situation of older adults and young people is summarized, including behavioral and psychological characteristics and social interaction challenges. Based on these findings, ten system design directions to enhance intergenerational interaction in old communities are proposed, and three of these system design directions are further developed. Full article
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23 pages, 443 KiB  
Article
The Criteria of Inbound Marketing to Segment and Explain the Domain Authority of the Cellars’ E-Commerce in the Canary Islands
Systems 2023, 11(11), 527; https://doi.org/10.3390/systems11110527 - 24 Oct 2023
Viewed by 1832
Abstract
This study uses an inbound measuring instrument to segment the cellar’s e-commerce in the Canary Islands. One of the central claims of this paper is that inbound marketing comprises several dimensions such as content resources, SEO, social media, digital maturity, and e-commerce growth, [...] Read more.
This study uses an inbound measuring instrument to segment the cellar’s e-commerce in the Canary Islands. One of the central claims of this paper is that inbound marketing comprises several dimensions such as content resources, SEO, social media, digital maturity, and e-commerce growth, such that it implies superior levels of personalisation, flexibility, service, security, and privacy, product and shop transparency, advanced technology, and data mining. After raising three research questions, this study performed fieldwork based on web analytics procedures, extracting metrics from 59 cellars’ websites thanks to employing a broad range of software. The sampling procedure was non-probabilistic and judgmental, took place in the spring of 2023, and gathered relevant metrics to build an inbound scale. The data prove that the inbound measuring instrument can rank and segment the Canary Islands’ marketplace. Although this study has put forward a tentative explanation and application of the inbound marketing notion and tools, findings suggest a need for a more significant effort to explore how generalizable the created measuring instrument is. Full article
23 pages, 828 KiB  
Article
Enterprise Digital Transformation and Regional Green Innovation Efficiency Based on the Perspective of Digital Capability: Evidence from China
Systems 2023, 11(11), 526; https://doi.org/10.3390/systems11110526 - 24 Oct 2023
Viewed by 1600
Abstract
Under the dual pressure of economic development and environmental protection, it is urgent that we improve the efficiency of green innovation. Enterprise digital transformation brings opportunities to improve the efficiency of green innovation. However, most current studies focus on the relationship between the [...] Read more.
Under the dual pressure of economic development and environmental protection, it is urgent that we improve the efficiency of green innovation. Enterprise digital transformation brings opportunities to improve the efficiency of green innovation. However, most current studies focus on the relationship between the two from the micro level, ignoring the impact of enterprise digital transformation on the green innovation of other innovation entities within the region, and have not yet described it in detail from the perspective of digital capabilities. Therefore, based on Chinese data, this paper studies the impact of enterprise digital transformation on regional green innovation efficiency from the perspective of digital capability, and provides a theoretical reference for improving regional green innovation efficiency. The research shows that (1) the digital capabilities of enterprise digital transformation include digital acquisition capability, digital utilization capability, and digital sharing capability, which have significant promoting effects on regional green innovation efficiency; (2) strengthening information resources, knowledge resources, R&D funds, and human resources are the role channels indicated by mechanism analysis; (3) heterogeneity analysis shows that the promotion effect is not related to geographical location, but the disadvantaged areas of enterprise digital transformation and regional green innovation efficiency have a greater impact. Further, the applicability of the research conclusions is extended through case studies in other countries. This study enriches the research perspective of the relationship between enterprise digital transformation and green innovation, and provides a new path for regional sustainable development. Full article
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