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Biology, Volume 11, Issue 6 (June 2022) – 145 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): The yellow‐eyed penguin is endemic to New Zealand and has declined c. 72% since 2008/2009 within its mainland range. Penguins breeding on Stewart Island are particularly vulnerable to marine threats such as fisheries bycatch and habitat degradation due to the lack of marine life. We used GPS‐TDR loggers to track adult breeding penguins at sea and investigate the degree of plasticity displayed across their Stewart Island foraging range. Penguins from the three breeding sites differed in their habitat use, but individuals displayed consistent foraging behavior between trips and years. The observed consistency in preferred foraging locations suggests that targeted marine protection may be effective in eliminating fisheries‐related mortality and reduce the risk of local extinction. View this paper
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34 pages, 1413 KiB  
Review
Insulin and Its Key Role for Mitochondrial Function/Dysfunction and Quality Control: A Shared Link between Dysmetabolism and Neurodegeneration
by Giacoma Galizzi and Marta Di Carlo
Biology 2022, 11(6), 943; https://doi.org/10.3390/biology11060943 - 20 Jun 2022
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 4529
Abstract
Insulin was discovered and isolated from the beta cells of pancreatic islets of dogs and is associated with the regulation of peripheral glucose homeostasis. Insulin produced in the brain is related to synaptic plasticity and memory. Defective insulin signaling plays a role in [...] Read more.
Insulin was discovered and isolated from the beta cells of pancreatic islets of dogs and is associated with the regulation of peripheral glucose homeostasis. Insulin produced in the brain is related to synaptic plasticity and memory. Defective insulin signaling plays a role in brain dysfunction, such as neurodegenerative disease. Growing evidence suggests a link between metabolic disorders, such as diabetes and obesity, and neurodegenerative diseases, especially Alzheimer’s disease (AD). This association is due to a common state of insulin resistance (IR) and mitochondrial dysfunction. This review takes a journey into the past to summarize what was known about the physiological and pathological role of insulin in peripheral tissues and the brain. Then, it will land in the present to analyze the insulin role on mitochondrial health and the effects on insulin resistance and neurodegenerative diseases that are IR-dependent. Specifically, we will focus our attention on the quality control of mitochondria (MQC), such as mitochondrial dynamics, mitochondrial biogenesis, and selective autophagy (mitophagy), in healthy and altered cases. Finally, this review will be projected toward the future by examining the most promising treatments that target the mitochondria to cure neurodegenerative diseases associated with metabolic disorders. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mitochondrial Homeostasis in Obesity)
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11 pages, 831 KiB  
Article
Running-Induced Fatigue Changes the Structure of Motor Variability in Novice Runners
by Felix Möhler, Cagla Fadillioglu, Lucia Scheffler, Hermann Müller and Thorsten Stein
Biology 2022, 11(6), 942; https://doi.org/10.3390/biology11060942 - 20 Jun 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2524
Abstract
Understanding the effects of fatigue is a central issue in the context of endurance sports. Given the popularity of running, there are numerous novices among runners. Therefore, understanding the effects of fatigue in novice runners is an important issue. Various studies have drawn [...] Read more.
Understanding the effects of fatigue is a central issue in the context of endurance sports. Given the popularity of running, there are numerous novices among runners. Therefore, understanding the effects of fatigue in novice runners is an important issue. Various studies have drawn conclusions about the control of certain variables by analyzing motor variability. One variable that plays a crucial role during running is the center of mass (CoM), as it reflects the movement of the whole body in a simplified way. Therefore, the aim of this study was to analyze the effects of fatigue on the motor variability structure that stabilizes the CoM trajectory in novice runners. To do so, the uncontrolled manifold approach was applied to a 3D whole-body model using the CoM as the result variable. It was found that motor variability increased with fatigue (UCM). However, the UCMRatio did not change. This indicates that the control of the CoM decreased, whereas the stability was not affected. The decreases in control were correlated with the degree of exhaustion, as indicated by the Borg scale (during breaking and flight phase). It can be summarized that running-induced fatigue increases the step-to-step variability in novice runners and affects the control of their CoM. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Variability in Human Motor Control)
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6 pages, 467 KiB  
Opinion
Can Introns Stabilize Gene Duplication?
by Gioacchino Micheli and Giorgio Camilloni
Biology 2022, 11(6), 941; https://doi.org/10.3390/biology11060941 - 20 Jun 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2004
Abstract
Gene duplication is considered one of the most important events that determine the evolution of genomes. However, the neo-duplication condition of a given gene is particularly unstable due to recombination events. Several mechanisms have been proposed to justify this step. In this “opinion [...] Read more.
Gene duplication is considered one of the most important events that determine the evolution of genomes. However, the neo-duplication condition of a given gene is particularly unstable due to recombination events. Several mechanisms have been proposed to justify this step. In this “opinion article” we propose a role for intron sequences in stabilizing gene duplication by limiting and reducing the identity of the gene sequence between the two duplicated copies. A review of the topic and a detailed hypothesis are presented. Full article
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18 pages, 9250 KiB  
Article
Osteosynthesis Metal Plate System for Bone Fixation Using Bicortical Screws: Numerical–Experimental Characterization
by Andrea A. R. Olmos, Aureliano Fertuzinhos, Teresa D. Campos, Isabel R. Dias, Carlos A. Viegas, Fábio A. M. Pereira, Nguyễn T. Quyền, Marcelo F. S. F. de Moura, Andrea Zille and Nuno Dourado
Biology 2022, 11(6), 940; https://doi.org/10.3390/biology11060940 - 20 Jun 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2002
Abstract
This study reports the numerical and experimental characterization of a standard immobilization system currently being used to treat simple oblique bone fractures of femoral diaphyses. The procedure focuses on the assessment of the mechanical behavior of a bone stabilized with a dynamic compression [...] Read more.
This study reports the numerical and experimental characterization of a standard immobilization system currently being used to treat simple oblique bone fractures of femoral diaphyses. The procedure focuses on the assessment of the mechanical behavior of a bone stabilized with a dynamic compression plate (DCP) in a neutralization function, associated to a lag screw, fastened with surgical screws. The non-linear behavior of cortical bone tissue was revealed through four-point bending tests, from which damage initiation and propagation occurred. Since screw loosening was visible during the loading process, damage parameters were measured experimentally in independent pull-out tests. A realistic numerical model of the DCP-femur setup was constructed, combining the evaluated damage parameters and contact pairs. A mixed-mode (I+II) trapezoidal damage law was employed to mimic the mechanical behavior of both the screw–bone interface and bone fractures. The numerical model replicated the global behavior observed experimentally, which was visible by the initial stiffness and the ability to preview the first loading peak, and bone crack satisfactorily. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applications of the Goat Model in Biomedical Research)
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28 pages, 8302 KiB  
Article
The Inflammatory Response after Moderate Contusion Spinal Cord Injury: A Time Study
by Minna Christiansen Lund, Ditte Gry Ellman, Maiken Nissen, Pernille Sveistrup Nielsen, Pernille Vinther Nielsen, Carina Jørgensen, Ditte Caroline Andersen, Han Gao, Roberta Brambilla, Matilda Degn, Bettina Hjelm Clausen and Kate Lykke Lambertsen
Biology 2022, 11(6), 939; https://doi.org/10.3390/biology11060939 - 20 Jun 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 3012
Abstract
Spinal cord injury (SCI) initiates detrimental cellular and molecular events that lead to acute and delayed neuroinflammation. Understanding the role of the inflammatory response in SCI requires insight into the temporal and cellular synthesis of inflammatory mediators. We subjected C57BL/6J mice to SCI [...] Read more.
Spinal cord injury (SCI) initiates detrimental cellular and molecular events that lead to acute and delayed neuroinflammation. Understanding the role of the inflammatory response in SCI requires insight into the temporal and cellular synthesis of inflammatory mediators. We subjected C57BL/6J mice to SCI and investigated inflammatory reactions. We examined activation, recruitment, and polarization of microglia and infiltrating immune cells, focusing specifically on tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and its receptors TNFR1 and TNFR2. In the acute phase, TNF expression increased in glial cells and neuron-like cells, followed by infiltrating immune cells. TNFR1 and TNFR2 levels increased in the delayed phase and were found preferentially on neurons and glial cells, respectively. The acute phase was dominated by the infiltration of granulocytes and macrophages. Microglial/macrophage expression of Arg1 increased from 1–7 days after SCI, followed by an increase in Itgam, Cx3cr1, and P2ry12, which remained elevated throughout the study. By 21 and 28 days after SCI, the lesion core was populated by galectin-3+, CD68+, and CD11b+ microglia/macrophages, surrounded by a glial scar consisting of GFAP+ astrocytes. Findings were verified in postmortem tissue from individuals with SCI. Our findings support the consensus that future neuroprotective immunotherapies should aim to selectively neutralize detrimental immune signaling while sustaining pro-regenerative processes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pathophysiology of Spinal Cord Injury (SCI))
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11 pages, 2888 KiB  
Article
Enhanced Anxiety and Olfactory Microglial Activation in Early-Stage Familial Alzheimer’s Disease Mouse Model
by Keerthana Chithanathan, Fang-Ling Xuan, Miriam Ann Hickey and Li Tian
Biology 2022, 11(6), 938; https://doi.org/10.3390/biology11060938 - 20 Jun 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2040
Abstract
Anxiety is a known comorbidity and risk factor for conversion to neuroinflammation-mediated dementia in patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Here, we investigated if anxiety occurred as an early endophenotype of mutant familial AD (5 × FAD) male mice and the underlying neuroinflammatory mechanisms. [...] Read more.
Anxiety is a known comorbidity and risk factor for conversion to neuroinflammation-mediated dementia in patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Here, we investigated if anxiety occurred as an early endophenotype of mutant familial AD (5 × FAD) male mice and the underlying neuroinflammatory mechanisms. We observed that compared to wildtype (WT) littermates, 5 × FAD mice showed enhanced anxiety at as early as 2 months old (mo). Interestingly, these 5 × FAD male mice had concomitantly increased mRNA levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin 1 beta (Il1b) and tumor necrosis factor (Tnf) in the olfactory bulb (OB) but not the frontal cortex (FC). Increased expression of Tnf in the OB was significantly correlated with the anxious behavior in the FAD but not WT mice. Furthermore, we found more prominent microglial activation and morphological changes in the OB of 2 mo 5 × FAD mice, while only microglial ramification was seen in the FC. To understand if neuroinflammatory changes in the FC could occur at a later stage, we studied 5~6 mo male mice and found that Il1b, interleukin 18 (Il18), and Tnf were upregulated in the FC at this older age. Furthermore, we observed that numbers of microglia and macrophage as well as microglial synaptic pruning, as indicated by phagocytosis of presynaptic component of vesicular glutamate transporter-2, were increased in the OB but not the FC of 5~6 mo 5 × FAD mice. Our findings demonstrated the OB as a more sensitive brain region than the cerebral cortex for microglia-mediated neuroinflammation in association with anxiety in FAD mice and supported the notion that the OB can be an early-stage biomarker in AD. Full article
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13 pages, 610 KiB  
Article
Characteristics of COVID-19 Inpatients in Rehabilitation Units during the First Pandemic Wave: A Cohort Study from a Large Hospital in Champagne Region
by Amandine Rapin, Peter-Joe Noujaim, Redha Taiar, Sandy Carazo-Mendez, Gaetan Deslee, Damien Jolly and François Constant Boyer
Biology 2022, 11(6), 937; https://doi.org/10.3390/biology11060937 - 20 Jun 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1722
Abstract
Background: Data describing patients hospitalized in medical rehabilitation wards after the acute phase of COVID-19 could help to better understand the rehabilitation needs in the current pandemic situation. Methods: Cohort including all patients with COVID-19 hospitalized in a single, large university [...] Read more.
Background: Data describing patients hospitalized in medical rehabilitation wards after the acute phase of COVID-19 could help to better understand the rehabilitation needs in the current pandemic situation. Methods: Cohort including all patients with COVID-19 hospitalized in a single, large university hospital in Northeast France from 25 February to 30 April 2020. Results: 479 patients were admitted with COVID-19 during the study period, of whom 128 died (26.7%). Among the 351 survivors, 111 were referred to rehabilitation units, including 63 (17.9%) referred to physical and rehabilitation medicine (PRM) units. The median age of patients referred to rehabilitation units was 72 years. Patients who had been in intensive care, or who had had a long hospital stay, required referral to PRM units. Two biomarkers were associated with referral to rehabilitation units, namely, elevated troponin (p = 0.03) and impaired renal function (p = 0.03). Age was associated with referral to PRM units (p = 0.001). Conclusions: Almost one-third of COVID-19 patients required post-acute care, but only one-fifth had access to PRM units. The optimal strategy for post-acute management of COVID-19 patients remains to be determined. The need for rehabilitation wards during a pandemic is a primary concern in enabling the long-term functioning of infected patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Human Bodywork: Applications in Health, Disease, and Rehabilitation)
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13 pages, 3212 KiB  
Article
In Vitro Model of Human Skeletal Muscle Tissue for the Study of Resident Macrophages and Stem Cells
by Dandan Hao, Nils Becker, Eva Mückter, Aline Müller, Miguel Pishnamaz, Leo Cornelis Bollheimer, Frank Hildebrand and Mahtab Nourbakhsh
Biology 2022, 11(6), 936; https://doi.org/10.3390/biology11060936 - 19 Jun 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3029
Abstract
Findings from studies of muscle regeneration can significantly contribute to the treatment of age-related loss of skeletal muscle mass, which may predispose older adults to severe morbidities. We established a human experimental model using excised skeletal muscle tissues from reconstructive surgeries in eight [...] Read more.
Findings from studies of muscle regeneration can significantly contribute to the treatment of age-related loss of skeletal muscle mass, which may predispose older adults to severe morbidities. We established a human experimental model using excised skeletal muscle tissues from reconstructive surgeries in eight older adults. Muscle samples from each participant were preserved immediately or maintained in agarose medium for the following 5, 9, or 11 days. Immunofluorescence analyses of the structural proteins, actin and desmin, confirmed the integrity of muscle fibers over 11 days of maintenance. Similarly, the numbers of CD80-positive M1 and CD163-positive M2 macrophages were stable over 11 days in vitro. However, the numbers of PAX7-positive satellite cells and MYOD-positive myoblasts changed in opposite ways, suggesting that satellite cells partially differentiated in vitro. Further experiments revealed that stimulation with unsaturated fatty acid C18[2]c (linoleic acid) increased resident M1 macrophages and satellite cells specifically. Thus, the use of human skeletal muscle tissue in vitro provides a direct experimental approach to study the regulation of muscle tissue regeneration by macrophages and stem cells and their responses to therapeutic compounds. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Human Experimental Models in Molecular Pharmacology)
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10 pages, 310 KiB  
Article
Oxidative Stress Biomarkers and Quality of Life Are Contributing Factors of Muscle Pain and Lean Body Mass in Patients with Fibromyalgia
by Jousielle Márcia dos Santos, Ana Cristina Rodrigues Lacerda, Vanessa Gonçalves César Ribeiro, Pedro Henrique Scheidt Figueiredo, Sueli Ferreira Fonseca, Vanessa Kelly da Silva Lage, Henrique Silveira Costa, Vanessa Pereira Lima, Borja Sañudo, Mário Bernardo-Filho, Danúbia da Cunha de Sá Caputo, Vanessa Amaral Mendonça and Redha Taiar
Biology 2022, 11(6), 935; https://doi.org/10.3390/biology11060935 - 19 Jun 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2471
Abstract
(1) The evidence points to an increase in oxygen reactive species as one of the possible causes of fibromyalgia (FM). In addition, it is plausible that an imbalance in redox markers can be associated with pain amplification and dynapenia in FM patients. The [...] Read more.
(1) The evidence points to an increase in oxygen reactive species as one of the possible causes of fibromyalgia (FM). In addition, it is plausible that an imbalance in redox markers can be associated with pain amplification and dynapenia in FM patients. The aim of our study was to investigate possible factors associated with muscle pain and lean body mass in FM patients. (2) Methods: This was a quantitative, exploratory and cross-sectional study of 47 patients with FM (53.45 + 7.32 years). We evaluated self-perceptions of muscle pain, lean body mass, body composition, quality of life, sleep quality, depression index, muscle performance and oxidative stress biomarkers. (3) Results: We observed that lower blood levels of antioxidants and poor quality of life explained 21% of the greater muscle pain. In addition, high blood levels of oxidative stress, worse muscle performance and poor quality of life explained 27% of the lower lean mass in patients with FM. (4) Conclusions: Larger amounts of lipid peroxidation and reductions in antioxidant levels, in addition to lower muscle performance and poor life quality, are possible independent contributors to greater muscle pain and lower lean body mass in FM patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Human Bodywork: Applications in Health, Disease, and Rehabilitation)
16 pages, 2210 KiB  
Review
Anguillid Eels as a Model Species for Understanding Endocrinological Influences on the Onset of Spawning Migration of Fishes
by Ryusuke Sudo and Takashi Yada
Biology 2022, 11(6), 934; https://doi.org/10.3390/biology11060934 - 19 Jun 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3731
Abstract
Anguillid eels are the iconic example of catadromous fishes, because of their long-distance offshore spawning migrations. They are also a good model for research on the onset mechanisms of migrations to breeding areas, because the migrations begin in inland waters. When eels transform [...] Read more.
Anguillid eels are the iconic example of catadromous fishes, because of their long-distance offshore spawning migrations. They are also a good model for research on the onset mechanisms of migrations to breeding areas, because the migrations begin in inland waters. When eels transform from yellow eels to silver eels, it is called silvering. Silver eels show various synchronous external and internal changes during silvering, that include coloration changes, eye-size increases, and gonadal development, which appear to be pre-adaptations to the oceanic environment and for reproductive maturation. A strong gonadotropic axis activation occurs during silvering, whereas somatotropic and thyrotropic axes are not activated. Among various hormones, 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT) drastically increases during spawning migration onset. Gradual water temperature decreases simulating the autumn migratory season, inducing 11-KT increases. Administration of 11-KT appeared to cause changes related to silvering, such as early-stage oocyte growth and eye enlargement. Moreover, 11-KT may be an endogenous factor that elevates the migratory drive needed for the spawning migration onset. These findings suggested that water temperature decreases cause 11-KT to increase in autumn and this induces silvering and increases migratory drive. In addition, we newly report that 11-KT is associated with a corticotropin-releasing hormone that influences migratory behavior of salmonids. This evidence that 11-KT might be among the most important factors in the spawning migration onset of anguillid eels can help provide useful knowledge for understanding endocrinological mechanisms of the initiation of spawning migrations. Full article
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21 pages, 2199 KiB  
Article
Detecting Local Adaptation between North and South European Atlantic Salmon Populations
by María Gabián, Paloma Morán, María Saura and Antonio Carvajal-Rodríguez
Biology 2022, 11(6), 933; https://doi.org/10.3390/biology11060933 - 19 Jun 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2476
Abstract
Pollution and other anthropogenic effects have driven a decrease in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) in the Iberian Peninsula. The restocking effort carried out in the 1980s, with salmon from northern latitudes with the aim of mitigating the decline of native populations, [...] Read more.
Pollution and other anthropogenic effects have driven a decrease in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) in the Iberian Peninsula. The restocking effort carried out in the 1980s, with salmon from northern latitudes with the aim of mitigating the decline of native populations, failed, probably due to the deficiency in adaptation of foreign salmon from northern Europe to the warm waters of the Iberian Peninsula. This result would imply that the Iberian populations of Atlantic salmon have experienced local adaptation in their past evolutionary history, as has been described for other populations of this species and other salmonids. Local adaptation can occur by divergent selections between environments, favoring the fixation of alleles that increase the fitness of a population in the environment it inhabits relative to other alleles favored in another population. In this work, we compared the genomes of different populations from the Iberian Peninsula (Atlantic and Cantabric basins) and Scotland in order to provide tentative evidence of candidate SNPs responsible for the adaptive differences between populations, which may explain the failures of restocking carried out during the 1980s. For this purpose, the samples were genotyped with a 220,000 high-density SNP array (Affymetrix) specific to Atlantic salmon. Our results revealed potential evidence of local adaptation for North Spanish and Scottish populations. As expected, most differences concerned the comparison of the Iberian Peninsula with Scotland, although there were also differences between Atlantic and Cantabric populations. A high proportion of the genes identified are related to development and cellular metabolism, DNA transcription and anatomical structure. A particular SNP was identified within the NADP-dependent malic enzyme-2 (mMEP-2*), previously reported by independent studies as a candidate for local adaptation in salmon from the Iberian Peninsula. Interestingly, the corresponding SNP within the mMEP-2* region was consistent with a genomic pattern of divergent selection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Genetics and Genomics)
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13 pages, 1169 KiB  
Article
The Effects of Silicone Enclosure Colour on the Function of Optical Sensors
by Garrett Frank, Shahbaz Askari, Katharina Raschdorf, Sadra Khosravi, Brian K. Kwon and Babak Shadgan
Biology 2022, 11(6), 932; https://doi.org/10.3390/biology11060932 - 19 Jun 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1868
Abstract
The colour of the silicone enclosure of an implantable reflectance-based optical probe plays a critical role in sensor performance. Red-coloured probes that are highly reflective to near-infrared light have been found to increase photodetector power by a factor of 6 for wavelengths between [...] Read more.
The colour of the silicone enclosure of an implantable reflectance-based optical probe plays a critical role in sensor performance. Red-coloured probes that are highly reflective to near-infrared light have been found to increase photodetector power by a factor of 6 for wavelengths between 660 and 950 nm and triple the magnitude of measured cardiac pulsations compared to traditional black probes. The increase in photodetector power and cardiac pulsation magnitude is presumably due to increased spatial range resulting from a higher magnitude of superficial tissue scattering. Conversely, probes with highly absorbent colours such as black and blue result in more stable signals and are expected to have higher spatial resolution and depth of penetration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Miniaturized Biosensors and Wearable Devices)
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17 pages, 1167 KiB  
Review
Role of mTOR Signaling Cascade in Epidermal Morphogenesis and Skin Barrier Formation
by Juan Wang, Sabine A. Eming and Xiaolei Ding
Biology 2022, 11(6), 931; https://doi.org/10.3390/biology11060931 - 19 Jun 2022
Viewed by 3033
Abstract
The skin epidermis, with its capacity for lifelong self-renewal and rapid repairing response upon injury, must maintain an active status in metabolism. Mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling is a central controller of cellular growth and metabolism that coordinates diverse physiological and pathological [...] Read more.
The skin epidermis, with its capacity for lifelong self-renewal and rapid repairing response upon injury, must maintain an active status in metabolism. Mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling is a central controller of cellular growth and metabolism that coordinates diverse physiological and pathological processes in a variety of tissues and organs. Recent evidence with genetic mouse models highlights an essential role of the mTOR signaling network in epidermal morphogenesis and barrier formation. In this review, we focus on the recent advances in understanding how mTOR signaling networks, including upstream inputs, kinases and downstream effectors, regulate epidermal morphogenesis and skin barrier formation. Understanding the details of the metabolic signaling will be critical for the development of novel pharmacological approaches to promote skin barrier regeneration and to treat epidermal barrier defect-associated diseases. Full article
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20 pages, 3215 KiB  
Article
Identification of a Unique Cytotoxic Thieno[2,3-c]Pyrazole Derivative with Potent and Selective Anticancer Effects In Vitro
by Jessica D. Hess, Luca H. Macias, Denisse A. Gutierrez, Karla Moran-Santibanez, Lisett Contreras, Stephanie Medina, Paulina J. Villanueva, Robert A. Kirken, Armando Varela-Ramirez, Manuel L. Penichet and Renato J. Aguilera
Biology 2022, 11(6), 930; https://doi.org/10.3390/biology11060930 - 18 Jun 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2479
Abstract
In recent years, the thienopyrazole moiety has emerged as a pharmacologically active scaffold with antitumoral and kinase inhibitory activity. In this study, high-throughput screening of 2000 small molecules obtained from the ChemBridge DIVERset library revealed a unique thieno[2,3-c]pyrazole derivative (Tpz-1) with potent and [...] Read more.
In recent years, the thienopyrazole moiety has emerged as a pharmacologically active scaffold with antitumoral and kinase inhibitory activity. In this study, high-throughput screening of 2000 small molecules obtained from the ChemBridge DIVERset library revealed a unique thieno[2,3-c]pyrazole derivative (Tpz-1) with potent and selective cytotoxic effects on cancer cells. Compound Tpz-1 consistently induced cell death at low micromolar concentrations (0.19 μM to 2.99 μM) against a panel of 17 human cancer cell lines after 24 h, 48 h, or 72 h of exposure. Furthermore, an in vitro investigation of Tpz-1’s mechanism of action revealed that Tpz-1 interfered with cell cycle progression, reduced phosphorylation of p38, CREB, Akt, and STAT3 kinases, induced hyperphosphorylation of Fgr, Hck, and ERK 1/2 kinases, and disrupted microtubules and mitotic spindle formation. These findings support the continued exploration of Tpz-1 and other thieno[2,3-c]pyrazole-based compounds as potential small-molecule anticancer agents. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advances in Anti-Cancer Drugs)
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12 pages, 917 KiB  
Review
Tumor Microenvironment—A Short Review of Cellular and Interaction Diversity
by Aleksandra Bożyk, Kamila Wojas-Krawczyk, Paweł Krawczyk and Janusz Milanowski
Biology 2022, 11(6), 929; https://doi.org/10.3390/biology11060929 - 18 Jun 2022
Cited by 28 | Viewed by 3646
Abstract
The tumor microenvironment is a complex network of various interactions between immune cells and non-cellular components such as the extracellular matrix, exosomes and interleukins. Moreover, tumor heterogeneity and its constant modification may alter the immunophenotype and become responsible for its resistance regarding the [...] Read more.
The tumor microenvironment is a complex network of various interactions between immune cells and non-cellular components such as the extracellular matrix, exosomes and interleukins. Moreover, tumor heterogeneity and its constant modification may alter the immunophenotype and become responsible for its resistance regarding the therapies applied However, it should be remembered that in a strongly immunosuppressive neoplastic microenvironment, the immune system cells undergo reprogramming and most often cease to fulfill their original function. Therefore, understanding what happens within the tumor microenvironment, and which mechanisms are responsible for tumor development and progression should let us know how cancer could protect itself against the immune system. The presented review summarizes the latest information on the interactions between the tumor microenvironment and the cellular and non-cellular components, as well as their impact on cancer development, progression and immune system exhaustion. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Infection, Inflammation and Cancer)
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10 pages, 2450 KiB  
Review
Dimerization of Firing Factors for Replication Origin Activation in Eukaryotes: A Crucial Process for Simultaneous Assembly of Bidirectional Replication Forks?
by Seiji Tanaka and Shiho Ogawa
Biology 2022, 11(6), 928; https://doi.org/10.3390/biology11060928 - 17 Jun 2022
Viewed by 2514
Abstract
Controlling the activity of the heterohexameric Mcm2–7 replicative helicase is crucial for regulation of replication origin activity in eukaryotes. Because bidirectional replication forks are generated from every replication origin, when origins are licensed for replication in the first step of DNA replication, two [...] Read more.
Controlling the activity of the heterohexameric Mcm2–7 replicative helicase is crucial for regulation of replication origin activity in eukaryotes. Because bidirectional replication forks are generated from every replication origin, when origins are licensed for replication in the first step of DNA replication, two inactive Mcm2–7 heterohexiameric complexes are loaded around double stranded DNA as a head-to-head double hexamer. The helicases are subsequently activated via a ‘firing’ reaction, in which the Mcm2–7 double hexamer is converted into two active helicase units, the CMG complex, by firing factors. Dimerization of firing factors may contribute to this process by allowing simultaneous activation of two sets of helicases and thus efficient assembly of bidirectional replication forks. An example of this is dimerization of the firing factor Sld3/Treslin/Ticrr via its binding partner, Sld7/MTBP. In organisms in which no Sld7 ortholog has been identified, such as the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, Sld3 itself has a dimerization domain, and it has been suggested that this self-interaction is crucial for the firing reaction in this organism. Dimerization induces a conformational change in Sdl3 that appears to be critical for the firing reaction. Moreover, Mcm10 also seems to be regulated by self-interaction in yeasts. Although it is not yet clear to what extent dimerization of firing factors contributes to the firing reaction in eukaryotes, we discuss the possible roles of firing factor dimerization in simultaneous helicase activation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue MTBP-Cellular Roles Underlying Cancer Formation and Disease)
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15 pages, 2045 KiB  
Article
Chronic Toxicity of Primary Metabolites of Chloroacetamide and Glyphosate to Early Life Stages of Marbled Crayfish Procambarus virginalis
by Nikola Tresnakova, Jan Kubec, Alzbeta Stara, Eliska Zuskova, Caterina Faggio, Antonin Kouba and Josef Velisek
Biology 2022, 11(6), 927; https://doi.org/10.3390/biology11060927 - 17 Jun 2022
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 2374
Abstract
Degradation products of herbicides, alone and in combination, may affect non-target aquatic organisms via leaching or runoff from the soil. The effects of 50-day exposure of primary metabolites of chloroacetamide herbicide, acetochlor ESA (AE; 4 µg/L), and glyphosate, aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA; 4 µg/L), [...] Read more.
Degradation products of herbicides, alone and in combination, may affect non-target aquatic organisms via leaching or runoff from the soil. The effects of 50-day exposure of primary metabolites of chloroacetamide herbicide, acetochlor ESA (AE; 4 µg/L), and glyphosate, aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA; 4 µg/L), and their combination (AMPA + AE; 4 + 4 µg/L) on mortality, growth, oxidative stress, antioxidant response, behaviour, and gill histology of early life stages of marbled crayfish (Procambarus virginalis) were investigated. While no treatment effects were observed on cumulative mortality or early ontogeny, growth was significantly lower in all exposed groups compared with the control group. Significant superoxide dismutase activity was observed in exposure groups, and significantly higher glutathione S-transferase activity only in the AMPA + AE group. The gill epithelium in AMPA + AE-exposed crayfish showed swelling as well as numerous unidentified fragments in interlamellar space. Velocity and distance moved in crayfish exposed to metabolites did not differ from controls, but increased activity was observed in the AMPA and AE groups. The study reveals the potential risks of glyphosate and acetochlor herbicide usage through their primary metabolites in the early life stages of marbled crayfish. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Impact of Natural and Anthropogenic Pollution on Aquatic Ecosystems)
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22 pages, 4288 KiB  
Article
Effects of Non-Thermal Treatment on Gilaburu Vinegar (Viburnum opulus L.): Polyphenols, Amino Acid, Antimicrobial, and Anticancer Properties
by Berna Erdal, Seydi Yıkmış, Nazan Tokatlı Demirok, Esra Bozgeyik and Okan Levent
Biology 2022, 11(6), 926; https://doi.org/10.3390/biology11060926 - 17 Jun 2022
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 2919
Abstract
Gilaburu (Viburnum opulus L.) is an important fruit that has been studied in recent years due to its phytochemicals and health benefits. In this study, traditionally produced vinegar made from gilaburu fruit (C-GV) was evaluated. Vinegar with higher levels of bioactive components [...] Read more.
Gilaburu (Viburnum opulus L.) is an important fruit that has been studied in recent years due to its phytochemicals and health benefits. In this study, traditionally produced vinegar made from gilaburu fruit (C-GV) was evaluated. Vinegar with higher levels of bioactive components optimized by response surface methodology (RSM) was also produced using ultrasound (UT-GV). The maximum optimization result for the bioactive components was achieved at 14 min and 61.2 amplitude. The effectiveness of thermal pasteurization (P-GV) on gilaburu vinegar was evaluated. An increase was detected for every organic acid with ultrasound treatment. In the UT-GV and C-GV samples, arabinose was present, which is useful for stimulating the immune system. Gilaburu vinegar samples contained 29–31 volatile compounds. The smallest amount of volatile compounds was found in P-GV (1280.9 µg/kg), and the largest amounts of volatile compounds were found in C-GV (1566.9 µg/kg) and UT-GV (1244.10 µg/kg). In the UT-GV sample, Fe was increased, but Ca, K, Mg, and Mn were decreased. A total of 15 polyphenols were detected in C-GV, P-GV, and UT-GV samples, and gallic acid was the most common. A total of 17 free amino acids were detected in gilaburu vinegar samples. Ultrasound provided enrichment in total phenolic compounds and total free amino acids. All three vinegar samples had good antimicrobial activity against pathogens. The efficacy of C-GV, P-GV, and UT-GV samples against colon and stomach cancer was determined, but there were no significant differences between them. As a result, ultrasound treatment is notable due to its antimicrobial and anticancer activity, especially for the enrichment of phenolic compounds and amino acids in gilaburu vinegar. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Chemical Composition and Antioxidant Capacity)
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35 pages, 1286 KiB  
Review
Associations between Objectively Determined Physical Activity and Cardiometabolic Health in Adult Women: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
by Yining Lu, Huw D. Wiltshire, Julien S. Baker, Qiaojun Wang, Shanshan Ying, Jianshe Li and Yichen Lu
Biology 2022, 11(6), 925; https://doi.org/10.3390/biology11060925 - 17 Jun 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2342
Abstract
The purpose of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to qualitatively synthesize and quantitatively assess the evidence of the relationship between objectively determined volumes of physical activity (PA) and cardiometabolic health in women. Four databases (PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, and the Cochrane [...] Read more.
The purpose of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to qualitatively synthesize and quantitatively assess the evidence of the relationship between objectively determined volumes of physical activity (PA) and cardiometabolic health in women. Four databases (PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, and the Cochrane library) were searched and, finally, 24 eligible studies were included, with a total of 2105 women from eight countries. A correlational meta-analysis shows that moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity (MVPA) was favorably associated with high-density lipoprotein (r = 0.16; 95% CI: 0.06, 0.25; p = 0.002); however, there was limited evidence for the effects of most of the other cardiometabolic biomarkers recorded from steps, total physical activity, light- and moderate-intensity physical activity and MVPA. It is most compelling and consistent that being more physically active is beneficial to the metabolic syndrome. Overall, PA levels are low in adult women, suggesting that increasing the total volume of PA is more important than emphasizing the intensity and duration of PA. The findings also indicate that, according to the confounding effects of body composition and cardiorespiratory fitness, meeting the minimal level of 150 min of moderate-intensity physical activity recommended is not enough to obtain a significant improvement in cardiometabolic indicators. Nonetheless, the high heterogeneity between studies inhibits robust conclusions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Biological Underlying Processes of Physical Exercise Benefits)
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17 pages, 1792 KiB  
Article
Sex-Related Pain Behavioral Differences following Unilateral NGF Injections in a Rat Model of Low Back Pain
by Michael Syrett, Nicholas R. Reed, William R. Reed, Madison L. Richey, Andrey Frolov and Joshua W. Little
Biology 2022, 11(6), 924; https://doi.org/10.3390/biology11060924 - 16 Jun 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2246
Abstract
Low back pain (LBP) is a globally prevalent and costly societal problem with multifactorial etiologies and incompletely understood pathophysiological mechanisms. To address such shortcomings regarding the role of neurotrophins in the underlying mechanisms of pain, an LBP model was developed in rats involving [...] Read more.
Low back pain (LBP) is a globally prevalent and costly societal problem with multifactorial etiologies and incompletely understood pathophysiological mechanisms. To address such shortcomings regarding the role of neurotrophins in the underlying mechanisms of pain, an LBP model was developed in rats involving two unilateral intramuscular injections of nerve growth factor (NGF) into deep trunk muscles. To date, behavioral investigations of this NGF-LBP model have been limited, especially as it pertains to female pain behaviors. This study compared mechanical sensitivity to noxious (hyperalgesia) and non-noxious (hypersensitivity) stimuli in control and NGF-injected male and female rats through pain resolution. Although the baseline testing revealed no differences between males and females, NGF-injected females demonstrated prolonged ipsilateral deep trunk mechanical hyperalgesia that resolved seven days later than males. Moreover, females showed bilateral trunk mechanical sensitivity to noxious and non-noxious stimuli compared to only ipsilateral behaviors in males. Sex differences were also observed in the severity of behavioral responses, with females displaying greater mean differences from baseline at several timepoints. Overall, these NGF-LBP behavioral findings mirror some of the sex differences reported in the clinical presentation of LBP and accentuate the translatability of this NGF-LBP model. Future studies using this LBP-NGF model could help to elucidate the neurobiological mechanisms responsible for the development, severity, and/or resolution of muscular LBP as well as to provide insights into the processes governing the transition from acute to chronic LBP. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Neuroscience)
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17 pages, 5634 KiB  
Article
The Status of Posidonia oceanica at Tremiti Islands Marine Protected Area (Adriatic Sea)
by Andrea Tursi, Francesco Mastrototaro, Federica Montesanto, Francesco De Giosa, Anna Lisco, Antonella Bottalico and Giovanni Chimienti
Biology 2022, 11(6), 923; https://doi.org/10.3390/biology11060923 - 16 Jun 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2377
Abstract
Posidonia oceanica meadows are Mediterranean coastal habitats of great conservation importance. This study is focused on a meadow located at Tremiti Islands Marine Protected Area (Adriatic Sea, Italy), which was monitored in 2003, 2015, and 2020 to evaluate its health state over time [...] Read more.
Posidonia oceanica meadows are Mediterranean coastal habitats of great conservation importance. This study is focused on a meadow located at Tremiti Islands Marine Protected Area (Adriatic Sea, Italy), which was monitored in 2003, 2015, and 2020 to evaluate its health state over time in relation to coastal human activities, which have been highly affecting this MPA for the last 20 years. To assess any change in the physiognomy of the meadow, rhizome density, percentage coverage, and lower limit progressions and/or regression over time were evaluated by scuba diving, while the distribution and extension of the meadow were assessed through habitat mapping using a side-scan sonar. Moreover, phenological and lepidochronological analyses were performed on the collected rhizomes to assess the leaf area index (LAI, m2m−2) and the rhizome age (lepidochronological years). Our study showed a general deterioration of P. oceanica meadow from 2003 to 2020, with a significant reduction of its absolute and relative rhizome density and LAI at almost all sampling stations, absence of renovation of the meadow, and lower limit regression and overall worsening of the main conservation status indicators. However, appropriate management actions, such as the establishment of mooring buoy fields, supported the improvement of the P. oceanica status at the local scale with a significant increase in density and LAI and the presence of active stolonization processes, suggesting that mitigation actions can play a crucial role in the conservation of this habitat. On the contrary, local anthropogenic impacts, especially anchoring and coastal development, markedly affect the resilience of P. oceanica meadows to global stressors, such as climate change. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Conservation of Marine Ecosystems: Selected Papers from MetroSea 2021)
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11 pages, 998 KiB  
Review
Realising the Environmental Potential of Vertical Farming Systems through Advances in Plant Photobiology
by Matthieu de Carbonnel, John M. Stormonth-Darling, Weiqi Liu, Dmytro Kuziak and Matthew Alan Jones
Biology 2022, 11(6), 922; https://doi.org/10.3390/biology11060922 - 16 Jun 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 4836
Abstract
Intensive agriculture is essential to feed increasing populations, yet requires large amounts of pesticide, fertiliser, and water to maintain productivity. One solution to mitigate these issues is the adoption of Vertical Farming Systems (VFS). The self-contained operation of these facilities offers the potential [...] Read more.
Intensive agriculture is essential to feed increasing populations, yet requires large amounts of pesticide, fertiliser, and water to maintain productivity. One solution to mitigate these issues is the adoption of Vertical Farming Systems (VFS). The self-contained operation of these facilities offers the potential to recycle agricultural inputs, as well as sheltering crops from the effects of climate change. Recent technological advancements in light-emitting diode (LED) lighting technology have enabled VFS to become a commercial reality, although high electrical consumption continues to tarnish the environmental credentials of the industry. In this review, we examine how the inherent use of electricity by VFS can be leveraged to deliver commercial and environmental benefits. We propose that an understanding of plant photobiology can be used to vary VFS energy consumption in coordination with electrical availability from the grid, facilitating demand-side management of energy supplies and promoting crop yield. Full article
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19 pages, 3553 KiB  
Article
Revisiting the Tigger Transposon Evolution Revealing Extensive Involvement in the Shaping of Mammal Genomes
by Mohamed Diaby, Zhongxia Guan, Shasha Shi, Yatong Sang, Saisai Wang, Yali Wang, Wencheng Zong, Numan Ullah, Bo Gao and Chengyi Song
Biology 2022, 11(6), 921; https://doi.org/10.3390/biology11060921 - 16 Jun 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2104
Abstract
The data of this study revealed that Tigger was found in a wide variety of animal genomes, including 180 species from 36 orders of invertebrates and 145 species from 29 orders of vertebrates. An extensive invasion of Tigger was observed in mammals, with [...] Read more.
The data of this study revealed that Tigger was found in a wide variety of animal genomes, including 180 species from 36 orders of invertebrates and 145 species from 29 orders of vertebrates. An extensive invasion of Tigger was observed in mammals, with a high copy number. Almost 61% of those species contain more than 50 copies of Tigger; however, 46% harbor intact Tigger elements, although the number of these intact elements is very low. Common HT events of Tigger elements were discovered across different lineages of animals, including mammals, that may have led to their widespread distribution, whereas Helogale parvula and arthropods may have aided Tigger HT incidences. The activity of Tigger seems to be low in the kingdom of animals, most copies were truncated in the mammal genomes and lost their transposition activity, and Tigger transposons only display signs of recent and current activities in a few species of animals. The findings suggest that the Tigger family is important in structuring mammal genomes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Bioinformatics)
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10 pages, 1756 KiB  
Article
Morphometric Features and Microanatomy of the Lingual Filiform Papillae in the Wistar Rat
by Elena Huțanu, Aurel Damian, Viorel Miclăuș, Ioana A. Rațiu, Vasile Rus, Ion Vlasiuc and Adrian F. Gal
Biology 2022, 11(6), 920; https://doi.org/10.3390/biology11060920 - 16 Jun 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 4417
Abstract
The mammalian tongue plays a fundamental role in various physiological and behavioral activities. Significant morphological variations have been recorded in the tongue of several species. This study aims to obtain detailed histological and morphometric information about the filiform papillae on the surface of [...] Read more.
The mammalian tongue plays a fundamental role in various physiological and behavioral activities. Significant morphological variations have been recorded in the tongue of several species. This study aims to obtain detailed histological and morphometric information about the filiform papillae on the surface of rat tongue. The tongues of five 10-month-old Wistar rats were utilized, which were later examined with a stereo-microscope. Fragments from the three regions of the tongue were collected for histological investigations. The tongue of the Wistar rat has an intensely keratinized stratified squamous epithelium, with the highest degree of keratinized epithelium covering the filiform papillae. The filiform papillae differ in density, with the highest density recorded on the posterior part of the lingual body and the lowest density on the protuberance. The shortest filiform papillae were observed on the apex of the tongue and the tallest on the anterior part of the lingual body. Interestingly, the orientation of the filiform papillae on the lingual protuberance was inclined posteroanteriorly, in the opposite way as compared to the papillae from all the other regions of the tongue. Histologically, a difference was recorded in the structure of the covering epithelium of the anterior vs. the posterior face of the filiform papillae. Full article
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28 pages, 2396 KiB  
Systematic Review
Effect of Nitric Oxide Pathway Inhibition on the Evolution of Anaphylactic Shock in Animal Models: A Systematic Review
by Maryam Alfalasi, Sarah Alzaabi, Linda Östlundh, Rami H. Al-Rifai, Suhail Al-Salam, Paul Michel Mertes, Seth L. Alper, Elhadi H. Aburawi and Abdelouahab Bellou
Biology 2022, 11(6), 919; https://doi.org/10.3390/biology11060919 - 16 Jun 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 3442
Abstract
Nitric oxide (NO) induces vasodilation in various types of shock. The effect of pharmacological modulation of the NO pathway in anaphylactic shock (AS) remains poorly understood. Our objective was to assess, through a systematic review, whether inhibition of NO pathways (INOP) was beneficial [...] Read more.
Nitric oxide (NO) induces vasodilation in various types of shock. The effect of pharmacological modulation of the NO pathway in anaphylactic shock (AS) remains poorly understood. Our objective was to assess, through a systematic review, whether inhibition of NO pathways (INOP) was beneficial for the prevention and/or treatment of AS. A predesigned protocol for this systematic review was published in PROSPERO (CRD42019132273). A systematic literature search was conducted till March 2022 in the electronic databases PubMed, EMBASE, Scopus, Cochrane and Web of Science. Heterogeneity of the studies did not allow meta-analysis. Nine hundred ninety unique studies were identified. Of 135 studies screened in full text, 17 were included in the review. Among six inhibitors of NO pathways identified, four blocked NO synthase activity and two blocked guanylate cyclase downstream activity. Pre-treatment was used in nine studies and post-treatment in three studies. Five studies included both pre-treatment and post-treatment models. Overall, seven pre-treatment studies from fourteen showed improvement of survival and/or arterial blood pressure. Four post-treatment studies from eight showed positive outcomes. Overall, there was no strong evidence to conclude that isolated blockade of the NO/cGMP pathway is sufficient to prevent or restore anaphylactic hypotension. Further studies are needed to analyze the effect of drug combinations in the treatment of AS. Full article
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15 pages, 2344 KiB  
Article
Microbial Consortia: An Engineering Tool to Suppress Clubroot of Chinese Cabbage by Changing the Rhizosphere Bacterial Community Composition
by Jinhao Zhang, Waqar Ahmed, Zhenlin Dai, Xinghai Zhou, Zulei He, Lanfang Wei and Guanghai Ji
Biology 2022, 11(6), 918; https://doi.org/10.3390/biology11060918 - 15 Jun 2022
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2317
Abstract
Clubroot disease, caused by Plasmodiophora brassicae, is a serious threat to Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa subsp. pekinensis) production, which results in extensive yield losses. At present, clubroot control mainly depends upon pesticides, which provoke food-safety concerns, and the application of [...] Read more.
Clubroot disease, caused by Plasmodiophora brassicae, is a serious threat to Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa subsp. pekinensis) production, which results in extensive yield losses. At present, clubroot control mainly depends upon pesticides, which provoke food-safety concerns, and the application of sole biocontrol agents cannot successfully control the disease. In this study, we investigated the effect of Bacillus cereus BT-23, Lysobacter antibioticus 13-6, and Lysobacter capsici ZST1-2 as sole strains, intra-/inter-genus co-culture, and microbial consortia on clubroot disease, plant growth, and rhizosphere bacterial diversity in a field experiment. The microbial consortia efficiently controlled the incidence of clubroot disease, with a biocontrol effect of about 65.78%, by decreasing the soil acidity and enhancing the yield (17,662.49 kg/acre). The high-throughput sequencing results demonstrated that the phyla Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes were present in high relative abundance in the rhizosphere soil of the Chinese cabbage. Furthermore, Firmicutes was found as a unique phylum in the rhizosphere soil of CK-H and T1-T7, except for CK-D. The application of microbial consortia recovers the imbalance in indigenous microbial communities. Therefore, we conclude that microbial consortia can reduce the clubroot incidence in Chinese cabbage by decreasing the soil acidity and altering the diversity and structure of rhizosphere bacterial communities. This study highlights the potential of microbial consortia as an engineering tool to control devastating soilborne diseases in commercial crops. Full article
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18 pages, 1611 KiB  
Article
Efficiency of the Adjusted Binary Classification (ABC) Approach in Osteometric Sex Estimation: A Comparative Study of Different Linear Machine Learning Algorithms and Training Sample Sizes
by MennattAllah Hassan Attia, Marwa A. Kholief, Nancy M. Zaghloul, Ivana Kružić, Šimun Anđelinović, Željana Bašić and Ivan Jerković
Biology 2022, 11(6), 917; https://doi.org/10.3390/biology11060917 - 15 Jun 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2220
Abstract
The adjusted binary classification (ABC) approach was proposed to assure that the binary classification model reaches a particular accuracy level. The present study evaluated the ABC for osteometric sex classification using multiple machine learning (ML) techniques: linear discriminant analysis (LDA), boosted generalized linear [...] Read more.
The adjusted binary classification (ABC) approach was proposed to assure that the binary classification model reaches a particular accuracy level. The present study evaluated the ABC for osteometric sex classification using multiple machine learning (ML) techniques: linear discriminant analysis (LDA), boosted generalized linear model (GLMB), support vector machine (SVM), and logistic regression (LR). We used 13 femoral measurements of 300 individuals from a modern Turkish population sample and split data into two sets: training (n = 240) and testing (n = 60). Then, the five best-performing measurements were selected for training univariate models, while pools of these variables were used for the multivariable models. ML classifier type did not affect the performance of unadjusted models. The accuracy of univariate models was 82–87%, while that of multivariate models was 89–90%. After applying ABC to the crossvalidation set, the accuracy and the positive and negative predictive values for uni- and multivariate models were ≥95%. Sex could be estimated for 28–75% of individuals using univariate models but with an obvious sexing bias, likely caused by different degrees of sexual dimorphism and between-group overlap. However, using multivariate models, we minimized the bias and properly classified 81–87% of individuals. A similar performance was also noted in the testing sample (except for FEB), with accuracies of 96–100%, and a proportion of classified individuals between 30% and 82% in univariate models, and between 90% and 91% in multivariate models. When considering different training sample sizes, we demonstrated that LR was the most sensitive with limited sample sizes (n < 150), while GLMB was the most stable classifier. Full article
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12 pages, 583 KiB  
Article
Impact of FLT3-ITD Insertion Length on Outcomes in Acute Myeloid Leukemia: A Propensity Score-Adjusted Cohort Study
by Elizabeth M. Corley, Moaath K. Mustafa Ali, Hanan Alharthy, Kathryn A. F. Kline, Danielle Sewell, Jennie Y. Law, Seung Tae Lee, Sandrine Niyongere, Vu H. Duong, Maria R. Baer and Ashkan Emadi
Biology 2022, 11(6), 916; https://doi.org/10.3390/biology11060916 - 15 Jun 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2166
Abstract
The prognostic significance of the length of internal tandem duplication (ITD) insertions in mutant FLT3 genes in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is controversial. We conducted a retrospective study to evaluate the correlation between the ITD base-pair (bp) insertion length and clinical outcomes. The [...] Read more.
The prognostic significance of the length of internal tandem duplication (ITD) insertions in mutant FLT3 genes in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is controversial. We conducted a retrospective study to evaluate the correlation between the ITD base-pair (bp) insertion length and clinical outcomes. The mutational status of the FLT3 gene was evaluated in 402 of 467 consecutive AML patients treated at the University of Maryland Greenebaum Comprehensive Cancer Center between 2013 and 2020; 77 had FLT3-ITD mutations. Patients were divided into three cohorts based on bp insertion length (<30 (0–33rd percentile), 30–53 (34th–66th percentile),and >53 (>66th percentile)). The median overall survival (OS) of patients was 16.5 months (confidence interval (CI) 7.3-NA), 18.5 months (CI 7.3-NA), and 21.9 months (CI 19.1-NA) (p = 0.03) for the <30, 30–53, and >53 bp insertion length cohorts, respectively. The adjusted median event-free survival (EFS) for the ITD insertion lengths >30, 30–53, and >53 bp was 11.1 months (CI 2.8–16.5), 5.2 months (CI 2.9–12.6), and 9.1 months (CI 5.4-NA) (p = 0.5), respectively. Complete remission (CR) rates were 64% (<30 inserted bp), 55% (30–53 inserted bp), and 79% (>53 inserted bp) (p = 0.23). For patients treated with gilteritinib and midostaurin, the unadjusted median OS was not statistically significantly different between cohorts. Full article
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16 pages, 1401 KiB  
Article
Not Too Warm, Not Too Cold: Thermal Treatments to Slightly Warmer or Colder Conditions from Mother’s Origin Can Enhance Performance of Montane Butterfly Larvae
by Konstantina Zografou, George C. Adamidis, Brent J. Sewall and Andrea Grill
Biology 2022, 11(6), 915; https://doi.org/10.3390/biology11060915 - 15 Jun 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2300
Abstract
Climate change alters organismal performance via shifts in temperature. However, we know little about the relative fitness impacts of climate variability and how cold-adapted ectotherms mediate these effects. Here, we advance the field of climate change biology by directly testing for species performance, [...] Read more.
Climate change alters organismal performance via shifts in temperature. However, we know little about the relative fitness impacts of climate variability and how cold-adapted ectotherms mediate these effects. Here, we advance the field of climate change biology by directly testing for species performance, considering the effects of different thermal environments at the first developmental stage of larvae. We conducted our experiments in climatic chambers (2019–2020) using five cold-adapted butterflies of the genus Erebia (Erebia aethiops, Erebia cassioides, Erebia manto, Erebia tyndarus, Erebia nivalis). Larvae were reared indoors and were treated with higher and lower temperatures than those of their mothers’ origins. Overall, we found evidence of better performance at warmer temperatures and a decreased performance at lower temperatures, and larvae were able to tolerate small temperature changes from mother’s origin. Warmer conditions, however, were unfavorable for E. nivalis, indicative of its limited elevational range and its poor ability to mediate a variety of thermal conditions. Further, larvae generally performed poorly where there was a large difference in thermal regimen from that of their maternal origin. Future efforts should include additional life history stages and focus on a more mechanistic understanding of species thermal tolerance. Such studies could increase the realism of predicted responses to climate change and could account for asynchronous changes in species development, which will alter community composition and ecosystem functioning. Full article
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7 pages, 755 KiB  
Article
Hemochromatosis Mimicked Gaucher Disease: Role of Hyperferritinemia in Evaluation of a Clinical Case
by Carmela Zizzo, Irene Ruggeri, Paolo Colomba, Christiano Argano, Daniele Francofonte, Marcomaria Zora, Emanuela Maria Marsana, Giovanni Duro and Salvatore Corrao
Biology 2022, 11(6), 914; https://doi.org/10.3390/biology11060914 - 15 Jun 2022
Viewed by 1850
Abstract
Gaucher disease is a disorder of lysosomes caused by a functional defect of the glucocerebrosidase enzyme. The disease is mainly due to mutations in the GBA1 gene, which determines the gradual storage of glucosylceramide substrate in the patient’s macrophages. In this paper, we [...] Read more.
Gaucher disease is a disorder of lysosomes caused by a functional defect of the glucocerebrosidase enzyme. The disease is mainly due to mutations in the GBA1 gene, which determines the gradual storage of glucosylceramide substrate in the patient’s macrophages. In this paper, we describe the case of a 38-year-old man who clinically presented with hyperferritinemia, thrombocytopenia, leukopenia, anemia and mild splenomegaly; a diagnosis of hemochromatosis was made 10 years earlier. Re-evaluation of the clinical case led to a suspicion of Gaucher disease, which was confirmed by enzymatic analysis, which was found to be below the normal range, and genetic evaluation, which identified compound heterozygosity N370S/RecNciI. We know that patients suffering from Gaucher disease can also have high ferritin levels. Even if the mechanism underlying the changes in iron metabolism is not yet elucidated, the chronic mild inflammatory state present in these patients probably causes the storage of ferritin in macrophages, resulting in hyperferritinemia. Therefore, in the presence of few typical signs and symptoms of the disease should raise an alarm bell in the clinicians, inducing clinical suspicion of Gaucher disease. Misdiagnosis and diagnostic delay in metabolic diseases could cause irreversible organ damage and delay the start of specific therapy for these patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Medical Biology)
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