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Fibers, Volume 11, Issue 3 (March 2023) – 8 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): To ensure environmental sustainability, it is imperative to incorporate waste-based materials in architecture. To this end, a study was conducted to create a composite material using corn processing waste as a reinforcing agent for a plaster matrix. Samples of two different thicknesses were produced and tested for their sound absorption coefficient (SAC) using the normal incidence technique. The study also employed Artificial Neural Network (ANN) algorithms to develop a simulation model to predict the SAC and compare absorption performance. The addition of corn stem fibers significantly enhanced the sound absorption capability of the gypsum matrix specimens. The simulation model proved effective in forecasting the absorption properties of the material, as evidenced by the results. View this paper
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16 pages, 7014 KiB  
Article
Damage Investigation on the Carbon Tows during Rewinding and Braiding Processes
by Justine Calba, Damien Soulat, Xavier Legrand and Sébastien Renauld
Fibers 2023, 11(3), 30; https://doi.org/10.3390/fib11030030 - 22 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1535
Abstract
During the manufacturing process, the fibrous materials used in composite reinforcements are subjected to many sources of damage that must be managed if the best possible quality is to be reached for the final product. More specifically, carbon fibers are subjected, during reinforcement [...] Read more.
During the manufacturing process, the fibrous materials used in composite reinforcements are subjected to many sources of damage that must be managed if the best possible quality is to be reached for the final product. More specifically, carbon fibers are subjected, during reinforcement manufacturing, to friction with mechanical components and with other tows and to excessive tensile loads due to specific configurations required by textile devices, which results in degradation that affects their mechanical properties and those of final products. While many studies have focused on carbon tow damage during the weaving process, roving quality control during the post-braiding steps, such as the rewinding or braiding processes, is less studied in the literature. In this study, an experimental approach was developed to quantify the damage inflicted on 12 K carbon tows during the rewinding and braiding processes using image analysis software. Based on these images, a damage criterion is defined to quantify the influence of the parameters associated with rewinding and braiding processes on degradation of carbon tows. During the rewinding stage, the influence of the process parameters on the degradation by friction of the tows was significant, but the properties (linear density and tenacity) of these carbon tows were little-modified. On the other hand, the great influence of the tension applied on tows on the inflicted damage was experimentally demonstrated, during both the rewinding and braiding steps, which may have resulted in a loss of tenacity of up to 27%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fibers 10th Anniversary: Past, Present, and Future)
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21 pages, 8315 KiB  
Review
Textile Fabrics as Electromagnetic Shielding Materials—A Review of Preparation and Performance
by Tomasz Blachowicz, Dariusz Wójcik, Maciej Surma, Mirosław Magnuski, Guido Ehrmann and Andrea Ehrmann
Fibers 2023, 11(3), 29; https://doi.org/10.3390/fib11030029 - 15 Mar 2023
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 4527
Abstract
Shielding of instruments and humans from electromagnetic interference (EMI) has become increasingly important during the last decades due to more and more machines and devices radiating electromagnetic waves. While several applications can use rigid shields, more flexibility is enabled by developing bendable, drapable, [...] Read more.
Shielding of instruments and humans from electromagnetic interference (EMI) has become increasingly important during the last decades due to more and more machines and devices radiating electromagnetic waves. While several applications can use rigid shields, more flexibility is enabled by developing bendable, drapable, ideally even stretchable EMI shielding. Textile fabrics can have these properties, combined with potentially good mechanical properties, depending on the textile structure and the chosen material. On the other hand, the necessary physical properties, especially conductivity and magnetic properties, cannot be taken for granted in normal textile fabrics. These properties have to be added by conductive yarn or layer coatings, integration of conductive or magnetic fibers, producing intrinsically conductive or magnetic fibers, etc. The article gives a critical comparison of the properties of materials typically used for this purpose, such as intrinsically conductive polymers, metal-coated fabrics and metal wires, MXene coatings, MXene fibers, carbon coatings, and fibers. The review concentrates on thematically suitable papers found in the Web of Science and Google Scholar from the last five years and shows that especially MXenes are highly investigated recently due to their high conductivity and EMI shielding effectiveness, while other conductive and magnetic coatings and fibers are nevertheless still interesting for the preparation of EMI shielding textile fabrics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Feature Papers in Fibers)
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18 pages, 130315 KiB  
Article
Six-Core GeO2-Doped Silica Microstructured Optical Fiber with Induced Chirality
by Anton V. Bourdine, Vladimir V. Demidov, Konstantin V. Dukelskii, Alexander V. Khokhlov, Egishe V. Ter-Nersesyants, Sergei V. Bureev, Alexandra S. Matrosova, Grigori A. Pchelkin, Artem A. Kuznetsov, Oleg G. Morozov, Ilnur I. Nureev, Airat Zh. Sakhabutdinov, Timur A. Agliullin, Michael V. Dashkov, Alexander S. Evtushenko, Elena S. Zaitseva, Alexander A. Vasilets, Azat R. Gizatulin, Ivan K. Meshkov, Yaseera Ismail, Francesco Petruccione, Ghanshyam Singh, Manish Tiwari and Juan Yinadd Show full author list remove Hide full author list
Fibers 2023, 11(3), 28; https://doi.org/10.3390/fib11030028 - 07 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1957
Abstract
This work presents a fabricated silica few-mode microstructured optical fiber (MOF) with a special six GeO2-doped core geometry, an outer diameter of 125 µm (that corresponds to conventional commercially available telecommunication optical fibers), and improved induced twisting up to 500 revolutions [...] Read more.
This work presents a fabricated silica few-mode microstructured optical fiber (MOF) with a special six GeO2-doped core geometry, an outer diameter of 125 µm (that corresponds to conventional commercially available telecommunication optical fibers), and improved induced twisting up to 500 revolutions per 1 m (under a rotation speed of 1000 revolutions per meter with a drawing speed of ~2 m per minute). The article discusses some technological aspects and issues of manufacturing the above-described twisted MOFs with complicated structures and geometry as GeO2-doped silica supporting elements for them. We present results of some measurements performed for fabricated samples of chiral silica six-GeO2-doped-core few-mode MOFs with various orders of twisting and both step and graded refractive indexes of “cores”. These tests contain research on MOF geometrical parameters, attenuation, and measurements of the far-field laser beam profile. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Optical Fibers as a Key Element of Distributed Sensor Systems II)
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15 pages, 2976 KiB  
Article
Comparative Study of Atmosphere Effect on Wood Torrefaction
by Rafael Lopes Quirino, Larissa Richa, Anelie Petrissans, Priscila Rios Teixeira, George Durrell, Allen Hulette, Baptiste Colin and Mathieu Petrissans
Fibers 2023, 11(3), 27; https://doi.org/10.3390/fib11030027 - 07 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1735
Abstract
Climate change, biomass utilization, and bioenergy recovery are among the biggest current global concerns. Wood is considered an environmentally benign material. Nevertheless, it must be processed for desired applications. Upon thermal treatment ranging from 180 °C to 280 °C, under low oxygen concentrations, [...] Read more.
Climate change, biomass utilization, and bioenergy recovery are among the biggest current global concerns. Wood is considered an environmentally benign material. Nevertheless, it must be processed for desired applications. Upon thermal treatment ranging from 180 °C to 280 °C, under low oxygen concentrations, wood becomes a material with improved dimensional stability, resistance to fungal attacks, grindability, hydrophobicity, and storage stability. Several strategies for wood treatment have been investigated over the course of the past decades, including the use of steam, nitrogen, smoke, vacuum, water, and hot oil. The goal of this work is to investigate the influence of pressure and atmosphere on the torrefaction of poplar. Through a systematic analysis of poplar wood samples treated under reduced pressures and different atmospheres, while keeping the same heating profile, it was possible to establish that changes observed for mass loss, color change, wood composition (via TGA/DTG analysis), functional groups (via FTIR), elemental analysis, and X-ray diffractograms relate directly to known reaction pathways occurring during torrefaction. Changes observed under reduced pressures have been associated with the relative concentration of oxygen in the reaction atmosphere and to the reduced diffusion times experienced by reactive by-products during the treatment. Conversely, extended diffusion times resulted in more significant changes for reactions carried out under N2, water vapor, and air. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Feature Papers in Fibers)
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21 pages, 4511 KiB  
Article
Simulation of Acoustic Properties of Plaster Matrix Composite MATERIAL Reinforced with Corn Stem Fibers
by Virginia Puyana-Romero, Wilson Andrés Jaramillo Cevallos and Giuseppe Ciaburro
Fibers 2023, 11(3), 26; https://doi.org/10.3390/fib11030026 - 04 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1679
Abstract
Environmental sustainability and environmental protection are key to shaping the built environment. The use of environmentally sustainable materials in architecture is essential to transform urban centers into modern, sustainable cities, reducing the pollution of air and natural ecosystems, lowering gas emissions, and improving [...] Read more.
Environmental sustainability and environmental protection are key to shaping the built environment. The use of environmentally sustainable materials in architecture is essential to transform urban centers into modern, sustainable cities, reducing the pollution of air and natural ecosystems, lowering gas emissions, and improving the energy efficiency of structures. In this study, corn processing waste was used as a reinforcing material to create a plaster matrix composite material for use as a sound absorption material. Specimens of two thicknesses were created, and the sound absorption coefficient (SAC) was measured by applying the normal incidence technique. Subsequently, a simulation model for predicting SAC using Artificial Neural Network (ANN) algorithms was utilized to compare the absorption performance of the specimens. The fibers extracted from the corn stem significantly improved the sound absorption performance of the gypsum matrix specimens. This is due to the increase in the porosity of the material caused by the adhesion between the fiber and the plaster which creates air pockets due to the roughness of the fiber. The simulation model appears to be effective in predicting the absorption properties of the material, as indicated by the results. Full article
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22 pages, 6113 KiB  
Article
Engineering Properties of Waste Badminton String Fiber
by Kumaresan M, S Sindhu Nachiar and Anandh Sekar
Fibers 2023, 11(3), 25; https://doi.org/10.3390/fib11030025 - 03 Mar 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1870
Abstract
This work addresses the feasibility of using waste badminton string fiber in cement and polymer matrices. A badminton racquet, once used, is torn and needs replacement with new strings. These torn strings, once cut from the badminton racquet system, become waste, and these [...] Read more.
This work addresses the feasibility of using waste badminton string fiber in cement and polymer matrices. A badminton racquet, once used, is torn and needs replacement with new strings. These torn strings, once cut from the badminton racquet system, become waste, and these fibers cannot be recycled and remain debris. Hence, this study examines the microstructural and mechanical properties of new fibers and old torn fibers comparatively. Scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and energy dispersive spectroscopy are used to study the microstructural properties of the fiber. Direct tensile stress is applied to new and old fibers in the universal testing machine varying by one, three, and five strands of the fibers and varying the gauge length to 60, 80, and 100 mm, and the respective energy absorption is calculated. From investigation with a varying number of strands, similar results were observed in both old and new fibers from energy absorption and residual force ratio. From investigation with varying gauge length, the tensile stress of new fibers varies between 648.53 and 749.03 MPa, and that of old fibers is 537.40–625.55 MPa. Young’s modulus for new and old fibers is 4870.00 and 4843.50 MPa, respectively. The Weibull statistical approach is used to test the variability of test results. The Weibull modulus varies between 5.27 and 9.17, which shows lower variability. Thus, the tensile stress results obtained for the discarded badminton fibers pave way for incorporating these fibers in cement and polymer matrices to improve the matrix properties. Full article
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17 pages, 4939 KiB  
Article
Application of Transformed Cross-Section Method for Analytical Analysis of Laminated Veneer Lumber Beams Strengthened with Composite Materials
by Michał Marcin Bakalarz and Paweł Grzegorz Kossakowski
Fibers 2023, 11(3), 24; https://doi.org/10.3390/fib11030024 - 23 Feb 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1724
Abstract
Due to the high cost of laboratory testing, many researchers are considering developing methods to predict the behavior of unreinforced and reinforced wood beams. This work aims to create either numerical or analytical models useful for extrapolating already conducted tests to other schemes/materials [...] Read more.
Due to the high cost of laboratory testing, many researchers are considering developing methods to predict the behavior of unreinforced and reinforced wood beams. This work aims to create either numerical or analytical models useful for extrapolating already conducted tests to other schemes/materials used as reinforcement. In the case of timber structures, due to the complexity of timber, this task is difficult. The first part of the article presents an analysis of the suitability of using a simplified mathematical model based on the equivalent cross-section method to describe the behavior of unreinforced and reinforced with carbon-fibre-reinforced polymer (CFRP) composite full-size laminated veneer lumber (LVL) beams. The theoretical results were compared with the results of conducted experimental tests. The scope of the analysis includes the estimation of modulus of rupture, bending stiffness, and determination of the neutral axis position. The equivalent cross-section method showed good agreement in determining the bending stiffness and neutral axis position of the strengthened sections. However, the suitability of using the equivalent cross-section method to estimate the load-carrying capacity of a cross-section reinforced with fiber composites still needs to be confirmed, which, according to the authors, is due to the differences between the assumed (linear) and actual (nonlinear) strain distribution in the compression zone. The second part uses the equivalent cross-section method to estimate the predicted bending stiffness of LVL beams strengthened with aramid-fibre-reinforced polymer (AFRP), glass-fibre-reinforced polymer (GFRP), and ultra-high modulus carbon-fibre-reinforced polymer (CFRP UHM) sheets. The proposed method can be used for preliminary evaluation of strengthening effectiveness of LVL beams. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbon Fibers from Sustainable Precursors)
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19 pages, 4569 KiB  
Article
Synergistic Effect of HEDP.4Na and Different Induced Pouring Angles on Mechanical Properties of Fiber-Reinforced Alkali-Activated Slag Composites
by Jingjie Wei, Jianwei Liu, Kamal H. Khayat and Wu-Jian Long
Fibers 2023, 11(3), 23; https://doi.org/10.3390/fib11030023 - 22 Feb 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1913
Abstract
The poor flexural and damping properties of building materials damages concrete structures and affects their service life when concrete structures are subjected to dynamic loads. Three different dosages (i.e., 0%, 0.3%, and 0.6%) of organic phosphonates (HEDP.4Na) and different pouring methods (i.e., conventional [...] Read more.
The poor flexural and damping properties of building materials damages concrete structures and affects their service life when concrete structures are subjected to dynamic loads. Three different dosages (i.e., 0%, 0.3%, and 0.6%) of organic phosphonates (HEDP.4Na) and different pouring methods (i.e., conventional pouring method, 90°-induced pouring method, and 150°-induced pouring method) were designed to improve the flexural and damping performance of fiber-reinforced alkali-activated slag composites (FR-AASC). The enhanced mechanism of HEDP.4Na was revealed by phase analysis (X-ray diffraction, XRD), pore structure analysis (Mercury Intrusion Porosimetry, MIP), the heat of hydration, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis. The results showed that 0.3% HEDP.4Na combined with the 150°-induced pouring angle can significantly improve the mechanical properties of the FR-AASC sample compared with the reference group. The sample with 0.3% HEDP.4Na cast by the 150°-induced pouring angle increased compressive and flexural strength, damping energy consumption and storage modulus by 20%, 60%, 78%, and 30%, respectively, compared with the reference sample cast by the conventional pouring methodology. HEDP.4Na reduced the early hydration heat and total porosity of the FR-AASC matrix, modified the fiber–matrix interface transition zone, and increased the frictional energy consumption of steel fibers. Overall, the synergistic effect of HEDP.4Na and the induced pouring methodology significantly improved the flexural and damping properties of FR-AASC. This study can provide a guidance for improving the flexural and damping capacity of FR-AASC and promote the application of FR-AASC in construction engineering. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fracture Behavior of Fiber-Reinforced Building Materials)
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