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Coatings, Volume 10, Issue 11 (November 2020) – 129 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Preserving street art murals is one of the most keenly discussed topics in the field of conservation, and research toward an ethical and scientific approach is constantly ongoing. Studying the science behind an artwork is fundamental because the materials used in street art are heterogeneous and constantly evolving. In the case of an unwanted graphical expression (graphical vandalism), materials are often either similar or chemically equal to the constitutive materials of the artwork itself. Mock-up samples which mirror, as closely as possible, the real case support the study and the definition of a viable analytical protocol. Furthermore, the assessment of a viable cleaning method and a suitable protective coating are the integral cogs in the big machine that is the conservation of contemporary art. View this paper
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3 pages, 380 KiB  
Editorial
Special Issue: “Optical Thin Films and Structures: Design and Advanced Applications”
by Tsvetanka Babeva
Coatings 2020, 10(11), 1140; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings10111140 - 23 Nov 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1808
Abstract
This Special Issue is devoted on design and application of thin films and structures with special emphasis on optical applications. It comprises ten papers, five featured and five regular papers, authored by respective scientists all over the world. Diverse materials are studied and [...] Read more.
This Special Issue is devoted on design and application of thin films and structures with special emphasis on optical applications. It comprises ten papers, five featured and five regular papers, authored by respective scientists all over the world. Diverse materials are studied and their possible applications are demonstrated and discussed: transparent conductive coatings and structures from ZnO doped with Al and Ga and Ti-doped SnO2, polymer and nanosized zeolite thin films for optical sensing, TiO2 with linear and non-linear optical properties, organic diamagnetic materials, broadband optical coatings, CrWN glass molding coatings and silicon on insulator waveguides. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Optical Thin Films and Structures: Design and Advanced Applications)
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17 pages, 5835 KiB  
Article
New Imidazolium Ionic Liquids from Recycled Polyethylene Terephthalate Waste for Curing Epoxy Resins as Organic Coatings of Steel
by Ayman M. Atta, Hamad A. Al-Lohedan, Abdelrahman O. Ezzat and Nourah I. Sabeela
Coatings 2020, 10(11), 1139; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings10111139 - 23 Nov 2020
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2273
Abstract
Imidazolium ionic liquid (IIL) was prepared from aminolysis of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) waste with pentaethylenehexamine (PEHA) to apply as hardener of epoxy resin. Its purified chemical structures, thermal stability, and thermal characteristics were identified as well as amino phthalamide aminolyzed products. The thermal, [...] Read more.
Imidazolium ionic liquid (IIL) was prepared from aminolysis of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) waste with pentaethylenehexamine (PEHA) to apply as hardener of epoxy resin. Its purified chemical structures, thermal stability, and thermal characteristics were identified as well as amino phthalamide aminolyzed products. The thermal, thermomechanical, and mechanical properties of the cured epoxy resins with different weight percentages of IIL were investigated to optimize the best weight ratio to obtain homogeneous networks. The adhesion, durability, and corrosion resistance of the cured epoxy resins on the steel surfaces were tested to confirm that the best weight ratio of epoxy: IL was 2:1. This ratio achieved higher adhesion strength and salt spray resistance to seawater extended to 1500 h. Full article
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10 pages, 2023 KiB  
Communication
Degradation Resistance and In Vitro Cytocompatibility of Iron-Containing Coatings Developed on WE43 Magnesium Alloy by Micro-Arc Oxidation
by Rongfa Zhang, Zeyu Zhang, Yuanyuan Zhu, Rongfang Zhao, Shufang Zhang, Xiaoting Shi, Guoqiang Li, Zhiyong Chen and Ying Zhao
Coatings 2020, 10(11), 1138; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings10111138 - 23 Nov 2020
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 1933
Abstract
Iron (Fe) is an important trace element for life and plays vital functions in maintaining human health. In order to simultaneously endow magnesium alloy with good degradation resistance, improved cytocompatibility, and the proper Fe amount for the body accompanied with degradation of Mg [...] Read more.
Iron (Fe) is an important trace element for life and plays vital functions in maintaining human health. In order to simultaneously endow magnesium alloy with good degradation resistance, improved cytocompatibility, and the proper Fe amount for the body accompanied with degradation of Mg alloy, Fe-containing ceramic coatings were fabricated on WE43 Mg alloy by micro-arc oxidation (MAO) in a nearly neutral pH solution with added 0, 6, 12, and 18 g/L ferric sodium ethylenediaminetetraacetate (NaFeY). The results show that compared with the bare Mg alloy, the MAO samples with developed Fe-containing ceramic coatings significantly improve the degradation resistance and in vitro cytocompatibility. Fe in anodic coatings is mainly present as Fe2O3. The increased NaFeY concentration favorably contributes to the enhancement of Fe content but is harmful to the degradation resistance of MAO coatings. Our study reveals that the developed Fe-containing MAO coating on Mg alloy exhibits potential in clinical applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Developments of Electrodeposition Coating)
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11 pages, 7031 KiB  
Article
Effect of Rb+ Doping on Tunable Luminescence in Yb3+/Er3+–Y2O3 Film
by Boxu Xu, Chao Song, Jun Song, Rui Huang, Juncheng Liu, Zhenxu Lin, Yi Zhang, Jie Song and Hongliang Li
Coatings 2020, 10(11), 1137; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings10111137 - 23 Nov 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1927
Abstract
In this paper, a series of Rb+-doped Er3+/Yb3+–Y2O3 films were synthesized via a sol-gel method and spin coating. The structure and morphology of the samples were investigated by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. [...] Read more.
In this paper, a series of Rb+-doped Er3+/Yb3+–Y2O3 films were synthesized via a sol-gel method and spin coating. The structure and morphology of the samples were investigated by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The Rb+-doped films with nanoparticles, in the size range of 20–40 nm, were obtained. The spectroscopic analysis of the samples was investigated by using the emission spectra and the intensity of luminescence. All the samples exhibited a green emission ascribed to 2H11/2/4S3/2 to 4I15/2 of Er3+ and a red one ascribed to 4F9/2 and its stark level to 4I15/2 of Er3+. As the Rb+ concentration increased, the intensities of the green light and red light were enhanced 16.97- and 5.81-fold relative to that of the undoped sample. Moreover, by controlling the Rb+ concentration, the samples were capable of generating color-tunable luminescence from red to green linearly. The tunable emission was caused by the change of ion distribution ratio in 4F7/2(Er) and 4F9/2(Er) levels. The results suggest that the as-prepared Rb+-doped Er3+/Yb3+–Y2O3 films have a great potential for applications of luminescence. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Thin Films)
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13 pages, 5914 KiB  
Article
Oxidation and Wear Mechanisms of FeCoCrNiMnAlx Cladding Layers at High-Temperature Condition
by Yan Cui, Junqi Shen, Shengsun Hu and Keping Geng
Coatings 2020, 10(11), 1136; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings10111136 - 23 Nov 2020
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 1985
Abstract
FeCoCrNiMnAlx high-entropy alloy (HEA) cladding layers were successfully fabricated on H13 steel by laser cladding. The microstructure and properties of the FeCoCrNiMnAlx HEA cladding layers were systematically studied. The influence of Al content on high-temperature wear resistance of HEAs was investigated [...] Read more.
FeCoCrNiMnAlx high-entropy alloy (HEA) cladding layers were successfully fabricated on H13 steel by laser cladding. The microstructure and properties of the FeCoCrNiMnAlx HEA cladding layers were systematically studied. The influence of Al content on high-temperature wear resistance of HEAs was investigated by depth-of-field microscopy, XRD, SEM and EDS. Addition of Al element affected the mechanism of oxidation and strengthening of the cladding layers, and effectively promoted its anti-oxidant and abrasion resistance. Compared with the FeCoCrNiMn cladding layer, the FeCoCrNiMnAl0.75 cladding layer enhanced the anti-plastic deformation capacity by 7.1% and reduced oxidation weight gain and total wear weight loss at high temperature by 36.79% and 79.0%, respectively. The wear mechanisms of the cladding layer at high temperature were mainly oxidation wear and abrasive wear, while adhesive wear took a backseat. Full article
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18 pages, 7054 KiB  
Article
Colored Paints Containing NIR-Reflective Pigments Exposed to Accelerated Ultraviolet Radiation Aging with Possible Application as Roof Coatings
by Stefano Rossi, Hampus Lindmark and Michele Fedel
Coatings 2020, 10(11), 1135; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings10111135 - 23 Nov 2020
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 4797
Abstract
This study aims to evaluate the difference in thermal behavior among paints with the presence of traditional and NIR pigments by means of a simple and cheap laboratory-scale test. Considering these goals, the thermal and esthetical properties of two different cool coatings were [...] Read more.
This study aims to evaluate the difference in thermal behavior among paints with the presence of traditional and NIR pigments by means of a simple and cheap laboratory-scale test. Considering these goals, the thermal and esthetical properties of two different cool coatings were assessed, highlighting their positive and limited aspects. Two different complex near-infrared inorganic reflective (NIR) pigments with yellow and black respectably colors were mixed in an acrylic waterborne copolymer binder. The paint formulations were applied on steel panels. The thermal performance of the coatings was investigated in the NIR-region of the light spectrum by exposing the samples to an IR-lamp. The outer and inner surface temperatures of the painted panels were recorded using thermocouples and an IR camera. The samples were aged by artificial UV-B light exposure. Color and specular gloss changes at different exposure times were evaluated. The behavior of the cool coatings was compared with that of conventional coatings with similar color characteristics. The black cool coating achieved a maximum temperature decrease, compared to the conventional black one, of approximately 12 °C. The stability for the cool coatings was very similar to that of the conventional coating, indicating that black pigment could be a potential candidate for cool-coating applications. The yellow cool coatings did not show a significant decrease in temperature compared to the conventional paint. The gloss and color changes resulted as influenced by the types and amount of pigments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Coatings for Building Applications)
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15 pages, 2176 KiB  
Article
Colored Microbial Coatings in Show Caves from the Galapagos Islands (Ecuador): First Microbiological Approach
by Ana Z. Miller, Angela M. García-Sánchez, Mathilda L. Coutinho, Manuel F. Costa Pereira, Fernando Gázquez, José M. Calaforra, Paolo Forti, Jesús Martínez-Frías, Theofilos Toulkeridis, Ana T. Caldeira and Cesareo Saiz-Jimenez
Coatings 2020, 10(11), 1134; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings10111134 - 22 Nov 2020
Cited by 18 | Viewed by 3859
Abstract
The Galapagos Islands (Ecuador) have a unique ecosystem on Earth due to their outstanding biodiversity and geological features. This also extends to their subterranean heritage, such as volcanic caves, with plenty of secondary mineral deposits, including coralloid-type speleothems and moonmilk deposits. In this [...] Read more.
The Galapagos Islands (Ecuador) have a unique ecosystem on Earth due to their outstanding biodiversity and geological features. This also extends to their subterranean heritage, such as volcanic caves, with plenty of secondary mineral deposits, including coralloid-type speleothems and moonmilk deposits. In this study, the bacterial communities associated with speleothems from two lava tubes of Santa Cruz Island were investigated. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) was carried out for the morphological characterization and detection of microbial features associated with moonmilk and coralloid speleothems from Bellavista and Royal Palm Caves. Microbial cells, especially filamentous bacteria in close association with extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), were abundant in both types of speleothems. Furthermore, reticulated filaments and Actinobacteria-like cells were observed by FESEM. The analysis of 16S rDNA revealed the presence of different bacterial phylotypes, many of them associated with the carbon, nitrogen, iron and sulfur cycles, and some others with pollutants. This study gives insights into subsurface microbial diversity of the Galapagos Islands and further shows the interest of the conservation of these subterranean geoheritage sites used as show caves. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biofilms on Cultural Heritage)
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11 pages, 2423 KiB  
Article
Self-Assembly of Self-Cleaning Polystyrene/Styrene-Butadiene-Styrene Films with Well-Ordered Micro-Structures
by Yang Liu, Jianchao Deng, Yamei Wang, Xiaoyang Zhan, Deyuan Zhang and Huawei Chen
Coatings 2020, 10(11), 1133; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings10111133 - 22 Nov 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2482
Abstract
Well-ordered porous films have been widely applied in various areas, such as chemical sensors, microreactors, and tissue engineering. In this article, we propose a novel air-liquid interface self-assembly method to fabricate well-ordered porous polystyrene (PS)/styrene–butadiene–styrene (SBS) films by simply dipping the PS/SBS chloroform [...] Read more.
Well-ordered porous films have been widely applied in various areas, such as chemical sensors, microreactors, and tissue engineering. In this article, we propose a novel air-liquid interface self-assembly method to fabricate well-ordered porous polystyrene (PS)/styrene–butadiene–styrene (SBS) films by simply dipping the PS/SBS chloroform solutions onto the surface of a mixed water/ethanol liquid phase. The proper volume ratio of water/ethanol is necessary for the formation of films with highly uniform pore size. The effect of weight ratio of PS/SBS, the volume ratio of water/ethanol and the concentration of the solutions were experimentally investigated. The pore size decreases with the concentration of polymer solution, and the structure becomes more regular with the decrease of water/ethanol volume ratio. Ordered structure can be formed under PS/SBS in a certain weight ratio. The self-assembled films also have the function of self-cleaning. Besides the analysis of structural characteristic, the self-assembly mechanism was also discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Thin and Thick Films: Deposition, Characterization and Applications)
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14 pages, 2315 KiB  
Article
Production of Microbial Cellulose Films from Green Tea (Camellia Sinensis) Kombucha with Various Carbon Sources
by Mayra Z. Treviño-Garza, Ana S. Guerrero-Medina, Ricardo A. González-Sánchez, Celestino García-Gómez, Antonio Guzmán-Velasco, Juan G. Báez-González and Julia M. Márquez-Reyes
Coatings 2020, 10(11), 1132; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings10111132 - 22 Nov 2020
Cited by 20 | Viewed by 4278
Abstract
The aim of this study was to evaluate the production of microbial cellulose films (MCFs) in culture media based on green tea and different carbon sources, using two microbial consortia (COr and CFr). During the fermentation process, there was a reduction in the [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the production of microbial cellulose films (MCFs) in culture media based on green tea and different carbon sources, using two microbial consortia (COr and CFr). During the fermentation process, there was a reduction in the total soluble solids (TSS) content and pH, as well as an increase in the acidity in all treatments. Furthermore, fluctuations in the total sugar content and proteins during the fermentation process were associated with the consumption of carbon and nitrogen sources, as well as the production of MCFs. In the color analysis, a decrease in the L* value was observed while the rest of the parameters remained stable. Production of films was observed between days 6 and 9 of fermentation; the preferred substrate for COr was glucose (wet base yields = 603.61% and dry base yields = 22.37%), whereas for CFr was dextrose (wet base yields = 601.49% and dry base yields = 28.14%). Finally, the MCFs produced by COr and CFr showed a homogeneous, thick appearance, slight flexibility, and the characteristic brown color of the fermentation medium. Full article
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28 pages, 2794 KiB  
Review
Nanoparticles in Polyelectrolyte Multilayer Layer-by-Layer (LbL) Films and Capsules—Key Enabling Components of Hybrid Coatings
by Ekaterina V. Lengert, Semyon I. Koltsov, Jie Li, Alexey V. Ermakov, Bogdan V. Parakhonskiy, Ekaterina V. Skorb and Andre G. Skirtach
Coatings 2020, 10(11), 1131; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings10111131 - 21 Nov 2020
Cited by 47 | Viewed by 6424
Abstract
Originally regarded as auxiliary additives, nanoparticles have become important constituents of polyelectrolyte multilayers. They represent the key components to enhance mechanical properties, enable activation by laser light or ultrasound, construct anisotropic and multicompartment structures, and facilitate the development of novel sensors and movable [...] Read more.
Originally regarded as auxiliary additives, nanoparticles have become important constituents of polyelectrolyte multilayers. They represent the key components to enhance mechanical properties, enable activation by laser light or ultrasound, construct anisotropic and multicompartment structures, and facilitate the development of novel sensors and movable particles. Here, we discuss an increasingly important role of inorganic nanoparticles in the layer-by-layer assembly—effectively leading to the construction of the so-called hybrid coatings. The principles of assembly are discussed together with the properties of nanoparticles and layer-by-layer polymeric assembly essential in building hybrid coatings. Applications and emerging trends in development of such novel materials are also identified. Full article
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15 pages, 31715 KiB  
Article
Production and Properties of FeB-Fe2B-Fe3(B,C) Surface Layers Formed on Tool Steel Using Combination of Diffusion and Laser Processing
by Aneta Bartkowska
Coatings 2020, 10(11), 1130; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings10111130 - 21 Nov 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1705
Abstract
The paper presents the study results of laser remelting diffusion boronized layers produced on CT90 tool steel. A diffusion boronized layer was produced at 950 °C in a powder mixture containing boron carbide as a source of boron. A needle-like microstructure of iron [...] Read more.
The paper presents the study results of laser remelting diffusion boronized layers produced on CT90 tool steel. A diffusion boronized layer was produced at 950 °C in a powder mixture containing boron carbide as a source of boron. A needle-like microstructure of iron boride was obtained. After diffusion boronizing, the specimens were subjected to laser processing, which was carried out using a diode laser with a nominal power of 3 kW. Three laser beam power values were applied (600, 900, and 1200 W). The aim of the study was to investigate the microstructure, microhardness, chemical, and phase composition as well as the wear and corrosion resistance of newly formed FeB-Fe2B-Fe3(B,C) layers. As a result of the laser beam interaction, the needle-like borides occurring in the subsurface zone were remelted, and three characteristic areas were obtained: the remelted zone, the heat-affected zone, and the substrate. The properties of newly formed layers have improved in comparison to diffusion boronized layers (except for corrosion resistance). It should be noted that using the highest laser beam power contributed to a slight reduction in wear resistance. Both the reduced corrosion and wear resistance were caused by greater remelting of the steel substrate and thus by the increased iron content in the formed layer. Full article
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3 pages, 159 KiB  
Editorial
Special Issue on Surfaces Modification and Analysis for Innovative Biomaterials
by Elvira De Giglio
Coatings 2020, 10(11), 1129; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings10111129 - 21 Nov 2020
Viewed by 1304
Abstract
The reactivity of a biomaterial is literally “written on its surface”, since it contacts host tissues and leads to the biological response [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Surfaces Modification and Analysis for Innovative Biomaterials)
12 pages, 1033 KiB  
Article
Angular and Spectral Bandwidth Considerations in BRDF Measurements of Interference- and Diffraction-Based Coatings
by Alejandro Ferrero and Joaquín Campos
Coatings 2020, 10(11), 1128; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings10111128 - 21 Nov 2020
Viewed by 1755
Abstract
The Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function (BRDF) of iridescent (or goniochromatic) surfaces may vary notably with both spectral and angular variables, and, therefore, finite spectral bandwidth and collection solid angles inherent to any measuring instrument introduce a deviation from the correct value. Experimental data [...] Read more.
The Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function (BRDF) of iridescent (or goniochromatic) surfaces may vary notably with both spectral and angular variables, and, therefore, finite spectral bandwidth and collection solid angles inherent to any measuring instrument introduce a deviation from the correct value. Experimental data of highly goniochromatic samples are used to analyse their impact on measurement uncertainty. The results indicate that it is advisable to standardize spectral and angular bandwidths because the systematic error is not negligible for typical measuring systems. The 95th percentile of the error distribution of the measurement of the BRDF due to these finite bandwidths, and also the 95th percentile of the calculated resulting color differences, are used as criteria to establish recommended values of spectral and angular bandwidths. The impact of the bandwidth is more critical in the measurement of the BRDF of diffraction-based than of interference-based coatings. Full article
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7 pages, 1009 KiB  
Communication
Nanostructural Characterisation and Optical Properties of Sputter-Deposited Thick Indium Tin Oxide (ITO) Coatings
by Andrius Subacius, Bill Baloukas, Etienne Bousser, Steve J. Hinder, Mark A. Baker, Claus Rebholz and Allan Matthews
Coatings 2020, 10(11), 1127; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings10111127 - 21 Nov 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2783
Abstract
Indium tin oxide (ITO) thin films, used in many optoelectronic applications, are typically grown to a thickness of a maximum of a few hundred nanometres. In this work, the composition, microstructure and optical/electrical properties of thick ITO coatings deposited by radio frequency magnetron [...] Read more.
Indium tin oxide (ITO) thin films, used in many optoelectronic applications, are typically grown to a thickness of a maximum of a few hundred nanometres. In this work, the composition, microstructure and optical/electrical properties of thick ITO coatings deposited by radio frequency magnetron sputtering from a ceramic ITO target in an Ar/O2 gas mixture (total O2 flow of 1%) on unheated glass substrates are reported for the first time. In contrast to the commonly observed (200) or (400) preferential orientations in ITO thin films, the approximately 3.3 μm thick coatings display a (622) preferential orientation. The ITO coatings exhibit a purely nanocrystalline structure and show good electrical and optical properties, such as an electrical resistivity of 1.3 × 10−1 Ω·cm, optical transmittance at 550 nm of ~60% and optical band gap of 2.9 eV. The initial results presented here are expected to provide useful information for future studies on the synthesis of high-quality thick ITO coatings. Full article
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15 pages, 6160 KiB  
Article
ZrO2-Sm2O3 Layer Growth Using the MOCVD Method at Low Temperatures and Under Reduced Pressure
by Agata Sawka
Coatings 2020, 10(11), 1126; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings10111126 - 21 Nov 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1791
Abstract
This work presents the results of structure, microstructure, and chemical composition investigations performed on ZrO2-Sm2O3 layers synthesized by MOCVD (metal-organic chemical vapor deposition) using Zr(tmhd)4 and Sm(tmhd)3 as reactants on quartz glass substrate. The molar percentage [...] Read more.
This work presents the results of structure, microstructure, and chemical composition investigations performed on ZrO2-Sm2O3 layers synthesized by MOCVD (metal-organic chemical vapor deposition) using Zr(tmhd)4 and Sm(tmhd)3 as reactants on quartz glass substrate. The molar percentage of Sm(tmhd)3 used to obtain the layers at both 500 and 550 °C was 14% and 22.75%, respectively. Synthesis parameters were selected so that the value of the extended criterion Grx/Rex2 (Gr—Grashof number, Re—Reynolds number, x—the distance from the gas inflow point to the CVD (MOCVD) reactor) could be maintained below 0.01. It was determined from XRD (X-ray diffraction) analyses that the layers deposited at 500 °C contained small amounts of a crystalline phase and the layers obtained at 550 °C contained greater amounts of the crystalline phase (solid solution). SEM (scanning electron microscope) observations have also shown that the crystalline phase is present in the layers synthesized at 500 °C, as well as at 550 °C. EDS (energy dispersive spectroscopy) studies have indicated that molar content of Sm2O3 in the crystalline phase is lower in comparison to the amount present in the respective amorphous phase. The larger the Sm2O3 content in the layer, the higher the growth rate. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Surface Characterization, Deposition and Modification)
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18 pages, 595 KiB  
Article
Application of Polypropylene-Based Nanocomposite Films for Sliced Turkish Pastrami under Vacuum/Modified Atmosphere Packaging: A Pilot Study
by Gülsüm Erol Ayas, Zehra Ayhan, Donatella Duraccio, Clara Silvestre and Sossio Cimmino
Coatings 2020, 10(11), 1125; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings10111125 - 20 Nov 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1996
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of polypropylene (PP)-based nanomaterials with improved barrier properties by nanoclay and antimicrobial properties by poly-beta-pinene (PβP) on the quality and shelf life of sliced pastrami as an alternative to the commercial multilayered materials. [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of polypropylene (PP)-based nanomaterials with improved barrier properties by nanoclay and antimicrobial properties by poly-beta-pinene (PβP) on the quality and shelf life of sliced pastrami as an alternative to the commercial multilayered materials. Sliced pastrami was packaged using nanocomposite films with and w/o PβP, and multilayered material under air, modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) and vacuum. Packaged products were screened for microbiological, physicochemical and sensory quality at 4 °C for 6 months. Salmonella spp., Clostridium perfringens and coagulase positive Staphylococus aureus were not detected in the products during entire storage. No yeast and mold growth occurred for entire storage using antimicrobial nanocomposite and multilayer material under vacuum. The antimicrobial effect of PβP on the pastrami was higher under vacuum compared to MAP applications suggesting that direct contact of the material is required with the food surface. Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) of pastrami under vacuum were lower than those of MAP applications. The initial carbonyl content of the product was determined as 3.38 nmol/mg and a slight increase was observed during storage period for all applications. The shelf life of pastrami is suggested as 150 days using PβP containing nanomaterials under vacuum, which is longer than the shelf life of a commercial product on the market using multilayer materials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Coatings for Food Technology and System)
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18 pages, 7031 KiB  
Article
Antimicrobial Properties of Samarium Doped Hydroxyapatite Suspensions and Coatings
by Simona Liliana Iconaru, Andreea Groza, Sofia Gaiaschi, Krzysztof Rokosz, Steinar Raaen, Steluta Carmen Ciobanu, Patrick Chapon and Daniela Predoi
Coatings 2020, 10(11), 1124; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings10111124 - 20 Nov 2020
Cited by 21 | Viewed by 3182
Abstract
Post-implant infections are a major health problem, and it is well-known that treating them with conventional drugs is accompanied by many disadvantages. The development of new biomaterials with enhanced antimicrobial properties are of major interest for the scientific world. The aim of this [...] Read more.
Post-implant infections are a major health problem, and it is well-known that treating them with conventional drugs is accompanied by many disadvantages. The development of new biomaterials with enhanced antimicrobial properties are of major interest for the scientific world. The aim of this study was to synthesize and characterize hydroxyapatite doped with Samarium (Ca10−xSmx(PO4)6(OH)2, xSm = 0.05, 5Sm-HAp) suspensions, pellets and coatings. The 5Sm-HAp coatings on Si substrates were obtained by rf magnetron sputtering technique. The different techniques such as ultrasound measurements, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Glow Discharge Optical Emission Spectroscopy (GDOES), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) were used to examine the obtained coatings. The results showed that the doped Sm ions entered the structure of hydroxyapatite successfully and Sm ions was uniformly doped onto the surface of the support. The depth profile curves of Ca, P, O, H, Ce and Si elements exhibit their presence from a surface to substrate interface as function of sputtering time. XPS analysis indicated as calcium-phosphate structures enriched in Sm3+ ions. Furthermore, the antimicrobial properties of the 5Sm-HAp suspensions, targets and coatings were assessed against Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 and Candida albicans ATCC 10231. The results of the antimicrobial assays highlighted that that the samples presented a strong antimicrobial activity against the tested microbial strains. The results showed that the coatings after 48 h of incubation inhibited the growth of all tested microbial strains under the value of 0.6 Log CFU/mL. This study shows that the 5Sm-HAp samples are good candidates for the development of new antimicrobial agents. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hydroxyapatite Based Coatings for Biomedical Applications)
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11 pages, 4153 KiB  
Article
Temperature Sensing Utilizing Stimulate Brillouin Scattering Fast Light in Liquid-Filled Photonic Crystal Fibers
by Jingli Lei, Shuaibin Niu, Shanglin Hou, Daobin Wang and Xiaoxiao Li
Coatings 2020, 10(11), 1123; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings10111123 - 20 Nov 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1701
Abstract
A novel temperature sensor designed on stimulate Brillouin scattering fast light in liquid-filled photonic crystal fibers is proposed. The time advancement and the Brillouin frequency shift of fast light are simulated according to the three-wave coupling equations of stimulate Brillouin scattering, and the [...] Read more.
A novel temperature sensor designed on stimulate Brillouin scattering fast light in liquid-filled photonic crystal fibers is proposed. The time advancement and the Brillouin frequency shift of fast light are simulated according to the three-wave coupling equations of stimulate Brillouin scattering, and the temperature sensing characteristics of the fast light in liquid-filled hexagonal photonic crystal fibers with three different air filling factors are simulated from 20 °C to 70 °C by using the full-vector finite element method. The alcohol-filled photonic crystal fibers exhibit rather sensitive responses to temperature. With temperature varying from 20 °C to 70 °C, the variation of the effective mode area is 2.75 µm at the air filling factor of 0.6, the Brillouin frequency shift is about 11 GHz and its average modification is 1.15 MHz. The time advancement increases with the rise of temperature, its increment can reach up to 4.53 ns at the air filling factor of 0.6 and the pump power of 60 mW, the temperature sensitivity of the time advancement is 0.272 ns/°C. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Micro-Nano Optics and Its Applications)
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15 pages, 5796 KiB  
Article
Fabrication and Property Evaluation of the Al2O3-TiO2 Composite Coatings Prepared by Plasma Spray
by Jingzhong Zhou, Kuoteng Sun, Songqiang Huang, Weichen Cai, Yangzhi Wei, Liang Meng, Zhaowei Hu and Wenge Li
Coatings 2020, 10(11), 1122; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings10111122 - 20 Nov 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2051
Abstract
The Al2O3-13 wt.% TiO2 (AT13) composite coatings were prepared on Q235 steel by plasma spray technique. The spray parameters were designed by the orthogonal experiments, and the properties of the coating were evaluated. Results showed that with respect [...] Read more.
The Al2O3-13 wt.% TiO2 (AT13) composite coatings were prepared on Q235 steel by plasma spray technique. The spray parameters were designed by the orthogonal experiments, and the properties of the coating were evaluated. Results showed that with respect to the bond strength of the coating, the optimized spraying parameters were the plasma current of 530 A, Ar flow of 41 L/min, H2 flow of 10 L/min, and spray standoff distance of 100 mm. The plasma spray process led to the transition of α-Al2O3 to γ-Al2O3, resulting in the increase in the porosity of AT13 coating prepared at nonoptimized parameters. Meanwhile, the porosity and cracks were also increased due to the decrease in the Ar flow and the increase in spray standoff distance. The low porosity, a few cracks, and the uniformly dispersed TiO2 particles contributed the enhanced properties including mechanical and corrosion behaviors of the AT13 coating prepared at optimized parameters. The bond strength, microhardness, and thermal shock resistance of the AT13 coating could reach 25.01 MPa, 1000.6 HV0.5, and 40 times when the coating was prepared at optimized parameters, respectively. Especially, the static Icorr of the AT13 coating prepared at optimized parameters was two order of magnitude less than that of Q235 steel. In addition, the erosion weight loss of Q235 steel could be decreased about 30 times by the protection of the AT13 coating. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Advances in Thermal Spraying)
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19 pages, 8764 KiB  
Article
Inter-Relationship between Coating Micro/Nanostructure and the Tribological Performance of Zr–C Gradient Coatings
by Jerzy Ratajski, Adam Gilewicz, Katarzyna Mydłowska and Łukasz Szparaga
Coatings 2020, 10(11), 1121; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings10111121 - 20 Nov 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1772
Abstract
The research presented in this article concerns Zr–C gradient coatings that were deposited on HS6-5-2 steel by reactive magnetron sputtering from the Zr target in appropriately programmed C2H2 mass flow rate, resulting in various profiles of atomic carbon concentrations in [...] Read more.
The research presented in this article concerns Zr–C gradient coatings that were deposited on HS6-5-2 steel by reactive magnetron sputtering from the Zr target in appropriately programmed C2H2 mass flow rate, resulting in various profiles of atomic carbon concentrations in the coating and consequently in spatial change of the properties (H, E, …) and behavior (H/E, H3/E2, We). In particular, the characteristic changes in hardness and Young’s modulus in the Zr–C coatings represented approximately by the bell curve, which has a maximum at the content of about 50 at.% C, were an inspiration to study the behavior of gradient coatings with carbon content in the range of 0–50 and 50–85 at.% with the same hardness change profile. The obtained results indicate that, firstly, the gradient of spatial changes in the coating composition increases their resistance to cohesive damage in comparison to non-gradient coatings, and, secondly, the results show that high hardness is a desired property but not sufficient to ensure adequate coating performance. Independently, an appropriate nano/microstructural structure is necessary, which determines their tribological behavior. In particular, in the case of the tested Zr–C coatings, the obtained results indicate that gradient coatings with a carbon content in the range of 50–85 at.% have better properties, characterized by the critical force Lc2, wear, coefficient of friction, H/E and H3/E2 ratios. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Coatings Deposited by Cathodic Arc and Magnetron Sputtering Process)
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17 pages, 8286 KiB  
Article
Development of Arabinoxylan-Reinforced Apple Pectin/Graphene Oxide/Nano-Hydroxyapatite Based Nanocomposite Scaffolds with Controlled Release of Drug for Bone Tissue Engineering: In-Vitro Evaluation of Biocompatibility and Cytotoxicity against MC3T3-E1
by Wafa Shamsan Al-Arjan, Muhammad Umar Aslam Khan, Samina Nazir, Saiful Izwan Abd Razak and Mohammed Rafiq Abdul Kadir
Coatings 2020, 10(11), 1120; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings10111120 - 20 Nov 2020
Cited by 38 | Viewed by 3698
Abstract
Fabrication of reinforced scaffolds to repair and regenerate defected bone is still a major challenge. Bone tissue engineering is an advanced medical strategy to restore or regenerate damaged bone. The excellent biocompatibility and osteogenesis behavior of porous scaffolds play a critical role in [...] Read more.
Fabrication of reinforced scaffolds to repair and regenerate defected bone is still a major challenge. Bone tissue engineering is an advanced medical strategy to restore or regenerate damaged bone. The excellent biocompatibility and osteogenesis behavior of porous scaffolds play a critical role in bone regeneration. In current studies, we synthesized polymeric nanocomposite material through free-radical polymerization to fabricate porous nanocomposite scaffolds by freeze drying. Functional group, surface morphology, porosity, pore size, and mechanical strength were examined through Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), Single-Electron Microscopy (SEM), Brunauer-Emmet-Teller (BET), and Universal Testing Machine (UTM), respectively. These nanocomposites exhibit enhanced compressive strength (from 4.1 to 16.90 MPa), Young’s modulus (from 13.27 to 29.65 MPa) with well appropriate porosity and pore size (from 63.72 ± 1.9 to 45.75 ± 6.7 µm), and a foam-like morphology. The increasing amount of graphene oxide (GO) regulates the porosity and mechanical behavior of the nanocomposite scaffolds. The loading and sustained release of silver-sulfadiazine was observed to be 90.6% after 260 min. The in-vitro analysis was performed using mouse pre-osteoblast (MC3T3-E1) cell lines. The developed nanocomposite scaffolds exhibited excellent biocompatibility. Based on the results, we propose these novel nanocomposites can serve as potential future biomaterials to repair defected bone with the load-bearing application, and in bone tissue engineering. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Synthetic and Biological-Derived Hydroxyapatite Implant Coatings)
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19 pages, 10971 KiB  
Article
The Beneficial Mechanical and Biological Outcomes of Thin Copper-Gallium Doped Silica-Rich Bio-Active Glass Implant-Type Coatings
by George E. Stan, Teddy Tite, Adrian-Claudiu Popa, Iuliana Maria Chirica, Catalin C. Negrila, Cristina Besleaga, Irina Zgura, Any Cristina Sergentu, Gianina Popescu-Pelin, Daniel Cristea, Lucia E. Ionescu, Marius Necsulescu, Hugo R. Fernandes and José M. F. Ferreira
Coatings 2020, 10(11), 1119; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings10111119 - 20 Nov 2020
Cited by 25 | Viewed by 3099
Abstract
Silica-based bioactive glasses (SBG) hold great promise as bio-functional coatings of metallic endo-osseous implants, due to their osteoproductive potential, and, in the case of designed formulations, suitable mechanical properties and antibacterial efficacy. In the framework of this study, the FastOs®BG alkali-free [...] Read more.
Silica-based bioactive glasses (SBG) hold great promise as bio-functional coatings of metallic endo-osseous implants, due to their osteoproductive potential, and, in the case of designed formulations, suitable mechanical properties and antibacterial efficacy. In the framework of this study, the FastOs®BG alkali-free SBG system (mol%: SiO2—38.49, CaO—36.07, P2O5—5.61, MgO—19.24, CaF2—0.59), with CuO (2 mol%) and Ga2O3 (3 mol%) antimicrobial agents, partially substituting in the parent system CaO and MgO, respectively, was used as source material for the fabrication of intentionally silica-enriched implant-type thin coatings (~600 nm) onto titanium (Ti) substrates by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering. The physico-chemical and mechanical characteristics, as well as the in vitro preliminary cytocompatibility and antibacterial performance of an alkali-free silica-rich bio-active glass coating designs was further explored. The films were smooth (RRMS < 1 nm) and hydrophilic (water contact angle of ~65°). The SBG coatings deposited from alkali-free copper-gallium co-doped FastOs®BG-derived exhibited improved wear performance, with the coatings eliciting a bonding strength value of ~53 MPa, Lc3 critical load value of ~4.9 N, hardness of ~6.1 GPa and an elastic modulus of ~127 GPa. The Cu and Ga co-doped SBG layers had excellent cytocompatibility, while reducing after 24 h the Staphylococcus aureus bacterial development with 4 orders of magnitude with respect to the control situations (i.e., nutritive broth and Ti substrate). Thereby, such SBG constructs could pave the road towards high-performance bio-functional coatings with excellent mechanical properties and enhanced biological features (e.g., by coupling cytocompatibility with antimicrobial properties), which are in great demand nowadays. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Vapor Deposited Biomedical Coatings)
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19 pages, 3072 KiB  
Review
Biomimetic Calcium Phosphate Coating as a Drug Delivery Vehicle for Bone Tissue Engineering: A Mini-Review
by Xingnan Lin, Jiping Chen, Ying Liao, Janak Lal Pathak, Huang Li and Yuelian Liu
Coatings 2020, 10(11), 1118; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings10111118 - 20 Nov 2020
Cited by 20 | Viewed by 3445
Abstract
The high incidence of bone defect cases necessitates a rapid development of cost-effective bone tissue engineering approaches. Bone growth factors such as bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) play a vital role in bone tissue engineering. The osteoinductive efficacy of BMP-2 and other osteogenic growth [...] Read more.
The high incidence of bone defect cases necessitates a rapid development of cost-effective bone tissue engineering approaches. Bone growth factors such as bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) play a vital role in bone tissue engineering. The osteoinductive efficacy of BMP-2 and other osteogenic growth factors is highly dependent on their dose and delivery mode. Slow and sustained delivery of a low dose of BMP-2 promotes bone defect healing. However, the burst release of a high dose of BMP-2 not only fails to promote bone healing but also causes adverse local and systemic effects. The biomimetic calcium phosphate (BioCaP) coating technique guarantees a slow, gradual, and local release of BMP-2 to mimic its natural release from the bone matrix under physiological conditions. Therefore, BioCaP coatings have long been regarded as a promising drug carrier for growth factors. In this mini-review, we give a brief introduction to BioCaP coatings regarding their preparation techniques, physicochemical properties, potential as a drug carrier, ability to suppress foreign body reactivity, and their preclinical application in ectopic and orthotopic models. Finally, the current challenges and future prospects of BioCaP coatings are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomimetic Drug Delivery Coating)
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21 pages, 5333 KiB  
Article
Fire Resistance and Mechanical Properties of Intumescent Coating Using Novel BioAsh for Steel
by Jing Han Beh, Ming Chian Yew, Lip Huat Saw and Ming Kun Yew
Coatings 2020, 10(11), 1117; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings10111117 - 20 Nov 2020
Cited by 20 | Viewed by 3945
Abstract
Recent developments of intumescent fire-protective coatings used in steel buildings are important to ensure the structural integrity and safe evacuation of occupants during fire accidents. Flame-retardant intumescent coating applied to structural steel could delay the spread of fire and heat propagation across spaces [...] Read more.
Recent developments of intumescent fire-protective coatings used in steel buildings are important to ensure the structural integrity and safe evacuation of occupants during fire accidents. Flame-retardant intumescent coating applied to structural steel could delay the spread of fire and heat propagation across spaces and structures in minimizing fire risks. This research focuses on formulating a green intumescent coating utilized the BioAsh, a by-product derived from natural rubberwood (hardwood) biomass combustion as the natural substitute of mineral fillers in the intumescent coating. Fire resistance, chemical, physical and mechanical properties of all samples were examined via Bunsen burner, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), carbolite furnace, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), freeze–thaw cycle, static immersion and Instron pull-off adhesion test. Sample BioAsh intumescent coating (BAIC) 4-7 incorporated with 3.5 wt.% BioAsh exhibited the best performances in terms of fire resistance (112.5 °C for an hour under the Bunsen burner test), thermal stability (residual weight of 29.48 wt.% at 1000 °C in TGA test), adhesion strength (1.73 MPa under Instron pull-off adhesion test), water resistance (water absorption rate of 8.72%) and freeze–thaw durability (no crack, blister and color change) as compared to other samples. These results reveal that an appropriate amount of renewable BioAsh incorporated as natural mineral fillers into the intumescent coating could lead to better fire resistance and mechanical properties for the steel structures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Flame Retardant Materials and Surfaces)
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11 pages, 2024 KiB  
Article
Galvanic Corrosion Due to a Heterogeneous Sulfate Reducing Bacteria Biofilm
by Hongwei Liu, Haixian Liu and Yuxuan Zhang
Coatings 2020, 10(11), 1116; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings10111116 - 20 Nov 2020
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2399
Abstract
In this work, the galvanic corrosion behavior of sulfate reducing Desulfotomaculum nigrificans biofilm-covered and uncovered carbon steel was investigated using various electrochemical measurements. The results showed that the bare specimen in the abiotic solution functions as the anode; whereas the biofilm-covered specimen in [...] Read more.
In this work, the galvanic corrosion behavior of sulfate reducing Desulfotomaculum nigrificans biofilm-covered and uncovered carbon steel was investigated using various electrochemical measurements. The results showed that the bare specimen in the abiotic solution functions as the anode; whereas the biofilm-covered specimen in the SRB-containing solution functions as the cathode after two electrodes being coupled. The anodic reaction of specimen in the biotic solution containing SRB was inhibited; whereas the cathodic reaction was considerably promoted after coupling. Hence, localized corrosion of specimen in the abiotic solution was observed due to the galvanic corrosion effect. SRB could still accelerate steel corrosion even after coupling, but the results indicate that the contribution of SRB to steel corrosion decreased. The localized corrosion of steel in the SRB-containing environments not only involved the SRB biofilm, but also a galvanic corrosion effect. The flow of electrons from the anodic dissolution of Fe in the abiotic solution to the SRB cells of cathodic area decreased the acceptance capacity of electrons by SRB from steel beneath biofilm. As a result, the steel corrosion beneath SRB biofilm decreased after coupling. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Corrosion, Wear and Erosion)
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10 pages, 3966 KiB  
Article
Sorption of Methylene Blue for Studying the Specific Surface Properties of Biomass Carbohydrates
by Tatiana Skripkina, Ekaterina Podgorbunskikh, Aleksey Bychkov and Oleg Lomovsky
Coatings 2020, 10(11), 1115; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings10111115 - 20 Nov 2020
Cited by 18 | Viewed by 3111
Abstract
The surface area is an important parameter in setting any biorefining technology. The aim of this study was to investigate the applicability of sorption of methylene blue to characterize the surface of the main biomass carbohydrates: α-cellulose, sigmacell cellulose, natural gum, β-glucan, and [...] Read more.
The surface area is an important parameter in setting any biorefining technology. The aim of this study was to investigate the applicability of sorption of methylene blue to characterize the surface of the main biomass carbohydrates: α-cellulose, sigmacell cellulose, natural gum, β-glucan, and starch. The morphology of particles of the model objects was studied by scanning electron microscopy. Nitrogen adsorption isotherms demonstrate that the selected carbohydrates are macroporous adsorbents. The monolayer capacities, the energy constants of the Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) equation, and specific surface areas were calculated using the BET theory, the comparative method proposed by Gregg and Sing, and the Harkins–Jura method. The method of methylene blue sorption onto biomass carbohydrates was adapted and mastered. It was demonstrated that sorption of methylene blue proceeds successfully in ethanol, thus facilitating surface characterization for carbohydrates that are either soluble in water or regain water. It was found that the methylene blue sorption values correlate with specific surface area determined by nitrogen adsorption/desorption and calculated from the granulometric data. As a result of electrostatic attraction, the presence of ion-exchanged groups on the analyte surface has a stronger effect on binding of methylene blue than the surface area does. Sorption of methylene blue can be used in addition to gas adsorption/desorption to assess the accessibility of carbohydrate surface for binding large molecules. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physicochemical Surface Treatment of Wood Raw Materials)
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19 pages, 4616 KiB  
Article
Corrosion Resistance of Mild Steel Coated with Phthalimide-Functionalized Polybenzoxazines
by Kamal I. Aly, Abdulsalam Mahdy, Mohamed A. Hegazy, Nayef S. Al-Muaikel, Shiao-Wei Kuo and Mohamed Gamal Mohamed
Coatings 2020, 10(11), 1114; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings10111114 - 19 Nov 2020
Cited by 35 | Viewed by 3069
Abstract
Herein, we synthesized two new phthalimide-functionalized benzoxazine monomers, pPP-BZ and oPP-BZ, through Mannich reactions of 2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)isoindoline-1,3-dione (pPP) and 2-(2-hydroxyphenyl)isoindoline-1,3-dione (oPP), respectively, with p-toluidine and paraformaldehyde. The structures of these two monomers were confirmed using Fourier transform [...] Read more.
Herein, we synthesized two new phthalimide-functionalized benzoxazine monomers, pPP-BZ and oPP-BZ, through Mannich reactions of 2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)isoindoline-1,3-dione (pPP) and 2-(2-hydroxyphenyl)isoindoline-1,3-dione (oPP), respectively, with p-toluidine and paraformaldehyde. The structures of these two monomers were confirmed using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. We used differential scanning calorimetry, FTIR spectroscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis to study the polymerization behavior and thermal stability of the monomers and their corresponding polybenzoxazines. Poly(pPP-BZ) and poly(oPP-BZ) were formed on mild steel (MS) through spin-coating and subsequent thermal curing polymerization. We used various corrosion testing methods to examine the effect of the curing temperature on the corrosion resistance of the coated MS samples in 3.5 wt.% aqueous solution of NaCl. Among our tested systems, the corrosion rate reached a low of 2.78 µm·Y−1 for the MS coated with poly(pPP-BZ)180 (i.e., the coating that had been cured at 180 °C); this value is much lower than that (4.8 µm·Y−1) reported for a maleimide-based benzoxazine compound (MI-Bz)/33 wt.% ACAT (amine-capped aniline trimer) blend. Thus, the incorporation of the imide functional group into the PBZ coatings is an effective strategy for affording high-performance corrosion resistance. Full article
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11 pages, 3549 KiB  
Article
Porous CaP Coatings Formed by Combination of Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation and RF-Magnetron Sputtering
by Anna Kozelskaya, Gleb Dubinenko, Alexandr Vorobyev, Alexander Fedotkin, Natalia Korotchenko, Alexander Gigilev, Evgeniy Shesterikov, Yuriy Zhukov and Sergei Tverdokhlebov
Coatings 2020, 10(11), 1113; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings10111113 - 19 Nov 2020
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2503
Abstract
The porous CaP subcoating was formed on the Ti6Al4V titanium alloy substrate by plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO). Then, upper coatings were formed by radio frequency magnetron sputtering (RFMS) over the PEO subcoating by the sputtering of various CaP powder targets: β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP), [...] Read more.
The porous CaP subcoating was formed on the Ti6Al4V titanium alloy substrate by plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO). Then, upper coatings were formed by radio frequency magnetron sputtering (RFMS) over the PEO subcoating by the sputtering of various CaP powder targets: β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP), hydroxyapatite (HA), Mg-substituted β-tricalcium phosphate (Mg-β-TCP) and Mg-substituted hydroxyapatite (Mg-HA), Sr-substituted β-tricalcium phosphate (Sr-β-TCP) and Sr-substituted hydroxyapatite (Sr-HA). The coating surface morphology was studied by scanning electron and atomic force microscopy. The chemical composition was determined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The phase composition of the coatings was studied by X-ray diffraction analysis. The Young’s modulus of the coatings was studied by nanoindentation test. RF-magnetron sputtering treatment of PEO subcoating resulted in multileveled roughness, increased Ca/P ratio and Young’s modulus and enrichment with Sr and Mg. Sputtering of the upper layer also helped to adjust the coating crystallinity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation (PEO) Coatings)
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16 pages, 38316 KiB  
Article
Influence of the Active Screen Plasma Power during Afterglow Nitrocarburizing on the Surface Modification of AISI 316L
by Jan Böcker, Alexander Puth, Anke Dalke, Jürgen Röpcke, Jean-Pierre H. van Helden and Horst Biermann
Coatings 2020, 10(11), 1112; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings10111112 - 19 Nov 2020
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2066
Abstract
Active screen plasma nitrocarburizing (ASPNC) increases the surface hardness and lifetime of austenitic stainless steel without deteriorating its corrosion resistance. Using an active screen made of carbon opens up new technological possibilities that have not been exploited to date. In this study, the [...] Read more.
Active screen plasma nitrocarburizing (ASPNC) increases the surface hardness and lifetime of austenitic stainless steel without deteriorating its corrosion resistance. Using an active screen made of carbon opens up new technological possibilities that have not been exploited to date. In this study, the effect of screen power variation without bias application on resulting concentrations of process gas species and surface modification of AISI 316L steel was studied. The concentrations of gas species (e.g., HCN, NH3, CH4, C2H2) were measured as functions of the active screen power and the feed gas composition at constant temperature using in situ infrared laser absorption spectroscopy. At constant precursor gas composition, the decrease in active screen power led to a decrease in both the concentrations of the detected molecules and the diffusion depths of nitrogen and carbon. Depending on the gas mixture, a threshold of the active screen power was found above which no changes in the expanded austenite layer thickness were measured. The use of a heating independent of the screen power offers an additional parameter for optimizing the ASPNC process in addition to changes in the feed gas composition and the bias power. In this way, an advanced process control can be established. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plasma Surface Engineering)
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15 pages, 1144 KiB  
Article
The Impact of Fungicides, Plasma, UV-Additives and Weathering on the Adhesion Strength of Acrylic and Alkyd Coatings to the Norway Spruce Wood
by Ladislav Reinprecht, Radovan Tiňo and Marek Šomšák
Coatings 2020, 10(11), 1111; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings10111111 - 19 Nov 2020
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 2320
Abstract
The adhesion strength between the transparent acrylic or alkyd coatings and the Norway spruce (Picea abies Karst L.) wood was determined by EN ISO 4624 and analyzed concerning four variables: (a) fungicidal pre-treatment of wood with boric acid or benzalkonium chloride, (b) [...] Read more.
The adhesion strength between the transparent acrylic or alkyd coatings and the Norway spruce (Picea abies Karst L.) wood was determined by EN ISO 4624 and analyzed concerning four variables: (a) fungicidal pre-treatment of wood with boric acid or benzalkonium chloride, (b) cold plasma modification of wood surfaces, (c) presence of hindered amine light stabilizer (HALS) or hydroxyphenyl-benzotriazoles (BTZ) in the role of UV-additives in coatings, and (d) weathering of coated wood—lasting 1 week in Xenotest by a modified EN 927-6, or 14, 28 and 42 weeks outdoors at 45° by EN 927-3. In the un-weathered state, the adhesion strength was positively affected by the initial plasma modification of wood surfaces, more evident with the application of acrylic water-borne coatings. On the contrary, the adhesion strength was not influenced by the fungicidal pre-treatment of wood and by the UV-additive’s presence in coatings. The adhesion was negatively affected by weathering—exponentially outdoor—irrespective of the fungicidal pre-treatment of wood, the plasma modification of wood surfaces, the coating type, and the presence of UV-additive in coatings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Surface Modification and Treatment of Wood)
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