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Antibiotics, Volume 12, Issue 11 (November 2023) – 86 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): The antibiotic resistance of Porphyromonas gingivalis, a major pathogen in human periodontal disease, was studied over 20 years in the United States in severe periodontitis patients.  In 1999–2000, P. gingivalis resistance to clindamycin was rare, affecting only 0.6% of patients, but by 2019–2020 this resistance had risen to 9.3% (a 15-fold increase). Similarly, P. gingivalis resistance to amoxicillin increased from 0.1% of patients in 1999–2000 to 2.8% in 2019–2020 (a 28-fold increase). In comparison, negligible P. gingivalis resistance to metronidazole, metronidazole plus amoxicillin, and doxycycline over the 20-year study period was found. The increased antibiotic resistance of P. gingivalis and other periodontitis-associated bacteria threatens the efficacy of periodontal antimicrobial chemotherapy. View this paper
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17 pages, 2787 KiB  
Article
Study of the Antibacterial Activity of Rich Polyphenolic Extracts Obtained from Cytisus scoparius against Foodborne Pathogens
Antibiotics 2023, 12(11), 1645; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics12111645 - 20 Nov 2023
Viewed by 889
Abstract
Natural extracts containing high polyphenolic concentrations may act as good antimicrobials for their antibacterial and antibiofilm activity. The present research characterizes two hydro-organic extracts with high polyphenolic content, obtained from the shrub Cytisus scoparius as antipathogenic candidates. As a result of their own [...] Read more.
Natural extracts containing high polyphenolic concentrations may act as good antimicrobials for their antibacterial and antibiofilm activity. The present research characterizes two hydro-organic extracts with high polyphenolic content, obtained from the shrub Cytisus scoparius as antipathogenic candidates. As a result of their own composition, both extracts, LE050 and PG050, have shown pronounced bioactivities with potential uses, especially in agricultural, livestock production, food manufacturing, and pharmaceutical industries. Polyphenolic compounds were extracted by using adjusted hydro-organic solvent mixtures. These extracts’ in vitro antimicrobial activity was evaluated on Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogenic bacteria, giving special attention to those involved in food contamination. Due to this, the biofilm dispersion was assessed on Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The extracts showed antimicrobial activity against the pathogenic species tested, presenting IC50 values between 0.625–20% v/v. Different behaviors have been detected between both extracts, probably linked to their distinct polyphenol composition, being LE050 extract the one with most promising bioactive applications. Finally, the results from the biofilm dispersion assays reveal that the extracts exhibit a good antibiofilm activity against the pathogenic bacteria tested. Full article
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16 pages, 883 KiB  
Article
Stachys Species: Comparative Evaluation of Phenolic Profile and Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Potential
Antibiotics 2023, 12(11), 1644; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics12111644 - 20 Nov 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1497
Abstract
This study aimed to investigate the polyphenolic composition and antioxidant and antimicrobial potential of six Romanian Stachys species: S. officinalis, S. germanica, S. byzantina, S. sylvatica, S. palustris, and S. recta. The LC-MS/MS method was used to [...] Read more.
This study aimed to investigate the polyphenolic composition and antioxidant and antimicrobial potential of six Romanian Stachys species: S. officinalis, S. germanica, S. byzantina, S. sylvatica, S. palustris, and S. recta. The LC-MS/MS method was used to analyze the polyphenolic profile, while the phenolic contents were spectrophotometrically determined. The antioxidant activity was evaluated using the following methods: DPPH, FRAP, nitrite-induced autooxidation of hemoglobin, inhibition of cytochrome c-catalyzed lipid peroxidation, and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy. The in vitro antimicrobial properties were assessed using agar-well diffusion, broth microdilution, and antibiofilm assays. Fifteen polyphenols were identified using LC-MS and chlorogenic acid was the major component in all the samples (1131.8–6761.4 μg/g). S. germanica, S. palustris, and S. byzantina extracts each displayed an intense antiradical action in relation to high contents of TPC (6.40 mg GAE/mL), flavonoids (3.90 mg RE/mL), and caffeic acid derivatives (0.89 mg CAE/mL). In vitro antimicrobial and antibiofilm properties were exhibited towards Candida albicans, Gram-positive and Gram-negative strains, with the most intense efficacy recorded for S. germanica and S. byzantina when tested against S. aureus. These results highlighted Stachys extracts as rich sources of bioactive compounds with promising antioxidant and antimicrobial efficacies and important perspectives for developing phytopharmaceuticals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Activity of Natural Products and Plants Extracts)
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15 pages, 1092 KiB  
Article
Terminalia petiolaris A.Cunn ex Benth. Extracts Have Antibacterial Activity and Potentiate Conventional Antibiotics against β-Lactam-Drug-Resistant Bacteria
Antibiotics 2023, 12(11), 1643; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics12111643 - 20 Nov 2023
Viewed by 820
Abstract
Terminalia petiolaris A. Cunn. Ex Benth. (genus: Terminalia, family: Combretaceae) is native to Australia. Terminalia spp. have traditionally been used to treat various ailments, including bacterial infections. Solvents of varying polarity were used to extract compounds from leaves of this species, and [...] Read more.
Terminalia petiolaris A. Cunn. Ex Benth. (genus: Terminalia, family: Combretaceae) is native to Australia. Terminalia spp. have traditionally been used to treat various ailments, including bacterial infections. Solvents of varying polarity were used to extract compounds from leaves of this species, and the extracts were tested against a panel of bacteria, including antibiotic-resistant strains. The methanolic and water extracts showed substantial inhibitory activity against several bacteria, including antibiotic-resistant strains in both disc diffusion and liquid dilution assays. Combining these extracts with selected conventional antibiotics enhanced the inhibition of bacterial growth for some combinations, while others showed no significant interaction. In total, two synergistic, twenty-five additive, twenty-three non-interactive and one antagonistic interaction were observed. The methanolic and ethyl acetate plant extracts were found to be non-toxic in Artemia franciscana nauplii toxicity assays. A liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry metabolomics analysis identified several flavonoid compounds, including miquelianin, trifolin and orientin, which might contribute to the observed activities. The potential modes of these active extracts are further discussed in this study. Full article
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14 pages, 1633 KiB  
Article
Whole-Genome Sequencing Analysis of Non-Typhoidal Salmonella Isolated from Breeder Poultry Farm Sources in China, 2020–2021
Antibiotics 2023, 12(11), 1642; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics12111642 - 19 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1019
Abstract
Non-typhoidal salmonellosis is a dangerous foodborne disease that causes enormous economic loss and threatens public health worldwide. The consumption of food, especially poultry or poultry products, contaminated with non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) is the main cause of human salmonellosis. To date, no research has [...] Read more.
Non-typhoidal salmonellosis is a dangerous foodborne disease that causes enormous economic loss and threatens public health worldwide. The consumption of food, especially poultry or poultry products, contaminated with non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) is the main cause of human salmonellosis. To date, no research has identified the molecular epidemiological characteristics of NTS strains isolated from breeder chicken farms in different provinces of China. In our study, we investigated the antimicrobial resistance, phylogenetic relationships, presence of antimicrobial resistance and virulence genes, and plasmids of NTS isolates recovered from breeder chicken farms in five provinces of China between 2020 and 2021 by using a whole-genome sequencing (WGS) approach and phenotypic methods. All sequenced isolates belonged to six serovars with seven sequence types. Nearly half of the isolates (44.87%) showed phenotypic resistance to at least three classes of antimicrobials. Salmonella enterica serotype Kentucky harbored more antimicrobial resistance genes than the others, which was highly consistent with phenotypic resistance. Furthermore, the carried rate of 104 out of 135 detected virulence genes was 100%. Overall, our WGS results highlight the need for the continuous monitoring of, and additional studies on, the antimicrobial resistance of NTS. Full article
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17 pages, 2143 KiB  
Article
Rapid Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) Analysis Using Lyophilized Reagent Beads in a Novel Multiphase, Single-Vessel Assay
Antibiotics 2023, 12(11), 1641; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics12111641 - 19 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1188
Abstract
Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a global threat fueled by incorrect (and overuse) of antibiotic drugs, giving rise to the evolution of multi- and extreme drug-resistant bacterial strains. The longer time to antibiotic administration (TTA) associated with the gold standard bacterial culture method has [...] Read more.
Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a global threat fueled by incorrect (and overuse) of antibiotic drugs, giving rise to the evolution of multi- and extreme drug-resistant bacterial strains. The longer time to antibiotic administration (TTA) associated with the gold standard bacterial culture method has been responsible for the empirical usage of antibiotics and is a key factor in the rise of AMR. While polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and other nucleic acid amplification methods are rapidly replacing traditional culture methods, their scope has been restricted mainly to detect genotypic determinants of resistance and provide little to no information on phenotypic susceptibility to antibiotics. The work presented here aims to provide phenotypic antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) information by pairing short growth periods (~3–4 h) with downstream PCR assays to ultimately predict minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of antibiotic treatment. To further simplify the dual workflows of the AST and PCR assays, these reactions are carried out in a single-vessel format (PCR tube) using novel lyophilized reagent beads (LRBs), which store dried PCR reagents along with primers and enzymes, and antibiotic drugs separately. The two reactions are separated in space and time using a melting paraffin wax seal, thus eliminating the need to transfer reagents across different consumables and minimizing user interactions. Finally, these two-step single-vessel reactions are multiplexed by using a microfluidic manifold that allows simultaneous testing of an unknown bacterial sample against different antibiotics at varying concentrations. The LRBs used in the microfluidic system showed no interference with the bacterial growth and PCR assays and provided an innovative platform for rapid point-of-care diagnostics (POC-Dx). Full article
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14 pages, 2395 KiB  
Article
The Antibacterial Properties of Polish Honey against Streptococcus mutans—A Causative Agent of Dental Caries
Antibiotics 2023, 12(11), 1640; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics12111640 - 19 Nov 2023
Viewed by 815
Abstract
Streptococcus mutans is considered the main pathogen responsible for dental caries, one of the major infectious diseases, affecting more than 4 billion people worldwide. Honey is a natural product with well-known antibacterial potential against several human pathogens. The aim of the study was [...] Read more.
Streptococcus mutans is considered the main pathogen responsible for dental caries, one of the major infectious diseases, affecting more than 4 billion people worldwide. Honey is a natural product with well-known antibacterial potential against several human pathogens. The aim of the study was to evaluate the antibacterial efficacy of Polish honey against S. mutans and analyze the role of some bioactive substances on its antibacterial action. The antibacterial potential of different honey varieties (goldenrod, buckwheat, honeydew, and lime) was analyzed using a microdilution assay. Manuka and artificial honey were used as controls. The content of GOX, hydrogen peroxide, total polyphenols, and antioxidant potential was assayed in honey. The influence of catalase and proteinase K on antibacterial activity as well as antibiofilm action was also determined. The strongest antibacterial activity was observed for buckwheat, honeydew, and manuka honey, which were also characterized by the highest antioxidant activity and polyphenols content. Catalase treatment decreases the antibacterial activity of honey, while proteinase K treatment influences the antibacterial potential of honey slightly less. Obtained results suggest that honey can be a good natural product against S. mutans, and hydrogen peroxide was identified as a crucial contributor to its antimicrobial action. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidant and Antibacterial Properties of Honey)
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13 pages, 580 KiB  
Article
Long-Term Suppressive Therapeutic-Drug-Monitoring-Guided Dalbavancin Therapy for Cardiovascular Prosthetic Infections
Antibiotics 2023, 12(11), 1639; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics12111639 - 19 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1155
Abstract
Dalbavancin represents a promising treatment for cardiovascular prosthetic infections due to its prolonged half-life, bactericidal activity, large spectrum of activity, and excellent biofilm penetration. However, the use of dalbavancin in this setting is limited, and only a few cases have performed therapeutic drug [...] Read more.
Dalbavancin represents a promising treatment for cardiovascular prosthetic infections due to its prolonged half-life, bactericidal activity, large spectrum of activity, and excellent biofilm penetration. However, the use of dalbavancin in this setting is limited, and only a few cases have performed therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) analysis to optimize dosage in suppressive treatments longer than 4 weeks. Our retrospective case series reports the use of dalbavancin in a small cohort of patients with cardiovascular prosthetic infections (cardiac implantable electronic device infections (CEDIs), prosthetic valve endocarditis (PVE), prosthetic vascular graft infections (PVGIs)) treated with dalbavancin as sequential therapy. From May 2019 to May 2023, 14 patients were included: eight cases of PVE (57.1%), seven cases of PVGI (50%), three cases of CEDI (21.4%), and four cases with overlap of infection sites (28.6%). The main pathogen was Staphylococcus aureus (35.7%). Prosthesis replacement was obtained in four patients (28.6%). The median time between symptom onset and the end of treatment was 15 weeks (IQR 7–53), with a median duration of dalbavancin therapy of 8 weeks (IQR 1 to 45 weeks) and 3.5 doses per patient. Among patients managed with TDM-guided strategy, dalbavancin infusion intervals ranged from 4 to 9 weeks. The median length of follow-up was 65 weeks (IQR 23 to 144 weeks). Clinical success was achieved in 10 cases (76.9%); all clinical failures occurred in patients with the implant retained. Among patients monitored by TDM, clinical success was 87.5% vs. 60% in patients treated without TDM. Because of pharmacokinetic individual variability, dalbavancin TDM-guided administration could improve clinical outcomes by individualizing dosing and selecting dosing intervals. This case series seems to suggest a promising role of long-term suppressive dalbavancin treatment for difficult-to-treat cardiovascular prosthesis infection, also with limited surgical indications. Full article
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16 pages, 1294 KiB  
Article
Multidrug-Resistant Escherichia coli Strains to Last Resort Human Antibiotics Isolated from Healthy Companion Animals in Valencia Region
Antibiotics 2023, 12(11), 1638; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics12111638 - 19 Nov 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1289
Abstract
Failure in antibiotic therapies due to the increase in antimicrobial-resistant (AMR) bacteria is one of the main threats to public and animal health. In recent decades, the perception of companion animals has changed, from being considered as a work tool to a household [...] Read more.
Failure in antibiotic therapies due to the increase in antimicrobial-resistant (AMR) bacteria is one of the main threats to public and animal health. In recent decades, the perception of companion animals has changed, from being considered as a work tool to a household member, creating a family bond and sharing spaces in their daily routine. Hence, the aim of this study is to assess the current epidemiological situation regarding the presence of AMR and multidrug resistance (MDR) in companion animals in the Valencia Region, using the indicator bacteria Escherichia coli as a sentinel. For this purpose, 244 samples of dogs and cats were collected from veterinary centres to assess antimicrobial susceptibility against a panel of 22 antibiotics with public health relevance. A total of 197 E. coli strains were isolated from asymptomatic dogs and cats. The results showed AMR against all the 22 antibiotics studied, including those critically important to human medicine. Moreover, almost 50% of the strains presented MDR. The present study revealed the importance of monitoring AMR and MDR trends in companion animals, as they could pose a risk due to the spread of AMR and its resistance genes to humans, other animals and the environment they cohabit. Full article
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24 pages, 3155 KiB  
Article
Genomic Diversity, Antimicrobial Resistance, Plasmidome, and Virulence Profiles of Salmonella Isolated from Small Specialty Crop Farms Revealed by Whole-Genome Sequencing
Antibiotics 2023, 12(11), 1637; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics12111637 - 18 Nov 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1340
Abstract
Salmonella is the leading cause of death associated with foodborne illnesses in the USA. Difficulty in treating human salmonellosis is attributed to the development of antimicrobial resistance and the pathogenicity of Salmonella strains. Therefore, it is important to study the genetic landscape of [...] Read more.
Salmonella is the leading cause of death associated with foodborne illnesses in the USA. Difficulty in treating human salmonellosis is attributed to the development of antimicrobial resistance and the pathogenicity of Salmonella strains. Therefore, it is important to study the genetic landscape of Salmonella, such as the diversity, plasmids, and presence antimicrobial resistance genes (AMRs) and virulence genes. To this end, we isolated Salmonella from environmental samples from small specialty crop farms (SSCFs) in Northeast Ohio from 2016 to 2021; 80 Salmonella isolates from 29 Salmonella-positive samples were subjected to whole-genome sequencing (WGS). In silico serotyping revealed the presence of 15 serotypes. AMR genes were detected in 15% of the samples, with 75% exhibiting phenotypic and genotypic multidrug resistance (MDR). Plasmid analysis demonstrated the presence of nine different types of plasmids, and 75% of AMR genes were located on plasmids. Interestingly, five Salmonella Newport isolates and one Salmonella Dublin isolate carried the ACSSuT gene cassette on a plasmid, which confers resistance to ampicillin, chloramphenicol, streptomycin, sulfonamide, and tetracycline. Overall, our results show that SSCFs are a potential reservoir of Salmonella with MDR genes. Thus, regular monitoring is needed to prevent the transmission of MDR Salmonella from SSCFs to humans. Full article
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10 pages, 860 KiB  
Article
Vancomycin Elution Kinetics of Four Antibiotic Carriers Used in Orthopaedic Surgery: In Vitro Study over 42 Days
Antibiotics 2023, 12(11), 1636; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics12111636 - 17 Nov 2023
Viewed by 690
Abstract
This study aimed to analyse and compare the vancomycin elution kinetics of four biodegradable, osteoconductive antibiotic carriers used in clinical practice within a 42-day in vitro setting. Carriers A and D already contained vancomycin (1.1 g and 0.247 g), whereas carriers B and [...] Read more.
This study aimed to analyse and compare the vancomycin elution kinetics of four biodegradable, osteoconductive antibiotic carriers used in clinical practice within a 42-day in vitro setting. Carriers A and D already contained vancomycin (1.1 g and 0.247 g), whereas carriers B and C were mixed with vancomycin according to the manufacturer’s recommendations (B: 0.83 g and C: 0.305 g). At nine time points, 50% (4.5 mL) of the elution sample was removed and substituted with the same amount of PBS. Probes were analysed with a kinetic microparticle immunoassay. Time-dependent changes in vancomycin concentrations for each carrier and differences between carriers were analysed. Mean initial antibiotic levels were highest for carrier A (37.5 mg/mL) and lowest for carrier B (5.4 mg/mL). We observed time-dependent, strongly negative linear elution kinetics for carriers A (−0.835; p < 0.001), C (−0.793; p < 0.001), and D (−0.853; p < 0.001). Vancomycin concentrations increased from 48 h to 7 d and dropped thereafter in carriers C and D whilst constantly decreasing at any time point for carrier A. Carrier B showed a shallower decrease. Mean antibiotics levels at 42 d were 1.5 mg/mL, 2.6 mg/mL, 0.1 mg/mL, and 0.1 mg/mL for carriers A, B, C, and D. Differences in mean initial and final vancomycin concentrations for carrier A were significantly larger in comparison to C (p = 0.040). A carrier consisting of allogenic bone chips showed the highest vancomycin-to-carrier ratio and the largest elution over the study period. Whilst vancomycin concentrations were still measurable at 42 days for all carriers, carrier A provided a higher drug-to-carrier ratio and a more consistent antibiotic-releasing profile. Full article
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16 pages, 911 KiB  
Article
Antibacterial Efficiency of Tanacetum vulgare Essential Oil against ESKAPE Pathogens and Synergisms with Antibiotics
Antibiotics 2023, 12(11), 1635; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics12111635 - 17 Nov 2023
Viewed by 912
Abstract
Medicinal plants with multiple targets of action have become one of the most promising solutions in the fight against multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacterial infections. Tanacetum vulgare (Tansy) is one of the medicinal plants with antibacterial qualities that deserve to be studied. Thus, this research [...] Read more.
Medicinal plants with multiple targets of action have become one of the most promising solutions in the fight against multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacterial infections. Tanacetum vulgare (Tansy) is one of the medicinal plants with antibacterial qualities that deserve to be studied. Thus, this research takes a closer look at tansy extract’s composition and antibacterial properties, aiming to highlight its potential against clinically relevant bacterial strains. In this respect, the antibacterial test was performed against several drug-resistant pathogenic strains, and we correlated them with the main isolated compounds, demonstrating the therapeutic properties of the extract. The essential oil was extracted via hydrodistillation, and its composition was characterized via gas chromatography. The main isolated compounds known for their antibacterial effects were α-Thujone, β-Thujone, Eucalyptol, Sabinene, Chrysanthenon, Camphor, Linalool oxide acetate, cis-Carveol, trans-Carveyl acetate, and Germacrene. The evaluation of the antibacterial activity was carried out using the Kirby–Bauer and binary microdilution methods on Gram-positive and Gram-negative MDR strains belonging to the ESKAPE group (i.e., Enterococcus faecium, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Enterobacter spp.). Tansy essential oil showed MIC values ranging from 62.5 to 500 μg/mL against the tested strains. Synergistic activity with different classes of antibiotics (penicillins, cephalosporins, carbapenems, monobactams, aminoglycosides, and quinolones) has also been noted. The obtained results demonstrate that tansy essential oil represents a promising lead for developing new antimicrobials active against MDR alone or in combination with antibiotics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Activity of Natural Products and Plants Extracts)
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16 pages, 6362 KiB  
Article
Antimicrobial Activity of Novel Ni(II) and Zn(II) Complexes with (E)-2-((5-Bromothiazol-2-yl)imino)methyl)phenol Ligand: Synthesis, Characterization and Molecular Docking Studies
Antibiotics 2023, 12(11), 1634; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics12111634 - 17 Nov 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 984
Abstract
In order to address the challenges associated with antibiotic resistance by bacteria, two new complexes, Ni(II) and Zn(II), have been synthesized using the conventional method based on Schiff base ligand (E)-2-((5-bromothiazol-2-yl) imino) methyl) phenol. The Schiff base ligand (HL) was synthesized using salicylaldehyde [...] Read more.
In order to address the challenges associated with antibiotic resistance by bacteria, two new complexes, Ni(II) and Zn(II), have been synthesized using the conventional method based on Schiff base ligand (E)-2-((5-bromothiazol-2-yl) imino) methyl) phenol. The Schiff base ligand (HL) was synthesized using salicylaldehyde and 5-(4-bromophenyl)thiazol-2-amine in both traditional and efficient, ecologically friendly, microwave-assisted procedures. The ligand and its complexes were evaluated by elemental analyses, FTIR spectroscopy, UV-Vis spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and magnetic susceptibility. The ligand and its complexes were tested for antibacterial activity against three Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 43300 and Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212) and three Gram-negative bacteria (Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 and Klebsiella pneumoniae ATCC 700603). The findings demonstrate the potent activity of the ligand and its complexes against selective bacteria but the Ni(II) complex with MIC values ranging from 1.95 to 7.81 µg/mL outperformed all other compounds, including the widely used antibiotic Streptomycin. Furthermore, the docking study provided evidence supporting the validity of the antimicrobial results, since the Ni complex showed superior binding affinity against to E. coli NAD synthetase, which had a docking score (−7.61 kcal/mol). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Organic Synthesis of Drug-Like Antimicrobial Compounds)
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19 pages, 2835 KiB  
Systematic Review
Cemented versus Cementless Stem Fixation in Revision Total Knee Arthroplasty: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Antibiotics 2023, 12(11), 1633; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics12111633 - 17 Nov 2023
Viewed by 946
Abstract
The number of revision knee arthroplasties (rTKA) is growing significantly as is the use of intramedullary stems for optimized stability. The choice of the most appropriate stem fixation method is still controversial. The purpose of this meta-analysis is to compare cemented versus cementless [...] Read more.
The number of revision knee arthroplasties (rTKA) is growing significantly as is the use of intramedullary stems for optimized stability. The choice of the most appropriate stem fixation method is still controversial. The purpose of this meta-analysis is to compare cemented versus cementless stem fixation in rTKA. Publications with patients undergoing rTKA with a follow-up > 24 months were systemically reviewed. Extracted parameters included total revision and failure rates for any reason, incidence of aseptic loosening, periprosthetic infection, and radiolucent lines, as well as the clinical outcome. A statistical regression analysis was then performed on all extracted clinical and radiological outcome data. A total of 35 publications met the inclusion criteria and were included and analyzed. Overall, 14/35 publications compared cementless versus cemented stem fixation, whereas 21/35 publications investigated only one stem fixation method. There were no significant differences in revision (p = 0.2613) or failure rates (p = 0.3559) and no differences in the incidence of aseptic loosening (p = 0.3999) or periprosthetic infection (p = 0.1010). The incidence of radiolucent lines was significantly higher in patients with cemented stems (26.2% versus 18.6%, p < 0.0001). However, no differences in clinical outcomes were observed. No superiority of a specific stem fixation method in rTKA was found. Rates of revision or failure for any reason as well as incidence of aseptic loosening and periprosthetic infection in cemented versus cementless stem fixation showed no significant difference. A higher incidence of radiolucent lines was observed in cemented stem fixation; however, no effect was observed on the clinical outcome. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antibiotics in Orthopedic Infections, 2nd Volume)
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3 pages, 192 KiB  
Editorial
Tackling Antibiotic and Antifungal Resistance in Domestic Animals, Synanthropic Species, and Wildlife: A Global Health Imperative
Antibiotics 2023, 12(11), 1632; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics12111632 - 17 Nov 2023
Viewed by 703
Abstract
Antibiotic resistance (ABR) and antifungal resistance (AFR) arise when microorganisms evolve mechanisms to resist pharmacological treatments [...] Full article
13 pages, 1345 KiB  
Article
Exploring the Accessory Genome of Multidrug-Resistant Rhodococcus equi Clone 2287
Antibiotics 2023, 12(11), 1631; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics12111631 - 17 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1141
Abstract
Decades of antimicrobial overuse to treat respiratory disease in foals have promoted the emergence and spread of zoonotic multidrug-resistant (MDR) Rhodococcus equi worldwide. Three main R. equi MDR clonal populations—2287, G2106, and G2017—have been identified so far. However, only clones 2287 and G2016 [...] Read more.
Decades of antimicrobial overuse to treat respiratory disease in foals have promoted the emergence and spread of zoonotic multidrug-resistant (MDR) Rhodococcus equi worldwide. Three main R. equi MDR clonal populations—2287, G2106, and G2017—have been identified so far. However, only clones 2287 and G2016 have been isolated from sick animals, with clone 2287 being the main MDR R. equi recovered. The genetic mechanisms that make this MDR clone superior to the others at infecting foals are still unknown. Here, we performed a deep genetic characterization of the accessory genomes of 207 R. equi isolates, and we describe IME2287, a novel genetic element in the accessory genome of clone 2287, potentially involved in the maintenance and spread of this MDR population over time. IME2287 is a putative self-replicative integrative mobilizable element (IME) carrying a DNA replication and partitioning operon and genes encoding its excision and integration from the R. equi genome via a serine recombinase. Additionally, IME2287 encodes a protein containing a Toll/interleukin-1 receptor (TIR) domain that may inhibit TLR-mediated NF-kB signaling in the host and a toxin–antitoxin (TA) system, whose orthologs have been associated with antibiotic resistance/tolerance, virulence, pathogenicity islands, bacterial persistence, and pathogen trafficking. This new set of genes may explain the success of clone 2287 over the other MDR R. equi clones. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Resistance in Veterinary Science)
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15 pages, 703 KiB  
Article
Effect of Hygiene Protocols on the Mechanical and Physical Properties of Two 3D-Printed Denture Resins Characterized by Extrinsic Pigmentation as Well as the Mixed Biofilm Formed on the Surface
Antibiotics 2023, 12(11), 1630; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics12111630 - 17 Nov 2023
Viewed by 894
Abstract
To assess the effect of hygiene protocols and time on the physical–mechanical properties and colony-forming units (CFU) of Candida albicans, Staphylococcus aureus, and Streptococcus mutans on 3D-printed denture resins (SmartPrint and Yller) with extrinsic pigmentation compared to conventional resin (CR). The [...] Read more.
To assess the effect of hygiene protocols and time on the physical–mechanical properties and colony-forming units (CFU) of Candida albicans, Staphylococcus aureus, and Streptococcus mutans on 3D-printed denture resins (SmartPrint and Yller) with extrinsic pigmentation compared to conventional resin (CR). The protocols were evaluated: brushing (B), brushing and immersion in water (W), 0.25% sodium hypochlorite (SH), and 0.15% triclosan (T), simulating 0, 1, 3, and 5 years. The data were analyzed by ANOVA with repeated measurements, ANOVA (Three-way) and Tukey’s post-test, generalized linear model with Bonferroni adjustment, and ANOVA (Two-way) and Tukey’s post-test (α = 0.05). The protocols influenced color (p = 0.036) and Knoop hardness (p < 0.001). Surface roughness was influenced by protocols/resin (p < 0.001) and time/resin (p = 0.001), and flexural strength by time/protocols (p = 0.014). C. albicans showed interactions with all factors (p = 0.033). Staphylococcus aureus was affected by protocols (p < 0.001). Streptococcus mutans exhibited no count for SH and T (p < 0.001). Yller resin showed more color changes. The 3D-printed resins displayed lower microhardness, increased roughness, and decreased flexural strength compared to CR with all protocols in a simulated period of 5 years. The indication of printed resins should be restricted to less than 3 years. Full article
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13 pages, 1213 KiB  
Article
Racial Disparities in Periprosthetic Joint Infections after Primary Total Joint Arthroplasty: A Retrospective Study
Antibiotics 2023, 12(11), 1629; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics12111629 - 16 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1082
Abstract
In the United States, racial disparities have been observed in complications following total joint arthroplasty (TJA), including readmissions and mortality. It is unclear whether such disparities also exist for periprosthetic joint infection (PJI). The clinical data registry of a large New England hospital [...] Read more.
In the United States, racial disparities have been observed in complications following total joint arthroplasty (TJA), including readmissions and mortality. It is unclear whether such disparities also exist for periprosthetic joint infection (PJI). The clinical data registry of a large New England hospital system was used to identify patients who underwent TJA between January 2018 and December 2021. The comorbidities were evaluated using the Elixhauser Comorbidity Index (ECI). We used Poisson regression to assess the relationship between PJI and race by estimating cumulative incidence ratios (cIRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). We adjusted for age and sex and examined whether ECI was a mediator using structural equation modeling. The final analytic dataset included 10,018 TJAs in 9681 individuals [mean age (SD) 69 (10)]. The majority (96.5%) of the TJAs were performed in non-Hispanic (NH) White individuals. The incidence of PJI was higher among NH Black individuals (3.1%) compared with NH White individuals (1.6%) [adjusted cIR = 2.12, 95%CI = 1.16–3.89; p = 0.015]. Comorbidities significantly mediated the association between race and PJI, accounting for 26% of the total effect of race on PJI incidence. Interventions that increase access to high-quality treatments for comorbidities before and after TJA may reduce racial disparities in PJI. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diagnosis and Treatment of Periprosthetic Joint Infection)
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10 pages, 487 KiB  
Article
Methicillin Resistance Increased the Risk of Treatment Failure in Native Joint Septic Arthritis Caused by Staphylococcus aureus
Antibiotics 2023, 12(11), 1628; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics12111628 - 15 Nov 2023
Viewed by 834
Abstract
This study aimed to compare clinical characteristics and outcomes in patients with native joint septic arthritis (NJSA) due to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in comparison to methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA) and identify treatment failure risk factors. We conducted a multi-center retrospective study on [...] Read more.
This study aimed to compare clinical characteristics and outcomes in patients with native joint septic arthritis (NJSA) due to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in comparison to methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA) and identify treatment failure risk factors. We conducted a multi-center retrospective study on adult NJSA patients at three teaching hospitals in South Korea from 2005 to 2017. Among 101 patients diagnosed with S. aureus NJSA, 39 (38.6%) had MRSA strains. Compared to MSSA, patients with MRSA had a higher prevalence of nosocomial infections (17.9% vs. 1.6%; p = 0.005) and received inappropriate antibiotics within 48 h more frequently (74.4% vs. 0%; p < 0.001). In total, twenty patients (19.8%) experienced treatment failure, which encompassed five patients (5.0%) who passed away, nine (8.9%) requiring repeated surgical drainage after 30 days of antibiotic therapy, and seven (6.9%) with relapse. The MRSA group showed a higher rate of overall treatment failure (33.3% vs. 11.3%; p = 0.007) with a notably increased frequency of requiring repeated surgical interventions after 30 days of antibiotic therapy (17.9% vs. 3.2%, p = 0.026), in contrast to the MSSA group. Independent risk factors for treatment failure included Charlson comorbidity score, elevated CRP levels, and methicillin resistance. Methicillin resistance is an independent risk factor for treatment failure, emphasizing the need for vigilant monitoring and targeted interventions in MRSA-related NJSA cases. Full article
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24 pages, 5270 KiB  
Article
Effects of the Fibrous Root of Polygonatum cyrtonema Hua on Growth Performance, Meat Quality, Immunity, Antioxidant Capacity, and Intestinal Morphology of White-Feathered Broilers
Antibiotics 2023, 12(11), 1627; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics12111627 - 15 Nov 2023
Viewed by 870
Abstract
This study was designed to evaluate the effects of different doses of the fibrous roots of Polygonatum cyrtonema Hua on the growth performance, slaughter parameters, meat quality, immune function, cytokines, antioxidant capacity, and intestinal morphology of white-feathered broilers. Also, the mechanism to improve [...] Read more.
This study was designed to evaluate the effects of different doses of the fibrous roots of Polygonatum cyrtonema Hua on the growth performance, slaughter parameters, meat quality, immune function, cytokines, antioxidant capacity, and intestinal morphology of white-feathered broilers. Also, the mechanism to improve immune functions of broilers was explored through network pharmacology and molecular docking technology. A total of 360 AA-white-feathered broilers were randomly divided into six groups (not separated by sex), with six repetitions per group (n = 10). The groups were as follows: basal diet (CON group), basal diet supplemented with 300 mg/kg aureomycin (ANT group), basal diet supplemented with 2%, 3%, and 4% fibrous root raw powder (LD, MD, and HD group), or basal diet supplemented with 3% fibrous root processed powder (PR group), in a 42-day experiment. The dietary inclusion of P. cyrtonema fibrous roots increased slaughter performance (p < 0.05), reduced the fat rate (p < 0.05), improved intestinal morphology (p < 0.05), and improved the immune organ index to varying degrees. It also significantly improved pH reduction, drip loss, and pressure loss of breast muscle and leg muscle (p < 0.05). Furthermore, it significantly improved immune and antioxidant functions including decreased MDA content of serum (p < 0.01), increased GSH-Px content (p < 0.01), IgG, IgA, and C4 contents (p < 0.05), and increased expression of IL-2 and IFN-γ (p < 0.01). Additionally, the mechanism by which fibrous roots improve immune function in broilers was explored using network pharmacology and molecular docking technology. Network pharmacology and molecular docking revealed that flavonoids such as baicalein, 4′,5-Dihydroxyflavone, 5,7-dihydroxy-6,8-dimethyl-3-(4′-hydroxybenzyl)-chroman-4-one, and 5,7-dihydroxy-3-(2′-hydroxy-4′-methoxybenzyl)-6,8-dimethyl-chroman-4-one were key components that enhanced immune function through the MAPK1 and other key targets involved in regulating the MAPK signaling pathway. From the findings, it can be concluded that incorporating P. cyrtonema Hua fibrous root as a natural feed supplement and growth promoter in broiler diets had a positive impact on bird health and performance. Full article
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11 pages, 911 KiB  
Article
Increase in Incidence Rates and Risk Factors for Multidrug Resistant Bacteria in Septic Children: A Nationwide Spanish Cohort Study (2013–2019)
Antibiotics 2023, 12(11), 1626; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics12111626 - 14 Nov 2023
Viewed by 895
Abstract
The emergence of multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria in children is a growing concern, particularly among septic patients, given the need for first-right dosing. Our aim was to determine the incidence rates and factors associated with MDR-sepsis in the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU), using [...] Read more.
The emergence of multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria in children is a growing concern, particularly among septic patients, given the need for first-right dosing. Our aim was to determine the incidence rates and factors associated with MDR-sepsis in the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU), using data from the Spanish ENVIN-HELICS PICU registry between 2013 and 2019. The rate of MDR bacteria among septic children ranged between 5.8 and 16.2% throughout this study period, with a significant increase since 2015 (p = 0.013). MDR-gram-negative bacteria (92%), particularly EBL-Enterobacterales (63.7%), were the most frequent causative microorganisms of MDR-sepsis. During this study period, sixteen MDR-sepsis (32.6%) corresponded to intrahospital infections, and 33 (67.4%) had community-onset sepsis, accounting for 10.5% of the overall community-onset sepsis. Independent risk factors associated with MDR-sepsis were antibiotics 48 h prior to PICU admission (OR 2.38) and PICU onset of sepsis (OR 2.58) in >1 year-old children, and previous malnourishment (OR 4.99) in <1 year-old children. Conclusions: There was an alarming increase in MDR among septic children in Spain, mainly by gram-negative (ESBL-Enterobacterales), mostly coming from the community setting. Malnourished infants and children on antibiotics 48 h prior to PICU are at increased risk and therefore require closer surveillance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antibiotic Resistant Pathogens in Hospital)
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11 pages, 507 KiB  
Article
Molecular Characterization of Escherichia coli Producing Extended-Spectrum ß-Lactamase and MCR-1 from Sick Pigs in a Greek Slaughterhouse
Antibiotics 2023, 12(11), 1625; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics12111625 - 14 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1278
Abstract
The first prospective surveillance of ESBL and colistin-resistant Escherichia coli recovered from sick pigs from a slaughterhouse in Central Greece aimed to investigate the spread of relevant genetic elements. In February 2021, 25 E. coli isolates were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility testing using disk diffusion [...] Read more.
The first prospective surveillance of ESBL and colistin-resistant Escherichia coli recovered from sick pigs from a slaughterhouse in Central Greece aimed to investigate the spread of relevant genetic elements. In February 2021, 25 E. coli isolates were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility testing using disk diffusion and broth microdilution techniques. PCR screening was conducted to identify ESBLs and mcr genes. Additional assays, encompassing mating-out procedures, molecular typing utilizing Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis, multilocus sequence typing analysis, and plasmid typing, were also conducted. A 40% prevalence of ESBLs and an 80% prevalence of MCR-1 were identified, with a co-occurrence rate of 32%. The predominant ESBL identified was CTX-M-3, followed by SHV-12. Resistance to colistin, chloramphenicol, cotrimoxazol, and ciprofloxacin was detected in twenty (80%), fifteen (60%), twelve (48%), and four (16%) isolates, respectively. All blaCTX-M-3 harboring plasmids were conjugative, belonging to the incompatibility group IncI1, and approximately 50 kb in size. Those carrying blaSHV-12 were also conjugative, classified into incompatibility group IncI2, and approximately 70 kb in size. The mcr-1 genes were predominantly located on conjugative plasmids associated with the IncX4 incompatibility group. Molecular typing of the ten concurrent ESBL and MCR-1 producers revealed seven multilocus sequence types. The heterogeneous population of E. coli isolates carrying resistant genes on constant plasmids implies that the dissemination of resistance genes is likely facilitated by horizontal plasmid transfer. Full article
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13 pages, 1400 KiB  
Article
Impacts of Hydrophobic Mismatch on Antimicrobial Peptide Efficacy and Bilayer Permeabilization
Antibiotics 2023, 12(11), 1624; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics12111624 - 14 Nov 2023
Viewed by 911
Abstract
Antimicrobial resistance continues to be a major threat to world health, with the continued emergence of resistant bacterial strains. Antimicrobial peptides have emerged as an attractive option for the development of novel antimicrobial compounds in part due to their ubiquity in nature and [...] Read more.
Antimicrobial resistance continues to be a major threat to world health, with the continued emergence of resistant bacterial strains. Antimicrobial peptides have emerged as an attractive option for the development of novel antimicrobial compounds in part due to their ubiquity in nature and the general lack of resistance development to this class of molecules. In this work, we analyzed the antimicrobial peptide C18G and several truncated forms for efficacy and the underlying mechanistic effects of the sequence truncation. The peptides were screened for antimicrobial efficacy against several standard laboratory strains, and further analyzed using fluorescence spectroscopy to evaluate binding to model lipid membranes and bilayer disruption. The results show a clear correlation between the length of the peptide and the antimicrobial efficacy. Furthermore, there is a correlation between peptide length and the hydrophobic thickness of the bilayer, indicating that hydrophobic mismatch is likely a contributing factor to the loss of efficacy in shorter peptides. Full article
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14 pages, 639 KiB  
Article
Characteristics of the Mycoplasma pneumoniae Epidemic from 2019 to 2020 in Korea: Macrolide Resistance and Co-Infection Trends
Antibiotics 2023, 12(11), 1623; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics12111623 - 13 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1559
Abstract
Mycoplasma pneumoniae, a major etiological agent of community-acquired pneumonia, exhibits distinct cyclic epidemic patterns recurring every three to five years. Several cases of co-infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 have been reported globally, resulting in unfavorable clinical manifestations. This study [...] Read more.
Mycoplasma pneumoniae, a major etiological agent of community-acquired pneumonia, exhibits distinct cyclic epidemic patterns recurring every three to five years. Several cases of co-infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 have been reported globally, resulting in unfavorable clinical manifestations. This study investigated the epidemiological features of the recent M. pneumoniae outbreak (May 2019–April 2020) using retrospective data from the last five years. Molecular test data for macrolide resistance and co-infection were obtained from the Seegene Medical Foundation. National medical expenditure and hospitalization rates were analyzed using data from The Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service of Korea. The macrolide resistance rate was 69.67%, peaking at 71.30% during the epidemic period, which was considerably higher than the 60.89% rate during non-epidemic periods. The co-infection rate with other respiratory pathogens was 88.49%; macrolide-resistant M. pneumoniae strains showed a 2.33% higher co-infection rate than the susceptible strains. The epidemic period had 15.43% higher hospitalization and 78.27% higher medical budget expenditure per patient than non-epidemic periods. The increased rates of macrolide resistance and co-infection observed in macrolide-resistant M. pneumoniae during the epidemic period highlight the importance of monitoring future outbreaks, especially considering macrolide resistance and the risk of co-infection with other pathogens. Full article
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17 pages, 8213 KiB  
Article
Assessing the Potential of Gallic Acid and Methyl Gallate to Enhance the Efficacy of β-Lactam Antibiotics against Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus by Targeting β-Lactamase: In Silico and In Vitro Studies
Antibiotics 2023, 12(11), 1622; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics12111622 - 13 Nov 2023
Viewed by 909
Abstract
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), a global health concern, has prompted research into antibiotic adjuvants as a potential solution. Although our group previously reported the enhancing effects of gallic acid (GA) and methyl gallate (MG) on penicillin G activity against MRSA, the synergistic potential [...] Read more.
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), a global health concern, has prompted research into antibiotic adjuvants as a potential solution. Although our group previously reported the enhancing effects of gallic acid (GA) and methyl gallate (MG) on penicillin G activity against MRSA, the synergistic potential with other β-lactam antibiotics and the underlying mechanism have not been fully explored. Therefore, this study primarily aimed to investigate the antibacterial synergism with β-lactam antibiotics through disc diffusion, checkerboard, and time–kill assays. The β-lactamase inhibition was also examined through both molecular modeling and in vitro experiments. Additionally, bacterial morphology changes were studied using a scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results revealed that both GA and MG exhibited anti-MRSA activity and showed indifferent effects when combined with β-lactam antibiotics against methicillin susceptible S. aureus (MSSA). Interestingly, MG demonstrated synergism with only the β-lactamase-unstable antibiotics against MRSA with the lowest fractional inhibitory concentration (FIC) indexes of ≤3.75. However, GA and MG exhibited weak β-lactamase inhibition. Furthermore, GA, MG, and the combination with ampicillin induced the morphological changes in MRSA, suggesting a possible mechanism affecting the cell membrane. These findings suggest that MG could potentially serve as an adjunct to β-lactam antibiotics to combat MRSA infections. Full article
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25 pages, 1245 KiB  
Review
Resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa: A Narrative Review of Antibiogram Interpretation and Emerging Treatments
Antibiotics 2023, 12(11), 1621; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics12111621 - 12 Nov 2023
Viewed by 3534
Abstract
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a ubiquitous Gram-negative bacterium renowned for its resilience and adaptability across diverse environments, including clinical settings, where it emerges as a formidable pathogen. Notorious for causing nosocomial infections, P. aeruginosa presents a significant challenge due to its intrinsic and acquired [...] Read more.
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a ubiquitous Gram-negative bacterium renowned for its resilience and adaptability across diverse environments, including clinical settings, where it emerges as a formidable pathogen. Notorious for causing nosocomial infections, P. aeruginosa presents a significant challenge due to its intrinsic and acquired resistance mechanisms. This comprehensive review aims to delve into the intricate resistance mechanisms employed by P. aeruginosa and to discern how these mechanisms can be inferred by analyzing sensitivity patterns displayed in antibiograms, emphasizing the complexities encountered in clinical management. Traditional monotherapies are increasingly overshadowed by the emergence of multidrug-resistant strains, necessitating a paradigm shift towards innovative combination therapies and the exploration of novel antibiotics. The review accentuates the critical role of accurate antibiogram interpretation in guiding judicious antibiotic use, optimizing therapeutic outcomes, and mitigating the propagation of antibiotic resistance. Misinterpretations, it cautions, can inadvertently foster resistance, jeopardizing patient health and amplifying global antibiotic resistance challenges. This paper advocates for enhanced clinician proficiency in interpreting antibiograms, facilitating informed and strategic antibiotic deployment, thereby improving patient prognosis and contributing to global antibiotic stewardship efforts. Full article
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16 pages, 5855 KiB  
Article
Antibiofilm Effect of Nitric Acid-Functionalized Carbon Nanotube-Based Surfaces against E. coli and S. aureus
Antibiotics 2023, 12(11), 1620; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics12111620 - 11 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1072
Abstract
Chemically modified carbon nanotubes are recognized as effective materials for tackling bacterial infections. In this study, pristine multi-walled carbon nanotubes (p-MWCNTs) were functionalized with nitric acid (f-MWCNTs), followed by thermal treatment at 600 °C, and incorporated into a poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) matrix. The materials’ [...] Read more.
Chemically modified carbon nanotubes are recognized as effective materials for tackling bacterial infections. In this study, pristine multi-walled carbon nanotubes (p-MWCNTs) were functionalized with nitric acid (f-MWCNTs), followed by thermal treatment at 600 °C, and incorporated into a poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) matrix. The materials’ textural properties were evaluated, and the roughness and morphology of MWCNT/PDMS composites were assessed using optical profilometry and scanning electron microscopy, respectively. The antibiofilm activity of MWCNT/PDMS surfaces was determined by quantifying culturable Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus after 24 h of biofilm formation. Additionally, the antibacterial mechanisms of MWCNT materials were identified by flow cytometry, and the cytotoxicity of MWCNT/PDMS composites was tested against human kidney (HK-2) cells. The results revealed that the antimicrobial activity of MWCNTs incorporated into a PDMS matrix can be efficiently tailored through nitric acid functionalization, and it can be increased by up to 49% in the absence of surface carboxylic groups in f-MWCNT samples heated at 600 °C and the presence of redox activity of carbonyl groups. MWCNT materials changed the membrane permeability of both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, while they only induced the production of ROS in Gram-positive bacteria. Furthermore, the synthesized composites did not impact HK-2 cell viability, confirming the biocompatibility of MWCNT composites. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Antibiotic Therapy in Infectious Diseases)
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12 pages, 591 KiB  
Article
Role of Relebactam in the Antibiotic Resistance Acquisition in Pseudomonas aeruginosa: In Vitro Study
Antibiotics 2023, 12(11), 1619; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics12111619 - 11 Nov 2023
Viewed by 948
Abstract
Background: Pseudomonas aeruginosa shows resistance to several antibiotics and often develops such resistance during patient treatment. Objective: Develop an in vitro model, using clinical isolates of P. aeruginosa, to compare the ability of the imipenem and imipenem/relebactam to generate resistant mutants to [...] Read more.
Background: Pseudomonas aeruginosa shows resistance to several antibiotics and often develops such resistance during patient treatment. Objective: Develop an in vitro model, using clinical isolates of P. aeruginosa, to compare the ability of the imipenem and imipenem/relebactam to generate resistant mutants to imipenem and to other antibiotics. Perform a genotypic analysis to detect how the selective pressure changes their genomes. Methods: The antibiotics resistance was studied by microdilution assays and e-test, and the genotypic study was performed by NGS. Results: The isolates acquired resistance to imipenem in an average of 6 days, and to imipenem/relebactam in 12 days (p value = 0.004). After 30 days of exposure, 75% of the isolates reached a MIC > 64 mg/L for imipenem and 37.5% for imipenem/relebactam (p value = 0.077). The 37.5% and the 12.5% imipenem/relebactam mutants developed resistance to piperacillin/tazobactam and ceftazidime, respectively, while the 87.5% and 37.5% of the imipenem mutants showed resistance to these drugs (p value = 0.003, p value = 0.015). The main biological processes altered by the SNPs were the glycosylation pathway, transcriptional regulation, histidine kinase response, porins, and efflux pumps. Discussion: The addition of relebactam delays the generation of resistance to imipenem and limits the cross-resistance to other beta-lactams. The clinical relevance of this phenomenon, which has the limitation that it has been performed in vitro, should be evaluated by stewardship programs in clinical practice, as it could be useful in controlling multi-drug resistance in P. aeruginosa. Full article
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23 pages, 7037 KiB  
Article
Chalcogen-Varied Imidazolone Derivatives as Antibiotic Resistance Breakers in Staphylococcus aureus Strains
Antibiotics 2023, 12(11), 1618; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics12111618 - 11 Nov 2023
Viewed by 834
Abstract
In this study, a search for new therapeutic agents that may improve the antibacterial activity of conventional antibiotics and help to successfully overcome methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections has been conducted. The purpose of this work was to extend the scope of our [...] Read more.
In this study, a search for new therapeutic agents that may improve the antibacterial activity of conventional antibiotics and help to successfully overcome methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections has been conducted. The purpose of this work was to extend the scope of our preliminary studies and to evaluate the adjuvant potency of new derivatives in a set of S. aureus clinical isolates. The study confirmed the high efficacy of piperazine derivatives of 5-arylideneimidazol-4-one (79) tested previously, and it enabled the authors to identify even more efficient modulators of bacterial resistance among new analogs. The greatest capacity to enhance oxacillin activity was determined for 1-benzhydrylpiperazine 5-spirofluorenehydantoin derivative (13) which, at concentrations as low as 0.0625 mM, restores the effectiveness of β-lactam antibiotics against MRSA strains. In silico studies showed that the probable mechanism of action of 13 is related to the binding of the molecule with the allosteric site of PBP2a. Interestingly, thiazole derivatives tested were shown to act as both oxacillin and erythromycin conjugators in S. aureus isolates, suggesting a complex mode of action (i.e., influence on the Msr(A) efflux pump). This high enhancer activity indicates the high potential of imidazolones to become commercially available antibiotic adjuvants. Full article
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22 pages, 799 KiB  
Review
The Importance of a Healthy Microbiome in Pregnancy and Infancy and Microbiota Treatment to Reverse Dysbiosis for Improved Health
Antibiotics 2023, 12(11), 1617; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics12111617 - 11 Nov 2023
Viewed by 999
Abstract
Background: The microbiome of newborn infants during the first 1000 days, influenced early on by their mothers’ microbiome health, mode of delivery and breast feeding, orchestrates the education and programming of the infant’s immune system and determines in large part the general health [...] Read more.
Background: The microbiome of newborn infants during the first 1000 days, influenced early on by their mothers’ microbiome health, mode of delivery and breast feeding, orchestrates the education and programming of the infant’s immune system and determines in large part the general health of the infant for years. Methods: PubMed was reviewed for maternal infant microbiome health and microbiota therapy in this setting with prebiotics, probiotics, vaginal seeding and fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT). Results: A healthy nonobese mother, vaginal delivery and strict breast feeding contribute to microbiome health in a newborn and young infant. With reduced microbiome diversity (dysbiosis) during pregnancy, cesarean delivery, prematurity, and formula feeding contribute to dysbiosis in the newborn. Microbiota therapy is an important approach to repair dysbiosis in pregnant women and their infants. Currently available probiotics can have favorable metabolic effects on mothers and infants, but these effects are variable. In research settings, reversal of infant dysbiosis can be achieved via vaginal seeding or FMT. Next generation probiotics in development should replace current probiotics and FMT. Conclusions: The most critical phase of human microbiome development is in the first 2–3 years of life. Preventing and treating dysbiosis during pregnancy and early life can have a profound effect on an infant’s later health. Full article
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30 pages, 939 KiB  
Review
Antimicrobial Resistance in Commensal Escherichia coli of the Porcine Gastrointestinal Tract
Antibiotics 2023, 12(11), 1616; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics12111616 - 11 Nov 2023
Viewed by 2378
Abstract
Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in Escherichia coli of animal origin presents a threat to human health. Although animals are not the primary source of human infections, humans may be exposed to AMR E. coli of animal origin and their AMR genes through the food [...] Read more.
Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in Escherichia coli of animal origin presents a threat to human health. Although animals are not the primary source of human infections, humans may be exposed to AMR E. coli of animal origin and their AMR genes through the food chain, direct contact with animals, and via the environment. For this reason, AMR in E. coli from food producing animals is included in most national and international AMR monitoring programmes and is the subject of a large body of research. As pig farming is one of the largest livestock sectors and the one with the highest antimicrobial use, there is considerable interest in the epidemiology of AMR in E. coli of porcine origin. This literature review presents an overview and appraisal of current knowledge of AMR in commensal E. coli of the porcine gastrointestinal tract with a focus on its evolution during the pig lifecycle and the relationship with antimicrobial use. It also presents an overview of the epidemiology of resistance to extended spectrum cephalosporins, fluoroquinolones, and colistin in pig production. The review highlights the widespread nature of AMR in the porcine commensal E. coli population, especially to the most-used classes in pig farming and discusses the complex interplay between age and antimicrobial use during the pig lifecycle. Full article
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