Next Issue
Volume 13, August
Previous Issue
Volume 13, June
 
 

Biosensors, Volume 13, Issue 7 (July 2023) – 88 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, including 3-nitro-l-tyrosine, exhibit dual roles in biological systems by inducing oxidative damage and regulating cellular functions. Their early detection in biological samples such as urine can act as vital indicators for various cancers. The study presents a novel approach involving La2Sn2O7/f-HNT nanocomposites, synthesized via a hydrothermal process, for the non-enzymatic electrochemical detection of 3-nitro-l-tyrosine. The results underscore the potential of nanotechnology in improving diagnostic sensitivity for early disease detection. View this paper
  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Reader to open them.
Order results
Result details
Section
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:
1 pages, 458 KiB  
Correction
Correction: Musa et al. An Electrochemical Screen-Printed Sensor Based on Gold-Nanoparticle-Decorated Reduced Graphene Oxide–Carbon Nanotubes Composites for the Determination of 17-β Estradiol. Biosensors 2023, 13, 491
by Auwal M. Musa, Janice Kiely, Richard Luxton and Kevin C. Honeychurch
Biosensors 2023, 13(7), 756; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios13070756 - 24 Jul 2023
Viewed by 769
Abstract
In the original publication [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biosensor and Bioelectronic Devices)
15 pages, 4740 KiB  
Article
Investigation of the Impact of Hydrogen Bonding Degree in Long Single-Stranded DNA (ssDNA) Generated with Dual Rolling Circle Amplification (RCA) on the Preparation and Performance of DNA Hydrogels
by Xinyu Wang, Huiyuan Wang, Hongmin Zhang, Tianxi Yang, Bin Zhao and Juan Yan
Biosensors 2023, 13(7), 755; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios13070755 - 23 Jul 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1534
Abstract
DNA hydrogels have gained significant attention in recent years as one of the most promising functional polymer materials. To broaden their applications, it is critical to develop efficient methods for the preparation of bulk-scale DNA hydrogels with adjustable mechanical properties. Herein, we introduce [...] Read more.
DNA hydrogels have gained significant attention in recent years as one of the most promising functional polymer materials. To broaden their applications, it is critical to develop efficient methods for the preparation of bulk-scale DNA hydrogels with adjustable mechanical properties. Herein, we introduce a straightforward and efficient molecular design approach to producing physically pure DNA hydrogel and controlling its mechanical properties by adjusting the degree of hydrogen bonding in ultralong single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) precursors, which were generated using a dual rolling circle amplification (RCA)-based strategy. The effect of hydrogen bonding degree on the performance of DNA hydrogels was thoroughly investigated by analyzing the preparation process, morphology, rheology, microstructure, and entrapment efficiency of the hydrogels for Au nanoparticles (AuNPs)–BSA. Our results demonstrate that DNA hydrogels can be formed at 25 °C with simple vortex mixing in less than 10 s. The experimental results also indicate that a higher degree of hydrogen bonding in the precursor DNA resulted in stronger internal interaction forces, a more complex internal network of the hydrogel, a denser hydrogel, improved mechanical properties, and enhanced entrapment efficiency. This study intuitively demonstrates the effect of hydrogen bonding on the preparation and properties of DNA hydrogels. The method and results presented in this study are of great significance for improving the synthesis efficiency and economy of DNA hydrogels, enhancing and adjusting the overall quality and performance of the hydrogel, and expanding the application field of DNA hydrogels. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

15 pages, 3449 KiB  
Communication
Design, Simulation, and Evaluation of Polymer-Based Microfluidic Devices via Computational Fluid Dynamics and Cell Culture “On-Chip”
by Nurzhanna Bakuova, Sultanali Toktarkan, Darkhan Dyussembinov, Dulat Azhibek, Almas Rakhymzhanov, Konstantinos Kostas and Gulsim Kulsharova
Biosensors 2023, 13(7), 754; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios13070754 - 22 Jul 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2704
Abstract
Organ-on-a-chip (OoC) technology has experienced exponential growth driven by the need for a better understanding of in-organ processes and the development of novel approaches. This paper investigates and compares the flow behavior and filling characteristics of two microfluidic liver-on-a-chip devices using Computational Fluid [...] Read more.
Organ-on-a-chip (OoC) technology has experienced exponential growth driven by the need for a better understanding of in-organ processes and the development of novel approaches. This paper investigates and compares the flow behavior and filling characteristics of two microfluidic liver-on-a-chip devices using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis and experimental cell culture growth based on the Huh7 cell line. The conducted computational analyses for the two chips showed that the elliptical chamber chip proposed herein offers improved flow and filling characteristics in comparison with the previously presented circular chamber chip. Huh7 hepatoma cells were cultured in the microfluidic devices for 24 h under static fluidic conditions and for 24 h with a flow rate of 3 μL·min−1. Biocompatibility, continuous flow, and biomarker studies showed cell attachment in the chips, confirming the cell viability and their consistent cell growth. The study successfully analyzed the fluid flow behavior, filling characteristics, and biocompatibility of liver-on-a-chip prototype devices, providing valuable insights to improve design and performance and advance alternative methods of in vitro testing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microfluidic Chip for In Vitro Diagnostic Assays)
Show Figures

Figure 1

12 pages, 2361 KiB  
Article
A Low-Cost Microfluidic-Based Detection Device for Rapid Identification and Quantification of Biomarkers-Based on a Smartphone
by Chonghui Yang, Yujing Yang, Gaozhen Zhao, Huan Wang, Yang Dai and Xiaowen Huang
Biosensors 2023, 13(7), 753; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios13070753 - 22 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1579
Abstract
The sensitive and rapid detection of microsamples is crucial for early diagnosis of diseases. The short response times and low sample volume requirements of microfluidic chips have shown great potential in early diagnosis, but there are still shortcomings such as complex preparation processes [...] Read more.
The sensitive and rapid detection of microsamples is crucial for early diagnosis of diseases. The short response times and low sample volume requirements of microfluidic chips have shown great potential in early diagnosis, but there are still shortcomings such as complex preparation processes and high costs. We developed a low-cost smartphone-based fluorescence detection device (Smartphone-BFDD) without precision equipment for rapid identification and quantification of biomarkers on glass capillary. The device combines microfluidic technology with RGB image analysis, effectively reducing the sample volume to 20 μL and detection time to only 30 min. For the sensitivity of the device, we constructed a standard sandwich immunoassay (antibody–antigen–antibody) in a glass capillary using the N-protein of SARS-CoV-2 as a biological model, realizing a low limit of detection (LOD, 40 ng mL−1). This device provides potential applications for different biomarkers and offers wide use for rapid biochemical analysis in biomedical research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Microfluidic Chips and Their Applications)
Show Figures

Figure 1

25 pages, 14514 KiB  
Review
Recent Progress of Activity-Based Fluorescent Probes for Imaging Leucine Aminopeptidase
by Ze-Jun Li, Cai-Yun Wang, Liang Xu, Zhen-Yu Zhang, Ying-Hao Tang, Tian-Yi Qin and Ya-Long Wang
Biosensors 2023, 13(7), 752; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios13070752 - 21 Jul 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1767
Abstract
Leucine aminopeptidase (LAP) is an important protease that can specifically hydrolyze Leucine residues. LAP occurs in microorganisms, plants, animals, and humans and is involved in a variety of physiological processes in the human body. In the physiological system, abnormal levels of LAP are [...] Read more.
Leucine aminopeptidase (LAP) is an important protease that can specifically hydrolyze Leucine residues. LAP occurs in microorganisms, plants, animals, and humans and is involved in a variety of physiological processes in the human body. In the physiological system, abnormal levels of LAP are associated with a variety of diseases and pathological processes, such as cancer and drug-induced liver injury; thus, LAP was chosen as the early biochemical marker for many physiological processes, including cancer. Considering the importance of LAP in physiological and pathological processes, it is critical that high-efficiency and dependable technology be developed to monitor LAP levels. Herein, we summarize the organic small molecule fluorescence/chemiluminescence probes used for LAP detection in recent years, which can image LAP in cancer, drug-induced liver injury (DILI), and bacteria. It can also reveal the role of LAP in tumors and differentiate the serum of cirrhotic, drug-induced liver injury and normal models. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

13 pages, 3881 KiB  
Article
Unveiling the Remarkable Antioxidant Activity of Plant-Based Fish and Seafood Analogs through Electrochemical Sensor Analysis
by Gabriella Magarelli, Cínthia Caetano Bonatto, Gabriela Mendes da Rocha Vaz, Victoria Baggi Mendonça Lauria and Luciano Paulino Silva
Biosensors 2023, 13(7), 751; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios13070751 - 21 Jul 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1477
Abstract
The global consumption of vegan foods is experiencing an expressive upward trend, underscoring the critical need for quality control measures based on nutritional and functional considerations. This study aimed to evaluate the functional quality of caviar and salmon analog food inks based on [...] Read more.
The global consumption of vegan foods is experiencing an expressive upward trend, underscoring the critical need for quality control measures based on nutritional and functional considerations. This study aimed to evaluate the functional quality of caviar and salmon analog food inks based on pulses combined with nano ingredients and produced in our laboratory (LNANO). The primary objective of this work was to determine the total antioxidant compounds contained in these samples using a voltammetric technique with a glassy carbon electrode. The samples underwent ethanolic extraction (70%) with 1 h of stirring. The voltammograms were acquired in a phosphate buffer electrolyte, pH 3.0 with Ag/AgCl (KCl 3 mol L−1) as the reference electrode and platinum wire as the auxiliary electrode. The voltammograms revealed prominent anodic current peaks at 0.76–0.78 V, which are attributed to isoflavones. Isoflavones, known secondary metabolites with substantial antioxidant potential commonly found in pulses, were identified. The total isoflavone concentrations obtained ranged from 31.5 to 64.3 mg Eq genistein 100 g−1. The results not only validated the efficacy of the electrochemical sensor for quantifying total antioxidant compounds in the samples but also demonstrated that the concentration of total isoflavones in caviar and salmon analogs fell within the expected limits. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biosensing for Environmental Monitoring)
Show Figures

Figure 1

13 pages, 2808 KiB  
Article
Comparison of Three Lateral Flow Immunoassay Formats for the Detection of Antibodies against the SARS-CoV-2 Antigen
by Dmitriy V. Sotnikov, Nadezhda A. Byzova, Anatoly V. Zherdev, Youchun Xu and Boris B. Dzantiev
Biosensors 2023, 13(7), 750; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios13070750 - 20 Jul 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1552
Abstract
Reliable detection of specific antibodies against pathogens by lateral flow immunoassay (LFIA) greatly depends on the composition of the detectable complex and the order of its assembly. We compared three LFIA formats for revealing anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in sera with the following detected complexes [...] Read more.
Reliable detection of specific antibodies against pathogens by lateral flow immunoassay (LFIA) greatly depends on the composition of the detectable complex and the order of its assembly. We compared three LFIA formats for revealing anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in sera with the following detected complexes in the analytical zone of the strip: antigen–antibodies–labeled immunoglobulin-binding protein (Scheme A); antigen–antibodies–labeled antigen (Scheme B); and immunoglobulin-binding protein–antibodies–labeled antigen (Scheme C). The lowest detection limit was observed for Scheme C, and was equal to 10 ng/mL of specific humanized monoclonal antibodies. When working with pooled positive sera, Scheme C had a detection limit 15 times lower than Scheme B and 255 times lower than Scheme A. Due to the high sensitivity of Scheme C, its application for the panel of human sera (n = 22) demonstrated 100% diagnostic specificity and sensitivity. These consistent results be useful for designing the format of LFIA serodiagnosis for other diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in the Lateral Flow Strip Technique)
Show Figures

Figure 1

12 pages, 2236 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of the Chewing Pattern through an Electromyographic Device
by Alessia Riente, Alessio Abeltino, Cassandra Serantoni, Giada Bianchetti, Marco De Spirito, Stefano Capezzone, Rosita Esposito and Giuseppe Maulucci
Biosensors 2023, 13(7), 749; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios13070749 - 20 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1186
Abstract
Chewing is essential in regulating metabolism and initiating digestion. Various methods have been used to examine chewing, including analyzing chewing sounds and using piezoelectric sensors to detect muscle contractions. However, these methods struggle to distinguish chewing from other movements. Electromyography (EMG) has proven [...] Read more.
Chewing is essential in regulating metabolism and initiating digestion. Various methods have been used to examine chewing, including analyzing chewing sounds and using piezoelectric sensors to detect muscle contractions. However, these methods struggle to distinguish chewing from other movements. Electromyography (EMG) has proven to be an accurate solution, although it requires sensors attached to the skin. Existing EMG devices focus on detecting the act of chewing or classifying foods and do not provide self-awareness of chewing habits. We developed a non-invasive device that evaluates a personalized chewing style by analyzing various aspects, like chewing time, cycle time, work rate, number of chews and work. It was tested in a case study comparing the chewing pattern of smokers and non-smokers, as smoking can alter chewing habits. Previous studies have shown that smokers exhibit reduced chewing speed, but other aspects of chewing were overlooked. The goal of this study is to present the device and provide additional insights into the effects of smoking on chewing patterns by considering multiple chewing features. Statistical analysis revealed significant differences, as non-smokers had more chews and higher work values, indicating more efficient chewing. The device provides valuable insights into personalized chewing profiles and could modify unhealthy chewing habits. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biosensing and Diagnosis)
Show Figures

Figure 1

12 pages, 3436 KiB  
Article
Cobalt–Nitrogen Co-Doped Carbon as Highly Efficient Oxidase Mimics for Colorimetric Assay of Nitrite
by Dalei Lin, Shuzhi Wu, Shushu Chu and Yizhong Lu
Biosensors 2023, 13(7), 748; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios13070748 - 20 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1379
Abstract
Transition metal-N-doped carbon has been demonstrated to mimic natural enzyme activity; in this study, cobalt–nitrogen co-doped carbon (Co-N-C) nanomaterial was developed, and it could be an oxidase mimic. Firstly, Co-N-C with oxidase-like activity boosts the chromogenic reaction of 3,3′,5,5′-tetramethylbenzidine (TMB) to produce the [...] Read more.
Transition metal-N-doped carbon has been demonstrated to mimic natural enzyme activity; in this study, cobalt–nitrogen co-doped carbon (Co-N-C) nanomaterial was developed, and it could be an oxidase mimic. Firstly, Co-N-C with oxidase-like activity boosts the chromogenic reaction of 3,3′,5,5′-tetramethylbenzidine (TMB) to produce the oxidized TMB (oxTMB). And the aromatic primary amino group of oxTMB reacts with nitrite (NO2) to form diazo groups. Based on this background, we developed a cascade system of a Co-N-C-catalyzed oxidation reaction and a diazotization reaction for nitrite determination. The low detection limit (0.039 μM) indicates that Co-N-C is superior compared with the vast majority of previously reported nitrite assays. This study not only provides a novel nanozyme with sufficiently dispersed active sites, but it also further applies it to the determination of nitrite, which is expected to expand the application of nanozymes in colorimetric analysis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomaterial Based Biosensors for Biomedical Applications)
Show Figures

Figure 1

21 pages, 8218 KiB  
Review
Advances in Point-of-Care Testing of microRNAs Based on Portable Instruments and Visual Detection
by Zhong-Yu Wang, Ming-Hui Sun, Qun Zhang, Pei-Feng Li, Kun Wang and Xin-Min Li
Biosensors 2023, 13(7), 747; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios13070747 - 20 Jul 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1928
Abstract
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small noncoding RNAs that are approximately 22 nt in length and regulate gene expression post-transcriptionally. miRNAs play a vital role in both physiological and pathological processes and are regarded as promising biomarkers for cancer, cardiovascular diseases, neurodegenerative [...] Read more.
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small noncoding RNAs that are approximately 22 nt in length and regulate gene expression post-transcriptionally. miRNAs play a vital role in both physiological and pathological processes and are regarded as promising biomarkers for cancer, cardiovascular diseases, neurodegenerative diseases, and so on. Accurate detection of miRNA expression level in clinical samples is important for miRNA-guided diagnostics. However, the common miRNA detection approaches like RNA sequencing, qRT-PCR, and miRNA microarray are performed in a professional laboratory with complex intermediate steps and are time-consuming and costly, challenging the miRNA-guided diagnostics. Hence, sensitive, highly specific, rapid, and easy-to-use detection of miRNAs is crucial for clinical diagnosis based on miRNAs. With the advantages of being specific, sensitive, efficient, cost-saving, and easy to operate, point-of-care testing (POCT) has been widely used in the detection of miRNAs. For the first time, we mainly focus on summarizing the research progress in POCT of miRNAs based on portable instruments and visual readout methods. As widely available pocket-size portable instruments and visual detection play important roles in POCT, we provide an all-sided discussion of the principles of these methods and their main limitations and challenges, in order to provide a guide for the development of more accurate, specific, and sensitive POCT methods for miRNA detection. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

10 pages, 2268 KiB  
Communication
Biological Recognition-Based Electrochemical Aptasensor for Point-of-Care Detection of cTnI
by Jianfeng Ma, Lin Feng, Jie Li, Dan Zhu, Lianhui Wang and Shao Su
Biosensors 2023, 13(7), 746; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios13070746 - 19 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1517
Abstract
As a “gold standard biomarker”, cardiac troponin I (cTnI) is widely used to diagnose acute myocardial infarction (AMI). For an early clinical diagnosis of AMI, it is necessary to develop a facile, fast and on-site device for cTnI detection. According to this demand, [...] Read more.
As a “gold standard biomarker”, cardiac troponin I (cTnI) is widely used to diagnose acute myocardial infarction (AMI). For an early clinical diagnosis of AMI, it is necessary to develop a facile, fast and on-site device for cTnI detection. According to this demand, a point-of-care electrochemical aptasensor was developed for cTnI detection by coupling the advantages of screen-printed carbon electrode (SPCE) with those of an aptamer. Thiol and methylene blue (MB) co-labelled aptamer (MB-Apt-SH) was assembled on the surface of hierarchical flower-like gold nanostructure (HFGNs)-decorated SPCE (SPCE-HFGNs) to recognize and analyze cTnI. In the presence of cTnI, the specific biological recognition reaction between cTnI and aptamer caused the decrease in electrochemical signal. Under the optimal condition, this designed aptasensor showed wide linear range (10 pg/mL–100 ng/mL) and low detection limit for (8.46 pg/mL) for cTnI detection with high selectivity and stability. More importantly, we used a mobile phone coupled with a simple APP to efficiently detect cTnI in 10 μL 100% human serum samples, proving that this aptasensor has a promising potential in point-of-care testing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Functional Nanomaterials for Biosensing)
Show Figures

Figure 1

16 pages, 3662 KiB  
Article
Time-Resolved Fluorescence Spectroscopy of Molecularly Imprinted Nanoprobes as an Ultralow Detection Nanosensing Tool for Protein Contaminants
by Alessandra Maria Bossi, Alice Marinangeli, Alberto Quaranta, Lucio Pancheri and Devid Maniglio
Biosensors 2023, 13(7), 745; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios13070745 - 19 Jul 2023
Viewed by 1432
Abstract
Currently, optical sensors based on molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) have been attracting significant interest. MIP sensing relies on the combination of the MIP’s selective capability, which is conveyed to the polymeric material by a template-assisted synthesis, with optical techniques that offer exquisite sensitivity. [...] Read more.
Currently, optical sensors based on molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) have been attracting significant interest. MIP sensing relies on the combination of the MIP’s selective capability, which is conveyed to the polymeric material by a template-assisted synthesis, with optical techniques that offer exquisite sensitivity. In this work, we devised an MIP nanoparticle optical sensor for the ultralow detection of serum albumin through time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy. The Fluo-nanoMIPs (∅~120 nm) were synthetized using fluorescein-O-methacrylate (0.1×, 1×, 10× mol:mol versus template) as an organic fluorescent reporter. The ability of 0.1× and 1×Fluo-nanoMIPs to bind albumin (15 fM–150 nM) was confirmed by fluorescence intensity analyses and isothermal titration calorimetry. The apparent dissociation constant (Kapp) was 30 pM. Conversely, the 10× fluorophore content did not enable monitoring binding. Then, the time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy of the nanosensors was studied. The 1×Fluo-nanoMIPs showed a decrease in fluorescence lifetime upon binding to albumin (100 fM–150 nM), Kapp = 28 pM, linear dynamic range 3.0–83.5 pM, limit of detection (LOD) 1.26 pM. Selectivity was confirmed testing 1×Fluo-nanoMIPs against competitor proteins. Finally, as a proof of concept, the nanosensors demonstrated detection of the albumin (1.5 nM) spiked in wine samples, suggesting a possible scaling up of the method in monitoring allergens in wines. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

11 pages, 2332 KiB  
Article
A Simple ICT-Based Fluorescent Probe for HOCl and Bioimaging Applications
by Yan Zheng, Shuang Wu, Yifan Bing, Huimin Li, Xueqin Liu, Wenlan Li, Xiang Zou and Zhongyuan Qu
Biosensors 2023, 13(7), 744; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios13070744 - 18 Jul 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1320
Abstract
Over the past few decades, drug-induced liver damage (DILI) has become a serious public health problem due to drug abuse. Among multifarious reactive oxygen species, mounting evidence attests that ClO has been used as a potential biomarker in DILI. In this work, [...] Read more.
Over the past few decades, drug-induced liver damage (DILI) has become a serious public health problem due to drug abuse. Among multifarious reactive oxygen species, mounting evidence attests that ClO has been used as a potential biomarker in DILI. In this work, a new “turn-on” fluorescent probe 1 was designed and synthesized by modifying 4′-hydroxybiphenyl-4-carbonitrile (dye 2) with N, N-dimethylthiocarbamate as a response site for detecting ClO. Probe 1 displayed a low detection limit (72 nM), fast response time (30 s), wide pH operating range (6–8), great tissue penetration, large Stokes shift (125 nm) and 291-fold fluorescence enhancement at 475 nm in the mapping of ClO. Probe 1 could trace amounts of exogenous and endogenous ClO with high sensitivity in MCF-7 cells and HeLa cells. Expectantly, the fluoxetine-induced liver injury model is successfully established, and probe 1 has been used for detecting the fluctuation of ClO levels in the mouse model of fluoxetine-induced liver injury. All in all, probe 1 with its high specificity, good biological compatibility and liver tissue penetration ability is expected to assist with the early diagnosis of DILI and the clinical screening of various new drugs. We expect that probe 1 could be efficiently used as a powerful molecular tool to predict clinical DILI and explore molecular mechanisms between molecules and disease. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biosensor and Bioelectronic Devices)
Show Figures

Figure 1

34 pages, 836 KiB  
Review
Application of Paper-Based Microfluidic Analytical Devices (µPAD) in Forensic and Clinical Toxicology: A Review
by Giacomo Musile, Cristian Grazioli, Stefano Fornasaro, Nicolò Dossi, Elio Franco De Palo, Franco Tagliaro and Federica Bortolotti
Biosensors 2023, 13(7), 743; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios13070743 - 18 Jul 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 4204
Abstract
The need for providing rapid and, possibly, on-the-spot analytical results in the case of intoxication has prompted researchers to develop rapid, sensitive, and cost-effective methods and analytical devices suitable for use in nonspecialized laboratories and at the point of need (PON). In recent [...] Read more.
The need for providing rapid and, possibly, on-the-spot analytical results in the case of intoxication has prompted researchers to develop rapid, sensitive, and cost-effective methods and analytical devices suitable for use in nonspecialized laboratories and at the point of need (PON). In recent years, the technology of paper-based microfluidic analytical devices (μPADs) has undergone rapid development and now provides a feasible, low-cost alternative to traditional rapid tests for detecting harmful compounds. In fact, µPADs have been developed to detect toxic molecules (arsenic, cyanide, ethanol, and nitrite), drugs, and drugs of abuse (benzodiazepines, cathinones, cocaine, fentanyl, ketamine, MDMA, morphine, synthetic cannabinoids, tetrahydrocannabinol, and xylazine), and also psychoactive substances used for drug-facilitated crimes (flunitrazepam, gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB), ketamine, metamizole, midazolam, and scopolamine). The present report critically evaluates the recent developments in paper-based devices, particularly in detection methods, and how these new analytical tools have been tested in forensic and clinical toxicology, also including future perspectives on their application, such as multisensing paper-based devices, microfluidic paper-based separation, and wearable paper-based sensors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Paper-Based Biosensors)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

28 pages, 2938 KiB  
Review
Electrochemical Immunosensors Developed for Amyloid-Beta and Tau Proteins, Leading Biomarkers of Alzheimer’s Disease
by Abhinav Sharma, Lúcio Angnes, Naghmeh Sattarahmady, Masoud Negahdary and Hossein Heli
Biosensors 2023, 13(7), 742; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios13070742 - 17 Jul 2023
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 3032
Abstract
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common neurological disease and a serious cause of dementia, which constitutes a threat to human health. The clinical evidence has found that extracellular amyloid-beta peptides (Aβ), phosphorylated tau (p-tau), and intracellular tau proteins, which are derived from [...] Read more.
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common neurological disease and a serious cause of dementia, which constitutes a threat to human health. The clinical evidence has found that extracellular amyloid-beta peptides (Aβ), phosphorylated tau (p-tau), and intracellular tau proteins, which are derived from the amyloid precursor protein (APP), are the leading biomarkers for accurate and early diagnosis of AD due to their central role in disease pathology, their correlation with disease progression, their diagnostic value, and their implications for therapeutic interventions. Their detection and monitoring contribute significantly to understanding AD and advancing clinical care. Available diagnostic techniques, including magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and positron emission tomography (PET), are mainly used to validate AD diagnosis. However, these methods are expensive, yield results that are difficult to interpret, and have common side effects such as headaches, nausea, and vomiting. Therefore, researchers have focused on developing cost-effective, portable, and point-of-care alternative diagnostic devices to detect specific biomarkers in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and other biofluids. In this review, we summarized the recent progress in developing electrochemical immunosensors for detecting AD biomarkers (Aβ and p-tau protein) and their subtypes (AβO, Aβ(1-40), Aβ(1-42), t-tau, cleaved-tau (c-tau), p-tau181, p-tau231, p-tau381, and p-tau441). We also evaluated the key characteristics and electrochemical performance of developed immunosensing platforms, including signal interfaces, nanomaterials or other signal amplifiers, biofunctionalization methods, and even primary electrochemical sensing performances (i.e., sensitivity, linear detection range, the limit of detection (LOD), and clinical application). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biosensors for Earlier Diagnosis of Alzheimer’s Disease)
Show Figures

Figure 1

20 pages, 3210 KiB  
Review
Point-of-Care Diagnostic Devices for Detection of Escherichia coli O157:H7 Using Microfluidic Systems: A Focused Review
by Naseem Abbas, Sehyeon Song, Mi-Sook Chang and Myung-Suk Chun
Biosensors 2023, 13(7), 741; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios13070741 - 17 Jul 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2394
Abstract
Bacterial infections represent a serious and global threat in modern medicine; thus, it is very important to rapidly detect pathogenic bacteria, such as Escherichia coli (E. coli) O157:H7. Once treatments are delayed after the commencement of symptoms, the patient’s health quickly [...] Read more.
Bacterial infections represent a serious and global threat in modern medicine; thus, it is very important to rapidly detect pathogenic bacteria, such as Escherichia coli (E. coli) O157:H7. Once treatments are delayed after the commencement of symptoms, the patient’s health quickly deteriorates. Hence, real-time detection and monitoring of infectious agents are highly critical in early diagnosis for correct treatment and safeguarding public health. To detect these pathogenic bacteria, many approaches have been applied by the biosensors community, for example, widely-used polymerase chain reaction (PCR), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), culture-based method, and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) bioluminescence. However, these approaches have drawbacks, such as time-consumption, expensive equipment, and being labor-intensive, making it critical to develop ultra-sensitive and highly selective detection. The microfluidic platform based on surface plasmon resonance (SPR), electrochemical sensing, and rolling circle amplification (RCA) offers proper alternatives capable of supplementing the technological gap for pathogen detection. Note that the microfluidic biochip allows to develop rapid, sensitive, portable, and point-of-care (POC) diagnostic tools. This review focuses on recent studies regarding accurate and rapid detection of E. coli O157:H7, with an emphasis on POC methods and devices that complement microfluidic systems. We also examine the efficient whole-body detection by employing antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), which has attracted growing attention in many applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biosensors Based on Microfluidic Devices)
Show Figures

Figure 1

18 pages, 8050 KiB  
Review
Exploring the Potential Applications of Engineered Borophene in Nanobiosensing and Theranostics
by Ananya Srivastava, Daphika S. Dkhar, Nandita Singh, Uday Pratap Azad and Pranjal Chandra
Biosensors 2023, 13(7), 740; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios13070740 - 17 Jul 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2489
Abstract
A monolayer of boron known as borophene has emerged as a novel and fascinating two-dimensional (2D) material with exceptional features, such as anisotropic metallic behavior and supple mechanical and optical capabilities. The engineering of smart functionalized opto-electric 2D materials is essential to obtain [...] Read more.
A monolayer of boron known as borophene has emerged as a novel and fascinating two-dimensional (2D) material with exceptional features, such as anisotropic metallic behavior and supple mechanical and optical capabilities. The engineering of smart functionalized opto-electric 2D materials is essential to obtain biosensors or biodevices of desired performance. Borophene is one of the most emerging 2D materials, and owing to its excellent electroactive surface area, high electron transport, anisotropic behavior, controllable optical and electrochemical properties, ability to be deposited on thin films, and potential to create surface functionalities, it has recently become one of the sophisticated platforms. Despite the difficulty of production, borophene may be immobilized utilizing chemistries, be functionalized on a flexible substrate, and be controlled over electro-optical properties to create a highly sensitive biosensor system that could be used for point-of-care diagnostics. Its electrochemical properties can be tailored by using appropriate nanomaterials, redox mediators, conducting polymers, etc., which will be quite useful for the detection of biomolecules at even trace levels with a high sensitivity and less detection time. This will be quite helpful in developing biosensing devices with a very high sensitivity and with less response time. So, this review will be a crucial foundation as we have discussed the basic properties, synthesis, and potential applications of borophene in nanobiosensing, as well as therapeutic applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Biosensors and Nanosensors)
Show Figures

Figure 1

13 pages, 3444 KiB  
Article
Organic Electrochemical Transistor Immuno-Sensors for Spike Protein Early Detection
by Mario Barra, Giovanna Tomaiuolo, Valeria Rachela Villella, Speranza Esposito, Aris Liboà, Pasquale D’Angelo, Simone Luigi Marasso, Matteo Cocuzza, Valentina Bertana, Elena Camilli and Valentina Preziosi
Biosensors 2023, 13(7), 739; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios13070739 - 17 Jul 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1796
Abstract
The global COVID-19 pandemic has had severe consequences from the social and economic perspectives, compelling the scientific community to focus on the development of effective diagnostics that can combine a fast response and accurate sensitivity/specificity performance. Presently available commercial antigen-detecting rapid diagnostic tests [...] Read more.
The global COVID-19 pandemic has had severe consequences from the social and economic perspectives, compelling the scientific community to focus on the development of effective diagnostics that can combine a fast response and accurate sensitivity/specificity performance. Presently available commercial antigen-detecting rapid diagnostic tests (Ag-RDTs) are very fast, but still face significant criticisms, mainly related to their inability to amplify the protein signal. This translates to a limited sensitive outcome and, hence, a reduced ability to hamper the spread of SARS-CoV-2 infection. To answer the urgent need for novel platforms for the early, specific and highly sensitive detection of the virus, this paper deals with the use of organic electrochemical transistors (OECTs) as very efficient ion–electron converters and amplifiers for the detection of spike proteins and their femtomolar concentration. The electrical response of the investigated OECTs was carefully analyzed, and the changes in the parameters associated with the transconductance (i.e., the slope of the transfer curves) in the gate voltage range between 0 and 0.3 V were found to be more clearly correlated with the spike protein concentration. Moreover, the functionalization of OECT-based biosensors with anti-spike and anti-nucleocapside proteins, the major proteins involved in the disease, demonstrated the specificity of these devices, whose potentialities should also be considered in light of the recent upsurge of the so-called “long COVID” syndrome. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Biosensors for Health-Care and Diagnostics)
Show Figures

Figure 1

2 pages, 182 KiB  
Editorial
Biosensors for Monitoring of Biologically Relevant Molecules
by Paulo A. Raymundo-Pereira
Biosensors 2023, 13(7), 738; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios13070738 - 17 Jul 2023
Viewed by 945
Abstract
Since the creation of the glucose enzyme sensor in the early 1960s by Clark and Lyons [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biosensors for Monitoring of Biologically Relevant Molecules)
14 pages, 7884 KiB  
Article
Microfluidic-Assisted Synthesis of Metal—Organic Framework —Alginate Micro-Particles for Sustained Drug Delivery
by Akhilesh Bendre, Vinayak Hegde, Kanalli V. Ajeya, Subrahmanya Thagare Manjunatha, Derangula Somasekhara, Varalakshmi K. Nadumane, Krishna Kant, Ho-Young Jung, Wei-Song Hung and Mahaveer D. Kurkuri
Biosensors 2023, 13(7), 737; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios13070737 - 17 Jul 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2001
Abstract
Drug delivery systems (DDS) are continuously being explored since humans are facing more numerous complicated diseases than ever before. These systems can preserve the drug’s functionality and improve its efficacy until the drug is delivered to a specific site within the body. One [...] Read more.
Drug delivery systems (DDS) are continuously being explored since humans are facing more numerous complicated diseases than ever before. These systems can preserve the drug’s functionality and improve its efficacy until the drug is delivered to a specific site within the body. One of the least used materials for this purpose are metal—organic frameworks (MOFs). MOFs possess many properties, including their high surface area and the possibility for the addition of functional surface moieties, that make them ideal drug delivery vehicles. Such properties can be further improved by combining different materials (such as metals or ligands) and utilizing various synthesis techniques. In this work, the microfluidic technique is used to synthesize Zeolitic Imidazole Framework-67 (ZIF-67) containing cobalt ions as well as its bimetallic variant with cobalt and zinc as ZnZIF-67 to be subsequently loaded with diclofenac sodium and incorporated into sodium alginate beads for sustained drug delivery. This study shows the utilization of a microfluidic approach to synthesize MOF variants. Furthermore, these MOFs were incorporated into a biopolymer (sodium alginate) to produce a reliable DDS which can perform sustained drug releases for up to 6 days (for 90% of the full amount released), whereas MOFs without the biopolymer showed sudden release within the first day. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microfluidic Bio-Sensors and Their Applications)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

12 pages, 2229 KiB  
Article
LSPR-Based Aptasensor for Rapid Urinary Detection of NT-proBNP
by Maria António, Rui Vitorino and Ana L. Daniel-da-Silva
Biosensors 2023, 13(7), 736; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios13070736 - 17 Jul 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1347
Abstract
N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) is a myocardial stress biomarker that can be found in serum or plasma, saliva, and urine in the context of cardiovascular disease. In this study, we developed a rapid (~25 min) and straightforward localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR)-based [...] Read more.
N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) is a myocardial stress biomarker that can be found in serum or plasma, saliva, and urine in the context of cardiovascular disease. In this study, we developed a rapid (~25 min) and straightforward localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR)-based assay for detecting NT-proBNP in urine. The assay employs citrate-capped gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) and an aptamer specific for NT-proBNP, which initially interacts with NT-proBNP. The remaining unbound aptamer then interacts with the AuNPs, and the addition of NaCl induces the aggregation of the unprotected AuNPs, resulting in a decrease in absorbance at the LSPR band (A521) and an increase in absorbance at 750 nm (A750). The concentration of NT-proBNP showed a linear correlation with the aggregation ratio (A521/A750), and the assay demonstrated a limit of detection (LOD) of 0.303 µg·L−1 and a detection range of 0.566–8 µg·L−1. However, the presence of sulfur-containing proteins in saliva and fetal bovine serum hindered the detection of NT-proBNP in these biofluids. Nevertheless, the assay successfully detected NT-proBNP in diluted urine with an LOD of 0.417 µg·L−1 and a detection range of 0.589–6 µg·L−1. The observed values in urine samples from preterm infants with cardiovascular disease fell within this range, indicating the potential clinical relevance of the assay. The recovery percentages ranged from 92.3 to 116.3%. Overall, our findings suggest that the LSPR-based assay for NT-proBNP detection in urine can be a valuable tool for the diagnosis and treatment of cardiovascular disease. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plasmonic Biosensors for Biomedical Applications)
Show Figures

Figure 1

10 pages, 1859 KiB  
Article
Ultrasensitive Electrochemical Aptasensing of Malathion Based on Hydroxylated Black Phosphorus/Poly-L-Lysine Composite
by Tingting Ma, Jie Zhou, Dan Wei, Hongquan Peng, Xun Liu, Wenfei Guo, Chuanxiang Zhang, Xueying Liu, Song Li and Yan Deng
Biosensors 2023, 13(7), 735; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios13070735 - 16 Jul 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1119
Abstract
A highly sensitive unlabeled electrochemical aptasensor based on hydroxylated black phosphorus/poly-L-lysine (hBP/PLL) composite is introduced herein for the detection of malathion. Poly-L-lysine (PLL) with adhesion and coating properties adhere to the surface of the nanosheets by noncovalent interactions with underlying hydroxylated black phosphorus [...] Read more.
A highly sensitive unlabeled electrochemical aptasensor based on hydroxylated black phosphorus/poly-L-lysine (hBP/PLL) composite is introduced herein for the detection of malathion. Poly-L-lysine (PLL) with adhesion and coating properties adhere to the surface of the nanosheets by noncovalent interactions with underlying hydroxylated black phosphorus nanosheets (hBP) to produce the hBP/PLL composite. The as-synthesized hBP/PLL composite bonded to Au nanoparticles (Au NPs) firmly by assembling and using them as a substrate for the aptamer with high specificity as a probe to fabricate the sensor. Under optimal conditions, the linear range of the electrochemical aptasensor was 0.1 pM~1 μM, and the detection limit was 2.805 fM. The electrochemical aptasensor has great selectivity, a low detection limit, and anti-interference, which has potential application prospects in the field of rapid trace detection of pesticide residues. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Materials and Techniques for Bioanalysis and Biosensing)
Show Figures

Figure 1

13 pages, 2413 KiB  
Article
Specific Fluorescent Probes for Imaging DNA in Cell-Free Solution and in Mitochondria in Living Cells
by Anna S. Efimova, Mariya A. Ustimova, Nelly S. Chmelyuk, Maxim A. Abakumov, Yury V. Fedorov and Olga A. Fedorova
Biosensors 2023, 13(7), 734; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios13070734 - 15 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1284
Abstract
New styryl dyes consisting of N-methylpyridine or N-methylquinoline scaffolds were synthesized, and their binding affinities for DNA in cell-free solution were studied. The replacement of heterocyclic residue from the pyridine to quinoline group as well as variation in the phenyl part strongly influenced [...] Read more.
New styryl dyes consisting of N-methylpyridine or N-methylquinoline scaffolds were synthesized, and their binding affinities for DNA in cell-free solution were studied. The replacement of heterocyclic residue from the pyridine to quinoline group as well as variation in the phenyl part strongly influenced their binding modes, binding affinities, and spectroscopic responses. Biological experiments showed the low toxicity of the obtained dyes and their applicability as selective dyes for mitochondria in living cells. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

18 pages, 5270 KiB  
Article
Hemagglutination Assay via Optical Density Characterization in 3D Microtrap Chips
by Sung-Wook Nam, Dong-Gyu Jeon, Young-Ran Yoon, Gang Ho Lee, Yongmin Chang and Dong Il Won
Biosensors 2023, 13(7), 733; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios13070733 - 14 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1572
Abstract
Hemagglutination assay has been used for blood typing and detecting viruses, thus applicable for the diagnosis of infectious diseases, including COVID-19. Therefore, the development of microfluidic devices for fast detection of hemagglutination is on-demand for point-of-care diagnosis. Here, we present a way to [...] Read more.
Hemagglutination assay has been used for blood typing and detecting viruses, thus applicable for the diagnosis of infectious diseases, including COVID-19. Therefore, the development of microfluidic devices for fast detection of hemagglutination is on-demand for point-of-care diagnosis. Here, we present a way to detect hemagglutination in 3D microfluidic devices via optical absorbance (optical density, OD) characterization. 3D printing is a powerful way to build microfluidic structures for diagnostic devices. However, mixing liquid in microfluidic chips is difficult due to laminar flow, which hampers practical applications such as antigen-antibody mixing. To overcome the issue, we fabricated 3D microfluidic chips with embedded microchannel and microwell structures to induce hemagglutination between red blood cells (RBCs) and antibodies. We named it a 3D microtrap chip. We also established an automated measurement system which is an integral part of diagnostic devices. To do this, we developed a novel way to identify RBC agglutination and non-agglutination via the OD difference. By adapting a 3D-printed aperture to the microtrap chip, we obtained a pure absorbance signal from the microchannels by eliminating the background brightness of the microtrap chip. By investigating the underlying optical physics, we provide a 3D device platform for detecting hemagglutination. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advances in Microfluidics and Lab on a Chip Technology)
Show Figures

Figure 1

28 pages, 2572 KiB  
Review
Advances in Simple, Rapid, and Contamination-Free Instantaneous Nucleic Acid Devices for Pathogen Detection
by Yue Wang, Chengming Wang, Zepeng Zhou, Jiajia Si, Song Li, Yezhan Zeng, Yan Deng and Zhu Chen
Biosensors 2023, 13(7), 732; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios13070732 - 14 Jul 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2636
Abstract
Pathogenic pathogens invade the human body through various pathways, causing damage to host cells, tissues, and their functions, ultimately leading to the development of diseases and posing a threat to human health. The rapid and accurate detection of pathogenic pathogens in humans is [...] Read more.
Pathogenic pathogens invade the human body through various pathways, causing damage to host cells, tissues, and their functions, ultimately leading to the development of diseases and posing a threat to human health. The rapid and accurate detection of pathogenic pathogens in humans is crucial and pressing. Nucleic acid detection offers advantages such as higher sensitivity, accuracy, and specificity compared to antibody and antigen detection methods. However, conventional nucleic acid testing is time-consuming, labor-intensive, and requires sophisticated equipment and specialized medical personnel. Therefore, this review focuses on advanced nucleic acid testing systems that aim to address the issues of testing time, portability, degree of automation, and cross-contamination. These systems include extraction-free rapid nucleic acid testing, fully automated extraction, amplification, and detection, as well as fully enclosed testing and commercial nucleic acid testing equipment. Additionally, the biochemical methods used for extraction, amplification, and detection in nucleic acid testing are briefly described. We hope that this review will inspire further research and the development of more suitable extraction-free reagents and fully automated testing devices for rapid, point-of-care diagnostics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Materials and Techniques for Bioanalysis and Biosensing)
Show Figures

Figure 1

15 pages, 5424 KiB  
Article
Biosensing by Polymer-Coated Etched Long-Period Fiber Gratings Working near Mode Transition and Turn-around Point
by Tanoy Kumar Dey, Cosimo Trono, Palas Biswas, Ambra Giannetti, Nandini Basumallick, Francesco Baldini, Somnath Bandyopadhyay and Sara Tombelli
Biosensors 2023, 13(7), 731; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios13070731 - 13 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 987
Abstract
A methodology to enhance the sensitivity of long-period fiber gratings (LPFGs) based on the combination of three different enhancement approaches is presented; the methods here adopted are the working near mode transition (MT) of a cladding mode (CM), working near the turn-around point [...] Read more.
A methodology to enhance the sensitivity of long-period fiber gratings (LPFGs) based on the combination of three different enhancement approaches is presented; the methods here adopted are the working near mode transition (MT) of a cladding mode (CM), working near the turn-around point of a CM and the enhancement of the evanescent field of CMs by reducing the cladding diameter or by increasing the order number of CMs. In order to combine these enhancement methodologies, an electrostatic self-assembly (ESA) process was used to deposit a polymeric overlay, with a chosen thickness, onto the etched fiber. The add-layer sensitivity of the sensor was theoretically calculated, and the demonstration of the real applicability of the developed LPFG as a biosensor was performed by means of an IgG/anti-IgG immunoassay in human serum in a thermostated microfluidic system. The limits of detection (LODs) calculated by following different procedures (three times the standard deviation of the blank and the mean value of the residuals) were 6.9 × 10−8 µg/mL and 4.5 × 10−6 µg/mL, respectively. The calculated LODs demonstrate the effectiveness of the applied methodology for sensitivity enhancement. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Optical Biosensors for Label-Free Detection)
Show Figures

Figure 1

21 pages, 4271 KiB  
Review
From Self-Assembly of Colloidal Crystals toward Ordered Porous Layer Interferometry
by Yi-Zhen Wan and Weiping Qian
Biosensors 2023, 13(7), 730; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios13070730 - 13 Jul 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1286
Abstract
Interferometry-based, reflectometric, label-free biosensors have made significant progress in the analysis of molecular interactions after years of development. The design of interference substrates is a key research topic for these biosensors, and many studies have focused on porous films prepared by top-down methods [...] Read more.
Interferometry-based, reflectometric, label-free biosensors have made significant progress in the analysis of molecular interactions after years of development. The design of interference substrates is a key research topic for these biosensors, and many studies have focused on porous films prepared by top-down methods such as porous silicon and anodic aluminum oxide. Lately, more research has been conducted on ordered porous layer interferometry (OPLI), which uses ordered porous colloidal crystal films as interference substrates. These films are made using self-assembly techniques, which is the bottom-up approach. They also offer several advantages for biosensing applications, such as budget cost, adjustable porosity, and high structural consistency. This review will briefly explain the fundamental components of self-assembled materials and thoroughly discuss various self-assembly techniques in depth. We will also summarize the latest studies that used the OPLI technique for label-free biosensing applications and divide them into several aspects for further discussion. Then, we will comprehensively evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of self-assembly techniques and discuss possible future research directions. Finally, we will outlook the upcoming challenges and opportunities for label-free biosensing using the OPLI technique. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Biosensors Based on Reflectometry)
Show Figures

Figure 1

22 pages, 5747 KiB  
Article
An Enhanced Photosensitive Sensor Based on ITO/MWCNTs@Polymer Composite@BiVO4 for Quercetin Detection
by İrem Sarikaya, Esra Kaleoğlu, Soner Çakar, Cengiz Soykan and Mahmut Özacar
Biosensors 2023, 13(7), 729; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios13070729 - 13 Jul 2023
Viewed by 1373
Abstract
The fact that antioxidants scavenge free radicals in the human body and naturally treat many health problems that will occur in this way has increased the consumption of antioxidant-containing foods. However, consumption of artificially prepared antioxidants could cause cancer. Therefore, antioxidants from natural [...] Read more.
The fact that antioxidants scavenge free radicals in the human body and naturally treat many health problems that will occur in this way has increased the consumption of antioxidant-containing foods. However, consumption of artificially prepared antioxidants could cause cancer. Therefore, antioxidants from natural sources are preferred. Quercetin is an antioxidant present in natural samples. In this article, multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), a polymer composite (PC) consisting of a mixture of 15% (by mass) polystyrene (PST), 15% (by mass) polyacrylonitrile (PAN) and 70% (by mass) polyindole (PIN), and semiconducting BiVO4 were used to prepare electrodes, and then a photosensitive ITO/MWCNTs@PC@BiVO4-based sensor was fabricated for quercetin detection. Quercetin was analyzed via the photosensitive ITO/MWCNTs@PC@BiVO4 sensor in 0.1 M phosphate buffered saline (pH 7.4) solutions including various quercetin concentrations. The constructed quercetin sensor displayed a wide linear response between 10 and 200 μM and a limit of detection of 0.133 μM. The developed photosensitive ITO/MWCNTs@PC@BiVO4 demonstrated a high sensitivity (442 µA mM−1 cm−2), good reproducibility (relative standard deviation 3.6%), high selectivity and long-term stability (>49 days) towards quercetin sensing. The photoelectrochemical sensor was then applied to detection of quercetin in black tea as a real-life sample. Our study could lead to the development of novel photosensitive PC polyphenol sensors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Progress in Functional Polymers for Biosensors)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

19 pages, 12624 KiB  
Article
Characterizing the Impedance Properties of Dry E-Textile Electrodes Based on Contact Force and Perspiration
by Vignesh Ravichandran, Izabela Ciesielska-Wrobel, Md Abdullah al Rumon, Dhaval Solanki and Kunal Mankodiya
Biosensors 2023, 13(7), 728; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios13070728 - 13 Jul 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2023
Abstract
Biopotential electrodes play an integral role within smart wearables and clothing in capturing vital signals like electrocardiogram (ECG), electromyogram (EMG), and electroencephalogram (EEG). This study focuses on dry e-textile electrodes (E1–E6) and a laser-cut knit electrode (E7), to assess their impedance characteristics under [...] Read more.
Biopotential electrodes play an integral role within smart wearables and clothing in capturing vital signals like electrocardiogram (ECG), electromyogram (EMG), and electroencephalogram (EEG). This study focuses on dry e-textile electrodes (E1–E6) and a laser-cut knit electrode (E7), to assess their impedance characteristics under varying contact forces and moisture conditions. Synthetic perspiration was applied using a moisture management tester and impedance was measured before and after exposure, followed by a 24 h controlled drying period. Concurrently, the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the dry electrode was evaluated during ECG data collection on a healthy participant. Our findings revealed that, prior to moisture exposure, the impedance of electrodes E7, E5, and E2 was below 200 ohm, dropping to below 120 ohm post-exposure. Embroidered electrodes E6 and E4 exhibited an over 25% decrease in mean impedance after moisture exposure, indicating the impact of stitch design and moisture on impedance. Following the controlled drying, certain electrodes (E1, E2, E3, and E4) experienced an over 30% increase in mean impedance. Overall, knit electrode E7, and embroidered electrodes E2 and E6, demonstrated superior performance in terms of impedance, moisture retention, and ECG signal quality, revealing promising avenues for future biopotential electrode designs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Devices and Wearable Devices toward Innovative Applications)
Show Figures

Figure 1

16 pages, 2120 KiB  
Article
The Development and Evaluation of Reagentless Glucose Biosensors Using Dendritic Gold Nanostructures as a Promising Sensing Platform
by Natalija German, Anton Popov and Almira Ramanaviciene
Biosensors 2023, 13(7), 727; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios13070727 - 13 Jul 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1272
Abstract
Reagentless electrochemical glucose biosensors were developed and investigated. A graphite rod (GR) electrode modified with electrochemically synthesized dendritic gold nanostructures (DGNs) and redox mediators (Med) such as ferrocenecarboxylic acid (FCA), 1,10-phenathroline-5,6-dione (PD), N,N,N′,N′-tetramethylbenzidine (TMB) or tetrathiafulvalene (TTF) in combination with glucose oxidase (GOx) [...] Read more.
Reagentless electrochemical glucose biosensors were developed and investigated. A graphite rod (GR) electrode modified with electrochemically synthesized dendritic gold nanostructures (DGNs) and redox mediators (Med) such as ferrocenecarboxylic acid (FCA), 1,10-phenathroline-5,6-dione (PD), N,N,N′,N′-tetramethylbenzidine (TMB) or tetrathiafulvalene (TTF) in combination with glucose oxidase (GOx) (GR/DGNs/FCA/GOx, GR/DGNs/PD/GOx, GR/DGNs/TMB/GOx, or GR/DGNs/TTF/GOx) were developed and electrochemically investigated. A biosensor based on threefold-layer-by-layer-deposited PD and GOx (GR/DGNs/(PD/GOx)3) was found to be the most suitable for the determination of glucose. To improve the performance of the developed biosensor, the surface of the GR/DGNs/(PD/GOx)3 electrode was modified with polypyrrole (Ppy) for 5 h. A glucose biosensor based on a GR/DGNs/(PD/GOx)3/Ppy(5 h) electrode was characterized using a wide linear dynamic range of up to 39.0 mmol L−1 of glucose, sensitivity of 3.03 µA mM−1 cm−2, limit of detection of 0.683 mmol L−1, and repeatability of 9.03% for a 29.4 mmol L−1 glucose concentration. The Ppy-based glucose biosensor was characterized by a good storage stability (τ1/2 = 9.0 days). Additionally, the performance of the developed biosensor in blood serum was investigated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biosensors in 2023)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Previous Issue
Next Issue
Back to TopTop