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Biosensors, Volume 13, Issue 5 (May 2023) – 76 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): State of the art clinical detection methods typically involve immunoassays that require specialized equipment and trained personnel. This impedes their use in point-of-care (PoC), where ease of operation, portability, and cost efficiency are prioritized. Small electrochemical biosensors are considered a way to facilitate this translation. In this paper, different electrochemical approaches using off-shelf components were evaluated, where chronoamperometry gave the best performance. This approach was demonstrated by measuring multiple biomarkers in bodily fluids and represents a general platform for the application of immunoassays to small electrochemical biosensors. Coupling this platform with miniature potentiostats would create a simple and compact device, fit for a PoC environment. View this paper
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Article
On-Field Test of Tuberculosis Diagnosis through Exhaled Breath Analysis with a Gas Sensor Array
Biosensors 2023, 13(5), 570; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios13050570 - 22 May 2023
Viewed by 1149
Abstract
Tuberculosis (TB) is among the more frequent causes of death in many countries. For pulmonary TB, early diagnosis greatly increases the efficiency of therapies. Although highly sensitive tests based on nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) and loop-mediated isothermal amplification (TB-LAMP) are available, smear [...] Read more.
Tuberculosis (TB) is among the more frequent causes of death in many countries. For pulmonary TB, early diagnosis greatly increases the efficiency of therapies. Although highly sensitive tests based on nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) and loop-mediated isothermal amplification (TB-LAMP) are available, smear microscopy is still the most widespread diagnostics method in most low–middle-income countries, and the true positive rate of smear microscopy is lower than 65%. Thus, there is a need to increase the performance of low-cost diagnosis. For many years, the use of sensors to analyze the exhaled volatile organic compounds (VOCs) has been proposed as a promising alternative for the diagnosis of several diseases, including tuberculosis. In this paper, the diagnostic properties of an electronic nose (EN) based on sensor technology previously used to identify tuberculosis have been tested on-field in a Cameroon hospital. The EN analyzed the breath of a cohort of subjects including pulmonary TB patients (46), healthy controls (38), and TB suspects (16). Machine learning analysis of the sensor array data allows for the identification of the pulmonary TB group with respect to healthy controls with 88% accuracy, 90.8% sensitivity, 85.7% specificity, and 0.88 AUC. The model trained with TB and healthy controls maintains its performance when it is applied to symptomatic TB suspects with a negative TB-LAMP. These results encourage the investigation of electronic noses as an effective diagnostic method for future inclusion in clinical practice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biosensor and Bioelectronic Devices)
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Review
Aptamer-Based Point-of-Care Devices: Emerging Technologies and Integration of Computational Methods
Biosensors 2023, 13(5), 569; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios13050569 - 22 May 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1584
Abstract
Recent innovations in point-of-care (POC) diagnostic technologies have paved a critical road for the improved application of biomedicine through the deployment of accurate and affordable programs into resource-scarce settings. The utilization of antibodies as a bio-recognition element in POC devices is currently limited [...] Read more.
Recent innovations in point-of-care (POC) diagnostic technologies have paved a critical road for the improved application of biomedicine through the deployment of accurate and affordable programs into resource-scarce settings. The utilization of antibodies as a bio-recognition element in POC devices is currently limited due to obstacles associated with cost and production, impeding its widespread adoption. One promising alternative, on the other hand, is aptamer integration, i.e., short sequences of single-stranded DNA and RNA structures. The advantageous properties of these molecules are as follows: small molecular size, amenability to chemical modification, low- or nonimmunogenic characteristics, and their reproducibility within a short generation time. The utilization of these aforementioned features is critical in developing sensitive and portable POC systems. Furthermore, the deficiencies related to past experimental efforts to improve biosensor schematics, including the design of biorecognition elements, can be tackled with the integration of computational tools. These complementary tools enable the prediction of the reliability and functionality of the molecular structure of aptamers. In this review, we have overviewed the usage of aptamers in the development of novel and portable POC devices, in addition to highlighting the insights that simulations and other computational methods can provide into the use of aptamer modeling for POC integration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Issue of Biosensors and Healthcare Section)
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Review
A Review on Photonic Sensing Technologies: Status and Outlook
Biosensors 2023, 13(5), 568; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios13050568 - 22 May 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1269
Abstract
In contemporary science and technology, photonic sensors are essential. They may be made to be extremely resistant to some physical parameters while also being extremely sensitive to other physical variables. Most photonic sensors may be incorporated on chips and operate with CMOS technology, [...] Read more.
In contemporary science and technology, photonic sensors are essential. They may be made to be extremely resistant to some physical parameters while also being extremely sensitive to other physical variables. Most photonic sensors may be incorporated on chips and operate with CMOS technology, making them suitable for use as extremely sensitive, compact, and affordable sensors. Photonic sensors can detect electromagnetic (EM) wave changes and convert them into an electric signal due to the photoelectric effect. Depending on the requirements, scientists have found ways to develop photonic sensors based on several interesting platforms. In this work, we extensively review the most generally utilized photonic sensors for detecting vital environmental parameters and personal health care. These sensing systems include optical waveguides, optical fibers, plasmonics, metasurfaces, and photonic crystals. Various aspects of light are used to investigate the transmission or reflection spectra of photonic sensors. In general, resonant cavity or grating-based sensor configurations that work on wavelength interrogation methods are preferred, so these sensor types are mostly presented. We believe that this paper will provide insight into the novel types of available photonic sensors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Optical and Photonic Biosensors)
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Article
Fe3O4@Au Core–Shell Magnetic Nanoparticles for the Rapid Analysis of E. coli O157:H7 in an Electrochemical Immunoassay
Biosensors 2023, 13(5), 567; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios13050567 - 22 May 2023
Viewed by 797
Abstract
Escherichia coli (E. coli) O157:H7 is a pathogenic bacterium that causes serious toxic effects in the human gastrointestinal tract. In this paper, a method for its effective analytical control in a milk sample was developed. To perform rapid (1 h) and [...] Read more.
Escherichia coli (E. coli) O157:H7 is a pathogenic bacterium that causes serious toxic effects in the human gastrointestinal tract. In this paper, a method for its effective analytical control in a milk sample was developed. To perform rapid (1 h) and accurate analysis, monodisperse Fe3O4@Au magnetic nanoparticles were synthesized and used in an electrochemical sandwich-type magnetic immunoassay. Screen-printed carbon electrodes (SPCE) were used as transducers, and electrochemical detection was performed by chronoamperometry using a secondary horseradish peroxidase-labeled antibody and 3,3′,5,5′-tetramethylbenzidine. This magnetic assay was used to determine the E. coli O157:H7 strain in the linear range from 20 to 2 × 106 CFU/mL, with a limit of detection of 20 CFU/mL. The selectivity of the assay was tested using Listeria monocytogenes p60 protein, and the applicability of the assay was assessed by analyzing a commercial milk sample, demonstrating the usefulness of the synthesized nanoparticles in the developed magnetic immunoassay. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Printed Electrochemical Biosensors)
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Article
Direct Electron Transfer of Glucose Oxidase on Pre-Anodized Paper/Carbon Electrodes Modified through Zero-Length Cross-Linkers for Glucose Biosensors
Biosensors 2023, 13(5), 566; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios13050566 - 22 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 897
Abstract
A disposable paper-based glucose biosensor with direct electron transfer (DET) of glucose oxidase (GOX) was developed through simple covalent immobilization of GOX on a carbon electrode surface using zero-length cross-linkers. This glucose biosensor exhibited a high electron transfer rate (ks, 3.363 s−1 [...] Read more.
A disposable paper-based glucose biosensor with direct electron transfer (DET) of glucose oxidase (GOX) was developed through simple covalent immobilization of GOX on a carbon electrode surface using zero-length cross-linkers. This glucose biosensor exhibited a high electron transfer rate (ks, 3.363 s−1) as well as good affinity (km, 0.03 mM) for GOX while keeping innate enzymatic activities. Furthermore, the DET-based glucose detection was accomplished by employing both square wave voltammetry and chronoamperometric techniques, and it achieved a glucose detection range from 5.4 mg/dL to 900 mg/dL, which is wider than most commercially available glucometers. This low-cost DET glucose biosensor showed remarkable selectivity, and the use of the negative operating potential avoided interference from other common electroactive compounds. It has great potential to monitor different stages of diabetes from hypoglycemic to hyperglycemic states, especially for self-monitoring of blood glucose. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biosensing and Diagnosis)
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Communication
Highly Sensitive Detection of Urea Using Si Electrolyte-Gated Transistor with Low Power Consumption
Biosensors 2023, 13(5), 565; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios13050565 - 22 May 2023
Viewed by 638
Abstract
We experimentally demonstrate Si-based electrolyte-gated transistors (EGTs) for detecting urea. The top-down-fabricated device exhibited excellent intrinsic characteristics, including a low subthreshold swing (SS) (~80 mV/dec) and a high on/off current ratio (~107). The sensitivity, which varied depending on the [...] Read more.
We experimentally demonstrate Si-based electrolyte-gated transistors (EGTs) for detecting urea. The top-down-fabricated device exhibited excellent intrinsic characteristics, including a low subthreshold swing (SS) (~80 mV/dec) and a high on/off current ratio (~107). The sensitivity, which varied depending on the operation regime, was analyzed with the urea concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 316 mM. The current-related response could be enhanced by reducing the SS of the devices, whereas the voltage-related response remained relatively constant. The urea sensitivity in the subthreshold regime was as high as 1.9 dec/pUrea, four times higher than the reported value. The extracted power consumption of 0.3 nW was extremely low compared to other FET-type sensors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biosensors Based on Transistors)
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Article
Selection of a Novel DNA Aptamer Specific for 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural Using Capture-SELEX
Biosensors 2023, 13(5), 564; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios13050564 - 22 May 2023
Viewed by 818
Abstract
A capture systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (Capture-SELEX) was described to discover novel aptamers specific for 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF), and a biosensor based on molecular beacon was constructed to detect 5-HMF. The ssDNA library was immobilized to streptavidin (SA) resin to select [...] Read more.
A capture systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (Capture-SELEX) was described to discover novel aptamers specific for 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF), and a biosensor based on molecular beacon was constructed to detect 5-HMF. The ssDNA library was immobilized to streptavidin (SA) resin to select the specific aptamer. The selection progress was monitored using real-time quantitative PCR (Q-PCR), and the enriched library was sequenced by high-throughput sequencing (HTS). Candidate and mutant aptamers were selected and identified by Isothermal Titration Calorimetry (ITC). The FAM-aptamer and BHQ1-cDNA were designed as the quenching biosensor to detect 5-HMF in milk matrix. After the 18th round selection, the Ct value decreased from 9.09 to 8.79, indicating that the library was enriched. The HTS results indicated that the total sequence numbers for 9th, 13th, 16th, and 18th were 417054, 407987, 307666, and 259867, but the number of sequences for the top 300 sequences was gradually increased from 9th to 18th, and the ClustalX2 analysis showed that there were four families with high homology rate. ITC results indicated that the Kd values of H1 and its mutants H1-8, H1-12, H1-14, and H1-21 were 2.5 μM, 1.8 μM, 1.2 μM, 6.5 μM, and 4.7 μM. The linear range of the quenching biosensor was from 0 μM to 75 μM, and it had a similar linear range in the 0.1% milk matrix. This is the first report to select a novel aptamer specific for 5-HMF and develop quenching biosensor for the rapid detection of 5-HMF in milk matrix. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nano- and Micro-Technologies in Biosensors)
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Article
Electrodeposited rGO/AuNP/MnO2 Nanocomposite-Modified Screen-Printed Carbon Electrode for Sensitive Electrochemical Sensing of Arsenic(III) in Water
Biosensors 2023, 13(5), 563; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios13050563 - 21 May 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1121
Abstract
Herein, a simple and portable electrochemical sensor based on a reduced graphene oxide/gold nanoparticle/manganese dioxide (rGO/AuNP/MnO2) nanocomposite-modified screen-printed carbon electrode (SPCE) was constructed by the facile stepwise electrodeposition method and used for electrochemical detection of As(III). The resultant electrode was characterized [...] Read more.
Herein, a simple and portable electrochemical sensor based on a reduced graphene oxide/gold nanoparticle/manganese dioxide (rGO/AuNP/MnO2) nanocomposite-modified screen-printed carbon electrode (SPCE) was constructed by the facile stepwise electrodeposition method and used for electrochemical detection of As(III). The resultant electrode was characterized for its morphological, structural, and electrochemical properties using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), cyclic voltammetry (CV), and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). From the morphologic structure, it can be clearly observed that the AuNPs and MnO2 alone or their hybrid were densely deposited or entrapped in thin rGO sheets on the porous carbon surface, which may favor the electro-adsorption of As(III) on the modified SPCE. It is interesting that the nanohybrid modification endows the electrode with a significant decrease in charge transfer resistance and an increase in electroactive specific surface area, which dramatically increases the electro-oxidation current of As(III). This improved sensing ability was ascribed to the synergistic effect of gold nanoparticles with excellent electrocatalytic property and reduced graphene oxide with good electrical conductivity, as well as the involvement of manganese dioxide with a strong adsorption property in the electrochemical reduction of As(III). Under optimized conditions, the sensor can detect As(III) via square wave anodic stripping voltammetry (SWASV) with a low limit of detection of 2.4 μg L−1 and a linear range of 25–200 μg L−1. The proposed portable sensor shows the advantages of a simple preparation procedure, low cost, good repeatability, and long-term stability. The feasibility of rGO/AuNPs/MnO2/SPCE for detecting As(III) in real water was further verified. Full article
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Article
Electrochemical Biosensing of L-DOPA Using Tyrosinase Immobilized on Carboxymethyl Starch-Graft-Polyaniline@MWCNTs Nanocomposite
Biosensors 2023, 13(5), 562; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios13050562 - 21 May 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 991
Abstract
The electrochemical behavior of the immobilized tyrosinase (Tyrase) on a modified glassy carbon electrode with carboxymethyl starch-graft-polyaniline/multi-walled carbon nanotubes nanocomposite (CMS-g-PANI@MWCNTs) was investigated. The molecular properties of CMS-g-PANI@MWCNTs nanocomposite and its morphological characterization were examined by Fourier [...] Read more.
The electrochemical behavior of the immobilized tyrosinase (Tyrase) on a modified glassy carbon electrode with carboxymethyl starch-graft-polyaniline/multi-walled carbon nanotubes nanocomposite (CMS-g-PANI@MWCNTs) was investigated. The molecular properties of CMS-g-PANI@MWCNTs nanocomposite and its morphological characterization were examined by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). A simple drop-casting method was employed to immobilize Tyrase on the CMS-g-PANI@MWCNTs nanocomposite. In the cyclic voltammogram (CV), a pair of redox peaks were observed at the potentials of +0.25 to −0.1 V and E°’ was equal to 0.1 V and the apparent rate constant of electron transfer (Ks) was calculated at 0.4 s−1. Using differential pulse voltammetry (DPV), the sensitivity and selectivity of the biosensor were investigated. The biosensor exhibits linearity towards catechol and L-dopa in the concentration range of 5–100 and 10–300 μM with a sensitivity of 2.4 and 1.11 μA μΜ−1 cm−2 and limit of detection (LOD) 25 and 30 μM, respectively. The Michaelis-Menten constant (Km) was calculated at 42 μΜ for catechol and 86 μΜ for L-dopa. After 28 working days, the biosensor provided good repeatability and selectivity, and maintained 67% of its stability. The existence of -COO and -OH groups in carboxymethyl starch, -NH2 groups in polyaniline, and high surface-to-volume ratio and electrical conductivity of multi-walled carbon nanotubes in the CMS-g-PANI@MWCNTs nanocomposite cause good Tyrase immobilization on the surface of the electrode. Full article
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Article
Development of an Efficient FRET-Based Ratiometric Uranium Biosensor
Biosensors 2023, 13(5), 561; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios13050561 - 19 May 2023
Viewed by 852
Abstract
The dispersion of uranium in the environment can pose a problem for the health of humans and other living organisms. It is therefore important to monitor the bioavailable and hence toxic fraction of uranium in the environment, but no efficient measurement methods exist [...] Read more.
The dispersion of uranium in the environment can pose a problem for the health of humans and other living organisms. It is therefore important to monitor the bioavailable and hence toxic fraction of uranium in the environment, but no efficient measurement methods exist for this. Our study aims to fill this gap by developing a genetically encoded FRET-based ratiometric uranium biosensor. This biosensor was constructed by grafting two fluorescent proteins to both ends of calmodulin, a protein that binds four calcium ions. By modifying the metal-binding sites and the fluorescent proteins, several versions of the biosensor were generated and characterized in vitro. The best combination results in a biosensor that is affine and selective for uranium compared to metals such as calcium or other environmental compounds (sodium, magnesium, chlorine). It has a good dynamic range and should be robust to environmental conditions. In addition, its detection limit is below the uranium limit concentration in drinking water defined by the World Health Organization. This genetically encoded biosensor is a promising tool to develop a uranium whole-cell biosensor. This would make it possible to monitor the bioavailable fraction of uranium in the environment, even in calcium-rich waters. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fluorescent Protein-Based Sensing and Detection)
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Communication
Graphene-Based Metamaterial Sensor for Pesticide Trace Detection
Biosensors 2023, 13(5), 560; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios13050560 - 19 May 2023
Viewed by 831
Abstract
Organophosphate insecticides with broad spectrum and high efficiency make a great difference to agricultural production. The correct utilization and residue of pesticides have always been important issues of concern, and residual pesticides can accumulate and pass through the environment and food cycle, resulting [...] Read more.
Organophosphate insecticides with broad spectrum and high efficiency make a great difference to agricultural production. The correct utilization and residue of pesticides have always been important issues of concern, and residual pesticides can accumulate and pass through the environment and food cycle, resulting in safety and health hazards to humans and animals. In particular, current detection methods are often characterized by complex operations or low sensitivity. Fortunately, using monolayer graphene as the sensing interface, the designed graphene-based metamaterial biosensor working in the 0–1 THz frequency range can achieve highly sensitive detection characterized by spectral amplitude changes. Meanwhile, the proposed biosensor has the advantages of easy operation, low cost, and quick detection. Taking phosalone as an example, its molecules can move the Fermi level of graphene with π–π stacking, and the lowest concentration of detection in this experiment is 0.01 μg/mL. This metamaterial biosensor has great potential in detecting trace pesticides, and its application in food hygiene and medicine can provide better detection services. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Women in Biosensors (Volume II))
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Article
An Integrated and Multi-Target Nucleic Acid Isothermal Analysis System for Rapid Diagnosis of Vulvovaginal Candidiasis
Biosensors 2023, 13(5), 559; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios13050559 - 19 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 733
Abstract
Rapid identification of Candida species is significant for the diagnosis of vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC). An integrated and multi-target system for the rapid, high-specificity, and high-sensitivity detection of four Candida species was developed. The system consists of a rapid sample processing cassette and a [...] Read more.
Rapid identification of Candida species is significant for the diagnosis of vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC). An integrated and multi-target system for the rapid, high-specificity, and high-sensitivity detection of four Candida species was developed. The system consists of a rapid sample processing cassette and a rapid nucleic acid analysis device. The cassette could process the Candida species to release nucleic acids in 15 min. The released nucleic acids were analyzed by the device as fast as within 30 min, using the loop-mediated isothermal amplification method. The four Candida species could be simultaneously identified, with each reaction using only 1.41 µL of reaction mixture, which was low cost. The RPT (rapid sample processing and testing) system could detect the four Candida species with high sensitivity (<2 CFU/reaction) and high specificity. The system also processed and analyzed 32 clinical samples, giving the results with high clinical sensitivity and specificity. Hence, the system was a significant and effective platform for the diagnosis of VVC. Furthermore, the period of validity of the reagents and chips used in the system was >90 days, and the system could also be used for the detection of bacteria. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nano- and Micro-Technologies in Biosensors)
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Article
Plasmonic Biosensor on the End-Facet of a Dual-Core Single-Mode Optical Fiber
Biosensors 2023, 13(5), 558; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios13050558 - 19 May 2023
Viewed by 727
Abstract
Optical biosensors target widespread applications, such as drug discovery, medical diagnostics, food quality control, and environmental monitoring. Here, we propose a novel plasmonic biosensor on the end-facet of a dual-core single-mode optical fiber. The concept uses slanted metal gratings on each core, interconnected [...] Read more.
Optical biosensors target widespread applications, such as drug discovery, medical diagnostics, food quality control, and environmental monitoring. Here, we propose a novel plasmonic biosensor on the end-facet of a dual-core single-mode optical fiber. The concept uses slanted metal gratings on each core, interconnected by a metal stripe biosensing waveguide to couple the cores via the propagation of surface plasmons along the end facet. The scheme enables operation in transmission (core-to-core), thereby eliminating the need to separate the reflected light from the incident light. Importantly, this simplifies and reduces the cost of the interrogation setup because a broadband polarization-maintaining optical fiber coupler or circulator is not required. The proposed biosensor enables remote sensing because the interrogation optoelectronics can be located remotely. In vivo biosensing and brain studies are also enabled because the end-facet can be inserted into a living body, once properly packaged. It can also be dipped into a vial, precluding the need for microfluidic channels or pumps. Bulk sensitivities of 880 nm/RIU and surface sensitivities of 1 nm/nm are predicted under spectral interrogation using cross-correlation analysis. The configuration is embodied by robust and experimentally realizable designs that can be fabricated, e.g., using metal evaporation and focused ion beam milling. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Optical Biosensors for Health, Food and Environment (Bio)markers)
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Review
Molecular Fingerprint Detection Using Raman and Infrared Spectroscopy Technologies for Cancer Detection: A Progress Review
Biosensors 2023, 13(5), 557; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios13050557 - 18 May 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1495
Abstract
Molecular vibrations play a crucial role in physical chemistry and biochemistry, and Raman and infrared spectroscopy are the two most used techniques for vibrational spectroscopy. These techniques provide unique fingerprints of the molecules in a sample, which can be used to identify the [...] Read more.
Molecular vibrations play a crucial role in physical chemistry and biochemistry, and Raman and infrared spectroscopy are the two most used techniques for vibrational spectroscopy. These techniques provide unique fingerprints of the molecules in a sample, which can be used to identify the chemical bonds, functional groups, and structures of the molecules. In this review article, recent research and development activities for molecular fingerprint detection using Raman and infrared spectroscopy are discussed, with a focus on identifying specific biomolecules and studying the chemical composition of biological samples for cancer diagnosis applications. The working principle and instrumentation of each technique are also discussed for a better understanding of the analytical versatility of vibrational spectroscopy. Raman spectroscopy is an invaluable tool for studying molecules and their interactions, and its use is likely to continue to grow in the future. Research has demonstrated that Raman spectroscopy is capable of accurately diagnosing various types of cancer, making it a valuable alternative to traditional diagnostic methods such as endoscopy. Infrared spectroscopy can provide complementary information to Raman spectroscopy and detect a wide range of biomolecules at low concentrations, even in complex biological samples. The article concludes with a comparison of the techniques and insights into future directions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Applications of Label-Free Optical Biosensors)
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Editorial
Label-Free Biosensor
Biosensors 2023, 13(5), 556; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios13050556 - 18 May 2023
Viewed by 674
Abstract
Label-free biosensors have become an indispensable tool for analyzing intrinsic molecular properties, such as mass, and quantifying molecular interactions without interference from labels, which is critical for the screening of drugs, detecting disease biomarkers, and understanding biological processes at the molecular level [...] [...] Read more.
Label-free biosensors have become an indispensable tool for analyzing intrinsic molecular properties, such as mass, and quantifying molecular interactions without interference from labels, which is critical for the screening of drugs, detecting disease biomarkers, and understanding biological processes at the molecular level [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Label-Free Biosensor)
Article
Oscillatory-Flow PCR Microfluidic Chip Driven by Low Speed Biaxial Centrifugation
Biosensors 2023, 13(5), 555; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios13050555 - 18 May 2023
Viewed by 786
Abstract
PCR is indispensable in basic science and biotechnology for in-orbit life science research. However, manpower and resources are limited in space. To address the constraints of in-orbit PCR, we proposed an oscillatory-flow PCR technique based on biaxial centrifugation. Oscillatory-flow PCR remarkably reduces the [...] Read more.
PCR is indispensable in basic science and biotechnology for in-orbit life science research. However, manpower and resources are limited in space. To address the constraints of in-orbit PCR, we proposed an oscillatory-flow PCR technique based on biaxial centrifugation. Oscillatory-flow PCR remarkably reduces the power requirements of the PCR process and has a relatively high ramp rate. A microfluidic chip that could perform dispensing, volume correction, and oscillatory-flow PCR of four samples simultaneously using biaxial centrifugation was designed. An automatic biaxial centrifugation device was designed and assembled to validate the biaxial centrifugation oscillatory-flow PCR. Simulation analysis and experimental tests indicated that the device could perform fully automated PCR amplification of four samples in one hour, with a ramp rate of 4.4 C/s and average power consumption of less than 30 W. The PCR results were consistent with those obtained using conventional PCR equipment. Air bubbles generated during amplification were removed by oscillation. The chip and device realized a low-power, miniaturized, and fast PCR method under microgravity conditions, indicating good space application prospects and potential for higher throughput and extension to qPCR. Full article
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Review
An Update on the Use of Natural Pigments and Pigment Nanoparticle Adducts for Metal Detection Based on Colour Response
Biosensors 2023, 13(5), 554; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios13050554 - 18 May 2023
Viewed by 1221
Abstract
Natural pigments occur in plants as secondary metabolites and have been used as safe colourants in food. Studies have reported that their unstable colour intensity might be related to metal ion interaction, which leads to the formation of metal–pigment complexes. This underlines the [...] Read more.
Natural pigments occur in plants as secondary metabolites and have been used as safe colourants in food. Studies have reported that their unstable colour intensity might be related to metal ion interaction, which leads to the formation of metal–pigment complexes. This underlines the need for further investigations on the use of natural pigments in metal detection using colorimetric methods, since metals are important elements and can be hazardous when present in large amounts. This review aimed to discuss the use of natural pigments (mainly betalains, anthocyanins, curcuminoids, carotenoids, and chlorophyll) as reagents for portable metal detection based on their limits of detection, to determine which pigment is best for certain metals. Colorimetric-related articles over the last decade were gathered, including those involving methodological modifications, sensor developments, and a general overview. When considering sensitivity and portability, the results revealed that betalains are best applied for copper, using a smartphone-assisted sensor; curcuminoids are best applied for lead, using a curcumin nanofiber; and anthocyanin is best applied for mercury, using anthocyanin hydrogel. This provides a new perspective on the use of colour instability for the detection of metals with modern sensor developments. In addition, a coloured sheet representing metal concentrations may be useful as a standard to support on-site detection with trials on masking agents to improve selectivity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biosensing for Environmental Monitoring)
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Article
MICaFVi: A Novel Magnetic Immuno-Capture Flow Virometry Nano-Based Diagnostic Tool for Detection of Coronaviruses
Biosensors 2023, 13(5), 553; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios13050553 - 18 May 2023
Viewed by 838
Abstract
COVID-19 has resulted in a pandemic that aggravated the world’s healthcare systems, economies, and education, and caused millions of global deaths. Until now, there has been no specific, reliable, and effective treatment to combat the virus and its variants. The current standard tedious [...] Read more.
COVID-19 has resulted in a pandemic that aggravated the world’s healthcare systems, economies, and education, and caused millions of global deaths. Until now, there has been no specific, reliable, and effective treatment to combat the virus and its variants. The current standard tedious PCR-based tests have limitations in terms of sensitivity, specificity, turnaround time, and false negative results. Thus, an alternative, rapid, accurate, and sensitive diagnostic tool that can detect viral particles, without the need for amplification or viral replication, is central to infectious disease surveillance. Here, we report MICaFVi (Magnetic Immuno-Capture Flow Virometry), a novel precise nano-biosensor diagnostic assay for coronavirus detection which combines the MNP-based immuno-capture of viruses for enrichment followed by flow-virometry analysis, enabling the sensitive detection of viral particles and pseudoviruses. As proof of concept, virus-mimicking spike-protein-coated silica particles (VM-SPs) were captured using anti-spike-antibody-conjugated MNPs (AS-MNPs) followed by detection using flow cytometry. Our results showed that MICaFVi can successfully detect viral MERS-CoV/SARS-CoV-2-mimicking particles as well as MERS-CoV pseudoviral particles (MERSpp) with high specificity and sensitivity, where a limit of detection (LOD) of 3.9 µg/mL (20 pmol/mL) was achieved. The proposed method has great potential for designing practical, specific, and point-of-care testing for rapid and sensitive diagnoses of coronavirus and other infectious diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nano- and Micro-Technologies in Biosensors)
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Article
A Self-Powered Multifunctional Bracelet for Pulse Monitoring and Personal Rescue
Biosensors 2023, 13(5), 552; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios13050552 - 16 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1082
Abstract
For outdoor workers or explorers who may be exposed to extreme or wild environments for a long time, wearable electronic devices with continuous health monitoring and personal rescue functions in emergencies could play an important role in protecting their lives. However, the limited [...] Read more.
For outdoor workers or explorers who may be exposed to extreme or wild environments for a long time, wearable electronic devices with continuous health monitoring and personal rescue functions in emergencies could play an important role in protecting their lives. However, the limited battery capacity leads to a limited serving time, which cannot ensure normal operation anywhere and at any time. In this work, a self-powered multifunctional bracelet is proposed by integrating a hybrid energy supply module and a coupled pulse monitoring sensor with the inherent structure of the watch. The hybrid energy supply module can harvest rotational kinetic energy and elastic potential energy from the watch strap swinging simultaneously, generating a voltage of 69 V and a current of 87 mA. Meanwhile, with a statically indeterminate structure design and the coupling of triboelectric and piezoelectric nanogenerators, the bracelet enables stable pulse signal monitoring during movement with a strong anti-interference ability. With the assistance of functional electronic components, the pulse signal and position information of the wearer can be transmitted wirelessly in real-time, and the rescue light and illuminating light can be driven directly by flipping the watch strap slightly. The universal compact design, efficient energy conversion, and stable physiological monitoring demonstrate the wide application prospects of the self-powered multifunctional bracelet. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Flexible Sensors for Medical Applications)
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Review
Microenvironments Matter: Advances in Brain-on-Chip
Biosensors 2023, 13(5), 551; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios13050551 - 16 May 2023
Viewed by 1208
Abstract
To highlight the particular needs with respect to modeling the unique and complex organization of the human brain structure, we reviewed the state-of-the-art in devising brain models with engineered instructive microenvironments. To acquire a better perspective on the brain’s working mechanisms, we first [...] Read more.
To highlight the particular needs with respect to modeling the unique and complex organization of the human brain structure, we reviewed the state-of-the-art in devising brain models with engineered instructive microenvironments. To acquire a better perspective on the brain’s working mechanisms, we first summarize the importance of regional stiffness gradients in brain tissue, varying per layer and the cellular diversities of the layers. Through this, one can acquire an understanding of the essential parameters in emulating the brain in vitro. In addition to the brain’s organizational architecture, we addressed also how the mechanical properties have an impact on neuronal cell responses. In this respect, advanced in vitro platforms emerged and profoundly changed the methods of brain modeling efforts from the past, mainly focusing on animal or cell line research. The main challenges in imitating features of the brain in a dish are with regard to composition and functionality. In neurobiological research, there are now methods that aim to cope with such challenges by the self-assembly of human-derived pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs), i.e., brainoids. Alternatively, these brainoids can be used stand-alone or in conjunction with Brain-on-Chip (BoC) platform technology, 3D-printed gels, and other types of engineered guidance features. Currently, advanced in vitro methods have made a giant leap forward regarding cost-effectiveness, ease-of-use, and availability. We bring these recent developments together into one review. We believe our conclusions will give a novel perspective towards advancing instructive microenvironments for BoCs and the understanding of the brain’s cellular functions either in modeling healthy or diseased states of the brain. Full article
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Article
Unique Electron-Transfer-Mediated Electrochemiluminescence of AuPt Bimetallic Nanoclusters and the Application in Cancer Immunoassay
Biosensors 2023, 13(5), 550; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios13050550 - 16 May 2023
Viewed by 892
Abstract
Noble Metal nanoclusters (NCs) are promising electrochemiluminescence (ECL) emitters due to their amazing optical properties and excellent biocompatibility. They have been widely used in the detection of ions, pollutant molecules, biomolecules, etc. Herein, we found that glutathione-capped AuPt bimetallic NCs (GSH-AuPt NCs) emitted [...] Read more.
Noble Metal nanoclusters (NCs) are promising electrochemiluminescence (ECL) emitters due to their amazing optical properties and excellent biocompatibility. They have been widely used in the detection of ions, pollutant molecules, biomolecules, etc. Herein, we found that glutathione-capped AuPt bimetallic NCs (GSH-AuPt NCs) emitted strong anodic ECL signals with triethylamine as co-reactants which had no fluorescence (FL) response. Due to the synergistic effect of bimetallic structures, the ECL signals of AuPt NCs were 6.8 and 94 times higher than those of monometallic Au and Pt NCs, respectively. The electric and optical properties of GSH-AuPt NCs differed from those of Au and Pt NCs completely. An electron-transfer mediated ECL mechanism was proposed. The excited electrons may be neutralized by Pt(II) in GSH-Pt and GSH-AuPt NCs, resulting in the vanished FL. Furthermore, abundant TEA radicals formed on the anode contributed electrons to the highest unoccupied molecular orbital of GSH-Au2.5Pt NCs and Pt(II), booming intense ECL signals. Because of the ligand effect and ensemble effect, bimetallic AuPt NCs exhibited much stronger ECL than GSH-Au NCs. A sandwich-type immunoassay for alpha fetoprotein (AFP) cancer biomarkers was fabricated with GSH-AuPt NCs as signal tags, which displayed a wide linear range from 0.01 to 1000 ng·mL−1 and a limit of detection (LOD) down to 1.0 pg·mL−1 at 3S/N. Compared to previous ECL AFP immunoassays, this method not only had a wider linear range but also a lower LOD. The recoveries of AFP in human serum were around 108%, providing a wonderful strategy for fast, sensitive, and accurate cancer diagnosis. Full article
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Article
A Novel SPR Immunosensor Based on Dual Signal Amplification Strategy for Detection of SARS-CoV-2 Nucleocapsid Protein
Biosensors 2023, 13(5), 549; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios13050549 - 15 May 2023
Viewed by 819
Abstract
Since the global outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), it has spread rapidly around the world. The nucleocapsid (N) protein is one of the most abundant SARS-CoV-2 proteins. Therefore, a sensitive and effective detection method for SARS-CoV-2 N protein is the focus of [...] Read more.
Since the global outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), it has spread rapidly around the world. The nucleocapsid (N) protein is one of the most abundant SARS-CoV-2 proteins. Therefore, a sensitive and effective detection method for SARS-CoV-2 N protein is the focus of research. Here, we developed a surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensor based on the dual signal-amplification strategy of Au@Ag@Au nanoparticles (NPs) and graphene oxide (GO). Additionally, a sandwich immunoassay was utilized to sensitively and efficiently detect SARS-CoV-2 N protein. On the one hand, Au@Ag@Au NPs have a high refractive index and the capability to electromagnetically couple with the plasma waves propagating on the surface of gold film, which are harnessed for amplifying the SPR response signal. On the other hand, GO, which has the large specific surface area and the abundant oxygen-containing functional groups, could provide unique light absorption bands that can enhance plasmonic coupling to further amplify the SPR response signal. The proposed biosensor could efficiently detect SARS-CoV-2 N protein for 15 min and the detection limit for SARS-CoV-2 N protein was 0.083 ng/mL, with a linear range of 0.1 ng/mL~1000 ng/mL. This novel method can meet the analytical requirements of artificial saliva simulated samples, and the developed biosensor had a good anti-interference capability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Surface Plasmon Resonance Sensor and Its Application)
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Communication
Wearable Triboelectric Nanogenerator with Ground-Coupled Electrode for Biomechanical Energy Harvesting and Sensing
Biosensors 2023, 13(5), 548; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios13050548 - 15 May 2023
Viewed by 949
Abstract
Harvesting biomechanical energy for electricity as well as physiological monitoring is a major development trend for wearable devices. In this article, we report a wearable triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG) with a ground-coupled electrode. It has a considerable output performance for harvesting human biomechanical energy [...] Read more.
Harvesting biomechanical energy for electricity as well as physiological monitoring is a major development trend for wearable devices. In this article, we report a wearable triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG) with a ground-coupled electrode. It has a considerable output performance for harvesting human biomechanical energy and can also be used as a human motion sensor. The reference electrode of this device achieves a lower potential by coupling with the ground to form a coupling capacitor. Such a design can significantly improve the TENG’s outputs. A maximum output voltage up to 946 V and a short-circuit current of 36.3 μA are achieved. The quantity of the charge that transfers during one step of an adult walking reaches 419.6 nC, while it is only 100.8 nC for the separate single-electrode-structured device. In addition, using the human body as a natural conductor to connect the reference electrode allows the device to drive the shoelaces with integrated LEDs. Finally, the wearable TENG is able to perform motion monitoring and sensing, such as human gait recognition, step count and movement speed calculation. These show great application prospects of the presented TENG device in wearable electronics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advance in Wearable Biosensors for Healthcare Monitoring)
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Article
A Modified Electrochemical Sensor Based on N,S-Doped Carbon Dots/Carbon Nanotube-Poly(Amidoamine) Dendrimer Hybrids for Imatinib Mesylate Determination
Biosensors 2023, 13(5), 547; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios13050547 - 15 May 2023
Viewed by 983
Abstract
Imatinib mesylate, an anticancer drug, is prescribed to treat gastrointestinal stromal tumors and chronic myelogenous leukemia. A hybrid nanocomposite of N,S-doped carbon dots/carbon nanotube-poly(amidoamine) dendrimer (N,S-CDs/CNTD) was successfully synthesized and used as a significant modifier to design a new and highly selective electrochemical [...] Read more.
Imatinib mesylate, an anticancer drug, is prescribed to treat gastrointestinal stromal tumors and chronic myelogenous leukemia. A hybrid nanocomposite of N,S-doped carbon dots/carbon nanotube-poly(amidoamine) dendrimer (N,S-CDs/CNTD) was successfully synthesized and used as a significant modifier to design a new and highly selective electrochemical sensor for the determination of imatinib mesylate. A rigorous study with electrochemical techniques, such as cyclic voltammetry and differential pulse voltammetry, was performed to elucidate the electrocatalytic properties of the as-prepared nanocomposite and the preparation procedure of the modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE). A higher oxidation peak current was generated for the imatinib mesylate on a N,S-CDs/CNTD/GCE surface compared to the GCE and CNTD/GCE. The N,S-CDs/CNTD/GCE showed a linear relationship between the concentration and oxidation peak current of the imatinib mesylate in 0.01–100 μM, with a detection limit of 3 nM. Finally, the imatinib mesylate’s quantification in blood-serum samples was successfully performed. The N,S-CDs/CNTD/GCE’s reproducibility and stability were indeed excellent. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomaterials and Nanostructure Devices for Biosensing)
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Communication
Rapid Prototyping Flexible Capacitive Pressure Sensors Based on Porous Electrodes
Biosensors 2023, 13(5), 546; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios13050546 - 14 May 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1340
Abstract
Flexible pressure sensors are widely applied in tactile perception, fingerprint recognition, medical monitoring, human–machine interfaces, and the Internet of Things. Among them, flexible capacitive pressure sensors have the advantages of low energy consumption, slight signal drift, and high response repeatability. However, current research [...] Read more.
Flexible pressure sensors are widely applied in tactile perception, fingerprint recognition, medical monitoring, human–machine interfaces, and the Internet of Things. Among them, flexible capacitive pressure sensors have the advantages of low energy consumption, slight signal drift, and high response repeatability. However, current research on flexible capacitive pressure sensors focuses on optimizing the dielectric layer for improved sensitivity and pressure response range. Moreover, complicated and time-consuming fabrication methods are commonly applied to generate microstructure dielectric layers. Here, we propose a rapid and straightforward fabrication approach to prototyping flexible capacitive pressure sensors based on porous electrodes. Laser-induced graphene (LIG) is produced on both sides of the polyimide paper, resulting in paired compressible electrodes with 3D porous structures. When the elastic LIG electrodes are compressed, the effective electrode area, the relative distance between electrodes, and the dielectric property vary accordingly, thereby generating a sensitive pressure sensor in a relatively large working range (0–9.6 kPa). The sensitivity of the sensor is up to 7.71%/kPa−1, and it can detect pressure as small as 10 Pa. The simple and robust structure allows the sensor to produce quick and repeatable responses. Our pressure sensor exhibits broad potential in practical applications in health monitoring, given its outstanding comprehensive performance combined with its simple and quick fabrication method. Full article
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Article
Monoclonal Antibody-Based Colorimetric Lateral Flow Immunoassay for the Detection of Pyridaben in the Environment
Biosensors 2023, 13(5), 545; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios13050545 - 13 May 2023
Viewed by 806
Abstract
Pyridaben, a broad-spectrum pyridazinone acaricide that is widely used in agricultural production, can induce neurotoxicity and reproductive abnormalities, and is highly toxic to aquatic organisms. In this study, a pyridaben hapten was synthesized and used to prepare monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), among which 6E3G8D7 [...] Read more.
Pyridaben, a broad-spectrum pyridazinone acaricide that is widely used in agricultural production, can induce neurotoxicity and reproductive abnormalities, and is highly toxic to aquatic organisms. In this study, a pyridaben hapten was synthesized and used to prepare monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), among which 6E3G8D7 showed the highest sensitivity in indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, with a 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 3.49 ng mL−1. The mAb, 6E3G8D7, was further applied to a gold nanoparticle-based colorimetric lateral flow immunoassay (CLFIA) for pyridaben detection, according to the signal intensity ratio of the test line to the control line, which showed a visual limit of detection of 5 ng mL−1. The CLFIA also showed high specificity and achieved excellent accuracy in different matrices. In addition, the amounts of pyridaben in blind samples detected by the CLFIA, were consistent with high-performance liquid chromatography. Therefore, the developed CLFIA is considered a promising, reliable, and portable method for pyridaben on-site detection in agro-products and environmental samples. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Immunoassays and Biosensing)
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Article
Biomolecular Monitoring Tool Based on Lab-on-Chip for Virus Detection
Biosensors 2023, 13(5), 544; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios13050544 - 12 May 2023
Viewed by 805
Abstract
Lab-on-Chip (LoC) devices for performing real-time PCR are advantageous compared to standard equipment since these systems allow to conduct in-field quick analysis. The development of LoCs, where the components for performing the nucleic acid amplification are all integrated, can be an issue. In [...] Read more.
Lab-on-Chip (LoC) devices for performing real-time PCR are advantageous compared to standard equipment since these systems allow to conduct in-field quick analysis. The development of LoCs, where the components for performing the nucleic acid amplification are all integrated, can be an issue. In this work, we present a LoC-PCR device where thermalization, temperature control and detection elements are all integrated on a single glass substrate named System-on-Glass (SoG) obtained using metal thin-film deposition. By using a microwell plate optically coupled with the SoG, real-time reverse transcriptase PCR of RNA extracted from both a plant and human virus has been carried out in the developed LoC-PCR device. The limit of detection and time of analysis for the detection of the two viruses by using the LoC-PCR were compared with those achieved by standard equipment. The results showed that the two systems can detect the same concentration of RNA; however, the LoC-PCR performs the analysis in half of the time compared to the standard thermocycler, with the advantage of the portability, leading to a point-of-care device for several diagnostic applications. Full article
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Article
Hybridization Chain Reaction-Based Electrochemical Biosensors by Integrating the Advantages of Homogeneous Reaction and Heterogeneous Detection
Biosensors 2023, 13(5), 543; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios13050543 - 12 May 2023
Viewed by 792
Abstract
The conventional hybridization chain reaction (HCR)-based electrochemical biosensors usually require the immobilization of probes on the electrode surface. This will limit the applications of biosensors due to the shortcomings of complex immobilization processes and low HCR efficiency. In this work, we proposed astrategy [...] Read more.
The conventional hybridization chain reaction (HCR)-based electrochemical biosensors usually require the immobilization of probes on the electrode surface. This will limit the applications of biosensors due to the shortcomings of complex immobilization processes and low HCR efficiency. In this work, we proposed astrategy for the design of HCR-based electrochemical biosensors by integrating the advantages of homogeneous reaction and heterogeneous detection. Specifically, the targets triggered the autonomous cross-opening and hybridization oftwobiotin-labeled hairpin probes to form long-nicked dsDNA polymers. The HCR products with many biotin tags were then captured by a streptavidin-covered electrode, thus allowing for the attachment of streptavidin-conjugated signal reporters through streptavidin–biotin interactions. By employing DNA and microRNA-21 as the model targets and glucose oxidase as the signal reporter, the analytical performances of the HCR-based electrochemical biosensors were investigated. The detection limits of this method were found to be 0.6 fM and 1 fM for DNA and microRNA-21, respectively. The proposed strategy exhibited good reliability for target analysis in serum and cellular lysates. The strategy can be used to develop various HCR-based biosensors for a wide range of applications because sequence-specific oligonucleotides exhibit high binding affinity to a series of targets. In light of the high stability and commercial availability of streptavidin-modified materials, the strategy can be used for the design of different biosensors by changing the signal reporter and/or the sequence of hairpin probes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biosensors Based on Streptavidin)
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Review
Metal Oxides Nanomaterials and Nanocomposite-Based Electrochemical Sensors for Healthcare Applications
Biosensors 2023, 13(5), 542; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios13050542 - 12 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1653
Abstract
Wide-ranging research efforts have been directed to prioritize scientific and technological inventions for healthcare monitoring. In recent years, the effective utilization of functional nanomaterials in various electroanalytical measurements realized a rapid, sensitive, and selective detection and monitoring of a wide range of biomarkers [...] Read more.
Wide-ranging research efforts have been directed to prioritize scientific and technological inventions for healthcare monitoring. In recent years, the effective utilization of functional nanomaterials in various electroanalytical measurements realized a rapid, sensitive, and selective detection and monitoring of a wide range of biomarkers in body fluids. Owing to good biocompatibility, high organic capturing ability, strong electrocatalytic activity, and high robustness, transition metal oxide-derived nanocomposites have led to enhancements in sensing performances. The aim of the present review is to describe key advancements of transition metal oxide nanomaterials and nanocomposites-based electrochemical sensors, along with current challenges and prospects towards the development of a highly durable and reliable detection of biomarkers. Moreover, the preparation of nanomaterials, electrode fabrication, sensing mechanism, electrode-bio interface, and performance of metal oxides nanomaterials and nanocomposite-based sensor platforms will be described. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Functional Nanomaterial-Based Electrochemical Biosensor)
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Article
Sensing High 17β-Estradiol Concentrations Using a Planar Microwave Sensor Integrated with a Microfluidic Channel
Biosensors 2023, 13(5), 541; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios13050541 - 12 May 2023
Viewed by 997
Abstract
The global issue of pollution caused by endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) has been gaining increasing attention. Among the EDCs of environmental concern, 17β-estradiol (E2) can produce the strongest estrogenic effects when it enters the organism exogenously through various routes and has the potential to [...] Read more.
The global issue of pollution caused by endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) has been gaining increasing attention. Among the EDCs of environmental concern, 17β-estradiol (E2) can produce the strongest estrogenic effects when it enters the organism exogenously through various routes and has the potential to cause harm, including malfunctions of the endocrine system and development of growth and reproductive disorders in humans and animals. Additionally, in humans, supraphysiological levels of E2 have been associated with a range of E2-dependent disorders and cancers. To ensure environmental safety and prevent potential risks of E2 to human and animal health, it is crucial to develop rapid, sensitive, low cost and simple approaches for detecting E2 contamination in the environment. A planar microwave sensor for E2 sensing is presented based on the integration of a microstrip transmission line (TL) loaded with a Peano fractal geometry with a narrow slot complementary split-ring resonator (PF-NSCSRR) and a microfluidic channel. The proposed technique offers a wide linear range for detecting E2, ranging from 0.001 to 10 mM, and can achieve high sensitivity with small sample volumes and simple operation methods. The proposed microwave sensor was validated through simulations and empirical measurements within a frequency range of 0.5–3.5 GHz. The E2 solution was delivered to the sensitive area of the sensor device via a microfluidic polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) channel with an area of 2.7 mm2 and sample value of 1.37 µL and measured by a proposed sensor. The injection of E2 into the channel resulted in changes in the transmission coefficient (S21) and resonance frequency (Fr), which can be used as an indicator of E2 levels in solution. The maximum quality factor of 114.89 and the maximum sensitivity based on S21 and Fr at a concentration of 0.01 mM were 1746.98 dB/mM and 40 GHz/mM, respectively. Upon comparing the proposed sensor with the original Peano fractal geometry with complementary split-ring (PF-CSRR) sensors without a narrow slot, several parameters were evaluated, including sensitivity, quality factor, operating frequency, active area, and sample volume. The results showed that the proposed sensor exhibited an increased sensitivity of 6.08% and had a 40.72% higher quality factor, while the operating frequency, active area, and sample volume showed decreases of 1.71%, 25%, and 28.27%, respectively. The materials under tests (MUTs) were analyzed and categorized into groups using principal component analysis (PCA) with a K-mean clustering algorithm. The proposed E2 sensor has a compact size and simple structure that can be easily fabricated with low-cost materials. With the small sample volume requirement, fast measurement with a wide dynamic range, and a simple protocol, this proposed sensor can also be applied to measure high E2 levels in environmental, human, and animal samples. Full article
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