Next Issue
Volume 13, December
Previous Issue
Volume 13, October
 
 

Biosensors, Volume 13, Issue 11 (November 2023) – 43 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Prostate cancer is responsible for around 7.3% of cancer deaths in men. However, when detected early, the survival rate increases in almost 100% of patients. Techniques such as rectal examination and measuring the PSA level in the blood are used to detect cancer, but they have low specificity and sensitivity. Studies have revealed that Stanniocalcin-1 (STC-1) can be used as a biomarker for prostate cancer. In this work, four different STC-1 antibody sensors from a fish were deposited on interdigitated gold electrodes using layer-on-layer thin film preparation and self-assembly techniques. The detection of different STC-1 antigen concentrations was performed using impedance spectroscopy. The electrical characterization of the films was carried out using principal component analysis to validate them as effective sensors. View this paper
  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Reader to open them.
Order results
Result details
Section
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:
13 pages, 1661 KiB  
Article
Portable Infrared-Based Glucometer Reinforced with Fuzzy Logic
Biosensors 2023, 13(11), 991; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios13110991 - 20 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1394
Abstract
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a chronic metabolic condition characterized by high blood glucose levels owing to decreased insulin production or sensitivity. Current diagnostic approaches for gestational diabetes entail intrusive blood tests, which are painful and impractical for regular monitoring. Additionally, typical blood glucose [...] Read more.
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a chronic metabolic condition characterized by high blood glucose levels owing to decreased insulin production or sensitivity. Current diagnostic approaches for gestational diabetes entail intrusive blood tests, which are painful and impractical for regular monitoring. Additionally, typical blood glucose monitoring systems are restricted in their measurement frequency and need finger pricks for blood samples. This research study focuses on the development of a non-invasive, real-time glucose monitoring method based on the detection of glucose in human tears and finger blood using mid-infrared (IR) spectroscopy. The proposed solution combines a fuzzy logic-based calibration mechanism with an IR sensor and Arduino controller. This calibration technique increases the accuracy of non-invasive glucose testing based on MID absorbance in fingertips and human tears. The data demonstrate that our device has high accuracy and reliability, with an error rate of less than 3%, according to the EGA. Out of 360 measurements, 97.5% fell into zone A, 2.2% into zone B, and 0.3% into zone C of the Clarke Error Grid. This suggests that our device can give clinically precise and acceptable estimates of blood glucose levels without inflicting any harm or discomfort on the user. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

16 pages, 8840 KiB  
Review
Recent Research Progress in Fluorescent Probes for Detection of Amyloid-β In Vivo
Biosensors 2023, 13(11), 990; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios13110990 - 19 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1348
Abstract
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease. Due to its complex pathological mechanism, its etiology is not yet clear. As one of the main pathological markers of AD, amyloid-β (Aβ) plays an important role in the development of AD. The deposition of Aβ [...] Read more.
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease. Due to its complex pathological mechanism, its etiology is not yet clear. As one of the main pathological markers of AD, amyloid-β (Aβ) plays an important role in the development of AD. The deposition of Aβ is not only related to the degeneration of neurons, but also can activate a series of pathological events, including the activation of astrocytes and microglia, the breakdown of the blood–brain barrier, and the change in microcirculation, which is the main cause of brain lesions and death in AD patients. Therefore, the development of efficient and reliable Aβ-specific probes is crucial for the early diagnosis and treatment of AD. This paper focuses on reviewing the application of small-molecule fluorescent probes in Aβ imaging in vivo in recent years. These probes efficiently map the presence of Aβ in vivo, providing a pathway for the early diagnosis of AD and providing enlightenment for the design of Aβ-specific probes in the future. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

23 pages, 8588 KiB  
Review
A Review of Electroactive Nanomaterials in the Detection of Nitrogen-Containing Organic Compounds and Future Applications
Biosensors 2023, 13(11), 989; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios13110989 - 18 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1175
Abstract
Electrochemical and impedimetric detection of nitrogen-containing organic compounds (NOCs) in blood, urine, sweat, and saliva is widely used in clinical diagnosis. NOC detection is used to identify illnesses such as chronic kidney disease (CKD), end-stage renal disease (ESRD), cardiovascular complications, diabetes, cancer, and [...] Read more.
Electrochemical and impedimetric detection of nitrogen-containing organic compounds (NOCs) in blood, urine, sweat, and saliva is widely used in clinical diagnosis. NOC detection is used to identify illnesses such as chronic kidney disease (CKD), end-stage renal disease (ESRD), cardiovascular complications, diabetes, cancer, and others. In recent years, nanomaterials have shown significant potential in the detection of NOCs using electrochemical and impedimetric sensors. This potential is due to the higher surface area, porous nature, and functional groups of nanomaterials, which can aid in improving the sensing performance with inexpensive, direct, and quick-time processing methods. In this review, we discuss nanomaterials, such as metal oxides, graphene nanostructures, and their nanocomposites, for the detection of NOCs. Notably, researchers have considered nanocomposite-based devices, such as a field effect transistor (FET) and printed electrodes, for the detection of NOCs. In this review, we emphasize the significant importance of electrochemical and impedimetric methods in the detection of NOCs, which typically show higher sensitivity and selectivity. So, these methods will open a new way to make embeddable electrodes for point-of-detection (POD) devices. These devices could be used in the next generation of non-invasive analysis for biomedical and clinical applications. This review also summarizes recent state-of-the-art technology for the development of sensors for on-site monitoring and disease diagnosis at an earlier stage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Nanomaterials for Electrochemical Biosensing Application)
Show Figures

Figure 1

15 pages, 3694 KiB  
Article
Detection of Reverse Transcriptase LAMP-Amplified Nucleic Acid from Oropharyngeal Viral Swab Samples Using Biotinylated DNA Probes through a Lateral Flow Assay
Biosensors 2023, 13(11), 988; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios13110988 - 17 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1292
Abstract
This study focuses on three key aspects: (a) crude throat swab samples in a viral transport medium (VTM) as templates for RT-LAMP reactions; (b) a biotinylated DNA probe with enhanced specificity for LFA readouts; and (c) a digital semi-quantification of LFA readouts. Throat [...] Read more.
This study focuses on three key aspects: (a) crude throat swab samples in a viral transport medium (VTM) as templates for RT-LAMP reactions; (b) a biotinylated DNA probe with enhanced specificity for LFA readouts; and (c) a digital semi-quantification of LFA readouts. Throat swab samples from SARS-CoV-2 positive and negative patients were used in their crude (no cleaning or pre-treatment) forms for the RT-LAMP reaction. The samples were heat-inactivated but not treated for any kind of nucleic acid extraction or purification. The RT-LAMP (20 min processing time) product was read out by an LFA approach using two labels: FITC and biotin. FITC was enzymatically incorporated into the RT-LAMP amplicon with the LF-LAMP primer, and biotin was introduced using biotinylated DNA probes, specifically for the amplicon region after RT-LAMP amplification. This assay setup with biotinylated DNA probe-based LFA readouts of the RT-LAMP amplicon was 98.11% sensitive and 96.15% specific. The LFA result was further analysed by a smartphone-based IVD device, wherein the T-line intensity was recorded. The LFA T-line intensity was then correlated with the qRT-PCR Ct value of the positive swab samples. A digital semi-quantification of RT-LAMP-LFA was reported with a correlation coefficient of R2 = 0.702. The overall RT-LAMP-LFA assay time was recorded to be 35 min with a LoD of three RNA copies/µL (Ct-33). With these three advancements, the nucleic acid testing-point of care technique (NAT-POCT) is exemplified as a versatile biosensor platform with great potential and applicability for the detection of pathogens without the need for sample storage, transportation, or pre-processing. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

18 pages, 3395 KiB  
Review
Alzheimer’s Disease Biomarker Detection Using Field Effect Transistor-Based Biosensor
Biosensors 2023, 13(11), 987; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios13110987 - 17 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1446
Abstract
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is closely related to neurodegeneration, leading to dementia and cognitive impairment, especially in people aged > 65 years old. The detection of biomarkers plays a pivotal role in the diagnosis and treatment of AD, particularly at the onset stage. Field-effect [...] Read more.
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is closely related to neurodegeneration, leading to dementia and cognitive impairment, especially in people aged > 65 years old. The detection of biomarkers plays a pivotal role in the diagnosis and treatment of AD, particularly at the onset stage. Field-effect transistor (FET)-based sensors are emerging devices that have drawn considerable attention due to their crucial ability to recognize various biomarkers at ultra-low concentrations. Thus, FET is broadly manipulated for AD biomarker detection. In this review, an overview of typical FET features and their operational mechanisms is described in detail. In addition, a summary of AD biomarker detection and the applicability of FET biosensors in this research field are outlined and discussed. Furthermore, the trends and future prospects of FET devices in AD diagnostic applications are also discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biosensor Materials)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

13 pages, 6664 KiB  
Article
Fabrication of an Azithromycin Sensor
Biosensors 2023, 13(11), 986; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios13110986 - 16 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1121
Abstract
Azithromycin (AZY) is a well-known top-prioritized antibiotic and is used by humans in strong concentrations. However, the side effects of the AZY antibiotic may cause some serious and significant damage to humans and the environment. Thus, there is a need to develop effective [...] Read more.
Azithromycin (AZY) is a well-known top-prioritized antibiotic and is used by humans in strong concentrations. However, the side effects of the AZY antibiotic may cause some serious and significant damage to humans and the environment. Thus, there is a need to develop effective and sensitive sensors to monitor accurate concentrations of AZY. In the last decade, electrochemistry-based sensors have received enormous attention from the scientific community because of their high sensitivity, selectivity, cost-effectiveness, fast response, rapid detection response, simple fabrication, and working principle. It is important to mention that electrochemical sensors rely on the properties of electrode modifiers. Hence, the selection of electrode materials is of great significance when designing and developing efficient and robust electrochemical sensors. In this study, we fabricated an AZY sensor by utilizing a molybdenum disulfide/titanium aluminum carbide (MoS2@Ti3AlC2) composite as the electrode material. The MoS2@Ti3AlC2 composite was synthesized via a simple sonication process. The synthesized MoS2@Ti3AlC2 composite was characterized using a powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) method to examine the phase purity and formation of the MoS2@Ti3AlC2 composite. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to study the surface morphological features of the prepared MoS2@Ti3AlC2 composite, whereas energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDAX) was adopted to determine the elemental composition of the prepared MoS2@Ti3AlC2 composite. The glassy carbon (GC) electrode was modified with the prepared MoS2@Ti3AlC2 composite and applied as the AZY sensor. The sensing performance of the MoS2@Ti3AlC2 composite-modified GC electrode was studied using linear sweep voltammetry. The sensor demonstrated excellent performance when determining AZY and showed a good detection limit of 0.009 µM with a sensitivity of 6.77 µA/µM.cm2. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

17 pages, 2633 KiB  
Article
Monitoring Changes in Oxygen Muscle during Exercise with High-Flow Nasal Cannula Using Wearable NIRS Biosensors
Biosensors 2023, 13(11), 985; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios13110985 - 13 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1248
Abstract
Exercise increases the cost of breathing (COB) due to increased lung ventilation (V˙E), inducing respiratory muscles deoxygenation (SmO2), while the increase in workload implies SmO2 in locomotor muscles. This phenomenon has been proposed as [...] Read more.
Exercise increases the cost of breathing (COB) due to increased lung ventilation (V˙E), inducing respiratory muscles deoxygenation (SmO2), while the increase in workload implies SmO2 in locomotor muscles. This phenomenon has been proposed as a leading cause of exercise intolerance, especially in clinical contexts. The use of high-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) during exercise routines in rehabilitation programs has gained significant interest because it is proposed as a therapeutic intervention for reducing symptoms associated with exercise intolerance, such as fatigue and dyspnea, assuming that HFNC could reduce exercise-induced SmO2. SmO2 can be detected using optical wearable devices provided by near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) technology, which measures the changes in the amount of oxygen bound to chromophores (e.g., hemoglobin, myoglobin, cytochrome oxidase) at the target tissue level. We tested in a study with a cross-over design whether the muscular desaturation of m.vastus lateralis and m.intercostales during a high-intensity constant-load exercise can be reduced when it was supported with HFNC in non-physically active adults. Eighteen participants (nine women; age: 22 ± 2 years, weight: 65.1 ± 11.2 kg, height: 173.0 ± 5.8 cm, BMI: 21.6 ± 2.8 kg·m−2) were evaluated in a cycle ergometer (15 min, 70% maximum watts achieved in ergospirometry (V˙O2-peak)) breathing spontaneously (control, CTRL) or with HFNC support (HFNC; 50 L·min−1, fiO2: 21%, 30 °C), separated by seven days in randomized order. Two-way ANOVA tests analyzed the SmO2 (m.intercostales and m.vastus lateralis), and changes in V˙E and SmO2·V˙E−1. Dyspnea, leg fatigue, and effort level (RPE) were compared between trials by the Wilcoxon matched-paired signed rank test. We found that the interaction of factors (trial × exercise-time) was significant in SmO2-m.intercostales, V˙E, and (SmO2-m.intercostales)/V˙E (p < 0.05, all) but not in SmO2-m.vastus lateralis. SmO2-m.intercostales was more pronounced in CTRL during exercise since 5′ (p < 0.05). Hyperventilation was higher in CTRL since 10′ (p < 0.05). The SmO2·V˙E−1 decreased during exercise, being lowest in CTRL since 5′. Lower dyspnea was reported in HFNC, with no differences in leg fatigue and RPE. We concluded that wearable optical biosensors documented the beneficial effect of HFNC in COB due to lower respiratory SmO2 induced by exercise. We suggest incorporating NIRS devices in rehabilitation programs to monitor physiological changes that can support the clinical impact of the therapeutic intervention implemented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Wearable Biosensors for Human Health Monitoring)
Show Figures

Figure 1

12 pages, 4804 KiB  
Article
Insights into Chemical Bonds for Eliminating the Depletion Region and Accelerating the Photo-Induced Charge Efficient Separation toward Ultrasensitive Photoelectrochemical Sensing
Biosensors 2023, 13(11), 984; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios13110984 - 13 Nov 2023
Viewed by 998
Abstract
The empty-space-induced depletion region in photoelectrodes severely exacerbates the recombination of electron–hole pairs, thereby reducing the photoelectrochemical (PEC) analytical performance. Herein, the chemical bond that can suppress the potential barrier and overcome the high energy barrier of out-of-plane Ohmic or Schottky contact is [...] Read more.
The empty-space-induced depletion region in photoelectrodes severely exacerbates the recombination of electron–hole pairs, thereby reducing the photoelectrochemical (PEC) analytical performance. Herein, the chemical bond that can suppress the potential barrier and overcome the high energy barrier of out-of-plane Ohmic or Schottky contact is introduced into the PEC sensor to eliminate the depletion region and dramatically promote the separation of electron–hole pairs. Specifically, three-dimensional (3D) hierarchically wheatear-like TiO2 (HWT) nanostructures featuring a large surface area to absorb incident light are crafted as the substrate. The facile carbonized strategy is further employed to engineer the Ti-C chemical bond, serving as the touchstone. The average PL lifetime of HWT-C (4.14 ns) is much shorter than that of the 3D HWT (8.57 ns) due to the promoting effect of the chemically bonded structure on carrier separation. Consequently, the 3D HWT-C covalent photoelectrode (600 μA/cm2) exhibits a 3.6-fold increase in photocurrent density compared with the 3D HWT (167 μA/cm2). Ultimately, the model analyte of the tumor marker is detected, and the linear range is 0.02 ng/mL–100 ng/mL with a detection limitation of 0.007 ng/mL. This work provides a basic understanding of chemical bonds in tuning charge separation and insights on strategies for designing high-performance PEC sensors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Photoelectrochemical Biosensors)
Show Figures

Figure 1

17 pages, 2870 KiB  
Article
Continuous Real-Time Detection of Serotonin Using an Aptamer-Based Electrochemical Biosensor
Biosensors 2023, 13(11), 983; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios13110983 - 13 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1527
Abstract
Serotonin (5-HT) is a critical neurotransmitter involved in many neuronal functions, and 5-HT depletion has been linked to several mental diseases. The fast release and clearance of serotonin in the extracellular space, low analyte concentrations, and a multitude of interfering species make the [...] Read more.
Serotonin (5-HT) is a critical neurotransmitter involved in many neuronal functions, and 5-HT depletion has been linked to several mental diseases. The fast release and clearance of serotonin in the extracellular space, low analyte concentrations, and a multitude of interfering species make the detection of serotonin challenging. This work presents an electrochemical aptamer-based biosensing platform that can monitor 5-HT continuously with high sensitivity and selectivity. Our electrochemical sensor showed a response time of approximately 1 min to a step change in the serotonin concentration in continuous monitoring using a single-frequency EIS (electrochemical impedance spectroscopy) technique. The developed sensing platform was able to detect 5-HT in the range of 25–150 nM in the continuous sample fluid flow with a detection limit (LOD) of 5.6 nM. The electrochemical sensor showed promising selectivity against other species with similar chemical structures and redox potentials, including dopamine (DA), norepinephrine (NE), L-tryptophan (L-TP), 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), and 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP). The proposed sensing platform is able to achieve high selectivity in the nanomolar range continuously in real-time, demonstrating the potential for monitoring serotonin from neurons in organ-on-a-chip or brain-on-a-chip-based platforms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biosensors and Healthcare)
Show Figures

Figure 1

21 pages, 7108 KiB  
Article
Noncontact Cardiac Activity Detection Based on Single-Channel ISM Band FMCW Radar
Biosensors 2023, 13(11), 982; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios13110982 - 12 Nov 2023
Viewed by 958
Abstract
The heart is an important organ that maintains human life activities, and its movement reflects its health status. Utilizing electromagnetic waves as a sensing tool, radar sensors enable noncontact measurement of cardiac motion, offering advantages over conventional contact-based methods in terms of comfort, [...] Read more.
The heart is an important organ that maintains human life activities, and its movement reflects its health status. Utilizing electromagnetic waves as a sensing tool, radar sensors enable noncontact measurement of cardiac motion, offering advantages over conventional contact-based methods in terms of comfort, hygiene, and efficiency. In this study, the high-precision displacement detection algorithm of radar is applied to measure cardiac motion. Experimental is conducted using a single out-channel frequency modulated continuous wave (FMCW) radar operating in the ISM frequency band with a center frequency of 24 GHz and a bandwidth of 150 MHz. Since the detection signal is influenced by both respiratory and heartbeat movements, it is necessary to eliminate the respiratory signal from the measurement signal. Firstly, the harmonic composition of the respiratory signal is analyzed, and a method is proposed to calculate the parameters of the respiratory waveform by comparing the respiratory waveform coverage area with the area of the circumscribed rectangle. This allows for determining the number of respiratory harmonics, assisting in determining whether respiratory harmonics overlap with the frequency range of the heartbeat signal. Subsequently, a more accurate cardiac motion waveform is extracted. A reference basis is provided for extracting cardiac health information from radar measurement waveforms by analyzing the corresponding relationship between certain extreme points of the waveform and characteristic positions of the electrocardiogram (ECG) signal. This is achieved by eliminating the fundamental frequency component of the heartbeat waveform to emphasize other spectral components present in the heartbeat signal and comparing the heartbeat waveform, the heartbeat waveform with the fundamental frequency removed, and the heartbeat velocity waveform with synchronized ECG signals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advance in Wearable Biosensors for Healthcare Monitoring)
Show Figures

Figure 1

17 pages, 2698 KiB  
Article
Biosensors Based on Stanniocalcin-1 Protein Antibodies Thin Films for Prostate Cancer Diagnosis
Biosensors 2023, 13(11), 981; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios13110981 - 10 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1100
Abstract
Prostate cancer is one of the most prevalent tumors in men, accounting for about 7.3% of cancer deaths. Although there are several strategies for diagnosing prostate cancer, these are only accurate when the tumor is already at a very advanced stage, so early [...] Read more.
Prostate cancer is one of the most prevalent tumors in men, accounting for about 7.3% of cancer deaths. Although there are several strategies for diagnosing prostate cancer, these are only accurate when the tumor is already at a very advanced stage, so early diagnosis is essential. Stanniocalcin 1 (STC1) is a secreted glycoprotein, which has been suggested as a tumor marker as its increased expression is associated with the development and/or progression of different types of malignant tumors. In this work, an electronic tongue (ET) prototype, based on a set of four sensors prepared from thin films that included STC1 antibodies for detecting prostate cancer, was developed. In the preparation of the thin films, polyelectrolytes of polyallylamine hydrochloride, polystyrene sulfonate of sodium and polyethyleneimine, and the biomolecules chitosan, protein A, and STC1 antibody were used. These films were deposited on quartz lamellae and on solid supports using layer-on-layer and self-assembly techniques. The deposition of the films was analyzed by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, and the detection of STC1 in aqueous solutions of PBS was analyzed by impedance spectroscopy. The impedance data were statistically analyzed using principal component analysis. The ETs formed by the four sensors and the three best sensors could detect the antigen at concentrations in the range from 5 × 10−11 to 5 × 10−4 M. They showed a linear dependence with the logarithm of the antigen concentration and a sensitivity of 5371 ± 820 and 4863 ± 634 per decade of concentration, respectively. Finally, the results allow us to conclude that this prototype can advance to the calibration phase with patient samples. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Thin Film Sensors for Clinical Diagnosis)
Show Figures

Figure 1

48 pages, 6594 KiB  
Review
Chemical Trends in Sample Preparation for Nucleic Acid Amplification Testing (NAAT): A Review
Biosensors 2023, 13(11), 980; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios13110980 - 10 Nov 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1689
Abstract
Nucleic acid amplification testing facilitates the detection of disease through specific genomic sequences and is attractive for point-of-need testing (PONT); in particular, the early detection of microorganisms can alert early response systems to protect the public and ecosystems from widespread outbreaks of biological [...] Read more.
Nucleic acid amplification testing facilitates the detection of disease through specific genomic sequences and is attractive for point-of-need testing (PONT); in particular, the early detection of microorganisms can alert early response systems to protect the public and ecosystems from widespread outbreaks of biological threats, including infectious diseases. Prior to nucleic acid amplification and detection, extensive sample preparation techniques are required to free nucleic acids and extract them from the sample matrix. Sample preparation is critical to maximize the sensitivity and reliability of testing. As the enzymatic amplification reactions can be sensitive to inhibitors from the sample, as well as from chemicals used for lysis and extraction, avoiding inhibition is a significant challenge, particularly when minimising liquid handling steps is also desirable for the translation of the assay to a portable format for PONT. The reagents used in sample preparation for nucleic acid testing, covering lysis and NA extraction (binding, washing, and elution), are reviewed with a focus on their suitability for use in PONT. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Biosensors in Australia)
Show Figures

Figure 1

15 pages, 4328 KiB  
Article
Collision Enhanced Raman Scattering (CERS): An Ultra-High Efficient Raman Enhancement Technique for Hollow Core Photonic Crystal Fiber Based Raman Spectroscopy Gas Analyzer
Biosensors 2023, 13(11), 979; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios13110979 - 09 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1198
Abstract
Raman enhancement techniques are essential for gas analysis to increase the detection sensitivity of a Raman spectroscopy system. We have developed an efficient Raman enhancement technique called the collision-enhanced Raman scattering (CERS), where the active Raman gas as the analyte is mixed with [...] Read more.
Raman enhancement techniques are essential for gas analysis to increase the detection sensitivity of a Raman spectroscopy system. We have developed an efficient Raman enhancement technique called the collision-enhanced Raman scattering (CERS), where the active Raman gas as the analyte is mixed with a buffer gas inside the hollow-core photonic-crystal fiber (HCPCF) of a fiber-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (FERS) system. This results in an enhanced Raman signal from the analyte gas. In this study, we first showed that the intensity of the 587 cm−1 stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) peak of H2 confined in an HCPCF is enhanced by as much as five orders of magnitude by mixing with a buffer gas such as helium or N2. Secondly, we showed that the magnitudes of Raman enhancement depend on the type of buffer gas, with helium being more efficient compared to N2. This makes helium a favorable buffer gas for CERS. Thirdly, we applied CERS for Raman measurements of propene, a metabolically interesting volatile organic compound (VOC) with an association to lung cancer. CERS resulted in a substantial enhancement of propene Raman peaks. In conclusion, the CERS we developed is a simple and efficient Raman-enhancing mechanism for improving gas analysis. It has great potential for application in breath analysis for lung cancer detection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Progress in Optical Fiber-Based Biosensors)
Show Figures

Figure 1

13 pages, 2844 KiB  
Article
A Hand-Held Platform for Boar Sperm Viability Diagnosis Based on Smartphone
Biosensors 2023, 13(11), 978; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios13110978 - 08 Nov 2023
Viewed by 946
Abstract
The swine fever virus seriously affects pork production, and to improve pork production, pig breeding efficiency needs to be improved, and the detection of boar sperm activity is an important part of the pig breeding process. Traditional laboratory testing methods rely on bulky [...] Read more.
The swine fever virus seriously affects pork production, and to improve pork production, pig breeding efficiency needs to be improved, and the detection of boar sperm activity is an important part of the pig breeding process. Traditional laboratory testing methods rely on bulky testing equipment, such as phase-contrast microscopes, high-speed cameras, and computers, which limit the testing scenarios. To solve the above problems, in this paper, a microfluidic chip was designed to simulate sperm in the oviduct with a channel thickness of 20 um, which can only accommodate sperm for two-dimensional movement. A miniature microscope system which can be used in combination with a smartphone is designed that is only the size of the palm of the hand and has a magnification of about 38 times. An intelligent diagnostic app was developed using Java language, which can automatically identify and track boar sperm with a recognition rate of 96.08% and an average tracking rate of 86%. The results show that the proposed smartphone-based hand-held platform can effectively replace the traditional microscope compound computer to diagnose sperm activity. In contrast, the platform is smaller, easier to use and is not limited by the usage scenarios. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Development of Point-of-Care Diagnostic Tools and New Bioassays)
Show Figures

Figure 1

34 pages, 7564 KiB  
Review
Plasmonic Nanoparticle-Enhanced Optical Techniques for Cancer Biomarker Sensing
Biosensors 2023, 13(11), 977; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios13110977 - 08 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1584
Abstract
This review summarizes recent advances in leveraging localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) nanotechnology for sensitive cancer biomarker detection. LSPR arising from noble metal nanoparticles under light excitation enables the enhancement of various optical techniques, including surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS), dark-field microscopy (DFM), photothermal [...] Read more.
This review summarizes recent advances in leveraging localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) nanotechnology for sensitive cancer biomarker detection. LSPR arising from noble metal nanoparticles under light excitation enables the enhancement of various optical techniques, including surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS), dark-field microscopy (DFM), photothermal imaging, and photoacoustic imaging. Nanoparticle engineering strategies are discussed to optimize LSPR for maximum signal amplification. SERS utilizes electromagnetic enhancement from plasmonic nanostructures to boost inherently weak Raman signals, enabling single-molecule sensitivity for detecting proteins, nucleic acids, and exosomes. DFM visualizes LSPR nanoparticles based on scattered light color, allowing for the ultrasensitive detection of cancer cells, microRNAs, and proteins. Photothermal imaging employs LSPR nanoparticles as contrast agents that convert light to heat, producing thermal images that highlight cancerous tissues. Photoacoustic imaging detects ultrasonic waves generated by LSPR nanoparticle photothermal expansion for deep-tissue imaging. The multiplexing capabilities of LSPR techniques and integration with microfluidics and point-of-care devices are reviewed. Remaining challenges, such as toxicity, standardization, and clinical sample analysis, are examined. Overall, LSPR nanotechnology shows tremendous potential for advancing cancer screening, diagnosis, and treatment monitoring through the integration of nanoparticle engineering, optical techniques, and microscale device platforms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue High Performance Integrated Biosensors Based on SERS)
Show Figures

Figure 1

48 pages, 26051 KiB  
Review
Organic Electronics in Biosensing: A Promising Frontier for Medical and Environmental Applications
Biosensors 2023, 13(11), 976; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios13110976 - 07 Nov 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2500
Abstract
The promising field of organic electronics has ushered in a new era of biosensing technology, thus offering a promising frontier for applications in both medical diagnostics and environmental monitoring. This review paper provides a comprehensive overview of organic electronics’ remarkable progress and potential [...] Read more.
The promising field of organic electronics has ushered in a new era of biosensing technology, thus offering a promising frontier for applications in both medical diagnostics and environmental monitoring. This review paper provides a comprehensive overview of organic electronics’ remarkable progress and potential in biosensing applications. It explores the multifaceted aspects of organic materials and devices, thereby highlighting their unique advantages, such as flexibility, biocompatibility, and low-cost fabrication. The paper delves into the diverse range of biosensors enabled by organic electronics, including electrochemical, optical, piezoelectric, and thermal sensors, thus showcasing their versatility in detecting biomolecules, pathogens, and environmental pollutants. Furthermore, integrating organic biosensors into wearable devices and the Internet of Things (IoT) ecosystem is discussed, wherein they offer real-time, remote, and personalized monitoring solutions. The review also addresses the current challenges and future prospects of organic biosensing, thus emphasizing the potential for breakthroughs in personalized medicine, environmental sustainability, and the advancement of human health and well-being. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

12 pages, 2707 KiB  
Article
MiRNA-Responsive CRISPR-Cas System via a DNA Regulator
Biosensors 2023, 13(11), 975; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios13110975 - 07 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1184
Abstract
Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)- CRISPR-associated protein 9 (Cas9) genome editing technology is widely used for gene editing because it provides versatility in genetic manipulation. Several methods for regulating CRISPR activity already exist for accurate editing, but these require complex engineering. [...] Read more.
Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)- CRISPR-associated protein 9 (Cas9) genome editing technology is widely used for gene editing because it provides versatility in genetic manipulation. Several methods for regulating CRISPR activity already exist for accurate editing, but these require complex engineering. Thus, a simple and convenient regulatory system is required. In this study, we devised a CRISPR activation system using a DNA regulator that can be activated by miRNAs. The designed regulator was divided into two parts. The inhibition component consisted of the protospacer-adjacent motif (PAM) and seed sequence, which are important for Cas9 target recognition and bind to the ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complex for inhibition. The miRNA recognition component has a single-stranded toehold DNA for target miRNA binding and a partial double-stranded DNA complementary to the remaining miRNA sequence. In the presence of target miRNAs, the structure of the regulator is disrupted by the miRNAs, leading to its dissociation from the RNP complex and subsequent restoration of CRISPR activity. This method is easy to design and can be applied to various miRNAs via simple sequence manipulation. Therefore, this strategy provides a general platform for controlled genome editing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Activatable Probes for Biosensing, Imaging, and Photomedicine)
Show Figures

Figure 1

15 pages, 3216 KiB  
Article
A Novel Combination Therapy Tβ4/VIP Protects against Hyperglycemia-Induced Changes in Human Corneal Epithelial Cells
Biosensors 2023, 13(11), 974; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios13110974 - 07 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1087
Abstract
Despite the prevalence of diabetic retinopathy, the majority of adult diabetic patients develop visually debilitating corneal complications, including impaired wound healing. Unfortunately, there is limited treatment for diabetes-induced corneal damage. The current project investigates a novel, peptide-based combination therapy, thymosin beta-4 and vasoactive [...] Read more.
Despite the prevalence of diabetic retinopathy, the majority of adult diabetic patients develop visually debilitating corneal complications, including impaired wound healing. Unfortunately, there is limited treatment for diabetes-induced corneal damage. The current project investigates a novel, peptide-based combination therapy, thymosin beta-4 and vasoactive intestinal peptide (Tβ4/VIP), against high-glucose-induced damage to the corneal epithelium. Electric cell–substrate impedance sensing (ECIS) was used for real-time monitoring of barrier function and wound healing of human corneal epithelial cells maintained in either normal glucose (5 mM) or high glucose (25 mM) ± Tβ4 (0.1%) and VIP (5 nM). Barrier integrity was assessed by resistance, impedance, and capacitance measurements. For the wound healing assay, cell migration was also monitored. Corneal epithelial tight junction proteins (ZO-1, ZO-2, occludin, and claudin-1) were assessed to confirm our findings. Barrier integrity and wound healing were significantly impaired under high-glucose conditions. However, barrier function and cell migration significantly improved with Tβ4/VIP treatment. These findings were supported by high-glucose-induced downregulation of tight junction proteins that were effectively maintained similar to normal levels when treated with Tβ4/VIP. These results strongly support the premise that Tβ4 and VIP work synergistically to protect corneal epithelial cells against hyperglycemia-induced damage. In addition, this work highlights the potential for significant translational impact regarding the treatment of diabetic patients and associated complications of the cornea. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biosensors and Healthcare)
Show Figures

Figure 1

15 pages, 5678 KiB  
Article
Optical Diffraction Tomography and Raman Confocal Microscopy for the Investigation of Vacuoles Associated with Cancer Senescent Engulfing Cells
Biosensors 2023, 13(11), 973; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios13110973 - 07 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1443
Abstract
Wild-type p53 cancer therapy-induced senescent cells frequently engulf and degrade neighboring ones inside a massive vacuole in their cytoplasm. After clearance of the internalized cell, the vacuole persists, seemingly empty, for several hours. Despite large vacuoles being associated with cell death, this process [...] Read more.
Wild-type p53 cancer therapy-induced senescent cells frequently engulf and degrade neighboring ones inside a massive vacuole in their cytoplasm. After clearance of the internalized cell, the vacuole persists, seemingly empty, for several hours. Despite large vacuoles being associated with cell death, this process is known to confer a survival advantage to cancer engulfing cells, leading to therapy resistance and tumor relapse. Previous attempts to resolve the vacuolar structure and visualize their content using dyes were unsatisfying for lack of known targets and ineffective dye penetration and/or retention. Here, we overcame this problem by applying optical diffraction tomography and Raman spectroscopy to MCF7 doxorubicin-induced engulfing cells. We demonstrated a real ability of cell tomography and Raman to phenotype complex microstructures, such as cell-in-cells and vacuoles, and detect chemical species in extremely low concentrations within live cells in a completely label-free fashion. We show that vacuoles had a density indistinguishable to the medium, but were not empty, instead contained diluted cell-derived macromolecules, and we could discern vacuoles from medium and cells using their Raman fingerprint. Our approach is useful for the noninvasive investigation of senescent engulfing (and other peculiar) cells in unperturbed conditions, crucial for a better understanding of complex biological processes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Trends in Optical Biosensing and Bioimaging)
Show Figures

Figure 1

12 pages, 1584 KiB  
Article
Development of a Screening Method for Fluoroquinolones in Meat Samples Using Molecularly Imprinted Carbon Dots
Biosensors 2023, 13(11), 972; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios13110972 - 07 Nov 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1246
Abstract
An accurate and simple screening method has been developed for the determination of fluoroquinolone antibiotics. Carbon dots were synthesized by simple hydrothermal treatment as highly fluorescent nano-sensors. They were subsequently used in the synthesis of organic-based molecularly imprinted polymers to develop fluorescence-based polymeric [...] Read more.
An accurate and simple screening method has been developed for the determination of fluoroquinolone antibiotics. Carbon dots were synthesized by simple hydrothermal treatment as highly fluorescent nano-sensors. They were subsequently used in the synthesis of organic-based molecularly imprinted polymers to develop fluorescence-based polymeric composites using enoxacin as a representative dummy template molecule of fluoroquinolones. The method was optimized concerning the pH of the medium and composite concentration. The normalized fluorescence intensity showed efficient quenching under optimized conditions upon successive addition of the template, with an excellent correlation coefficient. The proposed method was applied to eight other fluoroquinolones, exhibiting, in all cases, good correlation coefficients (0.65–0.992) within the same linearity range (0.03–2.60 mg mL−1). Excellent detection and quantification limits were been obtained for the target analytes down to 0.062 and 0.186 mg L−1, respectively. All studied analytes showed no interference with enrofloxacin, the most commonly used veterinary fluoroquinolone, with a percentage of cross-reactivity varying from 89.00 to 540.00%. This method was applied successfully for the determination of enrofloxacin in three different types of meat samples: beef, pork, and chicken, with good recoveries varying from 70 to 100% at three levels. This new procedure is an easy analytical method that can be useful as a screening method for monitoring the environmental hazard of fluoroquinolones in quality control laboratories. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of Biosensors in Food Safety Analysis)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

14 pages, 7435 KiB  
Article
A Backing-Layer-Shared Miniature Dual-Frequency Ultrasound Probe for Intravascular Ultrasound Imaging: In Vitro and Ex Vivo Validations
Biosensors 2023, 13(11), 971; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios13110971 - 06 Nov 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1140
Abstract
Intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) imaging has been extensively utilized to visualize atherosclerotic coronary artery diseases and to guide coronary interventions. To receive ultrasound signals within the vessel wall safely and effectively, miniaturized ultrasound transducers that meet the strict size constraints and have a simple [...] Read more.
Intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) imaging has been extensively utilized to visualize atherosclerotic coronary artery diseases and to guide coronary interventions. To receive ultrasound signals within the vessel wall safely and effectively, miniaturized ultrasound transducers that meet the strict size constraints and have a simple manufacturing procedure are highly demanded. In this work, the first known IVUS probe that employs a backing-layer-shared dual-frequency structure and a single coaxial cable is introduced, featuring a small thickness and easy interconnection procedure. The dual-frequency transducer is designed to have center frequencies of 30 MHz and 80 MHz, and both have an aperture size of 0.5 mm × 0.5 mm. The total thickness of the dual-frequency transducer is less than 700 µm. In vitro phantom imaging and ex vivo porcine coronary artery imaging experiments are conducted. The low-frequency transducer achieves spatial resolutions of 40 µm axially and 321 µm laterally, while the high-frequency transducer exhibits axial and lateral resolutions of 17 µm and 247 µm, respectively. A bandpass filter is utilized to separate the ultrasound images. Combining in vitro phantom imaging analysis with ex vivo imaging validation, a comprehensive demonstration of the promising application of the proposed miniature ultrasound probe is established. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

12 pages, 3133 KiB  
Communication
Capacitance Contribution of NIH/3T3 Cells Existing on and between Electrodes of an Impedance Biosensor
Biosensors 2023, 13(11), 970; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios13110970 - 06 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1073
Abstract
In this study, an impedance biosensor capable of real-time monitoring of the growth and drug reactions using NIH/3T3 cells was fabricated through a semiconductor process. With the fabricated impedance biosensor, the cell growth and drug reaction states are monitored in real-time, showing the [...] Read more.
In this study, an impedance biosensor capable of real-time monitoring of the growth and drug reactions using NIH/3T3 cells was fabricated through a semiconductor process. With the fabricated impedance biosensor, the cell growth and drug reaction states are monitored in real-time, showing the validness of the developed biosensor. By using the developed impedance biosensor, we have investigated the capacitance contribution of NIH/3T3 cells existing on electrodes and between electrodes. To compare the capacitance value contributions of the cells on and between electrodes, wide- and narrow-gap electrode patterns are manufactured with 3.7 and 0.3 mm electrode gap spacings, respectively. From the detailed analysis, the capacitance contributions of NIH/3T3 cells existing on electrodes are estimated around less than 20 percent compared to the cells existing between electrodes. In other words, a minimized electrode area with maximized electrode spacing is the promising impedance biosensor design guide for accurate cell capacitance measurements. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cell-Based Biosensors for Rapid Detection and Monitoring)
Show Figures

Figure 1

4 pages, 171 KiB  
Editorial
Nanometre-Scale Biosensors Revolutionizing Applications in Biomedical and Environmental Research
Biosensors 2023, 13(11), 969; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios13110969 - 06 Nov 2023
Viewed by 929
Abstract
Driven by the convergence of nanotechnology, biotechnology, and materials science, the field of biosensors has witnessed remarkable advancements in recent years [...] Full article
13 pages, 6219 KiB  
Article
The Amplified DNA Logic Gates Based on Aptamer–Receptor Recognition for Cell Detection and Bioimaging
Biosensors 2023, 13(11), 968; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios13110968 - 06 Nov 2023
Viewed by 936
Abstract
A powerful and accurate method for identifying and isolating cells would be of great importance due to its sensitivity, gentleness and effectiveness. Here, we designed a receptor-based DNA logic device that allows Boolean logic analysis of multiple cells. For ease of expression, the [...] Read more.
A powerful and accurate method for identifying and isolating cells would be of great importance due to its sensitivity, gentleness and effectiveness. Here, we designed a receptor-based DNA logic device that allows Boolean logic analysis of multiple cells. For ease of expression, the molecules on the cell surface that can bind to the aptamer are referred to as “receptors”. This DNA logic device sends signals based on cell surface sgc8c and sgc4f receptor expression by performing NOT, NOR, AND and OR logic operations, and amplifies and evaluates the signals using HCR. Meanwhile, the release of ICG from the endopore of HMSNs is controlled by affecting structural changes in the DNA logic device. This approach can accurately identify and treat multiple cells on demand based on the presence or absence of cell-specific receptors, facilitating the development of personalized medicine. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biosensors and Healthcare)
Show Figures

Figure 1

14 pages, 6338 KiB  
Article
MoS2/S@g-CN Composite Electrode for L-Tryptophan Sensing
Biosensors 2023, 13(11), 967; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios13110967 - 02 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1105
Abstract
L-tryptophan (L-TRP) is an essential amino acid responsible for the establishment and maintenance of a positive nitrogen equilibrium in the nutrition of human beings. Therefore, it is vital to quantify the amount of L-tryptophan in our body. Herein, we report the MoS2 [...] Read more.
L-tryptophan (L-TRP) is an essential amino acid responsible for the establishment and maintenance of a positive nitrogen equilibrium in the nutrition of human beings. Therefore, it is vital to quantify the amount of L-tryptophan in our body. Herein, we report the MoS2/S@g-CN-modified glassy carbon electrode for the electrochemical detection of L-tryptophan (L-TRP). The MoS2/S@g-CN composite was successfully synthesized using an efficient and cost-effective hydrothermal method. The physical and chemical properties of the synthesized composite were analyzed using powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX). The crystallite size of the composite was calculated as 39.4 nm, with porous balls of MoS2 decorated over the S@g-CN surface. The XPS spectrum confirmed the presence of Mo, S, O, C, and N elements in the sample. The synthesized nanocomposite was further used to modify the glassy carbon (GC) electrode (MoS2/S@g-CN/GC). This MoS2/S@g-CN/GC was used for the electrochemical detection of L-TRP using cyclic voltammetry (CV) and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) techniques. For the purpose of comparison, the effects of the scanning rate and the concentration of L-TRP on the current response for the bare GC, S@g-CN/GC, MoS2/GC, and MoS2/S@g-CN/GC were studied in detail. The MoS2/S@g-CN-modified GC electrode exhibited a rational limit of detection (LoD) of 0.03 µM and a sensitivity of 1.74 µA/ µMcm2, with excellent stability, efficient repeatability, and high selectivity for L-TRP detection. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

2 pages, 153 KiB  
Editorial
Nano-Biosensors for Detection and Monitoring (Volume 1)
Biosensors 2023, 13(11), 966; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios13110966 - 01 Nov 2023
Viewed by 898
Abstract
Nano-biosensing technology is a continuously evolving and expanding field with applications concerning biological substances and sensing platforms, which include the detection of chemical, biological, and environmental elements and welfare [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nano-Biosensors for Detection and Monitoring)
19 pages, 16164 KiB  
Article
Quantitative Galactose Colorimetric Competitive Assay Based on Galactose Dehydrogenase and Plasmonic Gold Nanostars
Biosensors 2023, 13(11), 965; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios13110965 - 01 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1292
Abstract
We describe a competitive colorimetric assay that enables rapid and sensitive detection of galactose and reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) via colorimetric readouts and demonstrate its usefulness for monitoring NAD+-driven enzymatic reactions. We present a sensitive plasmonic sensing approach for assessing galactose concentration [...] Read more.
We describe a competitive colorimetric assay that enables rapid and sensitive detection of galactose and reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) via colorimetric readouts and demonstrate its usefulness for monitoring NAD+-driven enzymatic reactions. We present a sensitive plasmonic sensing approach for assessing galactose concentration and the presence of NADH using galactose dehydrogenase-immobilized gold nanostars (AuNS-PVP-GalDH). The AuNS-PVP-GalDH assay remains turquoise blue in the absence of galactose and NADH; however, as galactose and NADH concentrations grow, the reaction well color changes to a characteristic red color in the presence of an alkaline environment and a metal ion catalyst (detection solution). As a result, when galactose is sensed in the presence of H2O2, the colored response of the AuNS-PVP-GalDH assay transforms from turquoise blue to light pink, and then to wine red in a concentration-dependent manner discernible to the human eye. This competitive AuNS-PVP-GalDH assay could be a viable analytical tool for rapid and convenient galactose quantification in resource-limited areas. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of Nanomaterials for Biosensors)
Show Figures

Figure 1

6 pages, 232 KiB  
Editorial
Frontiers of Wearable Biosensors for Human Health Monitoring
Biosensors 2023, 13(11), 964; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios13110964 - 31 Oct 2023
Viewed by 1161
Abstract
Wearable biosensors offer noninvasive, real-time, and continuous monitoring of diverse human health data, making them invaluable for remote patient tracking, early diagnosis, and personalized medicine [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Frontiers of Wearable Biosensors for Human Health Monitoring)
11 pages, 2134 KiB  
Article
CRISPR/Cas12a Collateral Cleavage Activity for Sensitive 3′–5′ Exonuclease Assay
Biosensors 2023, 13(11), 963; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios13110963 - 30 Oct 2023
Viewed by 1194
Abstract
This study presents a technique for detecting 3′–5′ exonuclease activity through the use of CRISPR/Cas12a. These enzymes, including 3′–5′ exonuclease (Exo III), perform crucial roles in various cellular processes and are associated with life expectancy. However, imbalances in their expression can increase susceptibility [...] Read more.
This study presents a technique for detecting 3′–5′ exonuclease activity through the use of CRISPR/Cas12a. These enzymes, including 3′–5′ exonuclease (Exo III), perform crucial roles in various cellular processes and are associated with life expectancy. However, imbalances in their expression can increase susceptibility to diseases such as cancer, particularly under prolonged stress. In this study, an activator sequence of CRISPR/Cas12a was constructed on the 5′–end of a hairpin probe (HP), forming a blunt end. When the 3′–end of the HP was hydrolyzed with Exo III activity, the activator sequence of Cas12a was exposed, which led to collateral cleavage of the DNA signal probe and generated a fluorescent signal, allowing sensitive and highly specific Exo III detection. This detection principle relied on the fact that Exo III exclusively cleaves the 3′–end mononucleotide of dsDNA and does not affect ssDNA. Based on this strategy, Exo III activity was successfully assayed at 0.0073 U/mL, demonstrating high sensitivity. In addition, this technique was used to screen candidate inhibitors of Exo III activity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue CRISPR/Cas-Based Biosensing Systems: Development and Applications)
Show Figures

Figure 1

14 pages, 4871 KiB  
Article
Gold Nanorod Density-Dependent Label-Free Bacteria Sensing on a Flake-like 3D Graphene-Based Device by SERS
Biosensors 2023, 13(11), 962; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios13110962 - 30 Oct 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1943
Abstract
Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) is an effective technique for biosensing, enabling label-free detection of biomolecules with enhanced sensitivity. There is a tremendous probability of signal failure in Raman frequencies because of the scattering of the Raman radiation in liquids, effective SERS improvement is [...] Read more.
Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) is an effective technique for biosensing, enabling label-free detection of biomolecules with enhanced sensitivity. There is a tremendous probability of signal failure in Raman frequencies because of the scattering of the Raman radiation in liquids, effective SERS improvement is required to reduce this issue when considering liquid specimens. We examined a liquid bacterial sample, investigating the electrostatic interactions of the bacterial samples with gold nanorods (AuNRs) and graphene. We established a voltage-gated 3D graphene functionalized with an AuNR-based device on the silicon substrate for SERS measurements when the applied voltage ranges from 0 to 3 V. Moreover, AuNRs density-susceptible bacterial sample analysis with varied concentrations of bacterial samples has also been described. Using bacterial SERS analysis, the bacterial components amide II (1555–1565 cm−1) and amide III (1250–1350 cm−1) have been discovered for both bacteria, Gram-positive, Listeria monocytogenes and Gram-negative, Salmonella typhi. Our fabricated device affords an interesting label-free, rapid, and reproducible bacterial sample analysis based on the density of the AuNRs when functionalizing flake-like 3D graphene, which can help facilitate label-free bacteria sensing platforms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Optical Biosensors: Advances and New Perspectives)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Previous Issue
Next Issue
Back to TopTop