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Nanomaterials, Volume 14, Issue 4 (February-2 2024) – 67 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): We showed that the physical features of substrates that resemble the extracellular matrix in vivo influence cell behavior. Lung fibroblasts and epithelial cells were cultured on soft polyurethane membranes with different alignments. No cytotoxicity was observed in the cells cultured on both aligned and non-aligned membranes; however, their cytokine release was increased compared to that of cells grown on stiff plastic. Also, the uptake of silica nanoparticles increased more than three-fold in the fibroblasts but not in the epithelial cells. We demonstrated that cell–matrix interaction is substrate- and cell-type-dependent and that the extracellular matrix’s mechanical properties must be considered for effective cell targeting and nanoparticle delivery. View this paper
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38 pages, 8872 KiB  
Review
Powders of Diamond Nanoparticles as a Promising Material for Reflectors of Very Cold and Cold Neutrons
by Egor Lychagin, Marc Dubois and Valery Nesvizhevsky
Nanomaterials 2024, 14(4), 387; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano14040387 - 19 Feb 2024
Viewed by 733
Abstract
More than 15 years ago, the study of nanodiamond (ND) powders as a material for designing reflectors of very cold neutrons (VCNs) and cold neutrons (CNs) began. Such reflectors can significantly increase the efficiency of using such neutrons and expand the scope of [...] Read more.
More than 15 years ago, the study of nanodiamond (ND) powders as a material for designing reflectors of very cold neutrons (VCNs) and cold neutrons (CNs) began. Such reflectors can significantly increase the efficiency of using such neutrons and expand the scope of their application for solving applied and fundamental problems. This review considers the principle of operation of VCN and CN reflectors based on ND powders and their advantages. Information is presented on the performed experimental and theoretical studies of the effect of the size, structure, and composition of NDs on the efficiency of reflectors. Methods of chemical and mechanical treatments of powders in order to modify their chemical composition and structure are discussed. The aim is to avoid, or at least to decrease, the neutron inelastic scatterers and absorbers (mainly hydrogen atoms but also metallic impurities and nitrogen) as well as to enhance coherent elastic scattering (to destroy ND clusters and sp2 carbon shells on the ND surface that result from the preparation of NDs). Issues requiring further study are identified. They include deeper purification of NDs from impurities that can be activated in high radiation fluxes, the stability of NDs in high radiation fluxes, and upscaling methods for producing larger quantities of ND powders. Possible ways of solving these problems are proposed. Full article
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36 pages, 10668 KiB  
Review
Contacts at the Nanoscale and for Nanomaterials
by Hei Wong, Jieqiong Zhang and Jun Liu
Nanomaterials 2024, 14(4), 386; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano14040386 - 19 Feb 2024
Viewed by 874
Abstract
Contact scaling is a major challenge in nano complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor (CMOS) technology, as the surface roughness, contact size, film thicknesses, and undoped substrate become more problematic as the technology shrinks to the nanometer range. These factors increase the contact resistance and the nonlinearity [...] Read more.
Contact scaling is a major challenge in nano complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor (CMOS) technology, as the surface roughness, contact size, film thicknesses, and undoped substrate become more problematic as the technology shrinks to the nanometer range. These factors increase the contact resistance and the nonlinearity of the current–voltage characteristics, which could limit the benefits of the further downsizing of CMOS devices. This review discusses issues related to the contact size reduction of nano CMOS technology and the validity of the Schottky junction model at the nanoscale. The difficulties, such as the limited doping level and choices of metal for band alignment, Fermi-level pinning, and van der Waals gap, in achieving transparent ohmic contacts with emerging two-dimensional materials are also examined. Finally, various methods for improving ohmic contacts’ characteristics, such as two-dimensional/metal van der Waals contacts and hybrid contacts, junction doping technology, phase and bandgap modification effects, buffer layers, are highlighted. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Abridging the CMOS Technology II)
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12 pages, 4375 KiB  
Article
Porous Carbon Interlayer Derived from Traditional Korean Paper for Li–S Batteries
by Yunju Choi, Hyungil Jang, Jong-Pil Kim, Jaeyeong Lee, Euh Duck Jeong, Jong-Seong Bae and Heon-Cheol Shin
Nanomaterials 2024, 14(4), 385; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano14040385 - 19 Feb 2024
Viewed by 822
Abstract
A carbonized interlayer effectively helps to improve the electrochemical performance of lithium–sulfur (Li–S) batteries. In this study, a simple and inexpensive carbon intermediate layer was fabricated using a traditional Korean paper called “hanji”. This carbon interlayer has a fibrous porous structure, with a [...] Read more.
A carbonized interlayer effectively helps to improve the electrochemical performance of lithium–sulfur (Li–S) batteries. In this study, a simple and inexpensive carbon intermediate layer was fabricated using a traditional Korean paper called “hanji”. This carbon interlayer has a fibrous porous structure, with a specific surface area of 91.82 m2 g−1 and a BJH adsorption average pore diameter of 26.63 nm. The prepared carbon interlayer was utilized as an intermediary layer in Li–S batteries to decrease the charge-transfer resistance and capture dissolved lithium polysulfides. The porous fiber-shaped carbon interlayer suppressed the migration of polysulfides produced during the electrochemical process. The carbon interlayer facilitates the adsorption of soluble lithium polysulfides, allowing for their re-utilization in subsequent cycles. Additionally, the carbon interlayer significantly reduces the polarization of the cell. This simple strategy results in a significant improvement in cycle performance. Consequently, the discharge capacity at 0.5 C after 150 cycles was confirmed to have improved by more than twofold, reaching 230 mAh g−1 for cells without the interlayer and 583 mAh g−1 for cells with the interlayer. This study demonstrates a simple method for improving the capacity of Li–S batteries by integrating a functional carbon interlayer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomaterials for Lithium-Sulfur Batteries)
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14 pages, 5956 KiB  
Article
Cement/Sulfur for Lithium–Sulfur Cells
by Tzu-Ming Hung, Cheng-Che Wu, Chung-Chan Hung and Sheng-Heng Chung
Nanomaterials 2024, 14(4), 384; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano14040384 - 19 Feb 2024
Viewed by 853
Abstract
Lithium–sulfur batteries represent a promising class of next-generation rechargeable energy storage technologies, primarily because of their high-capacity sulfur cathode, reversible battery chemistry, low toxicity, and cost-effectiveness. However, they lack a tailored cell material and configuration for enhancing their high electrochemical utilization and stability. [...] Read more.
Lithium–sulfur batteries represent a promising class of next-generation rechargeable energy storage technologies, primarily because of their high-capacity sulfur cathode, reversible battery chemistry, low toxicity, and cost-effectiveness. However, they lack a tailored cell material and configuration for enhancing their high electrochemical utilization and stability. This study introduces a cross-disciplinary concept involving cost-efficient cement and sulfur to prepare a cement/sulfur energy storage material. Although cement has low conductivity and porosity, our findings demonstrate that its robust polysulfide adsorption capability is beneficial in the design of a cathode composite. The cathode composite attains enhanced cell fabrication parameters, featuring a high sulfur content and loading of 80 wt% and 6.4 mg cm−2, respectively. The resulting cell with the cement/sulfur cathode composite exhibits high active-material retention and utilization, resulting in a high charge storage capacity of 1189 mA∙h g−1, high rate performance across C/20 to C/3 rates, and an extended lifespan of 200 cycles. These attributes contribute to excellent cell performance values, demonstrating areal capacities ranging from 4.59 to 7.61 mA∙h cm−2, an energy density spanning 9.63 to 15.98 mW∙h cm−2, and gravimetric capacities between 573 and 951 mA∙h g−1 per electrode. Therefore, this study pioneers a new approach in lithium–sulfur battery research, opting for a nonporous material with robust polysulfide adsorption capabilities, namely cement. It effectively showcases the potential of the resulting cement/sulfur cathode composite to enhance fabrication feasibility, cell fabrication parameters, and cell performance values. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Energy and Catalysis)
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12 pages, 3715 KiB  
Article
Terahertz Detection by Asymmetric Dual Grating Gate Bilayer Graphene FETs with Integrated Bowtie Antenna
by E. Abidi, A. Khan, J. A. Delgado-Notario, V. Clericó, J. Calvo-Gallego, T. Taniguchi, K. Watanabe, T. Otsuji, J. E. Velázquez and Y. M. Meziani
Nanomaterials 2024, 14(4), 383; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano14040383 - 19 Feb 2024
Viewed by 957
Abstract
An asymmetric dual-grating gate bilayer graphene-based field effect transistor (ADGG-GFET) with an integrated bowtie antenna was fabricated and its response as a Terahertz (THz) detector was experimentally investigated. The device was cooled down to 4.5 K, and excited at different frequencies (0.15, 0.3 [...] Read more.
An asymmetric dual-grating gate bilayer graphene-based field effect transistor (ADGG-GFET) with an integrated bowtie antenna was fabricated and its response as a Terahertz (THz) detector was experimentally investigated. The device was cooled down to 4.5 K, and excited at different frequencies (0.15, 0.3 and 0.6 THz) using a THz solid-state source. The integration of the bowtie antenna allowed to obtain a substantial increase in the photocurrent response (up to 8 nA) of the device at the three studied frequencies as compared to similar transistors lacking the integrated antenna (1 nA). The photocurrent increase was observed for all the studied values of the bias voltage applied to both the top and back gates. Besides the action of the antenna that helps the coupling of THz radiation to the transistor channel, the observed enhancement by nearly one order of magnitude of the photoresponse is also related to the modulation of the hole and electron concentration profiles inside the transistor channel by the bias voltages imposed to the top and back gates. The creation of local n and p regions leads to the formation of homojuctions (np, pn or pp+) along the channel that strongly affects the overall photoresponse of the detector. Additionally, the bias of both back and top gates could induce an opening of the gap of the bilayer graphene channel that would also contribute to the photocurrent. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Abridging the CMOS Technology II)
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10 pages, 3674 KiB  
Article
Enhancement of Carrier Mobility in Multilayer InSe Transistors by van der Waals Integration
by Zhiwei Li, Jidong Liu, Haohui Ou, Yutao Hu, Jiaqi Zhu, Jiarui Huang, Haolin Liu, Yudi Tu, Dianyu Qi, Qiaoyan Hao and Wenjing Zhang
Nanomaterials 2024, 14(4), 382; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano14040382 - 19 Feb 2024
Viewed by 888
Abstract
Two-dimensional material indium selenide (InSe) holds great promise for applications in electronics and optoelectronics by virtue of its fascinating properties. However, most multilayer InSe-based transistors suffer from extrinsic scattering effects from interface disorders and the environment, which cause carrier mobility and density fluctuations [...] Read more.
Two-dimensional material indium selenide (InSe) holds great promise for applications in electronics and optoelectronics by virtue of its fascinating properties. However, most multilayer InSe-based transistors suffer from extrinsic scattering effects from interface disorders and the environment, which cause carrier mobility and density fluctuations and hinder their practical application. In this work, we employ the non-destructive method of van der Waals (vdW) integration to improve the electron mobility of back-gated multilayer InSe FETs. After introducing the hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) as both an encapsulation layer and back-gate dielectric with the vdW interface, as well as graphene serving as a buffer contact layer, the electron mobilities of InSe FETs are substantially enhanced. The vdW-integrated devices exhibit a high electron mobility exceeding 103 cm2 V−1 s−1 and current on/off ratios of ~108 at room temperature. Meanwhile, the electron densities are found to exceed 1012 cm−2. In addition, the fabricated devices show an excellent stability with a negligible electrical degradation after storage in ambient conditions for one month. Electrical transport measurements on InSe FETs in different configurations suggest that a performance enhancement with vdW integration should arise from a sufficient screening effect on the interface impurities and an effective passivation of the air-sensitive surface. Full article
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14 pages, 3325 KiB  
Article
Interfacial Resistive Switching of Niobium–Titanium Anodic Memristors with Self-Rectifying Capabilities
by Dominik Knapic, Alexey Minenkov, Elena Atanasova, Ivana Zrinski, Achim Walter Hassel and Andrei Ionut Mardare
Nanomaterials 2024, 14(4), 381; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano14040381 - 19 Feb 2024
Viewed by 827
Abstract
A broad compositional range of Nb-Ti anodic memristors with volatile and self-rectifying behaviour was studied using a combinatorial screening approach. A Nb-Ti thin-film combinatorial library was co-deposited by sputtering, serving as the bottom electrode for the memristive devices. The library, with a compositional [...] Read more.
A broad compositional range of Nb-Ti anodic memristors with volatile and self-rectifying behaviour was studied using a combinatorial screening approach. A Nb-Ti thin-film combinatorial library was co-deposited by sputtering, serving as the bottom electrode for the memristive devices. The library, with a compositional spread ranging between 22 and 64 at.% Ti was anodically oxidised, the mixed oxide being the active layer in MIM-type structures completed by Pt discreet top electrode patterning. By studying I–U sweeps, memristors with self-rectifying and volatile behaviour were identified. Moreover, all the analysed memristors demonstrated multilevel properties. The best-performing memristors showed HRS/LRS (high resistive state/low resistive state) ratios between 4 and 6 × 105 and very good retention up to 106 successive readings. The anodic memristors grown along the compositional spread showed very good endurance up to 106 switching cycles, excluding those grown from alloys containing between 31 and 39 at.% Ti, which withstood only 10 switching cycles. Taking into consideration all the parameters studied, the Nb-46 at.% Ti composition was screened as the parent metal alloy composition, leading to the best-performing anodic memristor in this alloy system. The results obtained suggest that memristive behaviour is based on an interfacial non-filamentary type of resistive switching, which is consistent with the performed cross-sectional TEM structural and chemical characterisation. Full article
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12 pages, 4865 KiB  
Article
Stiffness Modulation in Flexible Rotational Triboelectric Nanogenerators for Dual Enhancement of Power and Reliability
by Feng Li, Ao Yin, Yaao Zhou, Tao Liu, Qingqing Liu, Weijie Ruan and Ling Bu
Nanomaterials 2024, 14(4), 380; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano14040380 - 18 Feb 2024
Viewed by 658
Abstract
Rotational nanogenerators with flexible triboelectric layers have wide applications and high reliability. However, flexible materials cause a severe reduction in contact force and thus triboelectric output power. Unlike previous works devising complex auxiliary structures to solve this issue, this paper focuses on improving [...] Read more.
Rotational nanogenerators with flexible triboelectric layers have wide applications and high reliability. However, flexible materials cause a severe reduction in contact force and thus triboelectric output power. Unlike previous works devising complex auxiliary structures to solve this issue, this paper focuses on improving the contact material mechanics and proposes a stiffness modulation method. By introducing fine patterns to the contacting rotor–stator pairs, the effective elastic modulus was regulated from approximately 103 to 105 MPa, and the output voltage was modulated from approximately 24.39% to 375.87% compared to the non-patterned rotor–stator pairs, corresponding to a maximal a 14 times increase in output power. A maximal power density of 18.75 W/m2 was achieved on 10 MΩ resistance at 9.6 Hz, which is even beyond the power density of most rigid triboelectric interfaces. Moreover, high reliability could be maintained when the volume ratio of the horizontal patterns exceeded a threshold value of 33.5% as the stator and 63.6% as the rotor for a 0.5 mm linewidth. These results prove the efficacy of the stiffness modulation method for jointly achieving high output power and high reliability in flexible rotational triboelectric nanogenerators. Full article
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8 pages, 6135 KiB  
Article
A Watt-Level Pulsed Er:Lu2O3 Laser Based on a TiB2 Saturable Absorber
by Yangyang Liang and Lu Zhang
Nanomaterials 2024, 14(4), 379; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano14040379 - 18 Feb 2024
Viewed by 471
Abstract
TiB2 nanoparticles with a bandgap of 0 eV were prepared, and the corresponding nonlinear optical response at 2.85 μm was investigated. Employing a TiB2 as a saturable absorber, a 2.85 μm pulsed Er:Lu2O3 crystal laser with an average [...] Read more.
TiB2 nanoparticles with a bandgap of 0 eV were prepared, and the corresponding nonlinear optical response at 2.85 μm was investigated. Employing a TiB2 as a saturable absorber, a 2.85 μm pulsed Er:Lu2O3 crystal laser with an average output power of 1.2 W was achieved under a maximum pump power of 9.51 W. Laser pulses with durations of ~203 ns were delivered at a repetition rate of 154 kHz, which corresponds to a pulse energy of ~7.8 µJ and a peak power of 39.3 W. As far as we know, the result represents the highest average output power from all Q-switched Er:Lu2O3 crystal lasers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Optical Properties of Semiconductor Nanomaterials: 2nd Edition)
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12 pages, 4684 KiB  
Article
Graphene-Based Tunable Dual-Frequency Terahertz Sensor
by Maixia Fu, Yuchao Ye, Yingying Niu, Shaoshuai Guo, Zhaoying Wang and Xueying Liu
Nanomaterials 2024, 14(4), 378; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano14040378 - 18 Feb 2024
Viewed by 629
Abstract
A tunable dual-band terahertz sensor based on graphene is proposed. The sensor consists of a metal bottom layer, a middle dielectric layer, and single-layer graphene patterned with four strips on the top. The numerical simulations results show that the proposed sensor exhibits two [...] Read more.
A tunable dual-band terahertz sensor based on graphene is proposed. The sensor consists of a metal bottom layer, a middle dielectric layer, and single-layer graphene patterned with four strips on the top. The numerical simulations results show that the proposed sensor exhibits two significant absorption peaks at 2.58 THz and 6.07 THz. The corresponding absorption rates are as high as nearly 100% and 98%, respectively. The corresponding quality factor (Q) value is 11.8 at 2.58 THz and 29.6 at 6.07 THz. By adjusting the external electric field or chemical doping of graphene, the positions of the dual-frequency resonance peak can be dynamically tuned. The excitation of plasma resonance in graphene can illustrate the mechanism of the sensor. To verify the practical application of the device, the terahertz response of different kinds and different thicknesses of the analyte is investigated and analyzed. A phenomenon of obvious frequency shifts of the two resonance peaks can be observed. Therefore, the proposed sensor has great potential applications in terahertz fields, such as material characterization, medical diagnosis, and environmental monitoring. Full article
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28 pages, 9497 KiB  
Review
Organismal Function Enhancement through Biomaterial Intervention
by Fengchao Tian, Yuemin Zhou, Zaiqiang Ma, Ruikang Tang and Xiaoyu Wang
Nanomaterials 2024, 14(4), 377; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano14040377 - 18 Feb 2024
Viewed by 893
Abstract
Living organisms in nature, such as magnetotactic bacteria and eggs, generate various organic–inorganic hybrid materials, providing unique functionalities. Inspired by such natural hybrid materials, researchers can reasonably integrate biomaterials with living organisms either internally or externally to enhance their inherent capabilities and generate [...] Read more.
Living organisms in nature, such as magnetotactic bacteria and eggs, generate various organic–inorganic hybrid materials, providing unique functionalities. Inspired by such natural hybrid materials, researchers can reasonably integrate biomaterials with living organisms either internally or externally to enhance their inherent capabilities and generate new functionalities. Currently, the approaches to enhancing organismal function through biomaterial intervention have undergone rapid development, progressing from the cellular level to the subcellular or multicellular level. In this review, we will concentrate on three key strategies related to biomaterial-guided bioenhancement, including biointerface engineering, artificial organelles, and 3D multicellular immune niches. For biointerface engineering, excess of amino acid residues on the surfaces of cells or viruses enables the assembly of materials to form versatile artificial shells, facilitating vaccine engineering and biological camouflage. Artificial organelles refer to artificial subcellular reactors made of biomaterials that persist in the cytoplasm, which imparts cells with on-demand regulatory ability. Moreover, macroscale biomaterials with spatiotemporal regulation characters enable the local recruitment and aggregation of cells, denoting multicellular niche to enhance crosstalk between cells and antigens. Collectively, harnessing the programmable chemical and biological attributes of biomaterials for organismal function enhancement shows significant potential in forthcoming biomedical applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanobiotechnologies in Environment and Medicine)
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13 pages, 6156 KiB  
Article
Classifying the Role of Surface Ligands on the Passivation and Stability of Cs2NaInCl6 Double Perovskite Quantum Dots
by Keita Tosa, Chao Ding, Shikai Chen, Shuzi Hayase and Qing Shen
Nanomaterials 2024, 14(4), 376; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano14040376 - 17 Feb 2024
Viewed by 640
Abstract
Cs2NaInCl6 double perovskites, which have excellent photoelectric conversion properties and are non-toxic and lead-free, have recently gained significant attention. In particular, double-perovskite quantum dots (QDs) are viewed as a promising material for optoelectronic device applications. Ligands such as oleic acid [...] Read more.
Cs2NaInCl6 double perovskites, which have excellent photoelectric conversion properties and are non-toxic and lead-free, have recently gained significant attention. In particular, double-perovskite quantum dots (QDs) are viewed as a promising material for optoelectronic device applications. Ligands such as oleic acid (OA) and oleylamine (OAm) are essential for the synthesis of perovskite QDs, but their specific roles in double-perovskite QDs remain unclear. In this study, we have investigated the binding of OA and OAm to Cs2NaInCl6 QDs through FTIR and NMR and their effects on the surface defect reduction and stability improvement for Cs2NaInCl6 QDs. We found that only OAm was bound to the QD surfaces while OA was not. The OAm has a significant effect on the photoluminescence quantum yield (PLQY) improvement by passivating the QD surface defects. The stability of the QDs was also evaluated, and it was observed that OA played a significant role in the stability of the QDs. Our findings provide valuable insights into the roles of ligands in influencing the photophysical properties and stability of lead-free double-perovskite QDs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Solar Energy and Solar Cells)
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14 pages, 2924 KiB  
Article
Exploring the Implementation of GaAsBi Alloys as Strain-Reducing Layers in InAs/GaAs Quantum Dots
by Verónica Braza, Daniel Fernández, Teresa Ben, Sara Flores, Nicholas James Bailey, Matthew Carr, Robert Richards and David Gonzalez
Nanomaterials 2024, 14(4), 375; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano14040375 - 17 Feb 2024
Viewed by 550
Abstract
This paper investigates the effect of GaAsBi strain reduction layers (SRLs) on InAs QDs with different Bi fluxes to achieve nanostructures with improved temperature stability. The SRLs are grown at a lower temperature (370 °C) than the usual capping temperature for InAs QDs [...] Read more.
This paper investigates the effect of GaAsBi strain reduction layers (SRLs) on InAs QDs with different Bi fluxes to achieve nanostructures with improved temperature stability. The SRLs are grown at a lower temperature (370 °C) than the usual capping temperature for InAs QDs (510 °C). The study finds that GaAs capping at low temperatures reduces QD decomposition and leads to larger pyramidal dots but also increases the threading dislocation (TD) density. When adding Bi to the capping layer, a significant reduction in TD density is observed, but unexpected structural changes also occur. Increasing the Bi flux does not increase the Bi content but rather the layer thickness. The maximum Bi content for all layers is 2.4%. A higher Bi flux causes earlier Bi incorporation, along with the formation of an additional InGaAs layer above the GaAsBi layer due to In segregation from QD erosion. Additionally, the implementation of GaAsBi SRLs results in smaller dots due to enhanced QD decomposition, which is contrary to the expected function of an SRL. No droplets were detected on the surface of any sample, but we did observe regions of horizontal nanowires within the epilayers for the Bi-rich samples, indicating nanoparticle formation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Synthesis, Interfaces and Nanostructures)
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11 pages, 5447 KiB  
Article
Quarter-Wave Plate Metasurfaces for Generating Multi-Channel Vortex Beams
by Ziheng Zhang, Manna Gu, Guosen Cui, Yuxiang Zhou, Teng Ma, Kaixin Zhao, Yunxiao Li, Chunxiang Liu, Chuanfu Cheng and Li Ma
Nanomaterials 2024, 14(4), 374; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano14040374 - 17 Feb 2024
Viewed by 600
Abstract
Metasurfaces of quarter-wave plate (QWP) meta-atoms have exhibited high flexibility and versatile functionalities in the manipulation of light fields. However, the generation of multi-channel vortex beams with the QWP meta-atom metasurfaces presents a significant challenge. In this study, we propose dielectric metasurfaces composed [...] Read more.
Metasurfaces of quarter-wave plate (QWP) meta-atoms have exhibited high flexibility and versatile functionalities in the manipulation of light fields. However, the generation of multi-channel vortex beams with the QWP meta-atom metasurfaces presents a significant challenge. In this study, we propose dielectric metasurfaces composed of QWP meta-atoms to manipulate multi-channel vortex beams. QWP meta-atoms, systematically arranged in concentric circular rings, are designed to introduce the modulations via the propagation phase and geometric phase, leading to the generation of co- and cross-polarized vortex beams in distinct channels. Theoretical investigations and simulations are employed to analyze the modulation process, confirming the capability of QWP meta-atom metasurfaces for generating the multi-channel vortex beams. This study presents prospective advancements for the compact, integrated, and multifunctional nanophotonic platforms, which have potential applications in classical physics and quantum domains. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Photonic Metasurfaces and Metastructures)
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19 pages, 13370 KiB  
Article
Ecotoxicological Effects of TiO2 P25 Nanoparticles Aqueous Suspensions on Zebrafish (Danio rerio) Eleutheroembryos
by Melissa I. Ortiz-Román, Ileska M. Casiano-Muñiz and Felix R. Román-Velázquez
Nanomaterials 2024, 14(4), 373; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano14040373 - 17 Feb 2024
Viewed by 625
Abstract
Among nanoparticles (NPs), titanium dioxide is one of the most highly manufactured worldwide and widely used in multiple products for both industrial use and personal care products. This increases the probability of release into aquatic environments, potentially affecting these ecosystems. The present study [...] Read more.
Among nanoparticles (NPs), titanium dioxide is one of the most highly manufactured worldwide and widely used in multiple products for both industrial use and personal care products. This increases the probability of release into aquatic environments, potentially affecting these ecosystems. The present study aimed to evaluate TiO2 P25 NP toxicity in zebrafish embryos and eleutheroembryos by evaluating LC50, hatching rate, embryo development, and chemical analysis of the TiO2 concentration accumulated in eleutheroembryo tissues. Zebrafish embryos ~2 h post-fertilization (hpf) were exposed to 75, 100, 150, 200, and 250 mg/L TiO2 P25 NPs for 48 and 96 h. A total of 40–60 embryos were placed in each Petri dish for the respective treatments. Three replicates were used for each treatment group. Ti4+ concentrations were determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES), and a conversion factor was used to calculate the TiO2 concentrations in the tissues. The highest calculated concentrations of TiO2 in zebrafish larvae were 1.0199 mg/L after 48 h and 1.2679 mg/L after 96 h of exposure. The toxicological results indicated that these NPs did not have a significant effect on the mortality and hatching of zebrafish embryos but did have an effect on their development. LC20 and LC30 were determined experimentally, and LC50 and LC80 were estimated using four different methods. Up to 11% of embryos also presented physical malformations. These effects can be detrimental to a species and affect ecosystems. Physical malformations were observed in all treatments, indicating teratogenic effects. Full article
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18 pages, 5550 KiB  
Article
In Vitro Modulation of Spontaneous Activity in Embryonic Cardiomyocytes Cultured on Poly(vinyl alcohol)/Bioglass Type 58S Electrospun Scaffolds
by Filiberto Rivera-Torres, Alfredo Maciel-Cerda, Gertrudis Hortensia González-Gómez, Alicia Falcón-Neri, Karla Gómez-Lizárraga, Héctor Tomás Esquivel-Posadas and Ricardo Vera-Graziano
Nanomaterials 2024, 14(4), 372; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano14040372 - 17 Feb 2024
Viewed by 597
Abstract
Because of the physiological and cardiac changes associated with cardiovascular disease, tissue engineering can potentially restore the biological functions of cardiac tissue through the fabrication of scaffolds. In the present study, hybrid nanofiber scaffolds of poly (vinyl alcohol) (PVA) and bioglass type 58S [...] Read more.
Because of the physiological and cardiac changes associated with cardiovascular disease, tissue engineering can potentially restore the biological functions of cardiac tissue through the fabrication of scaffolds. In the present study, hybrid nanofiber scaffolds of poly (vinyl alcohol) (PVA) and bioglass type 58S (58SiO2-33CaO-9P2O5, Bg) were fabricated, and their effect on the spontaneous activity of chick embryonic cardiomyocytes in vitro was determined. PVA/Bg nanofibers were produced by electrospinning and stabilized by chemical crosslinking with glutaraldehyde. The electrospun scaffolds were analyzed to determine their chemical structure, morphology, and thermal transitions. The crosslinked scaffolds were more stable to degradation in water. A Bg concentration of 25% in the hybrid scaffolds improved thermal stability and decreased degradation in water after PVA crosslinking. Cardiomyocytes showed increased adhesion and contractility in cells seeded on hybrid scaffolds with higher Bg concentrations. In addition, the effect of Ca2+ ions released from the bioglass on the contraction patterns of cultured cardiomyocytes was investigated. The results suggest that the scaffolds with 25% Bg led to a uniform beating frequency that resulted in synchronous contraction patterns. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Moving toward Biomimetic Tissue Engineered Scaffolds)
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17 pages, 6532 KiB  
Article
Silver-Sulfamethazine-Conjugated β-Cyclodextrin/Dextran-Coated Magnetic Nanoparticles for Pathogen Inhibition
by Anastasiia B. Shatan, Vitalii Patsula, Hana Macková, Andrii Mahun, Renáta Lehotská, Elena Piecková and Daniel Horák
Nanomaterials 2024, 14(4), 371; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano14040371 - 17 Feb 2024
Viewed by 804
Abstract
In the fight against antibiotic resistance, which is rising to dangerously high levels worldwide, new strategies based on antibiotic-conjugated biocompatible polymers bound to magnetic nanoparticles that allow the drug to be manipulated and delivered to a specific target are being proposed. Here, we [...] Read more.
In the fight against antibiotic resistance, which is rising to dangerously high levels worldwide, new strategies based on antibiotic-conjugated biocompatible polymers bound to magnetic nanoparticles that allow the drug to be manipulated and delivered to a specific target are being proposed. Here, we report the direct surface engineering of nontoxic iron oxide nanoparticles (IONs) using biocompatible dextran (Dex) covalently linked to β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) with the ability to form non-covalent complexes with silver-sulfamethazine (SMT-Ag). To achieve a good interaction of β-CD-modified dextran with the surface of the nanoparticles, it was functionalized with diphosphonic acid (DPA) that provides strong binding to Fe atoms. The synthesized polymers and nanoparticles were characterized by various methods, such as nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and ultraviolet–visible (UV–Vis) spectroscopies, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS), dynamic light scattering (DLS), etc. The resulting magnetic ION@DPA-Dex-β-CD-SMT-Ag nanoparticles were colloidally stable in water and contained 24 μg of antibiotic per mg of the particles. When tested for in vitro antimicrobial activity on Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus) and Gram-negative (Escherichia coli) bacteria and fungi (yeast Candida albicans and mold Aspergillus niger), the particles showed promising potential. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activity of Nanoparticles)
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11 pages, 4508 KiB  
Article
The Effect of Impact Load on the Atomistic Scale Fracture Behavior of Nanocrystalline bcc Iron
by Zhifu Zhao, Zhen Wang, Yehui Bie, Xiaoming Liu and Yueguang Wei
Nanomaterials 2024, 14(4), 370; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano14040370 - 16 Feb 2024
Viewed by 674
Abstract
Nanocrystalline metals have many applications in nanodevices, especially nanoscale electronics in aerospace. Their ability to resist fracture under impact produced by environmental stress is the main concern of nanodevice design. By carrying out molecular dynamics simulations under different fast loading rates, this work [...] Read more.
Nanocrystalline metals have many applications in nanodevices, especially nanoscale electronics in aerospace. Their ability to resist fracture under impact produced by environmental stress is the main concern of nanodevice design. By carrying out molecular dynamics simulations under different fast loading rates, this work examines the effect of impact load on the fracture behavior of nanocrystalline bcc iron at an atomistic scale. The results show that a crack propagates with intergranular decohesion in nanocrystalline iron. With the increase in impact load, intergranular decohesion weakens, and plastic behaviors are generated by grain boundary activities. Also, the mechanism dominating plastic deformation changes from the atomic slip at the crack tip to obvious grain boundary activities. The grain boundary activities produced by the increase in impact load lead to an increase in the threshold energy for crack cleavage and enhance nanocrystalline bcc iron resistance to fracture. Nanocrystalline bcc iron can keep a high fracture ductility under a large impact load. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modelling and Mechanical Behaviour of Nanostructured Materials)
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14 pages, 1345 KiB  
Article
Enhancing Maize Yield and Soil Health through the Residual Impact of Nanomaterials in Contaminated Soils to Sustain Food
by Esawy Mahmoud, Asmaa El-shahawy, Mahmoud Ibrahim, Abd El-Halim A. Abd El-Halim, Atef Abo-Ogiala, Mohamed. S. Shokr, Elsayed Said Mohamed, Nazih Y. Rebouh and Sahar Mohamed Ismail
Nanomaterials 2024, 14(4), 369; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano14040369 - 16 Feb 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 660
Abstract
Studying the impact of residual soil nanomaterials is a promising challenge for sustainable agricultural development to improve soil health and crop productivity. The objective of this study is to assess the long-term impacts of 50, 100, and 250 mg kg−1 soil of [...] Read more.
Studying the impact of residual soil nanomaterials is a promising challenge for sustainable agricultural development to improve soil health and crop productivity. The objective of this study is to assess the long-term impacts of 50, 100, and 250 mg kg−1 soil of nanobiochar (nB) and nano-water treatment residues (nWTR) on the fertility, biological activity, and yield of maize (Zea mays L.) growing in heavy metal-contaminated soils. The results showed that when nB and nWTR were added in larger quantities, the concentrations of lead (Pb), nickel (Ni), cadmium (Cd), and cobalt (Co) extracted with DTPA decreased. With the addition of nB or nWTR, it also showed a significant increase in exchangeable cations, cation exchange capacity (CEC), soil fertility, soil organic matter (OM), microbial biomass carbon (MBC), and a decrease in soil salinity and sodicity. Catalase and dehydrogenase activities rose as nB addition increased, while they decreased when nWTR addition increased. In comparison to the control, the addition of nB and nWTR greatly boosted maize yield by 54.5–61.4% and 61.9–71.4%, respectively. These findings suggest that the researched nanomaterials’ residual effect provides an eco-friendly farming method to enhance the qualities of damaged soils and boost maize production. Our research suggested that adding recycling waste in the form of nanoparticles could immobilize heavy metals, improve soil characteristics, and increase the soil’s capacity for productivity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental Analysis and Environmental Processes of Nanomaterials)
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25 pages, 13525 KiB  
Article
Resveratrol/Selenium Nanocomposite with Antioxidative and Antibacterial Properties
by Nina Tomić, Magdalena M. Stevanović, Nenad Filipović, Tea Ganić, Biljana Nikolić, Ina Gajić and Dragana Mitić Ćulafić
Nanomaterials 2024, 14(4), 368; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano14040368 - 16 Feb 2024
Viewed by 709
Abstract
In this work, we synthesized a new composite material comprised of previously formulated resveratrol nanobelt-like particles (ResNPs) and selenium nanoparticles (SeNPs), namely ResSeNPs. Characterization was provided by FESEM and optical microscopy, as well as by UV-Vis and FTIR spectroscopy, the last showing hydrogen [...] Read more.
In this work, we synthesized a new composite material comprised of previously formulated resveratrol nanobelt-like particles (ResNPs) and selenium nanoparticles (SeNPs), namely ResSeNPs. Characterization was provided by FESEM and optical microscopy, as well as by UV-Vis and FTIR spectroscopy, the last showing hydrogen bonds between ResNPs and SeNPs. DPPH, TBA, and FRAP assays showed excellent antioxidative abilities with ResNPs and SeNPs contributing mainly to lipid peroxidation inhibition and reducing/scavenging activity, respectively. The antibacterial effect against common medicinal implant colonizers pointed to notably higher activity against Staphylococcus isolates (minimal inhibitory concentrations 0.75–1.5%) compared to tested gram-negative species (Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa). Antibiofilm activity against S. aureus, S. epidermidis, and P. aeruginosa determined in a crystal violet assay was promising (up to 69%), but monitoring of selected biofilm-related gene expression (pelA and algD) indicated the necessity of the involvement of a larger number of genes in the analysis in order to further establish the underlying mechanism. Although biocompatibility screening showed some cytotoxicity and genotoxicity in MTT and alkaline comet assays, respectively, it is important to note that active antioxidative and antibacterial/antibiofilm concentrations were non-cytotoxic and non-genotoxic in normal MRC-5 cells. These results encourage further composite improvements and investigation in order to adapt it for specific biomedical purposes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Nanomedicine Biotechnologies)
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8 pages, 1505 KiB  
Communication
A Waveguide Inline Binary Metasurface for Wavelength-Selective Transmission and Standing Wave Focusing
by Chun-Hyung Cho and Hyuntai Kim
Nanomaterials 2024, 14(4), 367; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano14040367 - 16 Feb 2024
Viewed by 512
Abstract
This study presents an innovative inline metasurface design for selective wavelength transmission and focusing. When integrated into optical fibers, it improves the stability and compatibility with techniques like wavelength division multiplexing and phase modulation. Precise parameters, determined through analytical calculations and simulations, allow [...] Read more.
This study presents an innovative inline metasurface design for selective wavelength transmission and focusing. When integrated into optical fibers, it improves the stability and compatibility with techniques like wavelength division multiplexing and phase modulation. Precise parameters, determined through analytical calculations and simulations, allow for the design of multifunctional lenses within the optical fiber platform. The numerical results demonstrate unmodulated transmission for specific wavelengths, while others exhibit standing wave focusing with a 0.67 μm beam radius and a 0.31 μm depth of focus. This technology holds promise for applications in quantum experiments, sensing, and optical communication. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nanophotonics Materials and Devices)
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15 pages, 3889 KiB  
Article
Enhanced Electrocatalytic Oxygen Reduction Reaction of TiO2 Nanotubes by Combining Surface Oxygen Vacancy Engineering and Zr Doping
by Maged N. Shaddad, Prabhakarn Arunachalam, Mahmoud S. Hezam, Saba A. Aladeemy, Mamduh J. Aljaafreh, Sharif Abu Alrub and Abdullah M. Al-Mayouf
Nanomaterials 2024, 14(4), 366; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano14040366 - 16 Feb 2024
Viewed by 641
Abstract
This work examines the cooperative effect between Zr doping and oxygen vacancy engineering in anodized TiO2 nanotubes (TNTs) for enhanced oxygen reduction reactions (ORRs). Zr dopant and annealing conditions significantly affected the electrocatalytic characteristics of grown TNTs. Zr doping results in Zr [...] Read more.
This work examines the cooperative effect between Zr doping and oxygen vacancy engineering in anodized TiO2 nanotubes (TNTs) for enhanced oxygen reduction reactions (ORRs). Zr dopant and annealing conditions significantly affected the electrocatalytic characteristics of grown TNTs. Zr doping results in Zr4+ substituted for Ti4+ species, which indirectly creates oxygen vacancy donors that enhance charge transfer kinetics and reduce carrier recombination in TNT bulk. Moreover, oxygen vacancies promote the creation of unsaturated Ti3+(Zr3+) sites at the surface, which also boosts the ORR interfacial process. Annealing at reductive atmospheres (e.g., H2, vacuum) resulted in a larger increase in oxygen vacancies, which greatly enhanced the ORR activity. In comparison to bare TNTs, Zr doping and vacuum treatment (Zr:TNT–Vac) significantly improved the conductivity and activity of ORRs in alkaline media. The finding also provides selective hydrogen peroxide production by the electrochemical reduction of oxygen. Full article
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14 pages, 8968 KiB  
Article
Unveiling Fundamentals of Multi-Beam Pulsed Laser Ablation in Liquids toward Scaling up Nanoparticle Production
by Oleksandr Gatsa, Shabbir Tahir, Miroslava Flimelová, Farbod Riahi, Carlos Doñate-Buendia, Bilal Gökce and Alexander V. Bulgakov
Nanomaterials 2024, 14(4), 365; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano14040365 - 16 Feb 2024
Viewed by 677
Abstract
Pulsed laser ablation in liquids (PLAL) is a versatile technique to produce high-purity colloidal nanoparticles. Despite considerable recent progress in increasing the productivity of the technique, there is still significant demand for a practical, cost-effective method for upscaling PLAL synthesis. Here we employ [...] Read more.
Pulsed laser ablation in liquids (PLAL) is a versatile technique to produce high-purity colloidal nanoparticles. Despite considerable recent progress in increasing the productivity of the technique, there is still significant demand for a practical, cost-effective method for upscaling PLAL synthesis. Here we employ and unveil the fundamentals of multi-beam (MB) PLAL. The MB-PLAL upscaling approach can bypass the cavitation bubble, the main limiting factor of PLAL efficiency, by splitting the laser beam into several beams using static diffractive optical elements (DOEs). A multimetallic high-entropy alloy CrFeCoNiMn was used as a model material and the productivity of its nanoparticles in the MB-PLAL setup was investigated and compared with that in the standard single-beam PLAL. We demonstrate that the proposed multi-beam method helps to bypass the cavitation bubble both temporally (lower pulse repetition rates can be used while keeping the optimum processing fluence) and spatially (lower beam scanning speeds are needed) and thus dramatically increases the nanoparticle yield. Time-resolved imaging of the cavitation bubble was performed to correlate the observed production efficiencies with the bubble bypassing. The results suggest that nanoparticle PLAL productivity at the level of g/h can be achieved by the proposed multi-beam strategy using compact kW-class lasers and simple inexpensive scanning systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Laser-Assisted Synthesis and Processing of Nanomaterials)
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12 pages, 10372 KiB  
Article
Sub-Diffraction Readout Method of High-Capacity Optical Data Storage Based on Polarization Modulation
by Li Zhang, Wenwen Li and Zhongyang Wang
Nanomaterials 2024, 14(4), 364; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano14040364 - 16 Feb 2024
Viewed by 649
Abstract
The big data era demands an efficient and permanent data storage technology with the capacity of PB to EB scale. Optical data storage (ODS) offers a good candidate for long-lifetime storage, as the developing far-field super-resolution nanoscale writing technology improves its capacity to [...] Read more.
The big data era demands an efficient and permanent data storage technology with the capacity of PB to EB scale. Optical data storage (ODS) offers a good candidate for long-lifetime storage, as the developing far-field super-resolution nanoscale writing technology improves its capacity to the PB scale. However, methods to efficiently read out this intensive ODS data are still lacking. In this paper, we demonstrate a sub-diffraction readout method based on polarization modulation, which experimentally achieves the sub-diffraction readout on Disperse Red 13 thin film with a resolution of 500 nm, exceeding the diffraction limit by 1.2 times (NA = 0.5). Differing from conventional binary encoding, we propose a specific polarization encoding method that enhances the capacity of ODS by 1.5 times. In the simulation, our method provides an optical data storage readout resolution of 150 nm, potentially to 70 nm, equivalent to 1.1 PB in a DVD-sized disk. This sub-diffraction readout method has great potential as a powerful readout tool for next-generation optical data storage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nanophotonics Materials and Devices)
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14 pages, 7941 KiB  
Article
In Situ Lubrication in Forging of Pure Titanium Using Carbon Supersaturated Die Materials
by Tatsuhiko Aizawa, Tatsuya Funazuka and Tomomi Shiratori
Nanomaterials 2024, 14(4), 363; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano14040363 - 15 Feb 2024
Viewed by 613
Abstract
A new solid lubrication method was proposed for dry forging of pure titanium with high reduction in thickness. A free-carbon tribofilm was formed in situ at the hot spots on the contact interface to protect the die surfaces from severe adhesion of work [...] Read more.
A new solid lubrication method was proposed for dry forging of pure titanium with high reduction in thickness. A free-carbon tribofilm was formed in situ at the hot spots on the contact interface to protect the die surfaces from severe adhesion of work materials. This film consisted of the free carbon, which isolated from the carbon supersaturated die substrate materials, diffused to the contact interface and agglomerated to a thin film. Two different routes of carbon supersaturation process were developed to prepare carbon supersaturated ceramic and metal dies for the dry forging of pure titanium wires. A pure titanium bar was utilized as an easy-to-adherent work material for upsetting in dry and cold. The round bar was upset up to 70% in reduction in thickness with a low friction coefficient from 0.05 to 0.1 in a single stroke. Work hardening was suppressed by this low friction. SEM-EDX, EBSD and Raman spectroscopy were utilized to analyze the contact interface and to understand the role of in situ formed free-carbon films on the low friction and low work hardening during forging. Precise nanostructure analyses were utilized to describe low friction forging behavior commonly observed in these two processes. The in situ solid lubrication mechanism is discussed based on the equivalence between the nitrogen and carbon supersaturation processes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nanofabrication and Nanomanufacturing)
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28 pages, 7359 KiB  
Article
Adsorption of Metal Ions from Single and Binary Aqueous Systems on Bio-Nanocomposite, Alginate-Clay
by Rachid Aziam, Daniela Simina Stefan, Safa Nouaa, Mohamed Chiban and Magdalena Boșomoiu
Nanomaterials 2024, 14(4), 362; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano14040362 - 15 Feb 2024
Viewed by 567
Abstract
The aim of this work is to characterize and evaluate the retention of Cu2+ and Ni2+ from single and binary systems by alginate-Moroccan clay bio-composite with the utilization of calcium chloride as a cross-linking agent, using the ionotropic gelation method. The [...] Read more.
The aim of this work is to characterize and evaluate the retention of Cu2+ and Ni2+ from single and binary systems by alginate-Moroccan clay bio-composite with the utilization of calcium chloride as a cross-linking agent, using the ionotropic gelation method. The bio-nanocomposite was characterized by using a variety of techniques (SEM, EDX, XRD, and pHPZC). The efficiency of the adsorbent was investigated under different experimental conditions by varying parameters such as pH, initial concentration, and contact time. To demonstrate the adsorption kinetics, various kinetic models were tried and assessed, including pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order, intraparticle diffusion, and Elovich models. The research results show that the adsorption process of Cu2+ and Ni2+ metal ions follows a pseudo-second-order kinetic model, and the corresponding rate constants were identified. To evaluate the parameters related to the adsorption process in both single and binary systems, different mathematical models of isotherms, such as Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin, and Dubinin-Radushkevich, were investigated. The correlation coefficients obtained showed that the most suitable isotherm for describing this adsorption process is the Langmuir model. The process is considered to be physical and endothermic, as suggested by the positive values of Δ and Δ, indicating increased randomness at the solid/liquid interface during Cu2+ and Ni2+ adsorption. Furthermore, the spontaneity of the process is confirmed by the negative values of ∆G°. The bio-nanocomposite beads demonstrated a maximum adsorption capacity of 370.37 mg/g for Ni2+ and 454.54 mg/g for Cu2+ in the single system. In the binary system, the maximum adsorption capacities were observed to be 357.14 mg/g for Ni2+ and 370.37 mg/g for Cu2+. There is significant evidence for the use of alginate-Moroccan clay bio-nanocomposite as a cost-effective alternative adsorbent for the efficient removal of metal ions in single and binary systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanostructures for Wastewater Treatment and Energy Conversion)
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12 pages, 2741 KiB  
Article
Preparation and Peculiar Magnetic Properties at Low Temperatures of La1.85Sr0.15CuO4 Nanofibers
by Shi-Long Gao, Ting-Ting Zhang, Li-Peng Qiu, Yu-Rui Zhang, Guo-Ting Cheng, Qi Liu, Wen-Peng Han, Seeram Ramakrishna and Yun-Ze Long
Nanomaterials 2024, 14(4), 361; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano14040361 - 15 Feb 2024
Viewed by 503
Abstract
Herein, the preparation process, morphology, structure, and magnetic properties of La1.85Sr0.15CuO4 (LSCO) cobweb-like nanofibers are reported. LSCO nanofibers with a regular grain size distribution are successfully prepared via electrospinning, followed by calcination. We conducted morphology analysis and elemental [...] Read more.
Herein, the preparation process, morphology, structure, and magnetic properties of La1.85Sr0.15CuO4 (LSCO) cobweb-like nanofibers are reported. LSCO nanofibers with a regular grain size distribution are successfully prepared via electrospinning, followed by calcination. We conducted morphology analysis and elemental distribution using electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), respectively. Additionally, magnetic property testing was performed using a vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) to confirm the superconducting properties of the samples. Interestingly, our samples exhibited a superconducting transition temperature, Tc, of 25.21 K, which showed some disparity compared to similar works. Furthermore, we observed a ferromagnetic response at low temperatures in the superconducting nanofibers. We attribute these phenomena to the effects generated by surface states of nanoscale superconducting materials. Full article
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5 pages, 184 KiB  
Editorial
Morphological Design and Synthesis of Nanoparticles
by Mirela Honciuc and Andrei Honciuc
Nanomaterials 2024, 14(4), 360; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano14040360 - 15 Feb 2024
Viewed by 577
Abstract
Nanoparticles are particles with dimensions measured in nanometers, and exist at a scale where the physical, chemical, and biological properties of materials can differ significantly from those at a larger scale [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Morphological Design and Synthesis of Nanoparticles)
42 pages, 20232 KiB  
Review
Recent Advances in Low-Dimensional Metal Oxides via Sol-Gel Method for Gas Detection
by Marwa Ben Arbia, Hicham Helal and Elisabetta Comini
Nanomaterials 2024, 14(4), 359; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano14040359 - 14 Feb 2024
Viewed by 893
Abstract
Low-dimensional metal oxides have drawn significant attention across various scientific domains due to their multifaceted applications, particularly in the field of environment monitoring. Their popularity is attributed to a constellation of unique properties, including their high surface area, robust chemical stability, and remarkable [...] Read more.
Low-dimensional metal oxides have drawn significant attention across various scientific domains due to their multifaceted applications, particularly in the field of environment monitoring. Their popularity is attributed to a constellation of unique properties, including their high surface area, robust chemical stability, and remarkable electrical conductivity, among others, which allow them to be a good candidate for detecting CO, CO2, H2, NH3, NO2, CH4, H2S, and volatile organic compound gases. In recent years, the Sol-Gel method has emerged as a powerful and versatile technique for the controlled synthesis of low-dimensional metal oxide materials with diverse morphologies tailored for gas sensing applications. This review delves into the manifold facets of the Sol-Gel processing of metal oxides and reports their derived morphologies and remarkable gas-sensing properties. We comprehensively examine the synthesis conditions and critical parameters governing the formation of distinct morphologies, including nanoparticles, nanowires, nanorods, and hierarchical nanostructures. Furthermore, we provide insights into the fundamental principles underpinning the gas-sensing mechanisms of these materials. Notably, we assess the influence of morphology on gas-sensing performance, highlighting the pivotal role it plays in achieving exceptional sensitivity, selectivity, and response kinetics. Additionally, we highlight the impact of doping and composite formation on improving the sensitivity of pure metal oxides and reducing their operation temperature. A discussion of recent advances and emerging trends in the field is also presented, shedding light on the potential of Sol-Gel-derived nanostructures to revolutionize the landscape of gas sensing technologies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Nanomaterials in Gas and Humidity Sensors)
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13 pages, 3979 KiB  
Article
Highly Sensitive Paper-Based Force Sensors with Natural Micro-Nanostructure Sensitive Element
by Haozhe Zhang, Yuyu Ren, Junwen Zhu, Yanshen Jia, Qiang Liu and Xing Yang
Nanomaterials 2024, 14(4), 358; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano14040358 - 14 Feb 2024
Viewed by 665
Abstract
Flexible paper-based force sensors have garnered significant attention for their important potential applications in healthcare wearables, portable electronics, etc. However, most studies have only used paper as the flexible substrate for sensors, not fully exploiting the potential of paper’s micro-nanostructure for sensing. This [...] Read more.
Flexible paper-based force sensors have garnered significant attention for their important potential applications in healthcare wearables, portable electronics, etc. However, most studies have only used paper as the flexible substrate for sensors, not fully exploiting the potential of paper’s micro-nanostructure for sensing. This article proposes a novel approach where paper serves both as the sensitive element and the flexible substrate of force sensors. Under external mechanical forces, the micro-nanostructure of the conductive-treated paper will change, leading to significant changes in the related electrical output and thus enabling sensing. To demonstrate the feasibility and universality of this new method, the article takes paper-based capacitive pressure sensors and paper-based resistive strain sensors as examples, detailing their fabrication processes, constructing sensing principle models based on the micro-nanostructure of paper materials, and testing their main sensing performance. For the capacitive paper-based pressure sensor, it achieves a high sensitivity of 1.623 kPa−1, a fast response time of 240 ms, and a minimum pressure resolution of 4.1 Pa. As for the resistive paper-based strain sensor, it achieves a high sensitivity of 72 and a fast response time of 300 ms. The proposed new method offers advantages such as high sensitivity, simplicity in the fabrication process, environmental friendliness, and cost-effectiveness, providing new insights into the research of flexible force sensors. Full article
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