The Pool-Boiling-Induced Deposition of Nanoparticles as the Transient Game Changer—A Review
2. Nanoparticle Deposition over Boiling Time
2.1. Causing Mechanisms
2.2. Characteristics of the Deposition Layer
2.3. Fundamental Time-Dependent Features
2.3.1. Fouling Resistance
- Surface particulate deposition is controlled by the interactions between the thermal fluid and nanoparticles and between the heating surface and the nanoparticles.
- Re-suspension of the nanoparticles occurs after the deposition and is determined by the balance between the contact and hydrodynamic forces.
- Agglomeration occurs only in cases where the concentration of the dispersed nanoparticles in the thermal fluid is sufficient to promote consecutive interactions between the surfaces at play. The particle-to-particle collision rate is governed by the hydrodynamic forces associated with the motion of the nanoparticles, whereas the adhesion between the nanoparticles is determined by the short-range interactions between them. In the cases where the adhesion forces have a lower magnitude than the hydrodynamic counterparts, the break-up of aggregates of the nanoparticles may occur.
- Heat flux: given that with increasing heat flux, the fouling resistance also increases until a maximum value.
- The pH and ionic content of the nanofluids: the attachment and agglomeration of the nanoparticles are provoked by the action of the electric double layer and Van der Waals forces. The repulsion caused by the electric double-layer forces is mainly due to the accumulation of electric charges in the surface of the nanoparticles of hydroxides and metal oxides, and such electric charges are directly correlated with the pH of the suspension and its ionic content.
- Temperature of the surface: it was already demonstrated that the fouling resistance increased more rapidly with temperature at higher temperatures and more slowly at lower temperature values.
- Surface roughness: given that a smoother surface delays the fouling, and it is easier to clean. In contrast, considerable rough surfaces increased the nanoparticle deposition dramatically.
- Size of the nanoparticles: given that the fouling resistance depends on the particle size. However, a well-defined trend is not yet available in the published literature.
2.3.2. Thermal Resistance
2.3.3. Three-Phase Contact Line Behavior
2.3.4. Capillary Wicking
2.3.6. Roughness-to-Particle Size Ratio
2.3.7. Thickness over Boiling Time
- The CHF gradually decreased with long pre-coating times.
- The CHF improvement may be interpreted by the enhanced surface wettability and hydrodynamic instability modifications with relatively short boiling durations.
- The slow decrement in the CHF could be interpreted with the porosity decrease in the deposited layer with longer pre-coating durations.
2.3.8. Peripheral Regions of the Nucleation Sites and Deposition Points
2.3.9. Vaporization Core Sites Density
2.3.10. Hydrodynamic Instability
2.3.12. Re-Suspension of the Nanoparticles
- During boiling, a fraction of the deposited nanoparticles may be re-suspended within the operating fluid and, after that, migrate along with the fluid flow.
- The nanopores of the deposition layer have a cardinal part in the re-suspension phenomenon and fluid flow through the pores at the growing stage of the vapor bubbles and the disturbance at the rear zone of the departing bubbles should be taken as the main factors for the re-suspension.
- The re-suspension ratio increased with increasing heat flux, given that the former increased near 300% when the heat flux was enhanced from 20 to 100 kW/m2. Moreover, when low heat fluxes near 20 kW/m2 were applied, the re-suspension ratio increased with increasing density of the deposition zone. When there were imposed moderate heat fluxes ranging between 50 kW/m2 and 80 kW/m2, the re-suspension ratio initially increased and then decreased with increasing deposition area density. When high heat fluxes of around 100 kW/m2 were applied, the re-suspension ratio decreased with the density of the deposition area.
- The nanoparticle re-suspension can be obtained by the action of an electric field and can be demonstrated by the thinned deposition layer of deposited nanoparticles and on the enhanced turbidity of the working fluid.
- The HTC and CHF enhancement of the re-suspended nanofluid is generated because of the combined effect of the re-suspension and applied electric field. The latter can be enhanced with the voltage augmentation. Nevertheless, there is an optimum value of the concentration of the nanoparticles that maximizes the improving action of the electric field.
- The mechanisms for the heat transfer improvement of the re-suspended nanofluid under the effect of an external electric field comprise the heat transport between the surface and the fluid promoted by the motion of the nanoparticles, further lowering the surface tension of the liquid and vapor phases interface and the thermal conductivity enhancement of the heat transfer media.
2.3.13. Sintering of the Nanoparticles
3. Effects of the Nanoparticle Deposition on the Boiling Heat Transfer Parameters
3.1. Heat Transfer Coefficient
3.2. Critical Heat Flux
3.3. Surface Superheat
- The pool boiling of the nanofluids with higher nanoparticle concentration resulted in a considerable deposition of nanoparticles on the heating surface and a corresponding CHF improvement of up to 2021 kW/m2. Nevertheless, were reported very high layer superheat values up to 100 K, which suggested poor practical applicability.
- The heat transfer decrement of the pool boiling with nanofluids on laser textured surfaces may be explained by the penetration of the nanoparticles into the laser-made grooves and cavities, which decreased the active nucleation site density. Moreover, a thicker deposition resulted in extra thermal resistance, whereas the porosity of the surface assured an appreciable delay in the CHF incipience, and the surface superheat value in turn was dramatically enhanced.
4. Main Factors Impacting the Nanoparticle Deposition
4.1. Concentration of the Nanoparticles
4.2. Size and Shape of the Nanoparticles
4.3. Type of Nanoparticles
4.4. Wettability of the Nanoparticles
4.5. Base Fluid
5. Limitations and Challenges
- Despite the many published nanofluid-related studies, issues such as long-term stability, erosion, agglomeration, deposition, and maintenance procedures are still obstacles to large-scale commercialization of nanofluids. Hence, studies to extend the actual predictive correlations or innovative numerical simulation tools are highly recommended.
- The methods for an effective nanoparticle deposition should be reviewed to find a replacement for the deposition rather than the nanofluid boiling; for instance, pre-boiling deposition of nanocoatings on the surface by physical or chemical vapor deposition. However, these depositing techniques require further in-depth investigation studies regarding the optimal thickness of the coatings to observe the delay of the CHF occurrence.
- Concerning the depositing trend of the nanoparticles in the course of pool boiling, the coating of the surface with particles has been intensively explored to improve the HTC and CHF. In this context, the probable detachment or failure of the layer of particles over boiling time should be further addressed in a laboratory environment. Additionally, the complexity of correlations between the main properties of the heating surface should be addressed to further clarify the mechanisms of amelioration of the heat transfer parameters through the deposition of the nanoparticles.
- Future experimental works should include the exploration of the possible boiling-induced nanoparticle deposition influencing parameters, including nanoparticle size, shape, type, and substrate material, and base fluid type to the wettability modification and its impact on the pool-boiling heat-transfer characteristics.
- Regarding the effect of the deposition layer on the boiling surface heat transfer, the thickness of the layer should be optimized to induce the maximum value of latent heat at CHF occurrence.
- The durability of the nanoparticle deposition layer and its effects on the CHF should be further systematically investigated. The initial studies indicated that the porous nanoparticle deposited layer is affected by the dilatation effect and, under certain conditions, by the formation of a pocket of vapor between the heater and the deposited layer.
- The particle sorting effect of the boiling-induced nanoparticle deposition requires further in-depth studies. The particle sorting effect has already been observed over the deposited layer of nanoparticles wherein larger micrometer-sized particles, compared with the ones observed close to the center of the deposited layer, have been found in the peripheral regions of the deposited layer. It should be also made clear if this phenomenon is indeed a particle sorting effect or, alternatively, if it is only the result of the boiling-induced capillary wicking flows through the deposition layer toward the center of the nucleation sites.
- The conjugated effect of the wettability and capillary wicking should be further studied to reveal the heat transfer enhancement for different sizes and fractions of nanoparticles.
- The bubble dynamics of a single bubble should be further investigated in experimental works and numerical simulations to determine the fraction of the deposited layer and of the suspended nanoparticles that contribute to the pool-boiling heat-transfer amelioration.
- Efforts should be made to mitigate the initial heating surface differences and, also, to diminish the surface differences occurred during the boiling nanoparticle deposition, given that the modification of the boiling surface geometries is the main factor responsible for the contradictory literature reports on boiling heat transfer with nanofluids. The enhancement or deterioration of boiling heat transfer is dependent upon the relative size between the nanoparticles suspended in the fluid and the heating surface geometry, and respective interactions. Published experimental works already showed that for an initial smooth surface, the deposition of particles increases the surface roughness contributing to the improvement in the nucleate boiling heat transfer, whereas for a starting rough surface, no obvious change in the surface geometry is observed that results in a similar boiling curve.
- The use of only one heating surface should be avoided, since this procedure will make the quantitative comparison of results more difficult. The experimental evaluation of the nanoparticle concentration effect will also be difficult. The heat transfer surface modification by the deposition of nanoparticles is an intrinsic feature of the use of nanofluids that occurs each time after boiling. Hence, the experimental results are affected by the number and frequency of the usage of the same heating surface.
- Regarding the effect of the pressure of the pool-boiling system, the growth of the dry patches should be addressed under different pressure levels to elucidate its influence on the heat transfer enhancement from the deposition layer.
- The possible melting characteristic at some sites on the coated heating surface after confined pool-boiling experiments should be further analyzed. In these cases, the bubble dynamics in the inner confined region and the enhanced residence time of the bubbles on the heating surface underneath could appreciably increase the temperature on the coated layer, melting the nanoparticles through a regressive melting process similar to liquid phase sintering.
- Further attention must be paid to the possible residual chemical elements dissolved in the working fluid, given that these elements may interact with the deposited nanoparticles and, consequently, modify the morphology and chemical structure of the heating surface and, hence, impair the pool-boiling heat transfer effectiveness. Moreover, this phenomenon tends to take place more under confined boiling in which the hot spots are more sensitive because of the dryout phenomenon.
- Future studies on the reusability of formerly boiled nanofluids and correspondent stability may be an adequate pathway to better understand the practical implications of the boiling-induced nanoparticle deposition process using nanofluids.
- To better understand the underlying mechanism of the suspended nanoparticles deposited underneath the vapor bubbles, techniques such as infrared thermography should be further explored to obtain the temperature and heat flux distributions of the active nucleation sites. Additionally, more microscopic measurements of the nucleation site should be carried out with the aid of optical profilometry and AFM to determine the shape of the nanoparticle deposited layer underneath the bubbles.
- It is suggested that further studies be conducted on repetitive quenching with concentrated nanofluids by monitoring the heating surface wettability alteration and concentration changes after each individual quenching run to better understand the mechanisms of CHF enhancement and achieve a quantitative characterization of the impact of the suspended nanoparticles and its cumulative effect.
- To better understand how the motion at the microscale of the nanoparticles influences the perturbation suffered by the bubbles in the heating surface, the motion path of the nanoparticles during boiling should be further examined with the aid of a component analyzer and by labeling the nanoparticles. Moreover, it is also advisable to observe and evaluate the generation of bubbles using a high-speed camera.
- The impact of a multi-component solution on the nucleate pool-boiling heat transfer should be verified through the external condensation of the pool-boiling apparatus, and the relative motion between the different solutions should be observed and discussed. Furthermore, the movement and disturbance of the bubbles should be observed and analyzed by this procedure.
- It is highly recommended to produce a database that will include the heat transport characteristics together with specific information about the deposited nanoparticle morphology and amount, and dispersion stability with or without the addition of surfactants, in which the enhanced pool-boiling thermal performance of promising nanofluids are prioritized.
- The nanofluids already demonstrated the improvement of the CHF derived from the enhanced wettability of the heating surface after the deposition of the nanoparticles onto the heating surfaces. Nevertheless, the published data concerning the effect of nanofluids on the nucleate boiling HTC are still contradictory. This can be caused by the involvement of intricate concerns such as the nature of the thermal fluid, roughness of the heating surface, and imposed heat flux conjugated with the type, morphology, volume fraction, and preparation and functionalization methods of the nanoparticles. All these factors can significantly alter the thermophysical properties of the nanofluid and certain surface characteristics such as the wettability, surface roughness, number of active nucleation sites, and alterations in the three-phase contact line. Such limiting and complexing issues can strongly restrict the accurate modeling of the nanofluid pool boiling.
- It was already confirmed that the thickness and density of the deposition layer decreases outward radially when the layer has a spherical shape. Taking into account the morphology and evaporation dynamics of the microlayer, the most verified thickness trend of the deposition layer has been suggested to be caused by the microlayer evaporation phenomenon. Nevertheless, the initiation of the deposition at the active nucleation sites may be caused by the contact line evaporation since such a mechanism is expected to be present in the nanofluid pool boiling.
- Although the nanofluids have demonstrated great potential in improving boiling heat transfer, there are specific practical concerns that must be considered prior to any usage of the nanofluids in thermal management purposes including the agglomeration, sedimentation, and precipitation of the nanoparticles, equipment and systems clogging, boiling surface erosion, evolution in time of the heat transfer parameters, and inherent overall cost.
- The nanoparticle deposition onto the heating surface alters its wettability and number of active gasification sites, which affects the heat transfer capability. Moreover, the nanoparticle deposited layer changes the generation of the bubbles and their departure frequency.
- The morphology of the surface settlement of the various nanoparticles increases the capillary effect, thus enhancing the liquid replenishing after the detachment of the bubbles, which in turn increases the CHF.
- The development of a closed porous deposit of nanoparticles increases the heat transport resistance of the heating surface and reduces the HTC. Moreover, the deposition causes the CHF to increase more rapidly than the layer superheat value, which results in an increment of the maximum HTC value. It is also common for a significant increase in the thermal conductivity of the base fluid to occur so that the HTC is enhanced. The perturbation of the heating surface caused by the nanoparticles turns the liquid microlayer thinner and enhances the disturbance of the bubbles, resulting in the amelioration of the HTC.
- The prevalence of larger microparticles in the peripheral regions of the deposition layer has been observed to assume a well-defined circular shape. Nevertheless, the identification of the underlying mechanism still remains unclear, given that it has already been attributed to the eventual nanoparticle sorting or, alternatively, to the pool-boiling capillary wicking through the deposition layer toward the center of the active nucleation sites.
- It was already observed that the suspension of the nanoparticles in a base fluid with higher viscosity brings benefits to the boiling heat transfer since the deposition of the nanoparticles is smaller; hence, the enhancement of the thermal conductivity of the fluid is more intense than the microscopic motion of the nanoparticles on the surface and the heat transport becomes enhanced.
- In the cases where the fluid is a multi-component solution, the relative motion between the different composing solutions increases the movement of the nanoparticles due to the different evaporation rates. Therefore, the disturbance of the bubble on the heating surface increases and the boiling heat transfer performance is enhanced.
- When compared with the thermal conductivity of the heat transfer surface, the deposition of nanoparticles having poor thermal conductivity on the heating surface decreases the heat dissipation and enhances the surface superheat value. Hence, the enhancement of the HTC should be attributed to the thermal conductivity of the nanoparticles and the effect of their movement in the disturbance of the surface vapor bubbles.
- The different natures of the nanoparticles result in different thermal conductivity and the effects on the pool-boiling heat transfer strongly depend on the deposition pattern. Moreover, only small amounts of the deposited nanoparticles enhance the number of available active nucleation sites and, by this method, the pool-boiling heat transfer capability is improved.
Informed Consent Statement
Data Availability Statement
Conflicts of Interest
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|Reference||Authors/Year||Nanoparticles Material||Substrate Material||Effects on Heat Transfer||Other Effects|
|||Raveshi et al./2013||Aluminum oxide||Copper||An HTC enhancement of up to 64% for the 0.75% vol. nanofluid was verified. Except for the increment of the base fluid properties, the heating surface alteration was the main factor influencing the HTC. Because the surface particle interaction parameter was more than the unity, only the increment of HTC was observed. At low concentration, the deposited layer was very thin, which altered the surface by multiplying the nucleate site and creating active cavities, and finally leading to enhancement of the heat transfer.||The thicker layer, which was recorded at the end of the boiling duration, was caused by the higher concentration of the nanoparticles.|
|||Sarafraz and Hormozi/2014||Aluminum oxide||Stainless-steel||With increasing the concentration of nanofluids, due to the deposition of nanoparticles on the surface and equal size of nanoparticles and roughness of the heating surface, the average roughness of the surface decreased and, subsequently, the number of nucleation sites reduced which led to an HTC decrease.||An asymptotic behavior was reported for the particulate fouling at the heat transfer area, whereas a rectilinear behavior was found for the free convection region. The thickness and rate of fouling depended on the boiling duration and the fouling resistance because nucleate boiling was higher than those measured in the convection area.|
|||Tang et al./2014||Aluminum oxide||The aluminum oxide nanoparticles enhanced the heat transfer at concentrations of 0.001 vol. %, 0.01 vol. %, and 0.1 vol. % with the SDBS surfactant. The aluminum oxide nanoparticles deteriorate the heat transfer at 0.1 vol. % without SDBS due to the larger number of deposited nanoparticles. The SDBS deteriorated the heat transfer, and the deterioration was more than the enhancement by the nanoparticles at 0.001 vol. %.When the fractions were between 0.01 vol. % and 0.1 vol. %, the addition of the SDBS improved the heat transfer by the nanoparticles because the SDBS reduced the deposition of nanoparticles.||The impact of the change in the surface angle by the surface deposition of the nanoparticles can be negligible for R141b.|
|||Manetti et al./2017||Aluminum oxide||Copper||A decrease in the wall superheating up to 32% and 12% for a smooth and rough surfaces, respectively, was verified for the same heat flux in comparison with that of DI water. For low concentration nanofluids subjected to moderate heat flux, appreciable enhancement of the HTC was observed for the smooth and rough surfaces as compared with the DI water. It is argued that this phenomenon is related to the increase in the radius of the cavities due to changes in the morphology of the surface. For the rough surface, the HTC decreased appreciably with increasing heat flux due to the intensification of the nanoparticle deposition rate, and higher thermal resistance by the filling of the cavities of the heating surface with the nanoparticles. The surface modification due to the nanoparticle deposition increased the HTC only for low nanoparticle concentrations and when the particle interaction parameter (SIP) was greater than unity.||A higher nanoparticle deposition rate occurred for heat fluxes greater than 400 kW/m2.|
|||Nunes et al./2020||Aluminum oxide||Copper||The coating layer formed on the heating surface increased the surface wettability; moreover, it provided a barrier to the heat transfer by increasing the thermal resistance on the heating surface, degrading the HTC for unconfined and confined boiling. For the latter, the wettability enhancement promoted a delay in the dryout incipience phenomenon.||The coating process delayed the dryout occurrence under confined conditions due to the influence of the nanostructures on the surface–fluid interaction mechanisms, e.g., the surface wettability, which is a pronounced effect for non-wetting fluids, such as the DI water.|
|||Xing et al./2016||Carbon||Copper||The multi-walled nanotubes (MWNTs) with CTAB nanofluid presents poor HTC, which decrease with increasing concentration for the deposition of nanoparticles. The deposition of nanoparticles onto the heating surface was not verified using covalent functionalization MWNTs nanofluids. Thus, the covalent functionalization MWNTs nanofluids show a higher HTC than the base fluid, and they increased as the MWNTs concentration increased. The maximum HTC enhancements are 34.2% and 53.4% for MWNTs-COOH and MWNTs-OH nanofluids, respectively.||…..|
|||Li et al./2020||Copper oxide||Copper||The HTC was improved due to the partial fouling of the nanoparticles which increased the number of nucleation sites on the surface. After 1000 min of operation, the fouling layer changed the surface by decreasing the number of nucleation sites, inducing a thermal resistance to the surface and decreasing the bubble departure time.||…..|
|||Cao et al./2019||Copper–zinc||Copper||The superheat value on the fully deposited surfaces was around 20 K lower than that on the smooth surface and the fully deposited surface had the highest HTC, around 100% enhancement than the smooth surface. The CHF was not enhanced on the fully deposited surface, but increased by 33% on the channel-pattern-deposited surfaces.||The experimental CHF on the channel pattern deposited surfaces agree well with the predicted model derived from hydrodynamic instability|
|||Kiyomura et al./2017||Iron oxide||Copper||The coated layer formed on the rough surfaces provided a barrier to the heat transfer and reduced the bubble nucleation, which led to the reduction in the number of microcavities and an increase in the thermal resistance, therefore degrading the HTC. For smooth surfaces, the deposition of nanoparticles tends to increase the nucleation site’s density, increasing the boiling heat transfer. An increment in the HTC occurred only for low nanofluid concentrations, for which the thermal conductivity of the nanofluids was dominant as compared with the thermal resistance of the nanolayer formed on the heating surface.||The C coefficient that correlates to the HTC and the heat flux was used. Different Csf (surface–fluid parameter) and Cs (heating surface parameter) behaviors were found for the surfaces covered with nanoparticles. The Csf and Cs are influenced by the additional thermal resistance resulting from the nanoparticle deposition. The Cs underestimated the effects of wettability and surface roughness for the surfaces covered with nanoparticles|
|||Stutz et al./2011||Maghemite||Platinum||The coating made of nanoparticles reduced the HTC by introducing a thermal resistance that increased with layer thickness. The CHF enhancement depended on the covering rate of the heating surface by the nanoparticles, and evolved with boiling time. It reached a maximum when the heater was entirely covered with nanoparticles and then decreased slowly when the thickness of the coating increased. The observed increase in the CHF was due to the increase in the heat transfer area when the nanoporous layer was formed.||The effective thermal resistance of the layer appears to decrease substantially during boiling and seems to be coupled to the bubble dynamics. This may indicate that vapor generation occurs inside the layer, which reduces its effective thickness.|
|||Souza et al./2014||Maghemite||Copper||It was observed that the enhancement of the HTC is higher when the SIP was greater than unity. The HTC for the nanostructured surface with the deposition of nanoparticles of 10 nm diameter, corresponding to SIP = 16, was 55% higher than that for the bare surface. For the nanostructured surface with the deposition of nanoparticles having 80 nm of diameter, corresponding to a SIP equal to 2, the HTC decreased 29%.The HTC increased when the gap decreased, mainly for lower heat fluxes. For a gap length equal to 0.1 mm, a 145% HTC increase at heat fluxes lower than 45 kW/m2 with the deposition of 10 nm sized nanoparticles was reported.||….|
|||Heitich et al./2014||Maghemite||Copper–nickel alloy||Nanostructured surfaces showed higher wettability as a consequence of the greater number of surface defects created by the nanoparticles. Surface defects affect the contact angle and may influence the heat transfer and CHF. The nanostructures have a greater number of these defects due to the small nanoparticle size. The nanostructures led to an increase in the CHF, especially with the maghemite deposition for which the value was around 139% higher than that of the smooth substrate. The CHF increased as the wettability increased. An increase in the CHF was observed as the contact angle decreased. The rough substrate samples showed an enhancement in the HTC of around 19%, while other samples showed an increase in the HTC values for high heat fluxes||The maghemite nanostructured surfaces showed greater porosity and roughness. These samples have a greater nanoparticle layer thickness and, consequently, a higher wettability compared with the molybdenum samples. The rough substrate showed a hydrophobic behavior, while the other samples with nanoparticle deposition showed a hydrophilic behavior. The small particle sizes in the nanostructures greatly promoted the wettability alteration.|
|||Rostamian and Etesami/2018||Silicon oxide||Copper||Whatever the time of boiling on the heating surface increases, the differences between the boiling curves of nanofluid and deionized water becomes more due to the deposition of nanoparticles. In high concentrations of nanofluid, further deposition of nanoparticles on the surface causes a thickening of the layer made of nanoparticles. This thick layer enhances thermal resistance, so the HTC reduces. However, in low concentrations the surface roughness is less than that in high concentrations and during the nanofluid boiling on the surface, nucleation sites with sedimentation of nanoparticles became smaller in size and the number of nucleation sites increased; therefore, the HTC increased. The main cause for the CHF enhancement in nanofluid was the nanoparticle deposition which increased the surface wettability and CHF was delayed to a higher surface superheat value.||Whenever the concentration and the time of boiling increases, the surface roughness increases, too. Moreover, the increase in surface roughness happens more quickly for higher concentrations (0.01 vol. %).|
|||Akbari et al./2017||Silver||Copper||The deposition of nanoparticles was efficient in re-entrant inclined coated surfaces: up to 120% CHF increase compared with the smooth surface and up to 30% as compared with the uncoated inclined surface.||The bubbles generated on the coated re-entrant surface were larger in size.|
|||Kumar et al./2017||Titanium oxide||Nickel–chromium||The CHF was augmented up to a certain value of nanoparticle deposition, beyond which the rate of deposition was intangible. Approximately 80%, 88%, and 93% enhancements in the CHF were found for deposition up to 4 min, 8 min, and 16 min, respectively.||The larger the deposition or boiling time, the lower the contact angle leading to a higher CHF. The rate of deposition of nanoparticles was higher for boiling times up to 8 min and was comparatively lower beyond 8 min and above.|
|||Hadzic et al./2022||Titanium oxide||Copper||At a low nanoparticle concentration, the influence of nanofluid on boiling performance was minimal, with the HTC and CHF values comparable with those obtained using pure water on both the untreated and laser-textured surfaces. The boiling of a nanofluid with a high nanoparticle concentration resulted in a significant deposition of nanoparticles onto the boiling surface and CHF enhancement up to 2021 kW m−2, representing double the value obtained on the untreated reference surface using water. However, very high surface superheat values (up to 100 K) were recorded, suggesting poor practical applicability. The decrease in heat transfer performance due to the boiling of nanofluids on laser textured surfaces can be explained through the deposition of nanoparticles into the laser-induced grooves and microcavities present on the surface, which decreased the number of active nucleation sites.||Thicker nanoparticle deposits resulted in added thermal resistance. While the surface porosity granted a delay in the CHF incipience due to the enhanced liquid replenishment, the surface superheat value was increased.|
|||Kamel and Lezsovits./2020||Tungsten oxide||Copper||The higher HTC enhancement ratio was 6.7% for a concentration of 0.01% vol. compared with deionized water. The HTC for nanofluids was degraded compared with the deionized water, and the maximum reduction ratio was about 15% for a concentration of 0.05% vol. relative to the baseline case. The reduction in the HTC was attributed to the deposition of tungsten oxide nanoflakes on the heating surface, which led to a decrease in the nucleation site’s density.||…..|
|||Gajghate et al./2021||Zirconium oxide||Copper||The zirconia nanoparticle coating incremented the heat transfer and HTC. The peak enhancement in the HTC was of 31.52% obtained for 200 nm zirconium-oxide-coating thickness. The HTC increased with increasing coating thickness up to 200 nm, but a further increment in the thickness resulted in the reduction in HTC due to the rise in thermal resistance.||The increase in zirconium oxide nanoparticle concentration from 0.1 to 0.5 vol. % showed an increase in the coating thickness as well as surface roughness. The zirconium oxide layer gave hydrophilicity to the bare copper surface.|
|||Minakov et al./2017||Silicon, aluminum, iron oxides, and diamond||Nickel–chromium||Even at very small concentrations of nanoparticles, the CHF increased by more than 50% and continued growing with a further increase in the nanoparticle concentration. At high concentrations of nanoparticles, the growth rate of CHF slowed down and reached a constant value. Such behavior can be explained by the stabilization of the deposit size on the heating surface. With increasing boiling time, the CHF increased rapidly and reached a steady-state level. The correlation between CHF and the concentration, particle size and material, and boiling time confirmed the key role of the nanoparticle deposition.||At the same nanoparticle concentration, the desired height of the layer deposited on a smaller heating surface was formed much faster than that deposited on a larger heating surface.|
|||Sulaiman et al./2016||Titanium oxide, aluminum oxide and silicon oxide||Copper||The aluminum oxide nanofluids enhanced, whereas the silicon oxide nanofluids deteriorated, the heat transfer. The effect of the titanium oxide nanofluid on the heat transfer depended on the nanoparticle concentration. The maximum CHF was found for the most concentrated aluminum oxide nanofluid. Although significant detachment of the nanoparticle layer was found after the CHF measurement for the silicon oxide nanofluids, the value of CHF was not significantly different from those for the titanium oxide and aluminum oxide nanofluids.||Abnormal increase in the wall superheat value was observed for the titanium oxide and silicon oxide nanofluids when the heat flux was sufficiently high. It was considered that this phenomenon was related to the partial detachment of the nanoparticle layer formed on the heated surface since the defects of the nanoparticle layer were always detected when such a temperature rise took place.|
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Pereira, J.; Moita, A.; Moreira, A. The Pool-Boiling-Induced Deposition of Nanoparticles as the Transient Game Changer—A Review. Nanomaterials 2022, 12, 4270. https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12234270
Pereira J, Moita A, Moreira A. The Pool-Boiling-Induced Deposition of Nanoparticles as the Transient Game Changer—A Review. Nanomaterials. 2022; 12(23):4270. https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12234270Chicago/Turabian Style
Pereira, José, Ana Moita, and António Moreira. 2022. "The Pool-Boiling-Induced Deposition of Nanoparticles as the Transient Game Changer—A Review" Nanomaterials 12, no. 23: 4270. https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12234270