Breast cancer is a leading cause of cancer-related mortality among women worldwide, with millions of new cases diagnosed yearly. Addressing the burden of breast cancer mortality requires a comprehensive approach involving early detection, accurate diagnosis, effective treatment, and equitable access to healthcare services.
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Breast cancer is a leading cause of cancer-related mortality among women worldwide, with millions of new cases diagnosed yearly. Addressing the burden of breast cancer mortality requires a comprehensive approach involving early detection, accurate diagnosis, effective treatment, and equitable access to healthcare services. In this direction, nano-radiopharmaceuticals have shown potential for enhancing breast cancer diagnosis by combining the benefits of nanoparticles and radiopharmaceutical agents. These nanoscale formulations can provide improved imaging capabilities, increased targeting specificity, and enhanced sensitivity for detecting breast cancer lesions. In this study, we developed and evaluated a novel nano-radio radiopharmaceutical, technetium-99m ([99m
Tc]Tc)-labeled trastuzumab (TRZ)-decorated methotrexate (MTX)-loaded human serum albumin (HSA) nanoparticles ([99m
Tc]-TRZ-MTX-HSA), for the diagnosis of breast cancer. In this context, HSA and MTX-HSA nanoparticles were prepared. Conjugation of MTX-HSA nanoparticles with TRZ was performed using adsorption and covalent bonding methods. The prepared formulations were evaluated for particle size, PDI value, zeta (ζ) potential, scanning electron microscopy analysis, encapsulation efficiency, and loading capacity and cytotoxicity on MCF-7, 4T1, and MCF-10A cells. Finally, the nanoparticles were radiolabeled with [99m
Tc]Tc using the direct radiolabeling method, and cellular uptake was performed with the nano-radiopharmaceutical. The results showed the formation of spherical nanoparticles, with a particle size of 224.1 ± 2.46 nm, a PDI value of 0.09 ± 0.07, and a ζ potential value of −16.4 ± 0.53 mV. The encapsulation efficiency of MTX was found to be 32.46 ± 1.12%, and the amount of TRZ was 80.26 ± 1.96%. The labeling with [99m
Tc]Tc showed a high labeling efficiency (>99%). The cytotoxicity studies showed no effect, and the cellular uptake studies showed 97.54 ± 2.16% uptake in MCF-7 cells at the 120th min and were found to have a 3-fold higher uptake in cancer cells than in healthy cells. In conclusion, [99m
Tc]Tc-TRZ-MTX-HSA nanoparticles are promising for diagnosing breast cancer and evaluating the response to treatment in breast cancer patients.