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J. Funct. Biomater., Volume 14, Issue 3 (March 2023) – 56 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Light-cured dental composites are used to fill tooth decays in routine dental practice. This study demonstrated the following: 1) Increased cure time mitigates dental composite cytotoxicity only under certain conditions. 2) Nonetheless, the adverse effect of composites is significant to human gingival fibroblasts compared to that of pre-cured PMMA, regardless of the composite material being close to or far from the gingival tissue. 3) Under some conditions, the benefit of longer cure time is negated or reversed. These findings are valuable when performing dental restorative procedures and provide novel insights into understanding the polymerization behavior of composites and improving the material. View this paper
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13 pages, 3532 KiB  
Article
Can Zeolite-Supporting Acridines Boost Their Anticancer Performance?
by Maja Ranković, Anka Jevremović, Aleksandra Janošević Ležaić, Aleksandar Arsenijević, Jelena Rupar, Vladimir Dobričić, Bojana Nedić Vasiljević, Nemanja Gavrilov, Danica Bajuk-Bogdanović and Maja Milojević-Rakić
J. Funct. Biomater. 2023, 14(3), 173; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb14030173 - 22 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1480
Abstract
Acridine and its derivatives (9-chloroacridine and 9-aminoacridine) are investigated here, supported on FAU type zeolite Y, as a delivery system of anticancer agents. FTIR/Raman spectroscopy and electron microscopy revealed successful drug loading on the zeolite surface, while spectrofluorimetry was employed for drug quantification. [...] Read more.
Acridine and its derivatives (9-chloroacridine and 9-aminoacridine) are investigated here, supported on FAU type zeolite Y, as a delivery system of anticancer agents. FTIR/Raman spectroscopy and electron microscopy revealed successful drug loading on the zeolite surface, while spectrofluorimetry was employed for drug quantification. The effects of the tested compounds on cell viability were evaluated using in vitro methylthiazol-tetrazolium (MTT) colorimetric technique against human colorectal carcinoma (cell line HCT-116) and MRC-5 fibroblasts. Zeolite structure remained unchanged during homogeneous drug impregnation with achieved drug loadings in the 18–21 mg/g range. The highest drug release, in the µM concentration range, with favourable kinetics was established for zeolite-supported 9-aminoacridine. The acridine delivery via zeolite carrier is viewed in terms of solvation energy and zeolite adsorption sites. The cytotoxic effect of supported acridines on HCT-116 cells reveals that the zeolite carrier improves toxicity, while the highest efficiency is displayed by zeolite-impregnated 9-aminoacridine. The 9-aminoacridine delivery via zeolite carrier favours healthy tissue preservation while accompanying increased toxicity toward cancer cells. Cytotoxicity results are well correlated with theoretical modelling and release study, providing promising results for applicative purposes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomaterials and Their Biomedical Applications)
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17 pages, 5306 KiB  
Article
Assessing the Cleanliness of Dental Implants Using Scanning Electron Microscopy and Energy-Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy Analysis—A SEM and EDS In Vitro Study
by Tarek Mtanis, Ameer Biadsee and Zeev Ormianer
J. Funct. Biomater. 2023, 14(3), 172; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb14030172 - 22 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1451
Abstract
A wide variety of titanium (Ti) alloy dental implant systems are available and as a result, choosing the correct system has become a challenge. Cleanliness of the dental implant surface affects osseointegration but surface cleanliness may be jeopardized during manufacturing. The purpose of [...] Read more.
A wide variety of titanium (Ti) alloy dental implant systems are available and as a result, choosing the correct system has become a challenge. Cleanliness of the dental implant surface affects osseointegration but surface cleanliness may be jeopardized during manufacturing. The purpose of this study was to assess the cleanliness of three implant systems. Fifteen implants per system were examined with scanning electron microscopy to identify and count foreign particles. Particle chemical composition analysis was performed with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Particles were categorized according to size and location. Particles on the outer and inner threads were quantitatively compared. A second scan was performed after exposing the implants to room air for 10 min. Carbon, among other elements, was found on the surface of all implant groups. Zimmer Biomet dental implants had higher particle numbers than other brands. Cortex and Keystone dental implants showed similar distribution patterns. The outer surface had higher particle numbers. Cortex dental implants were the cleanest. The change in particle numbers after exposure was not significant (p > 0.05). Conclusion: Most of the implants studied were contaminated. Particle distribution patterns vary with the manufacturer. The wider and outer areas of the implant have a higher probability of contamination. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Biomaterials and Oral Implantology)
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12 pages, 3639 KiB  
Article
Fluoride Retention in Root Dentin following Surface Coating Material Application
by Katsushi Okuyama, Yasuhiro Matsuda, Hiroko Yamamoto, Kohtaku Suzuki, Kohei Shintani, Takashi Saito, Mikako Hayashi and Yukimichi Tamaki
J. Funct. Biomater. 2023, 14(3), 171; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb14030171 - 22 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1273
Abstract
This study aimed to use an in-air micro-particle-induced X-ray/gamma emission (in-air µPIXE/PIGE) system to evaluate tooth-bound fluoride (T-F) in dentin following the application of fluoride-containing tooth-coating materials. Three fluoride-containing coating materials (PRG Barrier Coat, Clinpro XT varnish, and Fuji IX EXTRA) and a [...] Read more.
This study aimed to use an in-air micro-particle-induced X-ray/gamma emission (in-air µPIXE/PIGE) system to evaluate tooth-bound fluoride (T-F) in dentin following the application of fluoride-containing tooth-coating materials. Three fluoride-containing coating materials (PRG Barrier Coat, Clinpro XT varnish, and Fuji IX EXTRA) and a control were applied to the root dentin surface of human molars (n = 6, total 48 samples). Samples were stored in a remineralizing solution (pH 7.0) for 7 or 28 days and then sectioned into two adjacent slices. One slice of each sample was immersed in 1M potassium hydroxide (KOH) solution for 24 h and rinsed with water for 5 min for the T-F analysis. The other slice did not undergo KOH treatment and was used to analyze the total fluoride content (W-F). The fluoride and calcium distributions were measured in all the slices using an in-air µPIXE/PIGE. Additionally, the amount of fluoride released from each material was measured. Clinpro XT varnish demonstrated the highest fluoride release among all the materials and tended to show high W-F and T-F and lower T-F/W-F ratios. Our study demonstrates that a high fluoride-releasing material shows high fluoride distribution into the tooth structure and low conversion from fluoride uptake by tooth-bound fluoride. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State of the Art in Dental Materials)
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14 pages, 2981 KiB  
Article
Improving Bone Formation by Guided Bone Regeneration Using a Collagen Membrane with rhBMP-2: A Novel Concept
by Narae Jung, Jaehan Park, Sang-Hyun Park, Seunghan Oh, Sungtae Kim, Sung-Won Cho, Jong-Eun Kim, Hong Seok Moon and Young-Bum Park
J. Funct. Biomater. 2023, 14(3), 170; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb14030170 - 22 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1420
Abstract
We examined whether recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) when applied to collagen membranes, would reinforce them during guided bone regeneration. Four critical cranial bone defects were created and treated in 30 New Zealand white rabbits, including a control group, critical defect only; [...] Read more.
We examined whether recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) when applied to collagen membranes, would reinforce them during guided bone regeneration. Four critical cranial bone defects were created and treated in 30 New Zealand white rabbits, including a control group, critical defect only; group 1, collagen membrane only; group 2, biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) only; group 3, collagen membrane + BCP; group 4, collagen membrane with rhBMP-2 (1.0 mg/mL); group 5, collagen membrane with rhBMP-2 (0.5 mg/mL); group 6, collagen membrane with rhBMP-2 (1.0 mg/mL) + BCP; and group 7, collagen membrane with rhBMP-2 (0.5 mg/mL) + BCP. After a 2-, 4-, or 8-week healing period, the animals were sacrificed. The combination of collagen membranes with rhBMP-2 and BCP yielded significantly higher bone formation rates compared to the other groups (control group and groups 1–5 < groups 6 and 7; p < 0.05). A 2-week healing period yielded significantly lower bone formation than that at 4 and 8 weeks (2 < 4 = 8 weeks; p < 0.05). This study proposes a novel GBR concept in which rhBMP-2 is applied to collagen membranes outside instead of inside the grafted area, thereby inducing quantitatively and qualitatively enhanced bone regeneration in critical bone defects. Full article
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20 pages, 2304 KiB  
Review
Inflammation Responses to Bone Scaffolds under Mechanical Stimuli in Bone Regeneration
by Junjie Wang, Bo Yuan, Ruixue Yin and Hongbo Zhang
J. Funct. Biomater. 2023, 14(3), 169; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb14030169 - 21 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1611
Abstract
Physical stimuli play an important role in one tissue engineering. Mechanical stimuli, such as ultrasound with cyclic loading, are widely used to promote bone osteogenesis; however, the inflammatory response under physical stimuli has not been well studied. In this paper, the signaling pathways [...] Read more.
Physical stimuli play an important role in one tissue engineering. Mechanical stimuli, such as ultrasound with cyclic loading, are widely used to promote bone osteogenesis; however, the inflammatory response under physical stimuli has not been well studied. In this paper, the signaling pathways related to inflammatory responses in bone tissue engineering are evaluated, and the application of physical stimulation to promote osteogenesis and its related mechanisms are reviewed in detail; in particular, how physical stimulation alleviates inflammatory responses during transplantation when employing a bone scaffolding strategy is discussed. It is concluded that physical stimulation (e.g., ultrasound and cyclic stress) helps to promote osteogenesis while reducing the inflammatory response. In addition, apart from 2D cell culture, more consideration should be given to the mechanical stimuli applied to 3D scaffolds and the effects of different force moduli while evaluating inflammatory responses. This will facilitate the application of physiotherapy in bone tissue engineering. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced 3D Printing Biomaterials)
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16 pages, 4897 KiB  
Article
Long-Term Degradation Assessment of a Polyurethane-Based Surgical Adhesive—Assessment and Critical Consideration of Preclinical In Vitro and In Vivo Testing
by Lisanne Bremer, Kerstin Hagemeister, Michaela Moss, Lisa Ernst, René H. Tolba, Stefan Jockenhoevel and Christian Apel
J. Funct. Biomater. 2023, 14(3), 168; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb14030168 - 21 Mar 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1575
Abstract
Tissue adhesives constitute a great possibility to improve conventional wound closure. In contrast to sutures, they enable nearly immediate hemostasis and can prevent fluid or air leaks. In the present study, a poly(ester)urethane-based adhesive was investigated which already proved to be suitable for [...] Read more.
Tissue adhesives constitute a great possibility to improve conventional wound closure. In contrast to sutures, they enable nearly immediate hemostasis and can prevent fluid or air leaks. In the present study, a poly(ester)urethane-based adhesive was investigated which already proved to be suitable for different indications, such as reinforcing vascular anastomosis and sealing liver tissue. Using in vitro and in vivo setups, the degradation of the adhesives was monitored over a period of up to 2 years, to evaluate long-term biocompatibility and determine degradation kinetics. For the first time, the complete degradation of the adhesive was documented. In subcutaneous locations, tissue residues were found after 12 months and in intramuscular locations, tissue degradation was complete after about 6 months. A detailed histological evaluation of the local tissue reaction revealed good biocompatibility throughout the different degradation stages. After full degradation, complete remodeling to physiological tissue was observed at the implant locations. In addition, this study critically discusses common issues related to the assessment of biomaterial degradation kinetics in the context of medical device certification. This work highlighted the importance and encouraged the implementation of biologically relevant in vitro degradation models to replace animal studies or at least reduce the number of animals in preclinical testing prior to clinical studies. Moreover, the suitability of frequently used implantation studies based on ISO 10993-6 at standard locations was critically discussed, especially in light of the associated lack of reliable predictions for degradation kinetics at the clinically relevant site of implantation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomaterials for Translational Medicine)
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24 pages, 4499 KiB  
Article
Functionalized Halloysite Nanotubes as Potential Drug Carriers
by Ewa Stodolak-Zych, Alicja Rapacz-Kmita, Marcin Gajek, Agnieszka Różycka, Magdalena Dudek and Stanisława Kluska
J. Funct. Biomater. 2023, 14(3), 167; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb14030167 - 21 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1245
Abstract
The aim of the work was to examine the possibility of using modified halloysite nanotubes as a gentamicin carrier and to determine the usefulness of the modification in terms of the effect on the amount of the drug attached, its release time, but [...] Read more.
The aim of the work was to examine the possibility of using modified halloysite nanotubes as a gentamicin carrier and to determine the usefulness of the modification in terms of the effect on the amount of the drug attached, its release time, but also on the biocidal properties of the carriers. In order to fully examine the halloysite in terms of the possibility of gentamicin incorporating, a number of modifications of the native halloysite were carried out prior to gentamicin intercalation with the use of sodium alkali, sulfuric and phosphoric acids, curcumin and the process of delamination of nanotubes (expanded halloysite) with ammonium persulfate in sulfuric acid. Gentamicin was added to unmodified and modified halloysite in an amount corresponding to the cation exchange capacity of pure halloysite from the Polish Dunino deposit, which was the reference sample for all modified carriers. The obtained materials were tested to determine the effect of surface modification and their interaction with the introduced antibiotic on the biological activity of the carrier, kinetics of drug release, as well as on the antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli Gram-negative bacteria (reference strain). For all materials, structural changes were examined using infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD); thermal differential scanning calorimetry with thermogravimetric analysis (DSC/TG) was performed as well. The samples were also observed for morphological changes after modification and drug activation by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The conducted tests clearly show that all samples of halloysite intercalated with gentamicin showed high antibacterial activity, with the highest antibacterial activity for the sample modified with sodium hydroxide and intercalated with the drug. It was found that the type of halloysite surface modification has a significant effect on the amount of gentamicin intercalated and then released into the surrounding environment but does not significantly affect its ability to further influence drug release over time. The highest amount of drug released among all intercalated samples was recorded for halloysite modified with ammonium persulfate (real loading efficiency above 11%), for which high antibacterial activity was found after surface modification, before drug intercalation. It is also worth noting that intrinsic antibacterial activity was found for non-drug-intercalated materials after surface functionalization with phosphoric acid (V) and ammonium persulfate in the presence of sulfuric acid (V). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomaterials for Drug Delivery)
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25 pages, 5952 KiB  
Review
Doped Carbon Quantum Dots Reinforced Hydrogels for Sustained Delivery of Molecular Cargo
by Shweta Kanungo, Neeta Gupta, Reena Rawat, Bhawana Jain, Aruna Solanki, Ashutosh Panday, P. Das and S. Ganguly
J. Funct. Biomater. 2023, 14(3), 166; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb14030166 - 20 Mar 2023
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2344
Abstract
Hydrogels have emerged as important soft materials with numerous applications in fields including biomedicine, biomimetic smart materials, and electrochemistry. Because of their outstanding photo-physical properties and prolonged colloidal stability, the serendipitous findings of carbon quantum dots (CQDs) have introduced a new topic of [...] Read more.
Hydrogels have emerged as important soft materials with numerous applications in fields including biomedicine, biomimetic smart materials, and electrochemistry. Because of their outstanding photo-physical properties and prolonged colloidal stability, the serendipitous findings of carbon quantum dots (CQDs) have introduced a new topic of investigation for materials scientists. CQDs confined polymeric hydrogel nanocomposites have emerged as novel materials with integrated properties of the individual constituents, resulting in vital uses in the realm of soft nanomaterials. Immobilizing CQDs within hydrogels has been shown to be a smart tactic for preventing the aggregation-caused quenching effect and also for manipulating the characteristics of hydrogels and introducing new properties. The combination of these two very different types of materials results in not only structural diversity but also significant improvements in many property aspects, leading to novel multifunctional materials. This review covers the synthesis of doped CQDs, different fabrication techniques for nanostructured materials made of CQDs and polymers, as well as their applications in sustained drug delivery. Finally, a brief overview of the present market and future perspectives are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Multifunctional Hydrogels for Biomedical Application)
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13 pages, 2572 KiB  
Article
Intermittent Exposure to a 16 Hz Extremely Low Frequency Pulsed Electromagnetic Field Promotes Osteogenesis In Vitro through Activating Piezo 1-Induced Ca2+ Influx in Osteoprogenitor Cells
by Yangmengfan Chen, Benedikt J. Braun, Maximilian M. Menger, Michael Ronniger, Karsten Falldorf, Tina Histing, Andreas K. Nussler and Sabrina Ehnert
J. Funct. Biomater. 2023, 14(3), 165; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb14030165 - 20 Mar 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1842
Abstract
Exposure to extremely low frequency pulsed electromagnetic fields (ELF-PEMF) is supposed to simulate local EMF generated during mechanical stimulation of bone and may therefore be used to improve bone regeneration. This study aimed at optimizing the exposure strategy and investigating the underlying mechanisms [...] Read more.
Exposure to extremely low frequency pulsed electromagnetic fields (ELF-PEMF) is supposed to simulate local EMF generated during mechanical stimulation of bone and may therefore be used to improve bone regeneration. This study aimed at optimizing the exposure strategy and investigating the underlying mechanisms of a 16 Hz ELF-PEMF, previously reported to boost osteoblast function. Comparing influences of daily continuous (30 min every 24 h) and intermittent (10 min every 8 h) exposure to the 16 Hz ELF-PEMF on osteoprogenitor cells revealed that the intermittent exposure strategy enhanced the 16 Hz ELF-PEMF effects regarding cell numbers and osteogenic function. Gene expression of piezo 1 and related Ca2+ influx were significantly increased in SCP-1 cells with the daily intermittent exposure. Pharmacological inhibition of piezo 1 with Dooku 1 largely abolished the positive effect of the 16 Hz ELF-PEMF exposure on osteogenic maturation of SCP-1 cells. In summary, the intermittent exposure strategy enhanced the positive effects of 16 Hz continuous ELF-PEMF exposure in terms of cell viability and osteogenesis. This effect was shown to be mediated by an increased expression of piezo 1 and related Ca2+ influx. Thus, the intermittent exposure strategy is a promising way to further optimize the therapeutic effects of the 16 Hz ELF-PEMF regarding fracture healing or osteoporosis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advanced Functional Materials for Regenerative Medicine)
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16 pages, 1829 KiB  
Article
The Use of Premixed Calcium Silicate Bioceramic Sealer with Warm Carrier-Based Technique: A 2-Year Study for Patients Treated in a Master Program
by Fausto Zamparini, Andrea Spinelli, Filippo Cardinali, Pietro Ausiello, Maria Giovanna Gandolfi and Carlo Prati
J. Funct. Biomater. 2023, 14(3), 164; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb14030164 - 18 Mar 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1777
Abstract
Background: Recently several calcium silicate flowable sealers have been introduced as endodontic materials for the root canal. This clinical study tested the use of a new premixed calcium silicate bioceramic sealer in association with the Thermafil warm carrier-based technique (TF). Epoxy-resin-based sealer with [...] Read more.
Background: Recently several calcium silicate flowable sealers have been introduced as endodontic materials for the root canal. This clinical study tested the use of a new premixed calcium silicate bioceramic sealer in association with the Thermafil warm carrier-based technique (TF). Epoxy-resin-based sealer with the warm carrier-based technique was the control group. Methodology: Healthy consecutive patients (n = 85) requiring 94 root canal treatments were enrolled in this study and assigned to one filling group (Ceraseal-TF n = 47, AH Plus-TF n = 47) in accordance with operator training and best clinical practice. Periapical X-rays were taken preoperatively, after root canal filling and after 6, 12 and 24 months. Two evaluators blindly assessed the periapical index (PAI) and sealer extrusion in the groups (k = 0.90). Healing rate and survival rate were also evaluated. Chi-square tests was used to analyze significant differences between the groups. Multilevel analysis was performed to evaluate the factors associated with healing status. Results: A total of 89 root canal treatments in 82 patients were analyzed at the end-line (24 months). The total drop-out was 3.6% (3 patients; 5 teeth). A total of 91.1% of healed teeth (PAI 1-2) was observed in Ceraseal-TF, with 88.6% in AH Plus-TF. No significant difference was observed on healing outcome and survival among the two filling groups (p > 0.05). Apical extrusion of the sealers occurred in 17 cases (19.0%). Of these, 6 occurred in Ceraseal-TF (13.3%) and 11 in AH Plus-TF (25.0%). Three Ceraseal extrusions were radiographically undetectable after 24 months. All the AH Plus extrusions did not change during the evaluation time. Conclusions: The combined use of the carrier-based technique and premixed CaSi-based bioceramic sealer showed clinical results comparable with carrier-based technique and epoxy-resin-based sealer. The radiographical disappearance of apically extruded Ceraseal is a possible event in the first 24 months. Full article
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16 pages, 3217 KiB  
Article
Chemical and Structural Assessment of New Dental Composites with Graphene Exposed to Staining Agents
by Marioara Moldovan, Diana Dudea, Stanca Cuc, Codruta Sarosi, Doina Prodan, Ioan Petean, Gabriel Furtos, Andrei Ionescu and Nicoleta Ilie
J. Funct. Biomater. 2023, 14(3), 163; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb14030163 - 17 Mar 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1504
Abstract
Among the newest trends in dental composites is the use of graphene oxide (GO) nanoparticles to assure better cohesion of the composite and superior properties. Our research used GO to enhance several hydroxyapatite (HA) nanofiller distribution and cohesion in three experimental composites CC, [...] Read more.
Among the newest trends in dental composites is the use of graphene oxide (GO) nanoparticles to assure better cohesion of the composite and superior properties. Our research used GO to enhance several hydroxyapatite (HA) nanofiller distribution and cohesion in three experimental composites CC, GS, GZ exposed to coffee and red wine staining environments. The presence of silane A-174 on the filler surface was evidenced by FT-IR spectroscopy. Experimental composites were characterized through color stability after 30 days of staining in red wine and coffee, sorption and solubility in distilled water and artificial saliva. Surface properties were measured by optical profilometry and scanning electron microscopy, respectively, and antibacterial properties wer e assessed against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. A colour stability test revealed the best results for GS, followed by GZ, with less stability for CC. Topographical and morphological aspects revealed a synergism between GZ sample nanofiller components that conducted to the lower surface roughness, with less in the GS sample. However, surface roughness variation due to the stain was affected less than colour stability at the macroscopic level. Antibacterial testing revealed good effect against Staphylococcus aureus and a moderate effect against Escherichia coli. Full article
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16 pages, 3456 KiB  
Article
Adipogenesis-Related Metabolic Condition Affects Shear-Stressed Endothelial Cells Activity Responding to Titanium
by Thaís Silva Pinto, Anderson Moreira Gomes, Paula Bertin de Morais and Willian F. Zambuzzi
J. Funct. Biomater. 2023, 14(3), 162; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb14030162 - 17 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1401
Abstract
Purpose: Obesity has increased around the world. Obese individuals need to be better assisted, with special attention given to dental and medical specialties. Among obesity-related complications, the osseointegration of dental implants has raised concerns. This mechanism depends on healthy angiogenesis surrounding the implanted [...] Read more.
Purpose: Obesity has increased around the world. Obese individuals need to be better assisted, with special attention given to dental and medical specialties. Among obesity-related complications, the osseointegration of dental implants has raised concerns. This mechanism depends on healthy angiogenesis surrounding the implanted devices. As an experimental analysis able to mimic this issue is currently lacking, we address this issue by proposing an in vitro high-adipogenesis model using differentiated adipocytes to further investigate their endocrine and synergic effect in endothelial cells responding to titanium. Materials and methods: Firstly, adipocytes (3T3-L1 cell line) were differentiated under two experimental conditions: Ctrl (normal glucose concentration) and High-Glucose Medium (50 mM of glucose), which was validated using Oil Red O Staining and inflammatory markers gene expression by qPCR. Further, the adipocyte-conditioned medium was enriched by two types of titanium-related surfaces: Dual Acid-Etching (DAE) and Nano-Hydroxyapatite blasted surfaces (nHA) for up to 24 h. Finally, the endothelial cells (ECs) were exposed in those conditioned media under shear stress mimicking blood flow. Important genes related to angiogenesis were then evaluated by using RT-qPCR and Western blot. Results: Firstly, the high-adipogenicity model using 3T3-L1 adipocytes was validated presenting an increase in the oxidative stress markers, concomitantly with an increase in intracellular fat droplets, pro-inflammatory-related gene expressions, and also the ECM remodeling, as well as modulating mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs). Additionally, Src was evaluated by Western blot, and its modulation can be related to EC survival signaling. Conclusion: Our study provides an experimental model of high adipogenesis in vitro by establishing a pro-inflammatory environment and intracellular fat droplets. Additionally, the efficacy of this model to evaluate the EC response to titanium-enriched mediums under adipogenicity-related metabolic conditions was analyzed, revealing significant interference with EC performance. Altogether, these data gather valuable findings on understanding the reasons for the higher percentage of implant failures in obese individuals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bone Regeneration and Repair Materials)
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13 pages, 2816 KiB  
Article
Amperometric Miniaturised Portable Enzymatic Nanobiosensor for the Ultrasensitive Analysis of a Prostate Cancer Biomarker
by Stefania Hroncekova, Lenka Lorencova, Tomas Bertok, Michal Hires, Eduard Jane, Marek Bučko, Peter Kasak and Jan Tkac
J. Funct. Biomater. 2023, 14(3), 161; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb14030161 - 17 Mar 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1573
Abstract
Screen-printing technology is a game changer in many fields including electrochemical biosensing. Two-dimensional nanomaterial MXene Ti3C2Tx was integrated as a nanoplatform to immobilise enzyme sarcosine oxidase (SOx) onto the interface of screen-printed carbon electrodes (SPCEs). A miniaturised, portable, [...] Read more.
Screen-printing technology is a game changer in many fields including electrochemical biosensing. Two-dimensional nanomaterial MXene Ti3C2Tx was integrated as a nanoplatform to immobilise enzyme sarcosine oxidase (SOx) onto the interface of screen-printed carbon electrodes (SPCEs). A miniaturised, portable, and cost-effective nanobiosensor was constructed using chitosan as a biocompatible glue for the ultrasensitive detection of prostate cancer biomarker sarcosine. The fabricated device was characterised with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and cyclic voltammetry (CV). Sarcosine was detected indirectly via the amperometric detection of H2O2 formed during enzymatic reaction. The nanobiosensor could detect sarcosine down to 7.0 nM with a maximal peak current output at 4.10 ± 0.35 × 10−5 A using only 100 µL of a sample per measurement. The assay run in 100 μL of an electrolyte showed the first linear calibration curve in a concentration window of up to 5 μM with a slope of 2.86 μA·μM−1, and the second linear calibration curve in the range of 5–50 μM with a slope of 0.32 ± 0.01 μA·μM−1 (R2 = 0.992). The device provided a high recovery index of 92.5% when measuring an analyte spiked into artificial urine, and could be used for detection of sarcosine in urine for at least a period of 5 weeks after the preparation. Full article
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21 pages, 3653 KiB  
Article
Ketoprofen-Based Polymer-Drug Nanoparticles Provide Anti-Inflammatory Properties to HA/Collagen Hydrogels
by Norbert Halfter, Eva Espinosa-Cano, Gloria María Pontes-Quero, Rosa Ana Ramírez-Jiménez, Christiane Heinemann, Stephanie Möller, Matthias Schnabelrauch, Hans-Peter Wiesmann, Vera Hintze and Maria Rosa Aguilar
J. Funct. Biomater. 2023, 14(3), 160; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb14030160 - 17 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1535
Abstract
Current limitations of wound dressings for treating chronic wounds require the development of novel approaches. One of these is the immune-centered approach, which aims to restore the pro-regenerative and anti-inflammatory properties of macrophages. Under inflammatory conditions, ketoprofen nanoparticles (KT NPs) can reduce pro-inflammatory [...] Read more.
Current limitations of wound dressings for treating chronic wounds require the development of novel approaches. One of these is the immune-centered approach, which aims to restore the pro-regenerative and anti-inflammatory properties of macrophages. Under inflammatory conditions, ketoprofen nanoparticles (KT NPs) can reduce pro-inflammatory markers of macrophages and increase anti-inflammatory cytokines. To assess their suitability as part of wound dressings, these NPs were combined with hyaluronan (HA)/collagen-based hydro- (HGs) and cryogels (CGs). Different HA and NP concentrations and loading techniques for NP incorporation were used. The NP release, gel morphology, and mechanical properties were studied. Generally, colonialization of the gels with macrophages resulted in high cell viability and proliferation. Furthermore, direct contact of the NPs to the cells reduced the level of nitric oxide (NO). The formation of multinucleated cells on the gels was low and further decreased by the NPs. For the HGs that produced the highest reduction in NO, extended ELISA studies showed reduced levels of the pro-inflammatory markers PGE2, IL-12 p40, TNF-α, and IL-6. Thus, HA/collagen-based gels containing KT NPs may represent a novel therapeutic approach for treating chronic wounds. Whether effects observed in vitro translate into a favorable profile on skin regeneration in vivo will require rigorous testing. Full article
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21 pages, 2532 KiB  
Review
Biodegradable Materials for Tissue Engineering: Development, Classification and Current Applications
by Marcel Modrák, Marianna Trebuňová, Alena Findrik Balogová, Radovan Hudák and Jozef Živčák
J. Funct. Biomater. 2023, 14(3), 159; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb14030159 - 16 Mar 2023
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2966
Abstract
The goal of this review is to map the current state of biodegradable materials that are used in tissue engineering for a variety of applications. At the beginning, the paper briefly identifies typical clinical indications in orthopedics for the use of biodegradable implants. [...] Read more.
The goal of this review is to map the current state of biodegradable materials that are used in tissue engineering for a variety of applications. At the beginning, the paper briefly identifies typical clinical indications in orthopedics for the use of biodegradable implants. Subsequently, the most frequent groups of biodegradable materials are identified, classified, and analyzed. To this end, a bibliometric analysis was applied to evaluate the evolution of the scientific literature in selected topics of the subject. The special focus of this study is on polymeric biodegradable materials that have been widely used for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Moreover, to outline current research trends and future research directions in this area, selected smart biodegradable materials are characterized, categorized, and discussed. Finally, pertinent conclusions regarding the applicability of biodegradable materials are drawn and recommendations for future research are suggested to drive this line of research forward. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Frontiers in Biodegradable Materials and Their Processing)
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12 pages, 1419 KiB  
Article
Effect of Anti-COVID-19 Mouthwashes on Shear Bond Strength of Resin-Matrix Ceramics Repaired with Resin Composite Using Universal Adhesive: An In Vitro Study
by Wichuda Limsiriwong, Awiruth Klaisiri and Nantawan Krajangta
J. Funct. Biomater. 2023, 14(3), 158; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb14030158 - 16 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1238
Abstract
Using anti-COVID-19 mouthwashes has become necessary to reduce acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) transmissions. Resin-matrix ceramic (RMCs) materials that are exposed to mouthwashes may affect the bonding of repaired materials. This research was performed to assess the effects of anti-COVID-19 mouthwashes on [...] Read more.
Using anti-COVID-19 mouthwashes has become necessary to reduce acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) transmissions. Resin-matrix ceramic (RMCs) materials that are exposed to mouthwashes may affect the bonding of repaired materials. This research was performed to assess the effects of anti-COVID-19 mouthwashes on the shear bond strengths (SBS) of RMCs repaired with resin composites. A total of 189 rectangular specimens of two different RMCs (Vita Enamic (VE) and Shofu Block HC (ShB)) were thermocycled and randomly divided into nine subgroups according to different mouthwashes (distilled water (DW), 0.2% povidone–iodine (PVP-I), and 1.5% hydrogen peroxide (HP)) and surface treatment protocols (no surface treatment, hydrofluoric acid etching (HF), and sandblasting (SB)). A repair protocol for RMCs was performed (using universal adhesives and resin composites), and the specimens were assessed using an SBS test. The failure mode was examined using a stereomicroscope. The SBS data were evaluated using a three-way ANOVA and a Tukey post hoc test. The SBS were significantly affected by the RMCs, mouthwashes, and surface treatment protocols. Both surface treatment protocols (HF and SB) for both RMCs, whether immersed in anti-COVID-19 mouthwash or not, improved the SBS. For the VE immersed in HP and PVP-I, the HF surface treatment had the highest SBS. For the ShB immersed in HP and PVP-I, the SB surface treatment had the highest SBS. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Dental Biomaterials)
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11 pages, 1084 KiB  
Article
Outcomes and Complications of 33 Soft-Milled Cobalt-Chromium-Ceramic Full-Arch Screw-Retained Implant-Supported Prostheses: A Retrospective Study with up to 10-Year Follow-Up
by Hadas Heller, Ilan Beitlitum, Tomer Goldberger, Alona Emodi-Perlman and Shifra Levartovsky
J. Funct. Biomater. 2023, 14(3), 157; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb14030157 - 16 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1193
Abstract
This retrospective study assessed outcomes and complications related to implants and prostheses in edentulous patients treated with soft-milled cobalt-chromium-ceramic full-arch screw-retained implant-supported prostheses (SCCSIPs). After the final prosthesis was delivered, patients participated in an annual dental check-up program, including clinical and radiographic assessments. [...] Read more.
This retrospective study assessed outcomes and complications related to implants and prostheses in edentulous patients treated with soft-milled cobalt-chromium-ceramic full-arch screw-retained implant-supported prostheses (SCCSIPs). After the final prosthesis was delivered, patients participated in an annual dental check-up program, including clinical and radiographic assessments. Outcomes of implants and prostheses were evaluated, and biological and technical complications were categorized as major or minor. Implant and prosthesis cumulative survival rates were assessed using the life table analysis. A total of twenty-five participants (mean age 63.6 ± 7.3 years) with 33 SCCSIPs were observed for a mean of 68.9 ± 27.9 months (range 1–10 years). A total of 7 out of 245 implants were lost, with no effect on prosthesis survival, leading to cumulative survival rates of 97.1% for implants and 100% for prostheses. The most recurrent minor and major biological complications were soft tissue recession (9%) and late implant failure (2.8%). Among 25 technical complications, porcelain fracture was the only major technical complication, requiring prosthesis removal (1%). Porcelain chipping was the most frequent minor technical complication, affecting 21 crowns (5.4%), which required polishing only. At the end of the follow-up, 69.7% of the prostheses were free of technical complications. Within the limitations of this study, SCCSIP showed promising clinical performance after 1–10 years. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Biomaterials and Oral Implantology)
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17 pages, 3127 KiB  
Article
A Machine-Learning-Based Approach for Predicting Mechanical Performance of Semi-Porous Hip Stems
by Khaled Akkad, Hassan Mehboob, Rakan Alyamani and Faris Tarlochan
J. Funct. Biomater. 2023, 14(3), 156; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb14030156 - 15 Mar 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1635
Abstract
Novel designs of porous and semi-porous hip stems attempt to alleviate complications such as aseptic loosening, stress shielding, and eventual implant failure. Various designs of hip stems are modeled to simulate biomechanical performance using finite element analysis; however, these models are computationally expensive. [...] Read more.
Novel designs of porous and semi-porous hip stems attempt to alleviate complications such as aseptic loosening, stress shielding, and eventual implant failure. Various designs of hip stems are modeled to simulate biomechanical performance using finite element analysis; however, these models are computationally expensive. Therefore, the machine learning approach is incorporated with simulated data to predict the new biomechanical performance of new designs of hip stems. Six types of algorithms based on machine learning were employed to validate the simulated results of finite element analysis. Afterwards, new designs of semi-porous stems with outer dense layers of 2.5 and 3 mm and porosities of 10–80% were used to predict the stiffness of the stems, stresses in outer dense layers, stresses in porous sections, and factor of safety under physiological loads using machine learning algorithms. It was determined that decision tree regression is the top-performing machine learning algorithm as per the used simulation data in terms of the validation mean absolute percentage error which equals 19.62%. It was also found that ridge regression produces the most consistent test set trend as compared with the original simulated finite element analysis results despite relying on a relatively small data set. These predicted results employing trained algorithms provided the understanding that changing the design parameters of semi-porous stems affects the biomechanical performance without carrying out finite element analysis. Full article
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20 pages, 10316 KiB  
Article
TiNi-Based Material with Shape-Memory Effect for Surgical Treatment of Diseases of Small Intestine in Newborn and Young Children
by Sergey G. Anikeev, Maria I. Kaftaranova, Valentina N. Hodorenko, Stanislav D. Ivanov, Nadezhda V. Artyukhova, Anastasiia V. Shabalina, Sergei A. Kulinich, Grigory V. Slizovsky, Anatolii V. Mokshin and Victor E. Gunther
J. Funct. Biomater. 2023, 14(3), 155; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb14030155 - 14 Mar 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1495
Abstract
Alloys based on TiNi are widely used in various fields of technology and medicine. In the present work, we report on the preparation of TiNi-alloy-based wire with the shape-memory effect, which was used for compression clips for surgery. The composition and structure of [...] Read more.
Alloys based on TiNi are widely used in various fields of technology and medicine. In the present work, we report on the preparation of TiNi-alloy-based wire with the shape-memory effect, which was used for compression clips for surgery. The composition and structure of the wire and its martensitic and physical–chemical properties were studied using SEM, TEM, optic microscopy, profilometry, mechanical tests, etc. The TiNi alloy was found to consist of B2 and B19′ and secondary-phase particles of Ti2Ni, TiNi3 and Ti3Ni4. Its matrix was slightly enriched in Ni (50.3 at.% of Ni). A homogeneous grain structure was revealed (an average grain size of 19 ± 0.3 μm) with equal quantities of grain boundaries of special and general types. The surface oxide layer provides improved biocompatibility and promotes the adhesion of protein molecules. Overall, the obtained TiNi wire was concluded to exhibit martensitic, physical and mechanical properties suitable for its use as an implant material. The wire was then used for manufacturing compression clips with the shape-memory effect and applied in surgery. The medical experiment that involved 46 children demonstrated that the use of such clips in children with double-barreled enterostomies permitted improvement in the results of surgical treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metallic Biomaterials for Medical Applications)
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14 pages, 3755 KiB  
Article
Realizing Both Antibacterial Activity and Cytocompatibility in Silicocarnotite Bioceramic via Germanium Incorporation
by Yingqi Ji, Shun Yang, Jian Sun and Congqin Ning
J. Funct. Biomater. 2023, 14(3), 154; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb14030154 - 14 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1436
Abstract
The treatment of infective or potentially infectious bone defects is a critical problem in the orthopedic clinic. Since bacterial activity and cytocompatibility are always contrary factors, it is hard to have them both in one material. The development of bioactive materials with a [...] Read more.
The treatment of infective or potentially infectious bone defects is a critical problem in the orthopedic clinic. Since bacterial activity and cytocompatibility are always contrary factors, it is hard to have them both in one material. The development of bioactive materials with a good bacterial character and without sacrificing biocompatibility and osteogenic activity, is an interesting and valuable research topic. In the present work, the antimicrobial characteristic of germanium, GeO2 was used to enhance the antibacterial properties of silicocarnotite (Ca5(PO4)2SiO4, CPS). In addition, its cytocompatibility was also investigated. The results demonstrated that Ge–CPS can effectively inhibit the proliferation of both Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), and it showed no cytotoxicity to rat bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (rBMSCs). In addition, as the bioceramic degraded, a sustainable release of germanium could be achieved, ensuring long-term antibacterial activity. The results indicated that Ge–CPS has excellent antibacterial activity compared with pure CPS, while no obvious cytotoxicity was observed, which could make it a promising candidate for the bone repair of infected bone defects. Full article
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14 pages, 2338 KiB  
Article
Alternative Chemistries for Free Radical-Initiated Targeting and Immobilization
by Emily T. DiMartini, Christopher J. Lowe and David I. Shreiber
J. Funct. Biomater. 2023, 14(3), 153; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb14030153 - 14 Mar 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1156
Abstract
Stimuli-responsive biomaterials are an emerging strategy that leverage common pathophysiological triggers to target drug delivery to limit or avoid toxic side effects. Native free radicals, such as reactive oxygen species (ROS), are widely upregulated in many pathological states. We have previously demonstrated that [...] Read more.
Stimuli-responsive biomaterials are an emerging strategy that leverage common pathophysiological triggers to target drug delivery to limit or avoid toxic side effects. Native free radicals, such as reactive oxygen species (ROS), are widely upregulated in many pathological states. We have previously demonstrated that native ROS are capable of crosslinking and immobilizing acrylated polyethylene glycol diacrylate (PEGDA) networks and coupled payloads in tissue mimics, providing evidence for a potential targeting mechanism. To build on these promising results, we evaluated PEG dialkenes and dithiols as alternative polymer chemistries for targeting. The reactivity, toxicity, crosslinking kinetics, and immobilization potential of PEG dialkenes and dithiols were characterized. Both the alkene and thiol chemistries crosslinked in the presence of ROS, generating high molecular weight polymer networks that immobilized fluorescent payloads in tissue mimics. Thiols were especially reactive and even reacted with acrylates in the absence of free radicals, and this motivated us to explore a two-phase targeting approach. Delivering thiolated payloads in a second phase, after the initial polymer net formation, allowed greater control over the payload dosing and timing. Two-phase delivery combined with a library of radical-sensitive chemistries can enhance the versatility and flexibility of this free radical-initiated platform delivery system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biomaterials for Drug Delivery)
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14 pages, 4596 KiB  
Article
AFM Analysis of a Three-Point Flexure Tested, 3D Printing Definitive Restoration Material for Dentistry
by Maximilian N. Sandmair, Christoph Kleber, Dragan A. Ströbele and Constantin von See
J. Funct. Biomater. 2023, 14(3), 152; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb14030152 - 10 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1511
Abstract
Background: Three-dimensional printing is a rapidly developing technology across all industries. In medicine recent developments include 3D bioprinting, personalized medication and custom prosthetics and implants. To ensure safety and long-term usability in a clinical setting, it is essential to understand material specific properties. [...] Read more.
Background: Three-dimensional printing is a rapidly developing technology across all industries. In medicine recent developments include 3D bioprinting, personalized medication and custom prosthetics and implants. To ensure safety and long-term usability in a clinical setting, it is essential to understand material specific properties. This study aims to analyze possible surface changes of a commercially available and approved DLP 3D printed definitive restoration material for dentistry after three-point flexure testing. Furthermore, this study explores whether Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) is a feasible method for examination of 3D printed dental materials in general. This is a pilot study, as there are currently no studies that analyze 3D printed dental materials using an AFM. Methods: The present study consisted of a pretest followed by the main test. The resulting break force of the preliminary test was used to determine the force used in the main test. The main test consisted of atomic force microscopy (AFM) surface analysis of the test specimen followed by a three-point flexure procedure. After bending, the same specimen was analyzed with the AFM again, to observe possible surface changes. Results: The mean root mean square (RMS) roughness of the segments with the most stress was 20.27 nm (±5.16) before bending, while it was 26.48 nm (±6.67) afterward. The corresponding mean roughness (Ra) values were 16.05 nm (±4.25) and 21.19 nm (±5.71) Conclusions: Under three-point flexure testing, the surface roughness increased significantly. The p-value for RMS roughness was p = 0.003, while it was p = 0.006 for Ra. Furthermore, this study showed that AFM surface analysis is a suitable procedure to investigate surface changes in 3D printed dental materials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Biomaterials and Oral Implantology)
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17 pages, 2913 KiB  
Article
Antimicrobial Effect of the Amniotic Membrane Isolated and Associated with Photodynamic Therapy
by Amanda Cerquearo Rodrigues dos Santos, Guilherme Rodrigues Teodoro, Juliana Ferreira-Strixino and Luciana Barros Sant’Anna
J. Funct. Biomater. 2023, 14(3), 151; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb14030151 - 08 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1461
Abstract
Microbial control through alternative therapies, such as the amniotic membrane (AM) and antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT), has been gaining prominence with the advancement of bacterial resistance to conventional treatments. This study aimed to evaluate the antimicrobial effect of AM isolated and associated with [...] Read more.
Microbial control through alternative therapies, such as the amniotic membrane (AM) and antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT), has been gaining prominence with the advancement of bacterial resistance to conventional treatments. This study aimed to evaluate the antimicrobial effect of AM isolated and associated with aPDT using the PHTALOX® as a photosensitizer (PS) against Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms. The groups studied were: C+; L; AM; AM+L; AM+PHTX; and AM+aPDT. The irradiation parameters were 660 nm, 50 J.cm−2, and 30 mW.cm−2. Two independent microbiological experiments were carried out in triplicate, and the results were analyzed by CFU/mL counting and a metabolic activity test, both statistically analyzed (p < 0.05). The integrity of the AM was verified after the treatments by a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The groups AM, AM+PHTX, and, mainly, AM+aPDT showed a statistical difference when compared to C+ regarding the decrease in CFU/mL and metabolic activity. SEM analysis showed significant morphological alterations in the AM+PHTX and AM+aPDT groups. The treatments with AM isolated or associated with PHTALOX® were adequate. The association had potentiated the biofilm effect, and the morphological differences presented by AM after treatment did not hinder its antimicrobial effect, encouraging its use in biofilm formation locals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antibacterial Biomaterials)
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15 pages, 3843 KiB  
Article
Anti-Inflammatory Salidroside Delivery from Chitin Hydrogels for NIR-II Image-Guided Therapy of Atopic Dermatitis
by Shengnan He, Fang Xie, Wuyue Su, Haibin Luo, Deliang Chen, Jie Cai and Xuechuan Hong
J. Funct. Biomater. 2023, 14(3), 150; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb14030150 - 08 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1893
Abstract
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is the most common heterogeneous skin disease. Currently, effective primary prevention approaches that hamper the occurrence of mild to moderate AD have not been reported. In this work, the quaternized β-chitin dextran (QCOD) hydrogel was adopted as a topical carrier [...] Read more.
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is the most common heterogeneous skin disease. Currently, effective primary prevention approaches that hamper the occurrence of mild to moderate AD have not been reported. In this work, the quaternized β-chitin dextran (QCOD) hydrogel was adopted as a topical carrier system for topical and transdermal delivery of salidroside for the first time. The cumulative release value of salidroside reached ~82% after 72 h at pH 7.4, while in vitro drug release experiments proved that QCOD@Sal (QCOD@Salidroside) has a good, sustained release effect, and the effect of QCOD@Sal on atopic dermatitis mice was further investigated. QCOD@Sal could promote skin repair or AD by modulating inflammatory factors TNF-α and IL-6 without skin irritation. The present study also evaluated NIR-II image-guided therapy (NIR-II, 1000–1700 nm) of AD using QCOD@Sal. The treatment process of AD was monitored in real-time, and the extent of skin lesions and immune factors were correlated with the NIR-II fluorescence signals. These attractive results provide a new perspective for designing NIR-II probes for NIR-II imaging and image-guided therapy with QCOD@Sal. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomedical Applications of Chitin and Chitosan-II)
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15 pages, 5671 KiB  
Article
Reconstructive Peri-Implantitis Therapy by Using Bovine Bone Substitute with or without Hyaluronic Acid: A Randomized Clinical Controlled Pilot Study
by Dragana Rakašević, Miodrag Šćepanović, Iva Mijailović, Tijana Mišić, Bojan Janjić, Ivan Soldatović and Aleksa Marković
J. Funct. Biomater. 2023, 14(3), 149; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb14030149 - 08 Mar 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1600
Abstract
Background: The present pilot study aimed to assess clinical and radiographic efficiencies of bovine bone substitute (BBS) merged with hyaluronic acid (HA) in peri-implantits reconstructive surgery. Methods: Peri-implantitis (diagnosed 6.03 ± 1.61 years of implant loading) bone defects were randomly treated either with [...] Read more.
Background: The present pilot study aimed to assess clinical and radiographic efficiencies of bovine bone substitute (BBS) merged with hyaluronic acid (HA) in peri-implantits reconstructive surgery. Methods: Peri-implantitis (diagnosed 6.03 ± 1.61 years of implant loading) bone defects were randomly treated either with BBS plus HA (test group) or BBS alone (control group). Clinical parameters including peri-implant probing depth (PPD), bleeding on probing (BOP), implant stability (ISQ), and radiographic changes in vertical and horizontal marginal bone (MB) levels were assessed at six months postoperatively. New temporary and permanent screw-retained crowns were made at two weeks and three months postoperatively. Data were analyzed using parametric and non-parametric tests. Results: In both groups, 75% of patients and 83% of implants achieved treatment success after six months (no BOP, PPD <5 mm, and no further MB loss). Clinical outcomes improved over time within groups; however, without significant difference between them. ISQ value obtained significant increases in the test compared to the control group at six months postoperatively (p < 0.05). The vertical MB gain was significantly greater in the test group compared to the control (p < 0.05). Conclusions: Short-term outcomes suggested that BBS merged with HA could improve clinical and radiographic outcomes in peri-implantitis reconstructive therapy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Dental Biomaterials)
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14 pages, 5311 KiB  
Article
Microscopic Inspection of the Adhesive Interface of Composite Onlays after Cementation on Low Loading: An In Vitro Study
by Tiago Magalhães, Rita Fidalgo-Pereira, Orlanda Torres, Óscar Carvalho, Filipe S. Silva, Bruno Henriques, Mutlu Özcan and Júlio C. M. Souza
J. Funct. Biomater. 2023, 14(3), 148; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb14030148 - 07 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1435
Abstract
Purpose: This study aimed to assess the layer thickness and microstructure of traditional resin-matrix cements and flowable resin-matrix composites at dentin and enamel to composite onlay interfaces after cementation on low loading magnitude. Materials and Methods: Twenty teeth were prepared and conditioned with [...] Read more.
Purpose: This study aimed to assess the layer thickness and microstructure of traditional resin-matrix cements and flowable resin-matrix composites at dentin and enamel to composite onlay interfaces after cementation on low loading magnitude. Materials and Methods: Twenty teeth were prepared and conditioned with an adhesive system for restoration with resin-matrix composite onlays manufactured by CAD-CAM. On cementation, tooth-to-onlay assemblies were distributed into four groups, including two traditional resin-matrix cements (groups M and B), one flowable resin-matrix composite (group G), and one thermally induced flowable composite (group V). After the cementation procedure, assemblies were cross-sectioned for inspection by optical microscopy at different magnification up to ×1000. Results: The layer thickness of resin-matrix cementation showed the highest mean values at around 405 µm for a traditional resin-matrix cement (group B). The thermally induced flowable resin-matrix composites showed the lowest layer thickness values. The resin-matrix layer thickness revealed statistical differences between traditional resin cement (groups M and B) and flowable resin-matrix composites (groups V and G) (p < 0.05). However, the groups of flowable resin-matrix composites did not reveal statistical differences (p < 0.05). The thickness of the adhesive system layer at around 7 µm and 12 µm was lower at the interfaces with flowable resin-matrix composites when compared to the adhesive layer at resin-matrix cements, which ranged from 12 µm up to 40 µm. Conclusions: The flowable resin-matrix composites showed adequate flowing even though the loading on cementation was performed at low magnitude. Nevertheless, significant variation in thickness of the cementation layer was noticed for flowable resin-matrix composites and traditional resin-matrix cements that can occur in chair-side procedures due to the clinical sensitivity and differences in rheological properties of the materials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Resin-Matrix Composites and Cements for Dental Restorations)
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14 pages, 2418 KiB  
Article
Degassing a Decellularized Scaffold Enhances Wound Healing and Reduces Fibrosis during Tracheal Defect Reconstruction: A Preliminary Animal Study
by Nguyen-Kieu Viet-Nhi, Yen-Chun Chen, Luong Huu Dang, How Tseng and Shih-Han Hung
J. Funct. Biomater. 2023, 14(3), 147; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb14030147 - 05 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1601
Abstract
Few efforts have been made regarding the optimization of porcine small intestinal submucosa (SIS) to improve its biocompatibility. This study aims to evaluate the effect of SIS degassing on the promotion of cell attachment and wound healing. The degassed SIS was evaluated in [...] Read more.
Few efforts have been made regarding the optimization of porcine small intestinal submucosa (SIS) to improve its biocompatibility. This study aims to evaluate the effect of SIS degassing on the promotion of cell attachment and wound healing. The degassed SIS was evaluated in vitro and in vivo, compared with the nondegassed SIS control. In the cell sheet reattachment model, the reattached cell sheet coverage was significantly higher in the degassed SIS group than in the nondegassed group. Cell sheet viability was also significantly higher in the SIS group than in the control group. In vivo studies showed that the tracheal defect repaired by the degassed SIS patch showed enhanced healing and reductions in fibrosis and luminal stenosis compared to the nondegassed SIS control group, with the thickness of the transplanted grafts in the degassed SIS group significantly lower than those in the control group (346.82 ± 28.02 µm vs. 771.29 ± 20.41 µm, p < 0.05). Degassing the SIS mesh significantly promoted cell sheet attachment and wound healing by reducing luminal fibrosis and stenosis compared to the nondegassed control SIS. The results suggest that the degassing processing might be a simple and effective way to improve the biocompatibility of SIS. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applications of Biomaterials in Otorhinolaryngology)
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22 pages, 2868 KiB  
Review
Ceramic Materials for Biomedical Applications: An Overview on Properties and Fabrication Processes
by Lorenzo Vaiani, Antonio Boccaccio, Antonio Emmanuele Uva, Gianfranco Palumbo, Antonio Piccininni, Pasquale Guglielmi, Stefania Cantore, Luigi Santacroce, Ioannis Alexandros Charitos and Andrea Ballini
J. Funct. Biomater. 2023, 14(3), 146; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb14030146 - 04 Mar 2023
Cited by 20 | Viewed by 6522
Abstract
A growing interest in creating advanced biomaterials with specific physical and chemical properties is currently being observed. These high-standard materials must be capable to integrate into biological environments such as the oral cavity or other anatomical regions in the human body. Given these [...] Read more.
A growing interest in creating advanced biomaterials with specific physical and chemical properties is currently being observed. These high-standard materials must be capable to integrate into biological environments such as the oral cavity or other anatomical regions in the human body. Given these requirements, ceramic biomaterials offer a feasible solution in terms of mechanical strength, biological functionality, and biocompatibility. In this review, the fundamental physical, chemical, and mechanical properties of the main ceramic biomaterials and ceramic nanocomposites are drawn, along with some primary related applications in biomedical fields, such as orthopedics, dentistry, and regenerative medicine. Furthermore, an in-depth focus on bone-tissue engineering and biomimetic ceramic scaffold design and fabrication is presented. Full article
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13 pages, 5004 KiB  
Article
Characterization of Cyclic Olefin Copolymers for Insulin Reservoir in an Artificial Pancreas
by Norma Mallegni, Mario Milazzo, Caterina Cristallini, Niccoletta Barbani, Giulia Fredi, Andrea Dorigato, Patrizia Cinelli and Serena Danti
J. Funct. Biomater. 2023, 14(3), 145; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb14030145 - 04 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1689
Abstract
Type-1 diabetes is one of the most prevalent metabolic disorders worldwide. It results in a significant lack of insulin production by the pancreas and the ensuing hyperglycemia, which needs to be regulated through a tailored administration of insulin throughout the day. Recent studies [...] Read more.
Type-1 diabetes is one of the most prevalent metabolic disorders worldwide. It results in a significant lack of insulin production by the pancreas and the ensuing hyperglycemia, which needs to be regulated through a tailored administration of insulin throughout the day. Recent studies have shown great advancements in developing an implantable artificial pancreas. However, some improvements are still required, including the optimal biomaterials and technologies to produce the implantable insulin reservoir. Here, we discuss the employment of two types of cyclic olefin copolymers (Topas 5013L-10 and Topas 8007S-04) for an insulin reservoir fabrication. After a preliminary thermomechanical analysis, Topas 8007S-04 was selected as the best material to fabricate a 3D-printed insulin reservoir due to its higher strength and lower glass transition temperature (Tg). Fiber deposition modeling was used to manufacture a reservoir-like structure, which was employed to assess the ability of the material to prevent insulin aggregation. Although the surface texture presents a localized roughness, the ultraviolet analysis did not detect any significant insulin aggregation over a timeframe of 14 days. These interesting results make Topas 8007S-04 cyclic olefin copolymer a potential candidate biomaterial for fabricating structural components in an implantable artificial pancreas. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Synthetic Polymers for the Delivery of Vaccines and Therapeutics)
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11 pages, 1238 KiB  
Article
Effect of Propolis on Root Dentine Microhardness When Used as an Intracanal Medicament: An In Vitro Study
by Meshal Muhammad Naeem, Huma Sarwar, Aliza Nisar, Shahbaz Ahmed, Juzer Shabbir, Zohaib Khurshid and Paulo J. Palma
J. Funct. Biomater. 2023, 14(3), 144; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb14030144 - 03 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1966
Abstract
Application of intracanal medicaments may affect the physical properties of root dentine. Calcium hydroxide (CH), a gold standard intracanal medicament, has proven to decrease root dentine microhardness. A natural extract, propolis, has been shown to be superior to CH in eradicating endodontic microbes, [...] Read more.
Application of intracanal medicaments may affect the physical properties of root dentine. Calcium hydroxide (CH), a gold standard intracanal medicament, has proven to decrease root dentine microhardness. A natural extract, propolis, has been shown to be superior to CH in eradicating endodontic microbes, but its effect on the microhardness of root dentine is still not known. This investigation aims to evaluate the effect of propolis on root dentine microhardness compared to calcium hydroxide. Ninety root discs were randomly divided into three groups and treated with CH, propolis, and a control. A Vickers hardness indentation machine with a load of 200 g and dwell time of 15 s at 24 h, 3, and 7 days was used for microhardness testing. ANOVA and Tukey’s post hoc test were used for statistical analysis. A progressive decrease in microhardness values was observed in CH (p < 0.01), whereas a progressive increase was observed in the propolis group (p < 0.01). At 7 days, propolis demonstrated the highest microhardness value (64.43 ± 1.69), whereas CH demonstrated the lowest value (48.46 ± 1.60). The root dentine microhardness increased over time when propolis was applied, while it decreased over time after application of CH on root dentine sections. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomaterials in Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics)
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